Last modified on January 28, 2024, at 23:48

Gamal Abdel Nasser

Nasser.gif

Gamal Abdel Nasser (January 15, 1918 – September 28, 1970) served as president of Egypt from 1954-1970. Nasser is considered the father of racist Arabism[1] / Pan-Arab socialism.


Coup

In 1954 Egyptian King Farouk was overthrown by a military junta headed by Nasser.


Theory of Nazarism

Nasser was a centralized but charismatic leader with distinctive rhetorical abilities. His strong personality made him stand out not only in his country but also in the entire Arab world, and he became a symbol of the struggle against Israel. His ideology, dubbed "Nazarism", advocated the establishment of a Muslim empire that would dominate the Middle East. His speeches stirred millions of people in Arab countries and he became a very popular leader.[2]


Nazi hub post WW2

Pan-Arabist nationalist, Nasser was a Hitler admirer,[3] and of the Mufti's,[4] had a slew of former SS Nazis,[5] not just as military helpers but in ideology too: some as political advisers and experts on 'Jewish affairs.'[6][7][3] When Nasser took on the Muslim Brotherhood in the 1950s': During this period, the Grand Mufti maintained close relations with the burgeoning Nazi exile community in Cairo, while cultivating ties to right-wing extremists in the United States and other countries.[8]


- 1956, Mivtza Kadesh (Operation Kadesh - Suez Crisis):[9][10] Documents found in the offices of the Egyptian commanders called on the Egyptian army to prepare for the campaign to destroy Israel in a most cruel way. The army officers gave an Arabic translation of "Mein Kampf" by Hitler, so that they would draw "inspiration" from it.[9] This phenomenon was also recalled by Golda Meir Dec 5, 1956's speech.[11][12][13]


- Mufti's disciple, Von Leer "Omar" activities at least in 1959 and the 1960s with the United Arab Republic.[14][15] Infamous "Goebbels's adjutant at the Ministry for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda,"[15] "one of the Third Reich's most prolific Jew-baiters,"[16] the Nazi Johann Von Leers move to Egyot was helped by Palestine Mufti and Hassan Awad Fakoussa.[17] With von Leers in charge, Cairo's anti-Israeli propaganda machine churned out hate literature and inflammatory broadcasts on a regular basis.[16]


In fact, Egypt,[18][7] Nasserism - UAR[14] became a center for Arab ex-Nazi link, after WW2.


Nasser was also interviewed by a fascistic paper in 1959. And "influence of the Nazis staying in Cairo" was "also evident in the Arabs' connections with neo-Nazi and anti-Semitic activity around the world."[19]


Nasser also provided Nazi experts torturers in Syria.[20]


- In Jan 1960, French Minister Jacques Soustelle at a protest rally organized by the Committee for the Defense of Democracy, stated that the source of anti-Semitism needs to be searched in the Arab League and Pan-Arabism. Indeed, observers pointed out at the time: in Arab countries, there are now roots of Nazism from which Arab nationalists now draw their ideas, some of whom hold key positions in the Arab political arena. Swastikas in Lebanon, Jan/1960, shocked the Jewish community and showed signs of Nazi influence. Observers mentioned: The influential official newspaper Al-Hayat الحياة, in which the newspaper acknowledged the existence of a serious anti-Semitic movement in the world and called on the Arabs to join this movement, in order to act against the Jews and the State of Israel.

German economic experts help Nasser solve his economic problems. German officers serve as instructors in the Egyptian army. German propagandists are engaged in training and directing anti-Jewish propaganda over the waves of the Sawt al-Arab صوت العرب station and the other propaganda trumpets.[21]


- Col. al-Shazly dealt with neo Nazis in the years: 1960-1963.[22][23]

See related: Nazism at Arab Palestinians

Socialism and jihad

Although the Egyptian terrorist organization, the Muslim Brotherhood helped Nasser organize a coup to take over the Egyptian government, they soon became disgruntled by some of his secular ideals. In October 1954 the Muslim group attempted to assassinate Nasser, the attempt wounded a guard but missed the president. His popularity rose when after the gunshots, Nasser shouted to the crowed, "Let them kill Nasser! What is Nasser but one among many? I am alive, and even if I die, all of you are Gamal Abdul Nasser![24]"

Sayyid Qutb was thrown in prison for three months. After his release, Qutb's became the editor of the Muslim Brotherhood's magazine. In less than a year the government began a crackdown on the Muslim Brotherhood. Qutb was again arrested and sentenced to life in prison, but the sentence was later reduced to fifteen years.

While in prison, Qutb wrote a book titled Milestones calling for the revival of violent jihad. The book was smuggled out of the prison and published in 1964. Qutb was put on trial for plotting to overthrow the government. At the behest of Nassar's Marxist and atheist Soviet allies who preached "religion is the opiate of the masses," Qutb was sentenced to death and hanged on August 29, 1966. Qutb is now considered among the first martyrs of salafi-jihads' violent struggle against Western secularization.

