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Chess

3,158 bytes added, 04:58, 14 January 2008
/* Strategy */ Expanding
means that on his 45th move, Black captured a piece or pawn on his Queen's Knight Seven square (the b2 square in algebraic notation).
== StrategyTactics and strategy==Chess players often refer to shorter, forcing sequences of moves that lead to clear advantages as ''tactics'', while moves designed to create or nurture long-term advantages are called ''strategic.''===Moves which win materialTactics ===
There are several basic types of moves that win material.
====The Fork====
When A '''fork''' occurs when a player makes a move which that attacks 2 two of his opponent's pieces simultaneously with one piece of his own, it is called a '''fork'''. This move forces his opponent to essentially, choose which piece he will lose. Knights are especially adept at Forking forking because their method of movement allows them to attack any other kind of piece without being under attack from that piece. Forks in which the enemy King is one of the pieces under attack are especially effective because they force the opponent to move the king, leaving no choice as to which piece to move. While the knight Knight is the most adept at forking, all of the other pieces are capable of it.
 ====The Pin====When a A player makes creates a move so that '''pin''' when makes he attacks an opponent's piece is in between his attacking piece and another more valuable enemy piece, the move is called a '''"pin"'''. Pinning creates a situation in which the The opponent cannot move the attacked piece in question without losing the more valuable piece behind it, thus effectively "pinning" the piece. A Pinning pieces to the enemy King are most effective because the pinned piece can ''cannot'' legally move; if it could, the King would be easily takenexposed to check.
====The Skewer====
The Skewer '''skewer''' is the opposite of the pin. When It occurs when a player makes a move so such that an opponent's valuable piece is directly between his attacking piece and another of the opponents opponent's less valuable pieces it is called a skewer. The Skewer skewer forces the opponent to move his more valuable piece out of the way , which allows the skewering player to capture the less valuable piece behind it. This As with the fork and pin, skewers are especially effective when the King is the skewered piece because the it leaves the opponent with no choice. ====The Discovered Attack====A '''discovered attack''' can occur in positions where a player has a Bishop, Rook, or Queen behind any other piece. When the intervening piece (the piece in front of the Bishop, Rook, or Queen) moves, it uncovers the power of the piece behind it, potentially attacking an opponent's piece in the process. Discovered attacks can be devastating if the piece being moved also attacks an enemy piece, thereby attacking two pieces with one move. As with the fork, the opponent may be forced to accept the loss of a piece, no matter what he does. ====Sacrifices====A '''sacrifice''' occurs when a player intentionally allows one of his own pieces to be captured in exchange for a better position, later material gain, or even checkmate. Often, the piece is offered in an attempt to get the opponent to weaken his own defenses by capturing with a piece that had been in a good defensive position. Morphy was well known for his games featuring many sacrifices, as was [[Mikhail Tal]], a Latvian who was briefly world champion in the 1960s. ===Strategies=======Controlling the center of the board====The center of the board is the most important area to control. In general, players with control over the central squares can launch successful attacks or place their opponents in a bind. ====Spatial control====The more squares a player controls, the more options his pieces have. One way to evaluate the amount of ''space'', or squares available to a player, is to compare the number of squares attacked by his pieces and his opponents'. Effective use of pawns to deny good outposts for the opposing pieces while creating good squares for friendly pieces is often a key strategic goal. ====Time====A player can gain an advantage in ''time'' by efficiently involving and coordinating all of his pieces. A common way to gain an advantage in time is to ''develop'' (i.e., move out from the starting positions) pieces and pawns before the opponent does. If one player manages to start an attack with all of his pieces before his opponent can get his pieces into the game, the attacker is effectively playing a piece or two ahead! ====King safety====As the King's capture means the loss of the game, protecting the King is paramount. For this reason, good players castle in virtually every game. Castling provides the King with a shield of pawns and shuttles it to the side of the board, where it is relatively safe. Finding ways to destroy the pawn shield, or to keep the King in the center where it can be attacked, are useful strategies. ====Creating Weak Pawns====''Pawn structure'', also known as ''pawn formation'', plays an important role in chess. Players strive to maintain strong pawn structures while trying to create weaknesses for their opponents. Weak pawns can then serve as the focus for an attack. In general, weak pawns are those that are *'''Isolated pawns'''; they don't have a pawn on either file to their sides, and are thus unable to be protected by other pawns.*'''Doubled pawns'''; two pawns are on the same file, so that they can't defend each other. Tripled pawns (three on the same file) are even weaker.*'''Backward pawns'''; they have not advanced as far as their fellow pawns, and thus can't be defended by them.
===Other Strategy===
====Doubling Rooks====
Rooks tend to be most effective when placed on open ranks or files. Placing both Rooks together in on a rank or file with no pieces in between is a powerful method of attack, because each rook defends the other.
====Sacrificing====
When a player intentionally allows one of his own pieces to be taken in exchange for better position, this is called '''Sacrificing'''. Often, the piece is offered in an attempt to get the players opponent to weaken his own defenses by capturing with a piece that had been in a good defensive position. Morphy was well known for his games featuring many sacrifices, as was [[Mikhail Tal]], a Latvian who was briefly world champion in the 1960s.
==Chess Variants==
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