Arguments for a recent creation
Arguments for a recent creation involve carefully crafted scientific and theological reasoning with the hope that an individual will come to the conclusion that God exists, God created everything we see, and that he did not do it through evolutionary processes. Evidence against an Old Earth can be found at counterexamples to an Old Earth.
"Many scientific arguments can be used to show that the evidence is more consistent with a recent creation than an old Earth. Some arguments put forward in support of a recent creation simply put an upper limit on the age of the Earth, solar system, or universe, which are inconsistent with an ancient creation." The following is a list of various scientific reasons in no particular order.
- "The old-earth idea was developed historically, not from letting the physical facts speak for themselves but by imposing anti-biblical philosophical assumptions onto the geological observations. See the following ..."
- William R. Corliss is a respected cataloger of scientific anomalies and the science magazine New Scientist had an article which focused on Mr. Corliss's career as a cataloger of scientific anomalies. Mr. Corliss has cataloged scores of anomalies which challenge the old earth geology paradigm.
- "The radiometric dating methods are based on those same naturalistic, uniformitarian, anti-biblical assumptions and there is plenty of published evidence that they do not give valid dates. Besides the RATE research mentioned earlier, consider the well-researched arguments in The Mythology of Modern Dating Methods."
- "The almost complete absence of evidence of erosion or soil layers or the activity of living things (plant roots, burrow marks, etc.) at the upper surface of the various strata (showing that the stratum did not lay there for thousands or millions of years before the next layer was deposited)."
- "Polystrate fossils (usually trees) that cut through more than one layer of rock (even different kinds of rock supposedly deposited over thousands if not millions of years). The trees would have rotted and left no fossil evidence if the deposition rate was that slow."
- "Soft-sediment deformation—that thousands of feet of sedimentary rocks (of various layers) are bent (like a stack of thin pancakes over the edge of a plate), as we see at the mile-deep Kaibab Upwarp in the Grand Canyon. Clearly the whole, mile-deep deposit of various kinds of sediment was still relatively soft and probably wet (not like it is today) when the earthquake occurred that uplifted one part of the series of strata."
- "Many fossils that show (require) very rapid burial and fossilization. For example, soft parts (jellyfish, animal feces, scales and fins of fish) or whole, large, fully-articulated skeletons (e.g., whales or large dinosaurs such as T-Rex) are preserved. Or we find many creatures’ bodies contorted. All this evidence shows that these creatures were buried rapidly (in many cases even buried alive) and fossilized before scavengers, micro-decay organisms and erosional processes could erase the evidence. These are found all over the world and all through the various strata."
- "...distant starlight is no more of a problem for young-earth creationists than it is for big bang proponents..."
- "Paraconformities challenge the old earth uniformitarian geology paradigm."
- Even evolutionist studies have shown (despite the dating errors) that the vast majority of species on Earth arose around the same time and that genetic boundaries exist between the various animal kinds.
- Evolutionist studies have found that all male humans have the same Y-chromosome while females have greater chromosomal diversity. This is in line with the Genesis account, which shows that only Noah's Y-chromosome lineage survived the flood, being passed along to his sons and beyond, while seven or eight x-chromosome lineages survived.
- The sulfurization of organic matter, once thought to take tens of thousands of years, has been found to only take hours to complete.
- An analysis of mitochondrial DNA shows that humans and most animal kinds came from common ancestors that lived later than 4000 BC, indicating a recent creation and the existence of a genetic "bottleneck" resulting from the Great Flood.
- Geomagnetic field decay
- "Observations made of the strength of Earth's magnetic field over the last 150 years show that it is decaying, which puts an upper limit on the age of the Earth. If the decay is projected back 20,000 years, the heat produced by the electric current that generates the Earth's magnetic field would have liquefied the Earth. Naturally this would make life impossible. The best model for the Earth's magnetic field and observed data places the age of Earth at 6,000 – 8,700 years."
- "The total energy stored in the earth's magnetic field ("dipole" and "non-dipole") is decreasing with a half-life of 1,465 (± 165) years. Evolutionary theories explaining this rapid decrease, as well as how the earth could have maintained its magnetic field for billions of years are very complex and inadequate. A much better creationist theory exists. It is straightforward, based on sound physics, and explains many features of the field: its creation, rapid reversals during the Genesis flood, surface intensity decreases and increases until the time of Christ, and a steady decay since then. This theory matches paleomagnetic, historic, and present data, most startlingly with evidence for rapid changes. The main result is that the field's total energy (not surface intensity) has always decayed at least as fast as now. At that rate the field could not be more than 20,000 years old."
