Medical marijuana

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Marijuana vending machines have been likened to gumball machines and other candy dispensors, with an emphasis on easy, recreational use instead of responsible medical use.

Medical marijuana is marijuana used for its analgesic or otherwise therapeutic effects (see Glaucoma, Cancer[1][2][3][4][5], Anorexia Nervosa[6], Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis[7][8], Seizures, Schizophrenia[9], Skin Tumors[10][11], Gliomas[12][13], Arthritis[14], Bipolar Disorder[15][16], Dystonia[17], Epilepsy[18][19][20], Hepatitis C[21], Depression[22][23][24][25], Leukemia[26], Huntington's Disease[27], Parkinson's Disease[28], Pruritus[29][30], Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)[31], Sickle-Cell Disease[32] , Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)[33], Sleep Apnea[34], and Artherosclerosis[35]).

Some studies show that Cannabidiol, a chemical compound found in marijuana, inhibits cancer cell growth in lab animals[36]. Recent studies have shown cannabidiol to be as effective as atypical antipsychotics in treating schizophrenia.[37], and marijuana is commonly viewed as a natural alternative to any otherwise synthetic pharmaceutical drugs. It has also been shown to increase brain cell growth [38] and increase appetite, which can be useful for patients undergoing chemotherapy. Marijuana has been used to treat anorexia and has been used as an antiemetic.[39] Harvard University conducted a study on the effect of Δ-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol on certain lung cancers. The result of the test was that THC can reduce tumor size by as much as half.[40] In addition to a significant reduction in tumor size, there was a reduction in lesions on the lungs by 60%, and a reduction in protein markers associated with the progression of cancer.[41] This study shows that not only can THC treat the side effects of cancer treatment, but can stop the spread of cancer, repair damage caused by tumors, and even reduce the size of tumors.

In addition to the positive effect on cancer treatment symptoms and cancer itself, marijuana is used to help patients afflicted with ALS[42].

Marijuana is an antispasmodic and is used in the treatment of seizures [43]. Marijuana is also used in the treatment of migraines, arthritis[44], depression[45], and glaucoma. However the effect of marijuana on intraocular pressure (IOC) is not as effective as those offered by other drugs on the market [46].

Critics, however, doubt that there are any beneficial medicinal effects of marijuana that cannot be duplicated by other, less-addictive drugs. They also charge that efforts to legalize medical marijuana are merely a pretext for general decriminalization of a common "gateway drug".

Several states have legalized medical marijuana. Under the Bush administration, the federal government ignored such state laws, viewing them as unconstitutional interference with federal law. California's law was overturned by the Supreme Court in the case Gonzales v. Raich [47], which said that Congress can "regulate purely local activities that are part of an economic 'class of activities' that have a substantial effect on interstate commerce." This decision has been criticized by numerous conservatives and libertarians as an unwarranted expansion of Federal power. Also, current President Obama has directed Federal prosecutors to avoid prosecuting activities legal under such state laws [48].

California currently allows patients to grow marijuana themselves for medical purposes, or to organize as "cooperatives." Until recently, however, anyone could supply anyone with "medical" marijuana as long as the buyer had a doctor's note (which virtually anyone could obtain) and the person designated the supplier as his "primary caregiver" [49]. Many people used this as an excuse to use marijuana recreationally. "Medical" marijuana was even available from vending machines,[50][51] similar to automated perscription dispensers at some pharmacies [52]. Both the Drug Enformement Agency and the California Supreme Court say that such practices are illegal. One attorney has said that he considers all sale of marijuana still illegal. Additionally, the seriousness of having a marijuana vending machine for supposedly medical reasons is off-set by the presence of a Bob Marley poster in at least one location. Marley was a member of the Rastafari cult, which advocates the recreational use of the drug under the guise of "spiritual" reasons.

