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Caliphs (Arabic: خليفة) are Islamic political leaders succeeding Muhammad.

Caliph, in Arabic, means "successor" or "steward." The Koran refers to humans as the "stewards" of the Earth. This term has come to mean "successor" of Muhammad. The title of Caliph has been adopted by various Muslim rulers throughout history and was adopted by the Obama administration-backed Islamic State in its war against Shi'ism and Iran.[1]