- "Presence of magnetic fields around solar system bodies (Mercury, Jupiter's moon Ganymede, Neptune, Uranus) without an obvious internal dynamo. No natural process is known which could sustain a magnetic field around these bodies - their magnetic fields should have decayed out of existence if they ever had any."
- Pleochroic halos
- "Radioactive inclusions in rock often cause concentric spheres of discoloration due to the damage caused by alpha particles as they are emitted by the radioactive substance. Pleochroic halos are the scars of radioactive decay, particularly alpha decay. These scars appear as spheres (rings when views in cross-section) in the rock surrounding a decaying radioactive atom. The size of the halo is a signature of the energy of the emission and therefore the element and isotope involved. Creationists use these halos in several ways to suggest problems with the standard uniformitarian model."
- Helium diffusion
- "One type of nuclear decay is the emission of Helium nuclei known as an alpha emission. Elements like uranium and thorium produce helium in zircons as a by-product of their radioactivity. This helium seeps out of (sic) zircons quickly over a wide range of temperatures. If the zircons really are about 1.5 billion years old (the age which conventional dating gives assuming a constant decay rate), almost all of the helium should have dissipated from the zircons long ago. But there is a significant amount of helium still inside the zircons, showing their ages to be 6,000 +/- 2,000 years. Accelerated decay must have produced a billion years worth of helium in that short amount of time."
- "Uranium and thorium generate helium atoms as they decay to lead. A study published in the Journal of Geophysical Research showed that such helium produced in zircon crystals in deep, hot Precambrian granitic rock has not had time to escape. Though the rocks contain 1.5 billion years worth of nuclear decay products, newly-measured rates of helium loss from zircon show that the helium has been leaking for only 6,000 (± 2000) years. This is not only evidence for the youth of the earth, but also for episodes of greatly accelerated decay rates of long half-life nuclei within thousands of years ago, compressing radioisotope timescales enormously."
- "In 2000 the RATE project began experiments to measure the diffusion rates of helium in zircon and biotite specifically from the Jemez Granodiorite. The data...are consistent with data for a mica related to biotite, with recently reported data for zircon and with a reasonable interpretation of the earlier zircon data. ...[These] data limit the age of these rocks to between 4,000 and 14,000 years."
- "The core of the sun produces deuterium from hydrogen fusion at 5 million degrees K. The heat is transferred from the core by convection currents so it could reach surface in days, not a million years. It also leads to an age for the sun based on the deuterium/hydrogen ratio of the local interstellar medium of 6,000-12,857 years."
- Accelerated Nuclear Decay
- "The main assumption of radiometric dating is that the decay rates are constant with time. If the decay rate has varied significantly over time then any date based on radioactive decay is worthless. However, if radioactive decay has been happening for Billions of years then there is insufficient argon diffusion, insufficient lead diffusion, insufficient helium in the air, and too much Helium in Rocks. Recent experiments commissioned by the RATE group indicate that "1.5 billion years" worth of nuclear decay has taken place, but in one or more short periods 4000 – 8000 years ago. This would shrink the alleged 4.5 billion year radioisotope age of the earth to only a few thousand years."
- "Radiohalos are rings of color formed around microscopic bits of radioactive minerals in rock crystals. They are fossil evidence of radioactive decay. "Squashed" Polonium-210 radiohalos indicate that Jurassic, Triassic, and Eocene formations in the Colorado plateau were deposited within months of one another, not hundreds of millions of years apart as required by the conventional time scale. "Orphan" Polonium-218 radiohalos, having no evidence of their mother elements, imply accelerated nuclear decay and very rapid formation of associated minerals."
- Galaxies wind themselves up too fast.
- "The stars of our own galaxy, the Milky Way, rotate about the galactic center with different speeds, the inner ones rotating faster than the outer ones. The observed rotation speeds are so fast that if our galaxy were more than a few hundred million years old, it would be a featureless disc of stars instead of its present spiral shape. Yet our galaxy is supposed to be at least 10 billion years old. Evolutionists call this "the winding-up dilemma," which they have known about for fifty years. They have devised many theories to try to explain it, each one failing after a brief period of popularity. The same "winding-up" dilemma also applies to other galaxies." An example of a failed model is called the "density wave model". While it resolves some issues with the winding problem, it requires density waves to exist for billions of years and there is no reason for them to do so.
