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Ultramontanism (literally, "over/beyond the mountains" [to Rome] + ism "belief in") is a term in Church history referring to the dominance of the Pope in the Catholic Church. It refers to those who look to the authority of the Pope outside of their own borders, "beyond the mountains". It is opposed to Gallicanism, whereby the Catholic bishops inside a country, such as France (Gaul), have considerable independence.

The issue continues to arise in the question of whether the Pope or the government can appoint the bishops in a country, such as China.

See also