In context with Israel, Nasser did call for a genocidal holy war.[25][26][27]

Suez Crisis

In 1956, Nasser seized the Suez Canal from the French and British companies that controlled it. His plan was to nationalize the canal to raise money to build the Aswan Dam, and needed cash after the Americans and British withdrew a pledge to help fund it. But Nasser's seizure of the Suez Canal created the “Suez Crisis” for a week because many nations, including Israel, relied on the Canal for shipping. The British and French provided air support for an invasion by Israeli troops into the Sinai peninsula, which easily overcame Egyptian resistance which had pulled back most of their forces to protect the canal. But then the Soviet Union threatened to intervene on behalf of Egypt, creating a wider conflict and a risk of a world war. Nasser was allowed to keep the canal, and international pressure by the United States caused Britain, France and Israel to back off.[28] The Aswan dam was built, in part with Soviet economic aid.

Soviet ally & Genocidal: before/after Six-Day war

In the years that followed the Suez Canal crisis, Soviet arms shipments caused Egypt to become the most powerful Arab nation in the Middle East. Nasser relished the role of being the spokesperson for the Arab world and used Egyptian power outside of his borders, being military involved in the war in Yemen.

After the defeat of the Suez Canal crisis Nasser still continued his tirades against Israel. In 1965 he announced: “We shall not enter Palestine with its soil covered in sand, we shall enter it with its soil saturated in blood”. In May 1967 Nasser forced the UN Emergency Force to leave the Sinai Peninsula, where they were stationed since 1957 which led to the Six Day War.[29]

In Nov 1965, as Polish president Ochab visited Egypt, Nasser told him that Egypt can not accept Israel's existence. In March 1966, Nasser told Lebanese paper Al-Hawadis [مجلة الحوادث]: within a dozen days, we would be able to eradicate Israel, if the Arabs created a uniform front and were ready to go into battle.[30]

Documented[25] Nasser's prolonged annihilation campaign since the 1950s and even after 1967 Six-Day War Arab defeat:

Nasser Talks Peace...

Before the Six-Day War...

"Egypt will be glad when her army and that of Syria will meet on the ruins of this treacherous people, the Zionist gangs." (Speech in Cairo, 18 December 1955)

"We want a decisive battle to annihilate that germ, Israel." (Speech in Alexandria, 26 July, 1959)

"We will launch a full-scale war when the right moment arrives." (Radio Cairo, 18 May, 1962)

"Our aim is ... the creation of a unified and continuous Arab region, from which Israel will be eliminated." (Message to Arab Students Convention, London, 15 May 1965 )

"The national Arab goal is the eradication of Israel." (Joint Communique with President of Iraq, 25 May 1965)

"We aim at the destruction of the State of Israel." (Speech in Cairo , 18 November 1965)

"The Arab people is firmly resolved to wipe Israel off the map." (Radio Cairo, 25 May, 1967) 

"The Arab people want to fight ... We have been waiting for the right time, when we would be completely ready Now the war will be total: its objective will be the annihilation of Israel." (Speech to Pan-Arab Trade Unions, Cairo, 26 May 1967)

"Israel's very existence is aggression." (Press Conference, Cairo, 28 May 1967)

"In the light of the blockade of the Gulf of Aqaba, two possibilities are open to Israel, each one of them soaked in blood: either she will die from strangulation of the Arab military and economic blockade, or she will die in the hail of bullets of the Arab forces surrounding her in the south, the north and the east." (Radio Cairo, 30 May, 1967)

"Destroy them and lay them waste and liberate Palestine. Your hour has come . Woe to you Israel. The arab nation has come to wipe out your people and to settle the account. This is your end, Israel. All the Arabs must take revenge for 1948. This is a moment of historic importance to our Arab people and to the holy war. Conquer the land."

(The "Voice of the Arabs" Radio Cairo, 5 June, 1967) 

... and after the Six Day War...

"No peace with Israel, no recognition of Israel, no negotiations with Israel."

(At Arab Summit Conference, Khartoum, 1 September 1967)

"The war has not ended , it has only begun ... When the time comes , we will strike."

(Radio Cairo , 23 November 1967 — one day after U.N. Security Council Resolution calling for peace settlement)

"The Arab nation has decided to embark on the path of war We will move to the containment of Israel, and after that to ... its eradication." (Radio Cairo, 10 April 1968)

"No recognition of Israel , no negotiations with Israel , no peace with Israel We aim at the destruction of the State of Israel."

(At Congress of Arab Socialist Union, Cairo, 23 July 1968)

"The Fatah ... fulfill a vital task in sapping the enemy's strength and draining his blood . . . The U.A.R. appreciates the attitude taken by the Palestinian organizations in rejecting the Security Council Resolution of November 1967... This Resolution may serve the purpose of eliminating the consequences of the aggression and to lead to total Israel withdrawal but it is inadequate for determining the fate of Palestine ... The U.A.R. places all its resources at the disposal of these organizations."