- "According to evolutionary theory, comets are supposed to be the same age as the solar system, about five billion years. Yet each time a comet orbits close to the sun, it loses so much of its material that it could not survive much longer than about 100,000 years. Many comets have typical ages of less than 10,000 years."
- "The origin of the comets in our solar system is a great mystery from an old universe perspective as they degrade rapidly. While evolutionary astronomers once thought the Oort cloud could account for all comets, the Kuiper belt has been revived to explain their existence."
- Not enough mud on the sea floor.
- "Each year, water and winds erode about 20 billion tons of dirt and rock from the continents and deposit it in the ocean. This material accumulates as loose sediment on the hard basaltic (lava-formed) rock of the ocean floor. The average depth of all the sediment in the whole ocean is less than 400 meters. The main way known to remove the sediment from the ocean floor is by plate tectonic subduction. That is, sea floor slides slowly (a few cm/year) beneath the continents, taking some sediment with it. According to secular scientific literature, that process presently removes only 1 billion tons per year. As far as anyone knows, the other 19 billion tons per year simply accumulate. At that rate, erosion would deposit the present mass of sediment in less than 12 million years. Yet according to evolutionary theory, erosion and plate subduction have been going on as long as the oceans have existed, an alleged three billion years. If that were so, the rates above imply that the oceans would be massively choked with sediment dozens of kilometers deep. An alternative (creationist) explanation is that erosion from the waters of the Genesis flood running off the continents deposited the present amount of sediment within a short time about 5,000 years ago." (some emphasis added, but not all)
- "Present erosion rate could produce all the existing ocean sediment in only 15 million years."
- Not enough sodium in the sea.
- "Every year, rivers and other sources dump over 450 million tons of sodium into the ocean. Only 27% of this sodium manages to get back out of the sea each year. As far as anyone knows, the remainder simply accumulates in the ocean. If the sea had no sodium to start with, it would have accumulated its present amount in less than 42 million years at today's input and output rates. This is much less than the evolutionary age of the ocean, three billion years. The usual reply to this discrepancy is that past sodium inputs must have been less and outputs greater. However, calculations that are as generous as possible to evolutionary scenarios still give a maximum age of only 62 million years. Calculations for many other seawater elements give much younger ages for the ocean."
- Many strata are too tightly bent.
- "In many mountainous areas, strata thousands of feet thick are bent and folded into hairpin shapes. The conventional geologic time scale says these formations were deeply buried and solidified for hundreds of millions of years before they were bent. Yet the folding occurred without cracking, with radii so small that the entire formation had to be still wet and unsolidified when the bending occurred. This implies that the folding occurred less than thousands of years after deposition."
- Biological material decays too fast.
- "Natural radioactivity, mutations, and decay degrade DNA and other biological material rapidly. Measurements of the mutation rate of mitochondrial DNA recently forced researchers to revise the age of "mitochondrial Eve" from a theorized 200,000 years down to possibly as low as 6,000 years. DNA experts insist that DNA cannot exist in natural environments longer than 10,000 years, yet intact strands of DNA appear to have been recovered from fossils allegedly much older... Bacteria allegedly 250 million years old apparently have been revived with no DNA damage. Soft tissue and blood cells from a dinosaur have astonished experts."
- Too much carbon 14 in deep geologic strata.
- "With their short 5,700-year half-life, no carbon 14 atoms should exist in any carbon older than 250,000 years. Yet it has proven impossible to find any natural source of carbon below Pleistocene (Ice Age) strata that does not contain significant amounts of carbon 14, even though such strata are supposed to be millions or billions of years old. Conventional carbon 14 laboratories have been aware of this anomaly since the early 1980s, have striven to eliminate it, and are unable to account for it... These constitute very strong evidence that the earth is only thousands, not billions, of years old."
- Not enough Stone Age skeletons.
- "Evolutionary anthropologists now say that Homo sapiens existed for at least 185,000 years before agriculture began,28 during which time the world population of humans was roughly constant, between one and ten million. All that time they were burying their dead, often with artifacts. By that scenario, they would have buried at least eight billion bodies. If the evolutionary time scale is correct, buried bones should be able to last for much longer than 200,000 years, so many of the supposed eight billion stone age skeletons should still be around (and certainly the buried artifacts). Yet only a few thousand have been found. This implies that the Stone Age was much shorter than evolutionists think, perhaps only a few hundred years in many areas."
- Agriculture is too recent.
