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Berwickshire is a county of south-east Scotland which since 1975 has formed part of Borders, now Scottish Borders region. Its county town was Berwick upon Tweed; but Berwick changed hands between England and Scotland 13 times during the Border wars between the two nations, and since 1481 has been part of England. Following the loss of Berwick, Greenlaw, and later Duns became the county town.

Much of Berwickshire is occupied by The Merse, a large area of fertile, low-lying land known as the 'breadbasket of Scotland'.