===First World War===
At Churchill's direction, the fleet was at its war station before war broke out in 1914, but it was never able to engage the Germans in a decisive early sea battle. Churchill designed and supervised the Gallipoli campaign to force a route to Constantinople (now
Istambul). It was a unmitigated failure, and led to his removal from the Admiralty in May 1915. Reporting to his regiment in the trenches of Belgium, he was under fire for three months before returning to Parliament. In 1917, he was appointed Minister of Munitions and in 1919, Secretary for War and Air. He wrote a major 4-volume history of the war that added to his literary reputation.