- "The usual evolutionary picture has men existing as hunters and gatherers for 185,000 years during the Stone Age before discovering agriculture less than 10,000 years ago. Yet the archaeological evidence shows that Stone Age men were as intelligent as we are. It is very improbable that none of the eight billion people mentioned in item 12 should discover that plants grow from seeds. It is more likely that men were without agriculture for a very short time after the Flood, if at all."
- History is too short.
- "According to evolutionists, Stone Age Homo sapiens existed for 190,000 years before beginning to make written records about 4,000 to 5,000 years ago. Prehistoric man built megalithic monuments, made beautiful cave paintings, and kept records of lunar phases. Why would he wait two thousand centuries before using the same skills to record history? The Biblical time scale is much more likely."
- "Existence of unstable rings around planets like Saturn."
- The spectacular rings around the planet Saturn would have disappeared if they were only 30 million years old, much less than the claimed 100 million years. The ice in the rings would evaporate fairly quickly and micrometeorites would also erode the rings. Also, if the rings formed 100 million years ago as pure ice, then they would have become blackened and would be significantly darker in the present. The secular origin for the rings of the collision between a moon and a comet is would not happen over a 30 billion year period, twice the age of the universe as claimed by evolutionists. The fact the rings formed recently also poses a problem in that Saturn is supposedly 4.0-4.5 billion years old.
- Recession of the moon from the earth
- Polonium Halos
- "Robert Gentry's work showed that the Earth's granite was never in a molten condition, because polonium halos survive only in solid rock and the half-life of polonium is much too short to survive a multimillion-year cooling time. His results seem to indicate that the Earth was created instantaneously, in a cool condition. If true, it is clear evidence for creation and a young earth."
- Human population growth
- Rapid Oil Formation
- "It has been claimed that oil was formed over 100 millions of years from organic remains, but recent experiments have shown that oil can be produced under the right conditions in a matter of minutes."
- "Experiments by the U.S. Bureau of mines showed that petroleum (oil) can be produced from organic material in only 20 minutes."
- "British scientists claimed to have invented a way to turn household garbage into oil suitable for home heating or power plant use. 'We are doing in 10 minutes what it has taken nature 150 million years to do', said Noel McAuliffe of Manchester University..."
- "Bottom line - Economic accumulations of oil and gas can be generated in thousands of years in sedimentary basins that have experienced hot fluid flow for similar durations."
- Rapid Wood Petrification
- "Petrified wood was believed to required thousands or even millions of years, but a US patent now exists that is able to produce petrified wood rapidly."
- "A mineralized sodium silicate solution for the application to wood has a composition causing it to penetrate the wood and jell within the wood so as to give the wood the non-burning characteristics of petrified wood."
- Only recently known civilizations
- Niagara falls
- Mississippi river delta
- Lack of equilibrium of Carbon-14/Carbon-12 ratio
- Erosion rate of the continents
- Too few supernova remnants
- "According to astronomical observations, galaxies like our own experience about one supernova (a violently-exploding star) every 25 years. The gas and dust remnants from such explosions (like the Crab Nebula) expand outward rapidly and should remain visible for over a million years. Yet the nearby parts of our galaxy in which we could observe such gas and dust shells contain only about 200 supernova remnants. That number is consistent with only about 7,000 years worth of supernovas."
Biblical and theological reasons
- The Bible unambiguously records that the entire time from the start of the universe to the appearance of humans was six ordinary days (see creation week). The meaning of word translated as "day" is disputed, but the Bible says "So the evening and the morning were the first day" (Genesis chapter 1 verses 5, 8, 13, 19, 23, and 31) 
- Every old-Earth view incorporates millions of years of death and suffering by living things prior to the creation of humans. The Bible says that death is the result of sin (Romans 6:23 ) and that death is "the last enemy" (1_Corinthians 15:26 ), yet according to old-Earth views, God described this death-riddled creation as "very good".
- The chronogenealogies in the Bible do not allow for the first humans existing longer ago than about 4,000 B.C.
- Young Earth Creationism
- Counterexamples to an Old Earth
- Earth age opinions of prominent Christians - pre-1800
- Answers in Genesis official website
- Institute for Creation Research official website
- Creation Ministries International official website
- Jeanson, Nathaniel T. (2017). Replacing Darwin: The New Origin of Species. Green Forest, Arkansas: Master Books. ISBN: 9781683440758.
- Mortenson, Terry, ed. (2016). Searching for Adam: Genesis & the Truth About Man's Origin. Green Forest, Arkansas: Master Books. ISBN: 9780890519752.
- Landis, Don (2015). Secrets of Ancient Man. Green Forest, Arkansas: Master Books. ISBN: 9780890518663.
