2300 Day Prophecy of Daniel 8

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In apocalyptic literature[1] the year-day principle or day-year principle is an interpretive means to calculate past or future events. In the mid-1800s the American religious landscape was profoundly affected by these interpretive methods. The “day” is sometimes interpreted as “year” – especially prominent among eschatologists who embrace Historicism[2]—e.g., Seventh-day Adventist Church.”[3]).

However, certain Premillenarian[4] Futurists[5] and, in particular, Dispensationalists,[6] can interpret “day” to mean “year” and vice versa. Similar beliefs on the “day-year” or “year-day” are held among Jehovah's Witnesses[7] and Mormonism.

Interpretations – Early Church to Present

Hermeneutical controversy over the use of “years is equal to days” in Bible Prophecy has existed since Tychonius[8] in 380 AD interpreted the three-and-a-half days of Revelation 11:9, 11 as three-and-a-half years (i.e., three days and a half is equal to three years and six months or 1260 days or 42 months or “time, times and half a time” - (dies tres et dimidium; id est annos tres et menses sex). The significance of this interpretation had a direct affect upon Bible expositors who embraced Historicism (Christian Eschatology) as their brand of prophetic interpretation (e.g., Historicist, Sir Isaac Newton held that that the Second Coming of Christ[9] would arrive on 2060 AD, derived from the following:

The year 800 is a significant one in history, as it is the year Charlemagne was crowned emperor of Rome in the west by Pope Leo III at St. Peter's in Rome. Since Newton believed that the 1260 years corresponded to the duration of the corruption of the Church, he added 1260 to 800 A.D. and arrived at the date 2060 for the ‘fall of Babylon’ or cessation of the apostate Church.” [10]

The time frame of the seventy weeks or “Seventy Sevens of Years” is associated with Daniel's people, the Jews, and the holy city, Jerusalem. The fact that the weeks of years (490 years) are 360 day years is established by a comparison of Daniel 7:25 with Revelation 11:2, 3, 12:6, 14, and 13:5. The weeks of years begin with the commandment by Artaxerxes in 445 B. C. to restore Jerusalem. Chronologically, they are divided as:

Seven sevens: 49 years—445 to 396 B.C. - From Artaxerxes’ decree to the arrival of Nehemiah - And the covenant renewal celebration at Jerusalem)

Sixty-two sevens: 434 years—396 B.C. to A.D. 32 - From the dedication of the second temple to the Crucifixion of the Lord Jesus Christ)

One Seven: 7 years—Unfulfilled. (Spirit-Filled Bible, p. 1135)

Using this method of interpretation - the “day-year principle” or the “year-day principle” or using a “year-for-a-day principle” - a variety of more recent Biblical Prophecy applications have developed. During the modern era the Seventh-day Adventist Church popularized the use of the “Day-year principle.

Historically, in the Fifth Century, Faustus of Riez validated Revelation 11:9, 11 use of “days” to mean “years” by stating “three and a half days which correspond to three years and six months” (Treset dimidius dies tribus annis et sexs mensibus respondent). Again, in 550 A.D. Primasius substantiated Faustus’ interpretation.[11] In 730 A.D. the Christian expositor Bede confirmed Revelation 11:9 to mean “Days = Years.” During the Ninth Century Haymo and Anspert gave credence to this interpretation of Revelation 11:9, 11).[12]

Primasius appears to be the first in history to equate “Day-year” by using Numbers 14:34 then extrapolating it to confirm the “Day-year” of Revelation 11:9. ('More Scripturae loquentis utentes, quod dictium legius de quadraginta diebus quibus exploratores terram Channan circuierunt, anus pro die reputabitur; ut hic, versa vice, dies pro anno positus agnoscatur', Prismasius as cited by EB Elliott, 'Horae Apocalypticae', volume III, page 280, fifth edition, 1862)

At question among the Early Church Fathers, who wrote much concerning Bible Prophecy (i.e., Eschatology), was a seeming disconnect concerning the 3.5 days of Revelation 11:9, 11 and its placement within the time frame of Daniel's 70th Week, yet future. However, the futurity of Daniel's Seventieth Week was a piece of eschatology not neglected by the likes of the Early Church Fathers. Furthermore, their understanding that the 70th Week of Daniel was yet a literal prophecy to be fulfilled in its entirety – not as “2520 day/years” (i.e., 7 years or 1260 days/3.5 years yet to be fulfilled, meaning that 3.5 years was already fulfilled in history) but as a literal seven-year period of time yet to be fulfilled in its entirety.