(Speech in Egyptian National Assembly , 20 January 1969)

"The Six-Day War was, in actual fact, the prelude to a war which has not yet ended."

(Speech to Pan-Arab Trade Unions, Cairo, 29 January 1969)

Egypt's horrible defeat at the hands of Israel in the Six Day War devastated Nasser. He never truly recovered and died of a heart attack in 1970.

See also

References

  1. Arabism = racism
  2. Nasser was "elected" president of Egypt, Shalem center.

    Theory of Nazarism

    Nasser was a centralized but charismatic leader with exceptional rhetorical abilities. His strong personality made him stand out not only in his country but also in the entire Arab world, and he became a symbol of the struggle against Israel. His ideology, dubbed "Nazarism", advocated the establishment of a Muslim empire that would dominate the Middle East. His speeches stirred millions of people in Arab countries and he became a very popular leader.

    Nasser and Israel

    Nasser has repeatedly stated his opposition to Israel and his intention to "liberate Palestine." In 1956, Israel defeated Egypt in "Operation Kadesh." A year later, Nasser declared that Egypt was ready to destroy Israel, and deployed military forces to the Sinai Peninsula. These actions, among other things, led to another war in 1967, in which Egypt also suffered a humiliating defeat. Nasser did not say desperate, and for the rest of his life he won the "war of attrition" designed to break the IDF into a long and grueling campaign.

    On September 28, 1970, at the age of only 52, Nasser died of a heart attack. His deputy, Anwar Sadat, wrote: "Those who knew Nasser will understand that it was not on September 28, 1970 that the man died, but on June 5, 1967, exactly one hour after the war broke out."
  3. 3.0 3.1 Wistrich, Robert S.. Between Redemption & Perdition: Modern Antisemitism and Jewish Identity. United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis, 2020.

    Zionism with Nazism, though this did not become a central theme in the Arab war on Israel until fairly recently. ...

    Haj Amin el-Husseini, the leader of the Palestine Arabs (known as the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem) expressed his admiration for Hitler and Nazi Germany throughout the fascist era, and sought with extraordinary persistence to win German backing for his goal of wiping out the 'Jewish national home' in Palestine. On 28 November 1941, in Berlin, the Mufti formally declared his readiness to cooperate with the Third Reich, to form a Muslim SS legion, to encourage uprisings in the Arab world, and to instigate sabotage against Great Britain. Hitler in turn promised the Mufti that the moment the German armies reached the southern exit of the Caucasus, he would give the signal for Arab liberation.

    In their determination to liquidate the Jewish nucleus in Palestine, Hitler and the Mufti found a common language. Not only did the Mufti aid and abet Hitler's 'Final Solution' of the Jewish question in Europe, he even pressurized the SS leadership and allied satellite regimes in the Balkans into preventing the escape of any Jews from the inferno of the death camps.

    Indeed, Haj Amin el-Husseini's record of collaboration from 1933 to 1945 was so clear-cut that the Allies were obliged to classify him as a war criminal, though the British, in their anxiety to prevent more Arabs from going over the Axis, censored news of his wartime activities in Berlin.

    Nor was Haj Amin el-Husseini an exceptional case. The Nazi regime aroused a high degree of enthusiasm throughout the Arab world – in Egypt, Iraq, Syria, and Lebanon as well as Palestine. Its nationalist fervour, militarism, fanatical antisemitism, and opposition to Anglo-French hegemony inspired many Arab nationalist leaders, intellectuals, and youth between the wars. Both Nasser and Sadat, among the Free Officers in Egypt, were admirers of Hitler and looked to Nazi Germany to free them from British rule. It is no accident, therefore, that in the 1950s a number of Arab countries, and especially Egypt and Syria, were to serve as havens for Nazi war criminals in hiding. Some of the most notorious of these, like Johann von Leers and Leopold Gleim, converted to Islam and continued to act as political advisers and experts on 'Jewish affairs' to the Arab regimes in war with Israel.

    Given the immense sympathy for Hitler and Nazism in the Arab world in the 1950s and early 1960s, it was unlikely that a theory of Zionist Nazism could take firm root. When a leading Arab intellectual like Sadat's intimate friend, Anis Mansour, could write that 'The world is now aware of the fact that Hitler was right', or when a paper like the Jordanian English-language daily, the Jerusalem Times, could console Eichmann that his trial would 'one day culminate in the liquidation of the remaining six million to avenge your blood', there was little sense in accusing Israel of pursuing Hitlerian policies. On the contrary, the trend was to identify with neo-Nazi forces all over the world; this was Nasser's policy as it is...
  4. Wistrich, Robert S.. A Lethal Obsession: Anti-Semitism from Antiquity to the Global Jihad. United Kingdom: Random House Publishing Group, 2010.

