'''Racism''' is making a [[moral]] judgement about a person based on skin color or ethnic heritage.
Institutional racism includes the [[Jim Crow]] laws in heavily [[Democratic party|Democratic]] states or the discrimination and violence against minority white [[South Africa]]ns by their country's own government<ref>Multiple references:
*Newman, Alex (March 19, 2018). [https://www.thenewamerican.com/world-news/africa/item/28538-world-finally-notices-plight-of-south-africa-s-minority-farmers World Finally Notices Plight of South Africa's Minority Farmers]. ''The New American''. Retrieved May 20, 2018.
*Wallen, Joe (March 24, 2018). [https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/africa/south-africa-white-farmers-eff-mbuyiseni-ndlozi-anc-interview-a8271096.html South Africa: Taking farms from whites is justified because 'it's not really their land', says EFF spokesman]. ''The Independent''. Retrieved May 20, 2018.</ref> approaching the level of genocide.<ref>Multiple references:
*Newman, Alex (October 24, 2012). [https://www.thenewamerican.com/world-news/africa/item/13280-genocide-communism-threaten-south-africa Genocide and Communism Threaten South Africa]. ''The New American''. Retrieved May 20, 2018.
*Newman, Alex (December 11, 2014). [https://www.thenewamerican.com/world-news/africa/item/19699-warnings-grow-over-communism-and-genocide-in-south-africa Warnings Grow Over Communism and Genocide in South Africa]. ''The New American''. Retrieved May 20, 2018.</ref>
Racism means the hatred of another person because of the color of his or her skin; some used the term ''racism'' for the perceived difference in origin, as a member of an [[Ethnic Group|ethnic group]]. The doctrine of [[substantive due process]] in United States constitutional law can be used to invalidate racist laws. Alternately, the [[Equal Protection|equal protection]] clause of the [[Fourteenth Amendment]] can be used to do the same. ''See e.g.'' [[Brown v. Board of Education]], 347 U.S. 483 (1954).
==Reconciliation vs. vindictiveness==