Notwithstanding, Primasius and others highlighted the 3.5 days of Revelation 11:9, 11 as “years.” Were we to discover that the days of Revelation 11:9, 11 were connected to the actual “days” of Daniel's 70th Week (i.e., the 3.5 days of Revelation 11:9, 11 constitute at least one-half of Daniel's 70th Week insofar as Early Church Fathers’ interpretations—that would be a rare discovery); however, Hippolytus[13] interpreted the entire Seventieth Week of Daniel as yet future:

39. Thus, then, does the prophet (Daniel) set forth these things concerning the Antichrist, who shall be shameless, a war-maker, and despot, who, exalting himself above all kings and above every god, shall build the city of Jerusalem, and restore the sanctuary. Him the impious will worship as God, and will bend to him the knee, thinking him to be the Christ. He shall cut off the two witnesses and forerunners of Christ, who proclaim His glorious kingdom from heaven, as it is said: ‘And I will give (power) unto my two witnesses, and they shall prophesy a thousand two hundred and threescore days, clothed in sackcloth.

193 As also it was announced to Daniel: ‘And one week shall confirm a covenant with many; and in the midst of the week it shall be that the sacrifice and oblation shall be removed’-that the one week might be shown to be divided into two. The two witnesses, then, shall preach three years and a half; and Antichrist shall make war upon the saints during the test (sic? “rest” or “remainder”) of the week (i.e., the last three-and-one-half-years, editor’s note), and desolate the world, that what is written may be fulfilled: ‘And they shall make the abomination of desolation for a thousand two hundred and ninety days.’” (The interpretation by Hippolytus, (bishop) of Rome, of the visions of Daniel and Nebuchadnezzar, taken in conjunction. 157)

The fact that Hippolytus saw the “one week might be shown to be divided into two” (or two periods of 3.5 years each) is confirmed by his statement that “The two witnesses, then, shall preach three years and a half.” Hence, if the Seventieth Week of Daniel is equal to seven years, then the seven days of the 70th Week of Daniel would constitute a seven-year time frame, ipso facto, seven days is equal to seven years, adding legitimacy that the “Day-year principle” was upheld by Hippolytus as well—although he did not specifically state that the 3.5 days of Revelation 11:9, 11 constitute 3.5 years.

As prolific as some of the Early Church Fathers were in their eschatological writings (e.g., Irenaeus, Tertullian, Lactantius[14] Cyprian,[15] Jerome, or Augustine) they did not reflect upon interpreting Revelation 11:9, 11; however, it appears that Victorinus[16] may have done so. Therefore, of the three who did expound upon Revelation 11:9, 11, it appears that all of them understood the “three-and-a-half days” of Revelation 11:9, 11, to mean “years.” Likewise, to assume that they saw, as Hippolytus, that these 3.5 days were part of the final Seventieth Week (in its entirety) to be yet future, is not a stretch of historical revisionism, nor, for that matter, that Hippolytus would not concur with the “three’s” interpretations.

As a digression, Historicism sees the Seventieth Week of Daniel as already fulfilled—normally taken the Baptism of Jesus by John the Baptist as the commencement of the Seventieth Week, and then in the midst of the week the “covenant” is broken and the Messiah is “cut off.” Then, from the crucifixion of Jesus until the baptism of the Holy Spirit in the house of Cornelius (i.e., the gospel preached to the Gentiles), is seen as the terminus of Daniel's Seventieth Week – a period of seven years.[17]

Expositors have used the following passages to confirm that “days” should be interpreted as “years.”

(1) Genesis 29:27 states that “Finish this daughter’s bridal week; then we will give you the younger one also, in return for another seven years of work.” (NIV)

(2) Numbers 14:34 – The children of Israel wandered in the wilderness for 40 years, which was equal to the 40 days that the spies spent in their initial disclosures into the Land of Canaan.

(3) Ezekiel 4:5-6 – Ezekiel was told to lie for 390 days on his left side. Then told to lie for 40 days on his right side. This would equal the total number of years in which both Israel (the 10 northern tribes) and Judah (the tribes of Benjamin and Judah) would be punished.

(4) Daniel 9:24-27 – The 490 years or 70 “sevens” or “septets” of years is equal to 490 days (there being 7 days to a week “x” 70 weeks = 490 years).

