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/* 1930s and World War II */
===1930s and World War II===
Dutch fascism and Nazism from 1929 to 1939 constituted two entirely distinct movements. Fascism was inspired by Mussolini's Italy and was based on traditional corporate ideology. The movement was small, elitist, and consisted of competing bourgeois political associations. National socialism, on the other hand, was guided by the German [[Nazi]] model. It was a A secular movement and moved toward , it failed to gain mass support in 1935. It failed because its ideology was alien to native Dutch political culture.<ref>Erik Hansen, "Fascism and Nazism in the Netherlands 1929-39." ''European Studies Review'' 1981 11(3): 355-385. Issn: 0014-3111 </ref>
The Germans under [[Adolf Hitler]] invaded the Netherlands on May 10, 1940 and after the open city of [[Rotterdam]] was bombed on May 14 by the ''[[Luftwaffe]]'' (lit. ''Air Weapon'', the Nazi Air force) the Dutch army capitulated on May 15, 1940, after which a five year German occupation of the country began. The attempt of Nazi military governor, Reichskommissar Arthur Seyss-Inquart, to win the "Aryan" Dutch for Nazism by promoting industrial recovery met with initial success, as resistance in the country quickly emerged from mass unemploymentform of strikes and underground activity. About 530250,000 Dutch civilians worked for the Germans, of whom 250,000 were sent to wetre forced labourers at factories in Germany, which were targets of Allied air raids. But the The heightening demands of the German war machine led to increasingly ruthless exploitation, as more than 40% of Dutch income flowed to Germany by 1942, severely undermining Dutch industry, while large numbers of young Dutch workers went into hiding and the resistance.<ref> Hein A. M. Klemann, "Dutch Industrial Companies and the German Occupation, 1940-1945." ''Vierteljahrschrift Für Sozial- Und Wirtschaftsgeschichte'' 2006 93(1): 1-22. Issn: 0340-8728 </ref>
The Japanese invaded Indonesia in January, 1942. Victory was swift, and nearly 150,000 Dutch citizens found themselves prisoners of the Japanese in bad conditions.
The Nazis as part of the [[World War II, Holocaust|Holocaust]] hunted down, deported and killed three-fourths of the 140,000 Jewsin the country.<ref>Pamela Griffioen Ron and Zeller, "Anti-Jewish Policy and Organization of the Deportations in France and the Netherlands, 1940-1944: a Comparative Study." ''Holocaust and Genocide Studies'' 2006 20(3): 437-473. Issn: 8756-6583 Fulltext: [[Project Muse]]</ref> The most famous victim was [[Anne Frank]] (1929-45), whose family hiding place in Amsterdam was exposed by an informer in 1944 and she died in [[Bergen-Belsen]] weeks before the war ended. In late September 1944, American, British and Canadian forces liberated the southern provinces. The north remained in German hands until May 1945, but the Dutch refused to aid the German war economy and the Nazis cut off food supplies, leading to severe malnutrition and deaths from cold and disease.
===Postwar Era===