References

  1. Casanova ML, Blázquez C, Martínez-Palacio J, et al. (January 2003). "Inhibition of skin tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo by activation of cannabinoid receptors" (Free full text). The Journal of Clinical Investigation 111 (1): 43–50. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in printTemplate:Only in print. 
  2. Patsos HA, Hicks DJ, Dobson RR, et al. (December 2005). "The endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide, induces cell death in colorectal carcinoma cells: a possible role for cyclooxygenase 2". Gut 54 (12): 1741–50. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in printTemplate:Only in print. 
  3. Lorente M, Carracedo A, Torres S, et al. (February 2009). "Amphiregulin is a factor for resistance of glioma cells to cannabinoid-induced apoptosis". Glia 57 (13): NA. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. 
  4. Ramer R, Hinz B (January 2008). "Inhibition of cancer cell invasion by cannabinoids via increased expression of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1" (Free full text). Journal of the National Cancer Institute 100 (1): 59–69. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. http://jnci.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=18159069. 
  5. Powles T, te Poele R, Shamash J, et al. (February 2005). "Cannabis-induced cytotoxicity in leukemic cell lines: the role of the cannabinoid receptors and the MAPK pathway" (Free full text). Blood 105 (3): 1214–21. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. http://www.bloodjournal.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=15454482. 
  6. Grotenhermen, Russo. Cannabis and Cannabinoids: Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutic Potential . New York: The Hawthorn Integrative Healing Press, 2002,. Grotenhermen, “Review of Therapeutic Effects.” Chapter 11, p. 128
  7. Carter GT, Rosen BS (July 2001). "Marijuana in the management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis". The American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care 18 (4): 264–70. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. 
  8. Weydt P, Hong S, Witting A, Möller T, Stella N, Kliot M (September 2005). "Cannabinol delays symptom onset in SOD1 (G93A) transgenic mice without affecting survival". Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Other Motor Neuron Disorders 6 (3): 182–4. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all~content=a723777607. 
  9. Zuardi A.W., Crippa J.A.S., Hallak J.E.C., Moreira F.A., Guimarães F.S. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research Cannabidiol as an antipsychotic drug (PDF) 2006. Vol. 39. Page 421-9. ISSN 0100-879X
  10. Casanova ML, Blázquez C, Martínez-Palacio J, et al. (January 2003). "Inhibition of skin tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo by activation of cannabinoid receptors" (Free full text). The Journal of Clinical Investigation 111 (1): 43–50. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in printTemplate:Only in print. 
  11. Science Daily 4/7/2007
  12. Lorente M, Carracedo A, Torres S, et al. (February 2009). "Amphiregulin is a factor for resistance of glioma cells to cannabinoid-induced apoptosis". Glia 57 (13): NA. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. 
  13. Ramer R, Hinz B (January 2008). "Inhibition of cancer cell invasion by cannabinoids via increased expression of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1" (Free full text). Journal of the National Cancer Institute 100 (1): 59–69. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. http://jnci.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=18159069. 
  14. Malfait AM, Gallily R, Sumariwalla PF, et al. (August 2000). "The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis" (Free full text). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 97 (17): 9561–6. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=10920191. 
  15. Grinspoon L, Bakalar JB (April 1998). "The use of cannabis as a mood stabilizer in bipolar disorder: anecdotal evidence and the need for clinical research". Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 30 (2): 171–7. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. http://www.ukcia.org/research/TheUseofCannabisasaMoodStabilizerinBipolarDisorder.html. 
  16. Ashton CH, Moore PB, Gallagher P, Young AH (May 2005). "Cannabinoids in bipolar affective disorder: a review and discussion of their therapeutic potential". Journal of Psychopharmacology 19 (3): 293–300. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. 
  17. Fox SH, Kellett M, Moore AP, Crossman AR, Brotchie JM (January 2002). "Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess the potential of cannabinoid receptor stimulation in the treatment of dystonia". Movement Disorders 17 (1): 145–9. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. 
  18. Cannabis could be used to treat epilepsy. Telegraph (2011-04-10). Retrieved on 2011-04-20.
  19. Marsicano G, Goodenough S, Monory K, et al. (October 2003). "CB1 cannabinoid receptors and on-demand defense against excitotoxicity". Science 302 (5642): 84–8. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. 
  20. Bacci A, Huguenard JR, Prince DA (September 2004). "Long-lasting self-inhibition of neocortical interneurons mediated by endocannabinoids". Nature 431 (7006): 312–6. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Lay summary – Science Daily (16 September 2004). 