Criticism of Day-year principle

Critics charge that these postulations do not lend credence to the “Day-year principle.” They claim that the words “day” or “year” are simply meant to be taken symbolically—no fundamental hermeneutical rule is being set. They claim that Daniel 9:24-27 doesn't support a day-year principle – the “seventy sevens” are simply “septets” or “heptads” and not seventy “weeks” and the word “day” cannot be found in Daniel's passage.

Historicism’s Interpretations – 2300 days vs. 1260 days

Historicists, like the Seventh-day Adventist Church, normally interpret the 2300 days of Daniel 8:13-14 to mean “years.” The 3.5 days of Revelation 11:9, 11 are likewise interpreted as years—years which, according to some Seventh-Day Adventists occurred during the French Revolution, between 1789 and 1796.[18]

Likewise, the 1260 days, or 42 months, mentioned in both Daniel and Revelation are understood by some Historicists to mean “years.” Historicist interpreters have usually understood the "time, times and half a time", "1260 days" and "42 months" mentioned in Daniel and Revelation to be references to the same time duration (though some have considered them separate durations). They are typically understood to represent a period of 1260 years.[19] (Please see: Daniel 7:25, 12:7, Revelation 11:2, 3; 12:6, 14; 13:5)

Historicists, in the main, have seen the Seventieth Week of Daniel partially or fully fulfilled in history. The 1260 days were seen to have been fulfilled in time past[20]

  • 312 AD to 1572
  • 606/610 AD to 1866/1870
  • 533/538 AD to 1793/1798

The Seventh-Day Adventists affirm that the 1260 days were fulfilled between 538 A.D. and 1798 A.D. (considered the time of Papal ascendancy and defeat by Napoleon).[21]

Daniel’s 2300 Day Prophecy

Daniel’s 2300 Day Prophecy found in Daniel 8:12-14 has been interpreted by the Seventh-day Adventist Church, Jehovah’s Witnesses,[22] the Mormons and by Harold Camping,[23] as well as Historicist Larry Wilson of Day Star[24] to mean “years” – not “literal days.”

For this survey, I purposely selected writers who wrote before the beginning of the 19th century when Baptist evangelist, William Miller[25] (origins of Seventh-Day Adventists and Jehovah’s Witnesses), and many others, both in Europe and the United States began teaching that the 2300 days (Daniel 8:14) would end during the 19th century. It is important to note that before the 19th century there was no consensus position on the meaning of Daniel 8. In fact, very little has ever been written on Daniel 8 during the past two millenniums. Historically speaking, William Miller was among the first to bring Daniel 8:14 out of obscurity. (Larry Wilson, The 2,300 Days of Daniel 8:14) [26]

The Dispensationalists like C. I. Scofield [27] affirm that the 2300 days of Daniel 8:14 were fulfilled in history past during the time of Antioochus IV Epiphanes – but Historicist Larry Wilson disputes Scofield's assertions: “So, where did Scofield place the 2300 days of Daniel 8:14? In his Bible commentary on Daniel 8 he states, ‘This prediction was fulfilled during the bitter persecution under Antiochus Epiphanies IV and in the cleansing of the sanctuary in Jerusalem.’ He is referring to a time-period that reaches from 168 B.C. to 162 B.C., historically known as the Revolt of the Maccabeans under Judas Maccabeus.[28]

Scofield’s reasoning is both simple and straightforward: He concludes that the ram of Daniel 8 is Persia and the goat is Grecia. (The Bible clearly states this.) Scofield then concludes that the horn power of Daniel 8:9 must be Antiochus Epiphanies (sic.) IV, a king who came out of Syria (which was located in one of the four divisions of the Grecian empire). Historians tell us that Antiochus persecuted the Jews and profaned their temple in Jerusalem. Scofield places the beginning of the 2300 days on December 6, 167 B.C. when Antiochus desecrated the temple and ends that time-period on March 27, 160 B.C. when General Nicanor [29] was killed. (Larry Wilson, The 2,300 Days of Daniel 8:14, Day Star, July–August, 1998)

Seventh Day Adventists and the Origins of the Interpretation of the 2300 Day-Year

In a series of quotations from sundry sources, the origins of the 2300 Day-year and its socio-religio importance upon American Christianity cannot be underestimated—especially those outside of American mainstream Protestantism.

The origins of Seventh-day Adventism can be traced to William Miller, a Baptist preacher during the early 1800s in New England—(and to the belief that the 2300 days should be interpreted as years). He was convinced that the Scriptures contained coded information about the end of the world and the Rapture.

