De novo

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De novo review, also called review without deference, is one of the standards of review used by an appellate court. It literally means "from the beginning" and indicates that the reviewing court considers the issue as though the issue had arisen for the first time in the reviewing court.

De novo review is typically applied only to questions of law, since the trial court's holdings of law are considered not to be entitled to the same level of deference as the findings of fact made at trial. However, if the originating court is a state court that is not a court of record, the court hearing the first appeal may hear all questions de novo, including questions of fact, as there is no record on which to rely.