    Among Arafat's first instructors in guerrilla warfare was a former Nazi commando officer imported to Egypt by the mufti. Haj Amin himself encouraged Arafat to recruit adherents to his Fatah terror group during the late 1950s. Once Arafat became head of the PLO in 1968, he continued the mufti's methods and approach. Mein Kampf was required reading in some Fatah training camps; Nazis were recruited for Fatah and for the PLO, including Erich Altern, a key figure in the Jewish affairs section of the Gestapo, and Willy Berner, an SS officer in Mauthausen death camp. Among the neo- Nazis on the PLO payroll were the German Otto Albrecht and two Belgians, Karl van der Put and the secretary of the fascist La Nation Européene, Jean Tireault.

    But Arafat's continuation of the mufti's legacy went far beyond the use of former Nazis—a propensity he shared with Gamal Abdel Nasser, ardent admirer of Haj Amin...
  5. Ian Harvey, Patterns of Prejudice, Volume 1, 1967 - Issue 3. Nazis in Cairo. Pages 6-8 | Published online: 28 May 2010 [1]
  6. Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the ... Congress. United States. Congress, 1957. p. 4153.

    Nasser's Nazi advisers

    The dexterity and speed with which the Nasser government has moved against its Jewish population have been cited by many observers as indicating that practiced hands have been guiding this campaign. It is well known that Egypt employs many foreign advisers, including Communist technicians from Russia and her satellites. But the employment of German Nazis, former Wehrmacht officers and members of the Afrika Korps has been largely hidden from the world. At present, it is estimated that some 200 or more work in Egypt, including: SS Gen. Wilhelm Voss - in charge of Egypt's Central Planning Board and chief adviser to the War Minister. Dr. Johann von Leers, associate of Goebbels and notorious anti-Semite - advises on anti-Jewish propaganda. Indicative of Egypt's attempt to hide her Nazis is the fact that William Stevenson of the Toronto Star was expelled from the country 24 hours after filing the first interview with von Leers.

    Gen. Otto Remer - headed the Egyptian training program which created the fedayeen guerrilla fighters.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the ... Congress. United States: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1967, p. 4413. The Israel Victory and Arab-Russian Doublespeak Extension of Remarks Hon. Theodore R. Kupperman Of New York To The House of Representatives Wednesday, August 30, 1967 -THE ISRAEL VICTORY AND ARAB-RUSSIAN DOUBLE TALK - CIA - ADL Bulletin, September, 1967. [2].
    ’The Grand Mufti and His Friends’ by Sid Goldberg

    Mr. Goldberg is editor of the North American Newspaper Alliance, a major newspaper syndicate.

    Grand Mufti. The irony of charging Israel with "Nazism" is revealed in the Arab record before, during, and after World War II.

    ON June 20 President Nureddin El Atassi of Syria cold the United Nations General Assembly that "The Arab people is indeed being subjected today to an operation of extermination surpassing in dimensions what the Nazis did." The day before, Premier Aleksei N. Kosygin of the Soviet Union cold the same group that Israel's behavior "brings to mind the [sic] heinous crimes perpetrated by the Fascists during World War II." Radio Cairo compared Israeli administrators in Gaza to [sic] "Nazi Gauleiters." Other Arab and Soviet propaganda mills referred to the "Hitlerite death merchants" of [sic] Israel, to "Moshe Dayan's [sic] storm troopers," and to what they charged were "Zionist plans for [sic] genocide."

    The irony, of course, is that thousands of Israelis are the sole survivors of families that vanished in the Nazi furnaces. But doubly ironic is the fact that the Soviet and Arab accusers of Israel stand guilty of their own charges. It was Soviet Russia that signed a nonaggression pact with Nazi Germany in 1939, a pact which was ultimately broken by Germany, not Russia. Some of the other communist countries which accused Israel of [sic] "walking the Hitlerite path" also know that route very well. Hungary, Rumania, Bulgaria, Albania and Slovakia not only were allies of Nazi Germany in World War II but had native Nazi movements that vied in viciousness with the German.

    What is less known is the record of the Arabs in World War II. President El-Atassi told the General Assembly, "the Arabs fought in both world wars and contributed to the liberation of Europe from Nazism and to the realization of allied victory."

    THE FACT is that Syria, Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Lebanon did not declare war on Germany until February, 1945, when the war was little more than a mopping up operation by the allies. The Arab declarations of war were made in late February because attendance at the forthcoming San Francisco conference, setting up the United Nations, required a declaration of war on Germany no later than March 1.