He also realized that he had an obligation to teach his findings to others. In 1831, he started to preach; the next year, he wrote articles about his findings. In 1833, he published a pamphlet on end-time prophecy. In 1842, his book Evidences from Scripture and History of the Second Coming of Christ,[30] about the Year 1843 was published. (The Rapture, Hoax or Hope, Religious Tolerance, Ontario, Canada).

One of the key texts that he interpreted was in the Book of Daniel: Daniel heard two angels talking; one asked how long it will take until the destruction of the Temple is avenged and it is restored to its rightful state. The other replied in Daniel 8:14 . . . ‘And he said unto me, unto 2,300 days, then shall the sanctuary be cleansed.’

Miller affirmed that the 2300 days constituted one year each and that their commencement occurred in 457 B.C. He concluded that the cleansing of the temple (i.e. the Second Coming) would occur sometime between two spring equinoxes: 1843-March-21 to 1844-March-21. He found other methods of calculating the end time which also seemed to point to the year 1843 AD. In common with all other predictions of the Second Coming, the end didn't happen on cue. Samuel Snow, a follower of Miller, then interpreted the ‘tarrying time’ referred to in Habakkuk 2:3 as equal to 7 months and 10 days, delaying the end time to 1844-OCT-22. That prophecy also did not come to pass. Many believers left the movement in what has become known as The Great Disappointment.[31] Miller himself gradually withdrew from the leadership of the group and died in 1849. His followers called themselves Adventists; the group was often referred to as Millerites by others. (Seventh-Day Adventist Church – Its Origins, Beliefs and Practices, etc.– Religious Tolerance.org)

Ellen Harmon (later known by her married name Ellen White) joined with other Adventists, including Joseph Bates, and her husband James White to form a small group of Baptist, Methodist, Congregational and Presbyterian believers in Washington, NH. The church was formally organized as the Seventh-day Adventist Church (1863-MAY-21). She believed that the 1844 prediction was correct, but that it referred to the start of an Investigative Judgment[32] This is a time when Christ will judge the dead and the living on earth for righteousness. She predicted that this would soon be followed by the second coming of Jesus. (Seventh-Day Adventist Church – Its Origins, Beliefs and Practices, etc. – Religious Tolerance.org).

On October 22, 1844, Christ did purge the sanctuary according to Daniel’s prophecy-but the sanctuary was in heaven, not on earth. Christ’s failure to appear on earth was due to the church’s failure to observe the Sabbath. This tiny group led by James White and his wife, Ellen Gould White, became the Seventh-Day Adventist Church we know today.” (Has the Time Arrived?, Sept, 2001, The Star)

A Prophetic Day Always Equals a Year - Miller concluded that all prophetic time-periods in the Bible must be reckoned as ‘a day for a year’ since this concept had been proven true in his own lifetime. In the 1840’s, most American Protestants believed the 1,260 years of the little horn power (Daniel 7:25) terminated in 1798 (Editor’s Note: 1,260 years commenced in 538 A.D. at the “Decree of Emperor Justinian” establishing “Papal Supremacy” and lasted until 1798 A.D. when Pope Pius VI[33] received his “head wound” (Revelation 13:3, 12, 14) from Napoleon and was placed under house arrest; having died in Valence, France six weeks after his disposition there.). Therefore, they concluded that the 2,300 days (Daniel 8) and the 490 days (70 weeks in Daniel 9) must follow the day/year rule, too. (Larry Wilson, Day Star Publications, The 2300 Days of Daniel 8:14, July/August 1998 – (Larry Wilson, The Star, 1998)

Jehovah's Witnesses and the 2300 Days

When even 1844 did not pan out, some of Miller's followers abandoned the movement. Many however tried to find a new explanation. They were too embarrassed to admit their error. They had invested too much to be wrong. Another group that tried to hold to the 1844 date was led by Jonas Swendahl and was known as the Second Adventists. They believed that 1844 marked not the date of Jesus' return, but of the beginning of the last generation. Swendahl taught that Jesus would therefore return in 1874.

