Thomas Bowdler (1754–1825) was a Scots trained English physician. A fever specialist he became a member of the Royal Society and traveled extensively until ill-health forced his retirement from medicine.
He is best remembered today for “cleaning up” the plays of Shakespeare by censoring all words and phrases that he considered "inappropriate" under the moral strictures of the time to be “read aloud” to the family. The Family Shakespeare was completed in 1818. At his death, he was working on a similar treatment of Edward Gibbons’ Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire which his nephew, a churchman, would complete. Copies of The Family Shakespeare are still available.
The term "bowdlerise" was coined to describe the expurgation of works in this way.
He was not the first to sanitize Shakespeare – at least one “children’s edition” already existed – and he was not the last. A. W. Verity made similar changes in the early 20th century. His editions were still the set text in New South Wales, Australia, high schools in the 1960s and are still in print.