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Nacogdoches is a small city in east Texas. It is the oldest city in the state.

Spanish Nacogdoches and the U.S. boundary in 1803; "neutral ground" is shaded

It was the site of a Roman Catholic mission to the local Indians run by Spanish Franciscans, 1716-1772. A small Spanish pueblo was set up in the abandoned mission in 1779. The town became the gateway for French, and later American movement into Texas.

After several failed revolutions, the town became an important base for the Texas Revolution of 1835-36.

Lacking a railroad or river port, the town faded in importance until Stephen F. Austin State Teachers College (now Stephen F. Austin State University) was established here in 1923.

In 1912, a performance by the Marx Brothers (at that time a singing troupe) was interrupted by a runaway mule, the audience left to watch the happenings (considering it to be more entertaining). Upon the audience's return, Groucho began insulting the audience, who surprisingly laughed at his insults. From that point on, the group concentrated on comedy for which they would become world-famous.

The city is now a major center for the production of chickens, timber products (East Texas is heavily forested) and college graduates.

Further reading