    The only Arab state that played any military role in the war was Transjordan, which declared war on Germany as early as Transjordan was totally dependent on British grants for its existence, and its army, the Arab legion, was in effect a part of the British Army, under British officers. Iraq declared war on Germany in 1943 after it was clear the Nazis were losing. Before that, pro-nazi sentiment was powerful in Baghdad, and a Nazi puppet government was installed there in 1941 under Rashid Ali, who went so far as to declare war on Britain. Rashid Ali received congratulations from Arab leaders in Egypt (including King Farouk), Lebanon, and Syria.

    The latter permitted German bombers and transports to land on its fields while the Nazi regime lasted in Baghdad. The whole temper of the Arab world before and during World War II was neutralist at best, pro-nazi at worst. When Italian troops in August, 1940, invaded Egyptian territory, Egypt did not consider this a cause for war. The fighting was left to the British. Even General Erwin Rommel's invasion of Egypt, in May, 1941, couldn't nudge the Egyptians into a declaration of war. And so strong was the pro-nazi sentiment in Egypt that when Premier Ahmed Maher did declare war-on February 24, he was assassinated while reading the Royal Decree. Arab fighting during World War II was on the side of the Nazis.

    Several thousand Arab volunteers were mobilized into Nazi units by the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Hitler's man in the Middle Ease. The Mufti, (Haj Amin El-Husseini), who operated out of Berlin from 1941 co 1945, organized his pro-nazi Arabs into sabotage squads, espionage cells and a fighting unit called the Arab legion. The Mufti also helped organize the Moslems of Bosnia and other Balkan areas into special SS Units called "The Black legions." He praised them as the "cream of Islam" and they were dispatched to the Eastern front in the Caucasus to stir Soviet Moslems into an anti-communist crusade. Some 3,000 of these Mufti troops were held prisoners of war as late as 1946 in Camp Opelika, Alabama.

    The Grand Mufti was among the most popular Arab leaders before, during and after the war. So effective was his hate sputtering oratory that few if any Arab leaders dared oppose him. As spiritual and political leader of the Palestine Arabs he had learned to hate Jews in the '20's and '30's as their numbers increased in the land of Zion.

    Now 71... the Mufti had been Hitler's chief advisor on Arab affairs and the friend and confidante of Adolf Eichmann. Gideon Hausner, chief prosecutor at the Eichmann trial in Israel, established that "the Mufti asked Gestapo chief Heinrich Himmler co provide him, after the war, when he planned co enter Jerusalem at the head of the axis troops, with a 'special adviser' from Eichmann's department to help him solve the Jewish question in the same way as it had been done in the axis countries. Eichmann offered the job co his assistant, Dieter Wisliceny."

    The Grand Mufti spread his anti Jewish venom throughout the war over radio Berlin. He praised the Germans for "knowing how to get rid of Jews." He urged his Arab listeners to "kill the Jews wherever you find them." He gave the number of Jews "still to be dealt with" (in 1944) as 11 million, representing the Jewish populations of America, Russia and other countries beyond Hitler's reach. All this would signify no more than the ravings of one madman-except that the Mufti was returned to his role after the war as leader of the Palestine question.

    He directed policy from a lavish and fortified home in Cairo and, as one of the Arab delegates to the United Nations in 1947 said, "the Mufti is the irrefutable leader of the Holy Land Arabs."

    To THIS DAY none of the Arab leaders has repudiated the Grand Mufti, or his pro-nazi assistants who worked with him in Berlin during the war. Nor is this tolerance of a Nazi in their midst surprising. Egypt, the chief victim of the "Hitlerite" Israelis, has given sanctuary to hundreds of former Nazis, among them up to 100 of Hitler's rocket and missile experts. Also in Egypt, according to the latest information from the Anti-Defamation League, are the following:

    -Colonel Naam Al-Nashar, formerly Leopold Gleim, who was head of German security in Poland. He arrived in Egypt in 1955 and organized the Egyptian security service along Nazi lines.

    -Lt. Col. Ben Sala, formerly Bernard Bender, a storm trooper still on the Polish list of war criminals. He is head of the Jewish Department of the Egyptian security service.

    - Hassan Soliman, formerly Heinrich Sellmann, wanted by West Germany for crimes committed while he was Gestapo chief in Ulm. He now holds a senior position in the Secret Police in Cairo.

    -Col. Ahim Fahumi, formerly Dr. Heinrich Willermann, wanted by West Germany for sterilization experiments he conducted in several Nazi concentration camps. He now runs the Egyptian political prison at Samara, near Alexandria.

    - Louis Al-Haj, formerly Louis Heiden, director of a Nazi press agency in Berlin. He is now an adviser to President Nasser and it was he who prepared a pocket-sized Arabic translation of Mein Kampf for Egyptian officers.

    - Ibraham Mustafa, formerly Joachim Daemling, wanted by West Germany for crimes committed in Dusseldorf while a storm trooper there. He is an adviser to the Cairo police on concentration camps.