  21. Sylvestre DL, Clements BJ, Malibu Y (October 2006). "Cannabis use improves retention and virological outcomes in patients treated for hepatitis C". European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology 18 (10): 1057–63. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. 
  22. Bambico FR, Katz N, Debonnel G, Gobbi G (October 2007). "Cannabinoids elicit antidepressant-like behavior and activate serotonergic neurons through the medial prefrontal cortex" (Free full text). The Journal of Neuroscience 27 (43): 11700–11. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. http://www.jneurosci.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=17959812. Lay summary – Fox News Channel (25 October 2007). 
  23. Denson TF, Earleywine M (April 2006). "Decreased depression in marijuana users". Addictive Behaviors 31 (4): 738–42. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. http://www.doctordeluca.com/Library/WOD/WPS3-MedMj/DecreasedDepressionInMjUsers05.pdf. 
  24. Jiang W, Zhang Y, Xiao L, et al. (November 2005). "Cannabinoids promote embryonic and adult hippocampus neurogenesis and produce anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects" (Free full text). The Journal of Clinical Investigation 115 (11): 3104–16. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in printTemplate:Only in print. 
  25. El-Remessy AB, Al-Shabrawey M, Khalifa Y, Tsai NT, Caldwell RB, Liou GI (January 2006). "Neuroprotective and blood-retinal barrier-preserving effects of cannabidiol in experimental diabetes" (Free full text). The American Journal of Pathology 168 (1): 235–44. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. http://ajp.amjpathol.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=16400026. 
  26. Powles T, te Poele R, Shamash J, et al. (February 2005). "Cannabis-induced cytotoxicity in leukemic cell lines: the role of the cannabinoid receptors and the MAPK pathway" (Free full text). Blood 105 (3): 1214–21. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. http://www.bloodjournal.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=15454482. 
  27. Cannabidiol: The Wonder Drug of the 21st Century?. Schaffer Library of Drug Policy. Retrieved on 10 August 2009.Template:Verify credibility
  28. Kreitzer AC, Malenka RC (February 2005). "Endocannabinoid-mediated rescue of striatal LTD and motor deficits in Parkinson's disease models". Nature 445 (7128): 643–7. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Lay summary – Stanford University School of Medicine (7 February 2007). 
  29. Szepietowski JC, Szepietowski T, Reich A (2005). "Efficacy and tolerance of the cream containing structured physiological lipids with endocannabinoids in the treatment of uremic pruritus: a preliminary study". Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica 13 (2): 97–103. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. 
  30. Bergasa NV (December 2005). "The pruritus of cholestasis". Journal of Hepatology 43 (6): 1078–88. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. 
  31. Appendino G, Gibbons S, Giana A, Pagani A, Grassi G, Stavri M, Smith E, Rahman MM (2008). "Antibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: A Structure—Activity Study" (PDF). J Nat Prod 71 (8): 1427–30. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/np8002673. Retrieved 6 November 2010. Lay summary – WebMD (4 September 2008). 
  32. Cannabis use in sickle cell disease: A questionnaire study. Retrieved on 9 June 2010.
  33. "Science: Endocannabinoids extinguish bad memories in the brain". IACM-Bulletin (International Association for Cannabis as Medicine). 4 August 2002. http://www.cannabis-med.org/english/bulletin/ww_en_db_cannabis_artikel.php?id=123#1. Retrieved 11 August 2009. 
  34. Carley DW, Paviovic S, Janelidze M, Radulovacki M (June 2002). "Functional role for cannabinoids in respiratory stability during sleep" (Free full text). Sleep 25 (4): 391–8. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. http://www.scholaruniverse.com/ncbi-linkout?id=12071539. 
  35. Steffens, S; Veillard, NR; Arnaud, C; Pelli, G; Burger, F; Staub, C; Karsak, M; Zimmer, A et al. (16 April 2005). "Cannabis may help keep arteries clear". New Scientist 434 (7034): 782. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print. 
  36. Mechoulam R., Peters M., Murillo-Rodriguez E., Hanus L.O. Cannabidiol - recent advances. Chemistry & Biodiversity. August 2007. Vol. 4, Issue 8. Page 1678-92. pmid=17712814. doi=10.1002/cbdv.200790147
  37. Zuardi A.W., Crippa J.A.S., Hallak J.E.C., Moreira F.A., Guimarães F.S. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research Cannabidiol as an antipsychotic drug (PDF) 2006. Vol. 39. Page 421-9. ISSN 0100-879X
  38. science: Study shows marijuana increases brain cell growth
  39. National Cancer Institute
  40. Science Daily 4/7/2007
  41. Science Daily 4/17/2007
  42. American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine
  43. National Academies Press: Marijuana and muscle spasticity
  44. Online Library: Treatment of adjuvant arthritis in rats with anti-inflammatory drugs
  45. Interesting Facts: Facts about marijuana
  46. National Eye Institue: Glaucoma and Marijuana use
  47. Full text of majority opinion, Gonzales v. Raich
  48. "Memo to Justice Department attorneys", 19 October 2009
  49. http://reason.com/archives/2009/10/23/medical-marijuana-muddle
  50. Marijuana Medicine Practices Are Hazy and Confusing, Planet Chiropratic dot com
  51. Medical marijuana vending machines take root in LA Fox News
  52. Scriptpro: Robotic Pharmaceutical Dispensing System
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