Jehovah’s Witnesses believe that Jesus returned invisibly in 1914—or 70 years or a lengthy “generation” which “saw the commencement of the INVESTIGATIVE JUDGEMENT” wrought in 1844 (or 1844 + 70 = 1914). (Patrick Zukeran, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Witnessing to the Witnesses, Probe Ministries, Richardson, TX)

One of Swendahl’s (Second Adventist) followers was a former Presbyterian named Charles Taze Russell.[34] When 1874 came and went, he concluded 30 years was not long enough for a generation. So he added 70 years to 1844 and concluded that Jesus would return in 1914. This and other differences led him to split from the Second Adventists and launch Zion's Watchtower and Herald of Christ's Presence.[35]

His followers became known as the International Bible Students, and they went about the country with the message, ‘Millions now living will never die!’ Followers were to leave their churches and fellowship together. All churches were considered apostate, but God had provided a new channel for their instruction, Zion's Watchtower Tract Society. His followers became known as the International Bible Students, and they went about the country with the message, ‘Millions now living will never die!’ Followers were to leave their churches and fellowship together. All churches were considered apostate, but God had provided a new channel for their instruction, Zion's Watchtower Tract Society.[36]

Mormonism and the 2300 Days

In Mormon Truth(.org) "the best known of all prophecies" is known as "1844 - Restoring the Rights of the Church."[37] Strengthening the start date of the 2300 days in history has been made by certain Mormon eschatologists. From the 457 B.C. "start date" of the 2300 "year-date" countdown to the end date of 1844 A.D. - but for different reasons:

Daniel 8:14 gives 2300 years until the cleansing of the sanctuary. What does ‘cleansed’ mean in this context? In the Bible, people are symbolically cleansed by the shedding of blood (animals in the Old Testament, looking forward to the shedding of Jesus’ blood in the New). The Jerusalem Bible rewords this ‘then the sanctuary shall have its rights restored’.(1844 – Restoring the Rights of the Church)[38])

Now, we are always looking for the simplest possible interpretation, so we shall assume that this ties in with a similar prophecy in the next chapter (Daniel 9). In Daniel 9, an important prophecy is dated from the time that Persia left Daniel's world - the last major decree for the Jews to return to their land. This date was 457 BC.

2300 years from 457 BC (remember that there is no ‘year 0’) takes us to 1844.

The belief in 1844 as a major date in prophecy has been incorporated into modern religions such as the Baha'i faith and the Seventh Day Adventists. In terms of prophetic dates, 1844 was The Big One. Did all those Bible readers get it wrong?

So what happened? The world did not end, and everyone went home disappointed. But if they had read the context of the Bible prophecies, they would have seen that although the date was correct, its significance had been missed. 1844 was not the end of the world, but it signaled the restoration of the sanctuary, which is not quite the same thing. While all those people were climbing their hills and selling their worldly goods, looking heavenward in expectation of the end, the ancient prophecy was being fulfilled, right on schedule, in the state of Illinois, in a town called Nauvoo and in a tiny jailhouse called Carthage.

In 1844, Joseph Smith, the prophet of the restoration, completed his mortal mission. He sealed his testimony with his blood. (See Doctrine & Covenants 135)[39] Like all those other martyrs spoken of in Revelation, he was slain for the word of God. All he had ever said was what he had seen with his own eyes, and they killed him for it.

Before the prophet Joseph died, when he could see what was inevitable, he had two driving goals: First, to ensure that the church had everything necessary to survive and prosper. Second, to ensure that the temple (then under construction) would be complete. He died only once he had completed his work. After thousands of years when prophecy had ceased, the church was once more ready to fulfill the will of the Lord. And after thousands of years of there being no temple, or worse, a polluted temple, the rights were at last restored. The sanctuary had been cleansed. The rights of the temple had been restored. The prophecy was fulfilled. (ibid.)

Futurism and Daniel's 2300 Day Prophecy

Most Evangelical Futurism-style eschatology affirms that the entire Seventieth Week of Daniel is yet to be fulfilled—it is not in history past. However, their interpretations regarding the 2300 days vary. Juxtaposing their interpretations between the 2300 Days of Daniel 8 and the Seventy Week Prophecy of Daniel 9 is noteworthy.

Historicism sees the Church as the “sanctuary” to be cleansed (i.e., the “cleansing of the sanctuary” – Daniel 8:13-14); whereas most Futurists see the passages in both Daniel 8 and 9 referring to the Jewish people, Israel of the flesh. They charge that the Historicists, including the Seventh-Day Adventists, the Jehovah's Witnesses and the Mormons, have made a fundamental assertion that the prophecies found in Daniel 8 and 9 and other places in the Book of Daniel have reference to the “believing people of God” (i.e., today's Church). However, Premillennialism-style Futurists counter: “Seventy weeks are determined for your people and for your holy city” (Daniel 9:24). The “Battle for the Sanctuary” took place in history past between the Hellenizing efforts of Antiochus IV Epiphanes and the Maccabeans (i.e., Jews) between 171 B.C. and 164 B.C. but Antiochus IV Epiphanes was but “a type of the Antichrist of the last days, as well as of all godless world rulers who actively oppose God’s people.”(Spirit-Filled Bible, p. 1133, ref. Daniel 8:9-14)