    - Ali Mohammed, formerly George Brunner, one of Eichmann's assistants, in charge of deportation of Jews from Greece. He now works in the Egyptian propaganda industry.l The list goes on and on. The Arabs, by raising a "Nazi issue," convict only themselves.

    IN WORLD WAR II, 1,300,000 Jews were in uniform in the Allied Armies. In Palestine, 85,800 Jewish men and 50,400 Jewish women volunteered for war service; 27,028 Palestine Jews served with the British forces in various Middle East, North African and European fronts, many in the most hazardous missions. What made a mockery of the United Nations "debate" was that the Communists and Arabs well know their respective roles in World War II.

    Their statements in the General Assembly would have made Joseph Goebbels proud. Dr. Goebbels, incidentally, was royally welcomed in Cairo on the eve of the war.
  8. Intelligence Report: A Project of the Southern Poverty Law Center, Iss. 105-108, Klanwatch, 2002, p. 20
  9. 9.0 9.1 Braslavi, Joseph. Me-retsu'at 'Azah 'ad Yam-Suf. Israel: ha-Kibuts ha-Me'uhad, 1956. 24-25.

    [Our struggle for the Negev and the Sinai War]

    An English-French joint announcement announces the destruction of the Egyptian Air Force at its airports. On Nov 4, Israeli forces were busy clearing the Sinai Peninsula of the remnants of the Egyptian soldiers who had surrendered to the Hebrew army roaming the desert. The number of Egyptian prisoners reached 5,000. The Sinai Peninsula and the Gaza Strip have been placed under full Israeli supervision.

    On Nov 5, the Egyptian outpost of Ras Nasrani, in front of the island of Tiran and the Egyptian military camp in Sharm el-Sheikh, about 13 km north of Ras Muhammad, was captured. Sinai is over The Sinai War has surprisingly revealed and clarified how comprehensive and enormous the Egyptians' preparations for the forthcoming extermination campaign on Israel were: the many and huge fortifications, most of them nearby the Israel-Egypt border, and even in the demilitarized zone - halfway between Nitzana, Qusaima and Abu Ageila, which under the terms of the armistice with Egypt was prohibited from holding an army other than guards at road junctions; The underground bunkers made of reinforced concrete, the deep communication canals, surrounded by arched fences, the barbed wire fences for miles, the occupied communication roads, the tent warehouses, the fuel, the equipment, the ammunition, the food, the medicine, the bricks, the garments, the bedding and spare parts for the car and tanks, twelve thousand packages of Potassium-cyanide-Kali for poisoning wells and water pools, found in the Fadayeen Center in Gaza, the latest airports for jets, vehicles, tanks, cannons and other modern and sophisticated types of weapons - all of which were intended for a rapid and massive attack on Israel The little one is also surrounded by other, bloodthirsty enemies, who were ready for a decisive collaboration with Egypt.

    Documents found in the offices of the Egyptian commanders called on the Egyptian army to prepare for the campaign to destroy Israel in a most cruel way. The army officers gave an Arabic translation of "Mein Kampf" by Hitler, so that they would draw "inspiration" from it ...

    Braslavi, Joseph. ‫‏מרצועת עזה עד ים־סוף‬‎. Israel: ‫‏הקיבוץ המאוחד, ‏‬‎, 1956. 24-25.‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

    [מאבקנו על הנגב ומלחמת סיני] הודעה אנגלית - צרפתית משותפת הודיעה על השמדת חיל האויר המצרי בשדות התעופה שלו . ביום 11.4 היו כוחות ישראליים עסוקים בטיהור חצי האי סיני משארית החיילים המצריים שמסרו את עצמם לידי הצבא העברי המשוטט ברחבי המדבר. מספר השבויים המצריים הגיע ל-5000. חצי האי סיני ורצועת עזה הועמדו בפיקוח ישראלי מלא.

    ביום 11.5 נכבשו המוצב המצרי שבראס־נוצראני, מול האי תיראן והמחנה הצבאי המצרי בשרם א-שייח', כ-13 ק"מ צפונית מראס מוחמד. דובר צה"ל הודיע כי ישראל קיבלה את קריאת עצרת האו"ם והפסיקה את האש. מלחמת סיני נסתיימה. מלחמת סיני חשפה והבהירה במידה מפתיעה עד כמה מקיפות ועצומות היו הכנות המצרים לקראת מסע ההשמדה הקרוב על ישראל: הביצורים הרבים והענקיים, רובם בקרבת גבול ישראל-מצרים, ואפילו באזור המפורז - למחצה שבין ניצנה, קציימה ואבו-עוגיילה, שלפי תנאי שביתת הנשק עם מצרים אסור היה בהחזקת צבא זולת שומרים בצמתי הדרכים; הבונקרים התת-קרקעיים העשויים ביטון מזוין, תעלות הקשר העמוקות, המוקפות גדרות יקושות, גדרות התיל המסועפות לאורך קילומטרים, דרכי הקשר הכבושות, מחסני האהלים, הדלק, הציוד, התחמושת, המזון, הרפואות, הלבנים, המלבושים, כלי המטה וחלקי החילוף לרכב ולטנקים, שנים־עשר אלף מנות הפוטאסיום-ציאן-קאלי להרעלת בארות ובריכות מים , שנמצאו במרכז ה"פדאיין" בעזה, שדות התעופה החדישים למטוסי סילון, כלי הרכב, הטנקים, התותחים ושאר סוגי הנשק החדישים והמשוכללים – כל אלה היו מיועדים להסתערות מהירה ואדירה על ישראל הקטנה המוקפת גם אויבים אחרים, צמאי דם, שהיו דרוכים לקראת שיתוף פעולה מכריע עם מצרים.