- Boyd, Steven W.; Snelling, Andrew A. Grappling with the Chronology of the Genesis Flood: Navigating the Flow of Time in Biblical Narrative. Green Forest, Arkansas: Master Books. ISBN: 9780890517093.
- Hodge, Bodie (2013). Tower of Babel: The Cultural History of Our Ancestors. Green Forest, Arkansas: Master Books. ISBN: 9780890517154.
- Landis, Don (2012). The Genius of Ancient Man. Green Forest, Arkansas: Master Books. ISBN: 9780890516775.
- Snelling, Andrew A. (2010). Earth’s Catastrophic Past: Geology, Creation & the Flood. Green Forest, Arkansas: Master Books. ISBN: 9780890518748.
- Is Genesis History? (2017; website)
- Morris, J. D., 1994, The Young Earth, Master Books
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Young earth - CreationWiki (quotes taken from the March 28, 2007, version of the article)
- ↑ Adrian Hope, Finding a Home for Stray Fact, New Scientist, July 14, 1977, p. 83
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Compelling Evidence
- ↑ Multiple references:
- Hood, Marlowe (May 28, 2018). Sweeping gene survey reveals new facets of evolution. Phys.org. Retrieved June 7, 2018.
- Ham, Ken (June 7, 2018). Study: 90% of Species Have a Recent Origin. Answers in Genesis. Retrieved June 7, 2018.
- Davis, Billy; Jordahl, Steve (May 31, 2018). When your DNA research pokes holes in Darwin. OneNewsNow. Retrieved June 7, 2018.
- ↑ Stanford University. "Wars and clan structure may explain a strange biological event 7,000 years ago." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 29 May 2018. < https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/05/180529185356.htm >.
- ↑ Cater, Robert W. (May 11, 2010). Adam, Eve and Noah vs Modern Genetics. Creation Ministries International'. Retrieved June 16, 2018.
- ↑ Faster than we thought: Sulfurization of organic material: New research is changing our understanding of the carbon cycle. ScienceDaily (from Washington University in St. Louis). August 30, 2018. Retrieved September 16, 2018.
- ↑ Jeanson, Nathaniel T. (July 27, 2018). Hundreds of Thousands of Species in a Few Thousand Years? Answers in Genesis. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
From a non-creationist perspective that still indicates a surprisingly young earth:
- Guillen, Michael (November 24, 2018). Did a mysterious extinction event precede Adam and Eve? Fox News. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
- ↑ 11.00 11.01 11.02 11.03 11.04 11.05 11.06 11.07 11.08 11.09 11.10 11.11 11.12 11.13 Evidence for a Young World - Institute for Creation Research
- ↑ 12.00 12.01 12.02 12.03 12.04 12.05 12.06 12.07 12.08 12.09 12.10 12.11 12.12 12.13 12.14 12.15 12.16 12.17 Evidence Supporting a Recent Creation - Northwest Creation Network
- ↑ https://www.icr.org/pdf/research/Helium_ICC_7-22-03.pdf
- ↑ Density wave model from astronomy.swin.edu.au
- ↑ Morris, 1994, p.90.
- ↑ Slusher, H. S. 1980. Age of the Cosmos. Institute for Creation Research. pp. 65-72.
- ↑ Saturn’s Rings—Short-Lived and Young from answersingenisis.com
- ↑ How Old Are Saturn’s Rings? from answersingenesis.com
- ↑ Huse, S. M. 1993. The Collapse of Evolution. Baker Books. pp. 41-42.
- ↑ Morris, 1994, pp. 70-71.
- ↑ Hayden R. Appell, Y.C. Fu, Sam Friedman, et al, “Converting Organic Wastes to Oil,” RL-7560 (Washington, D.C., United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, 1971.)
- ↑ Sentinel Star, 2/26/1982
- ↑ The Petroleum Exploration Society of Australia No. 24, 1996, p.
- ↑ US patent # 4,612,050, "A liquid sodium silicate composition for application to wood for artificially petrifying the wood..."
- ↑ US Patent & Trademark Office, Patent No. 4,612,050
- ↑ Morris, 1994, p. 70.
- ↑ Morris, 1994, pp. 48-49.
- ↑ Mehlert, A. W. "Another Look at the Age and History of the Mississippi River." pp. 121-123. Creation Research Society Quarterly, December 1988.
- ↑ Morris, 1994, pp. 73-74.
- ↑ Morris, 1994, pp. 88-90.
- ↑ https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Genesis+1&version=NKJV