Therefore, some within Premillennialism Futurism (Christian eschatology) affirm that the 2300 days of Daniel 8:14 have not yet occurred and refer to the future sacerdotal rites of a yet future Third Temple to be built during Daniel's Prophecy of Seventy Weeks - which also is yet future. The "reign of the Beast" (See: Abomination of Desolation) commences at the midpoint of Daniel's Prophecy of Seventy Weeks and thus ensues in "days" (as in the "evening and morning" (Daniel 8:14)) the 1290 days of "desolations" or "abominations" (Daniel 12:12). These "desolations" or "the host to be trampled underfoot" (Daniel 8:13) must be calculated by adding the days of the "daily sacrifices" in a restored Third Temple, yet future, to the "days of desolation" or 1010 (days of sacrifice) + 1290 (days of desolations) = 2300 days: "'How long will the vision be, concerning the daily sacrifices and the transgression of desolation, the giving of both the sanctuary and the host to be trampled underfoot?' and he said to me, 'For two thousand three hundred days; then the sanctuary shall be cleansed.'" These eschatologists conclude that the Prophecy of Seventy Weeks is directed to Jews in a regathered Israel in the "latter days" ("Seventy weeks are determined for your people and for your holy city" - Daniel 9:24).

Donald Barnhouse, Hal Lindsey, John Walvoord and many other premillenarian futurists affirm that the prophecies of the Antichrist and the Abomination of Desolation are futuristic, based upon the many citations found within Daniel 7-12; likewise, these prophecies were not fulfilled by the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 AD, which is the claim of Preterism. Premillennialism-style futurists like Arthur Pink in his classic work "The Antichrist" attribute vast portions within the Old and New Testament to this future figure and see the 1260 days of the first part of the Prophecy of Seventy Weeks as literal days. Doug Krieger, in his e-books entitled Antichrist Reflections on the Desolator[40] (January 22, 2008) and Antichrist and the Gog-Magog War[41] (March 27, 2005) identifies the future Antichrist as the product of Greco-Roman man or a future leader of the West—tracing the portions of Daniel 7 and 8 to the beast of Revelation 11 and 13, ascending from the sea as a composite of a final Gentile World Power comprised of the same animal-empire descriptions found in Daniel ("Now the beast which I saw was like a leopard, his feet were like the feet of a bear, and his mouth like the mouth of a lion" - Revelation 13:2a).

It is within the context of a future Prophecy of Seventy Weeks that the final week is separated out from the original 69 weeks (just as the first and second comings of Christ have a "gap" - even so, the final week is separated from the original 69 weeks; hence, the "gap"). The final week is broken up into two parts (the initial 1260 days of the prevailing testimony of the Two Witnesses) until the "middle of the week" being the Abomination of Desolation and the final 1260 days (or 42 months; time, times and half a time; 3.5 days (Rev. 11:9, 11) of the "reign of the Beast" being the latter half of the week, with 30 days until the 1290th day (Daniel 12:11) being the period known as the "Wrath of the Lamb" or "Wrath of God." It is this Beast - now inhabited by Satan as the second "son of perdition" who shall desecrate the Third Temple and begin his beastly reign for 1,290 days (Daniel 12:11). But, as Antichrist, prior to his reign as the Beast, he will "make a covenant with the many (i.e., Israel’s majority) for one week, but in the middle of the week he shall bring an end to sacrifice and offering" (Daniel 9:27). The final 45 days beyond the 30 days (comprising a total of 75 days beyond the final week of Daniel's Prophecy of Seventy Weeks commences with the Second Coming of Christ and the unveiling of Messiah to Israel prior to the literal Millennium or 1,000-year rule and reign of Messiah - this is the time of "Blessed is he who waits, and comes to the one thousand three hundred and thirty five days" (Daniel 12:13). The 2300 days is part and parcel of these aforementioned time frames - totally integrated into Daniel's Seventieth Week, extending from the commencement of the renewed and rededicated Third Temple and its sacerdotal rites to 30 days past the close of the Seventieth Week itself.

1,290 Days or “evenings and mornings” = Period of desolations which commence at the “Abomination of Desolation” half-way through the 70th Week


1,010 Days or “evenings and mornings” = Difference between 2,300 less 1,290 = 1,010 Days or “evenings and mornings” of actual sacrifices taking place.