    מסמכים שנמצאו במשרדי המפקדים המצריים קראו את הצבא המצרי להתכונן למערכה להשמדת ישראל בדרך אכזרית ביותר. בידי קציני הצבא ניתן תרגום ערבי של "מיין קאמפף" מאת היטלר, כדי שישאבו ממנו "השראה"...

  10. "The Second Round": In the shadow of the expectation of a repeat war, Kotar.

    From: A Look at MLM Issue 76 - "The Second Round": In the Shadow of the Expectation of a Return War

    ...The weakness of the Arabs was perceived as temporary in light of their clear advantages in the basic resources (land, population, support of the Muslim world, importance in the eyes of the powers and more). Israel, on the other hand, which faced immigration absorption and difficult social and economic challenges, was perceived as very weak. The heavy defeat, which was considered by the Arabs to be equivalent to the loss of Andalusia in Spain, put them on a path of drawing lessons and correcting the flaws. Israel, on the other hand, had to invest its resources in building the infrastructure, merging the communities and building the company. The Arabs, for their part, began preparations for further fighting as early as 1949. They set up an industry from the albums of the Sinai War (1956), in pictures: Hitler's "Mein Kampf" translation into Arabic; in the photos, an Israeli soldier in a post-occupation position. Below are soldiers with pictures of Nasser. Binyamin Geffner, Book of the Sinai-War, Le-dori, Tel Aviv (1957).
    -From the albums of the Sinai War (1956) in photos: Hitler's "Mein Kampf" translation into Arabic; in the photos, an Israeli soldier in a post-occupation position. Below are soldiers with pictures of Nasser. Binyamin Geffner, Book of the Sinai-War, Le-dori, Tel Aviv (1957).
  11. Golda Meir (1973). Marie Syrkin (ed.). A land of our own: an oral autobiography. Putnam. p. 96
  12. Francine Klagsbrun, "Lioness: Golda Meir and the Nation of Israel," (Schocken Books, 2017), p. 415
  13. Benyamin Korn, Golda Meir Was No J-Streeter, JNS via Algemeiner, Sep 8, 2015.
    ... "The concept of annihilating Israel is a legacy of Hitler's war against the Jewish people, and it is no coincidence that [Gamal Abdel] Nasser’s soldiers had an Arabic translation of Mein Kampf in their knapsacks."
  14. 14.0 14.1 Haboker - הבקר, 19 January 1960. ["סוכני קע"ם וגרמניה המזרחית ממלאים תפקיד חשוב בתקריות"]
    'U.A R. Agents and East Germany play an important role in the incidents.'

    By the author of 'The Morning' in the USA New York. 18. - Agents of UAR, East Germany, play an important role in recent antisemitic incidents - writes the World Telegram today.

    Shortly after the swastikas appeared in Cologne, the Communists in East Germany felt that this was an opportunity to defame West Germany and damage its world-famous reputation. The UAR propaganda ministry immediately went into action, and many Nazi groups funded by it helped reduce anti-Semitism.

    Groups of Arab students from German universities staged antisemitic demonstrations and participated in swastika paintings. Goebbels' assistant, Dr. Johannes van Leers, who in recent years has served as Nasser's adviser on propaganda. He directed the system of hatred of Jews now spreading around the world.

    Von Leers took on the Muslim religion and adopted an Arab name. He even surrounded himself with Nazi experts on hostile propaganda.

    The newspaper also announces that researchers believe that the Arab propagandists are helping fund the antisemitic propaganda campaign in the US. In the meantime, the U.S. Subcommittee on Prevention of Discrimination against Minorities is expected to hold a hearing and issue a condemnation of anti-Semitism this weekend.
  15. 15.0 15.1 Berman, Paul. The Flight of the Intellectuals. United Kingdom: Melville House, 2010. [3].
    One of the mufti's principle colleagues in Berlin was Johann von Leers, who was Goebbels's adjutant at the Ministry for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda. Von Leers made his way to Egypt after the war and was even able to resume his career
  16. 16.0 16.1 Lee, Martin A.. The Beast Reawakens: Fascism's Resurgence from Hitler's Spymasters to Today's Neo-Nazi Groups and Right-Wing Extremists. United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis, 2013, p. 128.
  17. Rickenbacher, Daniel. Arab states, Arab interest groups and anti-Zionist movements in Western Europe and the US. 2017, University of Zurich, Faculty of Arts. [4]. [5]. [6].

