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Transformation is the transfer of a "naked" DNA segment from a nonfunctional donor cell to that of a functional recipient cell.[1]

Genetic transformation

Genetic transformation consists of the transfer and incorporation into a cell of DNA, especially recombinant DNA. The cells, plants, or progeny resulting from this process are said to be transformed where there is a demonstration of the expression in the recipient organism of unique marker genes carried by the transferred DNA.

Biological transformation

Biochemical transformation, or "biotransformation", is the process of using cultured cells to convert substrates into other desired organic compounds through use of an endogenous enzyme system that catalyzes the reactions.


  1. Wile, Dr. Jay L. Exploring Creation With Biology. Apologia Educational Ministries, Inc. 1998