Tripartite Pact

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The Tripartite Pact was a military treaty signed by Adolf Hitler of Germany, Saburo Kurusu of Japan, and foreign minister Galeazzo Ciano of Italy, on September 27, 1940. It formally created the Axis Powers of World War II.

Between November 1940 and June 1941, Hungary, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, and Croatia joined the Pact.

The Pact began to disintegrate with the surrender of Italy to the Allies in 1943. By 1944, Bulgaria and Romania had abandoned the treaty and become allies of the Soviet Union, an Allied power. Germany took over Slovakia in 1944, and by 1945 Hungary, the last minor signatory to the pact, was overrun by Allied forces. The defeat of Germany itself in 1945 brought an end to any real meaning of the Pact.

Text of the Pact

"The Governments of Japan, Germany, and Italy consider it the prerequisite of a lasting peace that every nation in the world shall receive the space to which it is entitled. They have, therefore, decided to stand by and cooperate with one another in their efforts in the regions of Europe and Greater East Asia respectively. In doing this it is their prime purpose to establish and maintain a new order of things, calculated to promote the mutual prosperity and welfare of the peoples concerned. It is, furthermore, the desire of the three Governments to extend cooperation to nations in other spheres of the world that are inclined to direct their efforts along lines similar to their own for the purpose of realizing their ultimate object, world peace. Accordingly, the Governments of Japan, Germany and Italy have agreed as follows:

ARTICLE 1. Japan recognizes and respects the leadership of Germany and Italy in the establishment of a new order in Europe.

ARTICLE 2. Germany and Italy recognize and respect the leadership of Japan in the establishment of a new order in Greater East Asia.

ARTICLE 3. Japan, Germany, and Italy agree to cooperate in their efforts on aforesaid lines. They further undertake to assist one another with all political, economic and military means if one of the Contracting Powers is attacked by a Power at present not involved in the European War or in the Japanese-Chinese conflict.

ARTICLE 4. With a view to implementing the present pact, joint technical commissions, to be appointed by the respective Governments of Japan, Germany and Italy, will meet without delay.

ARTICLE 5. Japan, Germany and Italy affirm that the above agreement affects in no way the political status existing at present between each of the three Contracting Powers and Soviet Russia.

ARTICLE 6. The present pact shall become valid immediately upon signature and shall remain in force ten years from the date on which it becomes effective. In due time, before the expiration of said term, the High Contracting Parties shall, at the request of any one of them, enter into negotiations for its renewal."