       = 2300 Days

250 Days or “evenings and mornings” = Number of days left between the commencement of the first half of Daniel’s 70th Week and the 1,010 days of the actual sacrifices taking place during the first week before the sacrifices are terminated in the midst of Daniel's 70th Week.


2,550 Days or “evenings and mornings” = 2,300 “evenings and mornings” + 250 “evenings and mornings” = 2,550 Days or “evenings and mornings”

       or (See Below)

250 Days (From the commencement of Daniel's 70th Week - Period of Rebuilding the Third Temple) + 1010 Days (Period of Sacrifices) to the "Middle of the Week" and the "Abomination of Desolation" + 1290 Days of "Desolations" (Daniel 12:11) (which is equal to 2300 days - i.e., 1010+1290=2300 Days - which is 30 days beyond the conclusion of Daniel's 70th Week) + 45 Days or unto the 1335th Day (i.e., the period of the "judgment of the nations" and of the "unveiling of Messiah to National Israel" - Daniel 12:12) - total numbers of "days" involved: 250+1010+1290+45=2595 Days

G. H. Lang[42] presents a resolution to the “year-day” problem (by quoting G. H. Pember[43]) of the so-called mandatory “year-day” thesis of the Historicists.

“The words of the angel in regard to the two thousand, three hundred days during which the Sanctuary and the Host are to be trodden underfoot, are, perhaps, not so mysterious as they seem. The literal Hebrew expression is not ‘day,’ but ‘evening-mornings’; that is to say, two thousand, three hundred repetitions of the evening and morning sacrifices—which proves that actual days of twenty-four hours are intended. And we should note, that seven full prophetic years would contain two thousand five hundred and twenty days. (G. H. Lang, The Histories and Prophecies of Daniel, p. 117—taken from Pember’s Great Prophecies, p. 127-8)

Now, as we shall see when we consider the revelation of the Seventy Sevens, the antichrist is to make a covenant with the majority of the Jewish nation for Seven Years, at the close of which period he will be destroyed by the appearing of the Lord. It would seem, then, that he will not tamper with the Sanctuary, until the two hundred and twenty-first day from the date of the commencement of the covenant; indeed, it is possible that the building of the Temple may not be completed until that time. Perhaps, the two thousand three hundred days may represent the whole time of his personal connection with the City and Sanctuary. The actual suppression of the daily sacrifices will not take place, as we shall presently see, until three years and a half of the covenant-period have passed by.” (G. H. Pember, Great Prophecies, pp. 127-8, from G. H. Lang’s The Histories and Prophecies of Daniel, p. 117)

Substantiating Lang's thesis on the 2300 days:

To finish transgression in Daniel 9:24 is directly related to the Transgression of Desolation in Daniel 8:13 and the 2300 days from the commencement of the “daily sacrifices” until “the giving of both the sanctuary and the host to be trampled underfoot.” The 2300 day calculations must be understood by comparing these Scriptures with those in Daniel 11:31 (“. . . then they shall take away the daily sacrifices, and place there the abomination of desolation”); and with those found in Daniel 12:11-12 (“And from the time that the daily sacrifice is taken away, and the abomination of desolation is set up, there shall be one thousand two hundred and ninety days. Blessed is he who waits, and comes to the one thousand three hundred and thirty-five days); and, finally all of these passages must be correlated with Daniel 9:27 (“Then he shall confirm a covenant with many for one week; but in the middle of the week he shall bring an end to sacrifice and offering. And on the wing of abominations shall be one who makes desolate, even until the consummation, which is determined, is poured out on the desolator.”). (Israel’s Prophetic Witness[44])

The fact that Jesus quotes Daniel's prophecy of the “Abomination of Desolation” as yet future, adds credibility to its futurity (See Daniel 8:11-14; 9:24-27; 11:20-45; 12:1-13). These passages are not fulfilled in part or the whole (Matthew 24:15; Mark 13:14) as foreseen by Jesus. Furthermore, the writings of John in the Revelation, according to Futurism, claims that Preterism must resort to bending the writing of John's Revelation prior to 70 A.D., instead of its post-70 A.D. writing under the persecution of Emperor Domitian (81 A.D. – 96 A.D.), which makes the 70 A.D. date of the “Abomination of Desolation” chronologically impossible; and, a whole host of Revelation's precisions obsolete or, at best, allegorized by the Amillennialism.

