Sucralose is an artificial sweetener, which is generally recognized by its brand name, Splenda. It is sometimes used as a substitute for sucrose (table sugar). Sucralose is considered non-nutritious, since it provides negligible amounts of energy, and contains no other nutrients.
The story goes like this: "In 1976, a foreign research student at King's College in London misheard the directions of his supervisor, Professor L. Hough. Hough was searching for possible synthetic industrial applications of sucrose, the common sugar of cane and beet, and several derivatives had been produced in the laboratory. One of these was a trichlorosucrose (sucrose into which three atoms of chlorine had been introduced). Hough asked Shashikant Phadnis to 'test' the substance, but, his ear being imperfectly attuned to the language, Phadnis instead tasted it, and found it to be sweet." 
The FDA has approved this substance for human consumption, and many agree that it is safe to eat. However, some say that it has not been sufficiently tested. There have been some officially recognized studies which support this assessment. One such test has determined that sucralose causes a temporary 20% increase in insulin production. This could indicate a connection to Type II Diabetes, but further research has not been performed. Another study by the Duke University reported that it "suppresses beneficial bacteria and directly affects the expression of the transporter P-gp and cytochrome P-450 isozymes that are known to interfere with the bioavailability of drugs and nutrients. Furthermore, these effects occur at Splenda doses that contain sucralose levels that are approved by the FDA for use in the food supply." 
Other studies have taken place as well, but for the most part they are not officially recognized. Some of these studies say that it can cause anything from gastrointestinal problems, migraines, blood sugar increases and weight gain, to allergic reactions, blurred vision, seizures, and dizziness.
- Schwarz, Joe. An Apple a Day: The Myths, Misconceptions and Truths About the Foods We Eat. Toronto: HarperCollins, 2007. ISBN 978-1-55468-399-4 (pp. 203-204).
- de la Peña. Empty Pleasures: The Story of Artificial Sweeteners from Saccharin to Splenda. Greensboro: Univ. of North Carolina Press, 2010. ISBN 978-0-8078-3409-1 (pp. 219-224).
- Chan, Amanda. "Splenda, Sucralose Artificial Sweetener, Could Affect Body's Insulin Response." The Huffington Post. 3 July 2013. Web. 17 Dec. 2015. <https://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/06/03/splenda-blood-sugar-sucralose-insulin_n_3362122.html>.
- "Splenda Alters Gut Microflora and Increases Intestinal P-Glycoprotein and Cytochrome P-450 in Male Rats." Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A: Current Issues 71.21 (2008): 1415-429. Taylor & Francis Online. Web. 17 Dec. 2015.
- Mercola. "The Secret Dangers of Splenda, an Artificial Sweetener." Mercola.com. 3 Dec. 2000. Web. 17 Dec. 2015. <http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2000/12/03/sucralose-dangers.aspx>.