The passages in Daniel 8 through 12, according these futurists refer to National Israel, not exclusively to the Church (Daniel 8:14—“then the sanctuary shall be cleansed”); likewise is their understanding of this “cleansing” directly associated with the second advent of Christ, which indeed is the case (but His cleansing of the temple is directly connected with Daniel 12:12 and the 1,335th Day); however, its implications concerning Israel's ramifications are wholly disregarded—for in their eyes, the book of Daniel, in the main, excludes the “previous” “your people and for your holy city” (Daniel 9:24—i.e., the Jews) and, based upon the Amillenarian backgrounds of these original proponents of Adventism and ultimately Jehovah's Witnesses and even Mormonism, they wholly appropriate all the promises made to National Israel, and, like St. Augustine, Origen, and other eschatological systems of interpretation (i.e., the Postmillennialism, Preterists) simply configured a belief systems which borders on, or explicitly embraces, suppercessionism.

See also


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  2. Historicism. Historicism Research Foundation, A Service of The Puritans' Network.
  3. Jerry Moon. The Year-Day Principle. SDAnet.
  4. What is premillennialism?. gotQuestions?org.
  5. Futurism. The Language of Religion - Dictionary and Research Guide.
  6. Michael J. Vlach. What is Dispensationalism. TheologicalStudies.org.
  7. Watchtower - Official Site of Jehovah's Witnesses. Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania.
  8. Tichonius. Early Church.org.
  9. The Second Coming - Jesus' Promise. All About God.
  10. Stephen D. Snobelen. Statement on the date 2060. Isaac Newton – Theology, Prophecy, Science and Religion.
  11. EB Elliott, 'Horae Apocalypticae', volume III, page 280, fifth edition, 1862
  12. Year-day principle. Encyclopedia VBXML.
  13. St. Hippolytus of Rome. New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia.
  14. Lucius Caecilius Firmianus Lactantius. New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia.
  15. St. Cyprian of Carthage. New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia.
  16. St. Victorinus. New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia.
  17. Daniel's 70th Week 490 Years. Power of the Cross Ministries.
  18. Review and Herald Publishing Association.
  19. SDA1260. Adventist Review - Adventist News.
  20. Leroy Edwin Froom, The Prophetic Faith Of Our Fathers, volume II (1948) pages 784, 787; volume III (1946) pages 744-745; volume IV (1982) pages 392, 395-397, 399-400:
  21. (2005) Seventh-day Adventists Believe (2nd ed). Ministerial Association, General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, 184–185. 
  22. About Jehovah’s Witnesses. Religious Tolerance.org.
  23. Harold Camping of Family Radio.
  24. Larry Wilson. Wake-Up.
  25. William Miller. Ohio History Central - an Online Encyclopedia of Ohio History.
  26. The 2300 Days of Daniel 8:14. Day Star (July/August 1998).
  27. C. I. Scofield. Rapture Ready.
  28. Richard Gootheil and Samuel Krauss. Judas Maccabeus. JewishEncyclopedia.com.
  29. Richard Gootheil and Samuel Krauss. Nacanor. JewishEncyclopedia.com.
  30. William Miller. Evidence from Scripture and History of the Second Coming of Christ. Sacred Texts of Christianity.
  31. Bruce Shelley (January 1, 1999). American Adventism: The Great Disappointment. Christianity Today Library – Christian History Biography.
  32. Bob Pickle. A Biblical Basis for the Doctrine of the Investigative Judgment. Pickle Publishing.
  33. Pope Pius VI. New Advent - Catholic Encyclopedia.
  34. Jehovah’s Witnesses. BBC – Religion and Ethics.
  35. Taze Russell. 1908 Zion's Watch Tower and Herald of Christ's Return. Internet Archive.
  36. Jason Wallace. Harold Camping's Kingdom Hall. Christ Orthodox Presbyterian Church, Salt Lake City, UT.
  37. 1844 - Restoring the Rights of the Church. Mormon Truth.
  38. 1844 - Restoring the Rights of the Church. Mormon Truth.
  39. Doctrine & Covenants 135. LDS.org.
  40. Doug Krieger. Antichrist Reflections on the Desolator. The Tribulation Network.
  41. Doug Krieger. Antichrist and the Gog-Magog War. The Tribulation Network.
  42. G. H. Lang. Schoettle Publishing Company.
  43. G. H. Pember. Schoettle Publishing Company.
  44. Doug Krieger. Israel's Prophetic Witness. The Tribulation Network.