    ...Egypt, the leading power in the Arab League, was particularly interested in German investments and know-how. Thus, the pro-German, Hassan Fakoussa, who later worked as the head of the Arab League office in Bonn, already warned the Egyptian Foreign Minister in September 1952 that “the severance of economic relations with Western Germany would cause us more damage than good.” Opposition to the Luxembourg agreement was also strong among the Arabists in the Foreign Office. ..

    According to a CIA source within the German far-right scene, it was however Hassan Fakoussa, the Arab League representative in Bonn since August 1956, who was mainly responsible for von Leers’ move to Cairo. . Von Leers had already worked for the Egyptian embassy in Buenos Aires, organizing an anti-Jewish campaign in the country. He was therefore the ideal person to liaise between the Egyptian propaganda infrastructure in Cairo and the far-right in Europe. Since 1955, the Arab League had opened propaganda offices in New York, Bonn and Rio de Janeiro.

    The CIA saw von Leers’ recruitment as an additional sign of the expansion of the Egyptian propaganda campaign beyond the Middle East. A CIA report from October 1956 noted that “there are various indicators (…) which lead us to believe that the regional foreign policy objectives of Egypt, including the activities of the Arab League as an organ of expression of Egyptian/Arab policies, may no longer be negative regionally; but may be in process of taking the offensive both regionally and internationally.” The CIA was especially afraid that the Arab League was seeking to expand its influence in South America: “The arrival of Johann von Leers (and possibly others of lesser reputation) from South America, each of whom may have accumulated many years of experience and extensive contacts in Latin America which the GOE [Government of Egypt] can use to any possible scheme to take aggressive action in the Western hemisphere (…).” In Egypt, von Leers was working with Mahmoud Saleh, translating writings for the AntiZionist Association, writings which were then sent to a list of far-right sympathizers. Von Leers also collaborated with the Egyptian Ministry of Information and the Arab League. Tawfik Bakri, an Arab League official and a friend of Fakoussa, acted as von Leers’ sponsor in Egypt. Probably the first work von Leers translated for Saleh was an anti-Zionist work called ‘Frieden im Orient’ (Engl. Peace in the Orient). The book had been authored by Ahmed Moawad, a literary historian and German philologist living in Cairo. Von Leers wrote an anti-Semitic preface to the work. The preface also advocated an alliance between Arabs and Germans, who both had been “stabbed in the back by Zionism.” In 1957, von Leers also continued to publish in Der Weg, producing his flow of often bizarre anti-Semitic, anti-Zionist articles. ..

    The Arab diplomats in Bonn maintained visible relations with the German far-right. Thus, advertisements by the UAR embassy were published in the Deutsche NationalZeitung, flanking other advertisements of the far-right and pro-Nazi press. Hassan Fakoussa, the Arab-League representative in Bonn, pursued a policy of co-opting the German far-right. Fakoussa regularly wrote for such far-right newspapers as Gerhard Frey’s Deutsche National-Zeitung or Das Deutsche Wort. He used the pages of the latter to threaten the German government in 1963 that the Arab states would recognize the GDR if the FDR improved its relations with Israel. In 1964, Fakoussa published the booklet ‘Israel verfolgt deutsche Wissenschaftler’ (Engl. Israel persecutes German Scientists). The booklet extensively cited from the far-right press, in particular Gerhard Frey’s Deutsche National-Zeitung, the successor publication of the Deutsche Soldaten-Zeitung, and from the Deutsche Wochen-Zeitung, the party organ of the NPD... Niekisch’s geopolitics, rather than Hitler’s, inspired a significant element of the German far-right in the 1950s. It was this milieu where Johann von Leers, the Nazi propagandist working for Nasser, hailed from. The Arab diplomats in Germany, in particular Arab League representative Hassan Fakoussa, were eager to collaborate with this pro-Arab German far-right. During the 1960s, Gerhard Frey’s Nationalzeitung worked as a non-official organ for Nasser, singing his praise. Liberation Nationalism also influenced two journalists in Switzerland, Hans Fleig and Ahmed Huber. They were united by their sympathy for Nasser and the Soviet Union, their anti-Semitism and their hatred of Israel. Both can be counted as pioneers of antiZionism in Switzerland and collaborated with officials of the Arab League and Arab diplomatic staff. Huber’s pro-Arab sympathy was at the origin of his conversion to Islam...

    In April 1956, the Secretary General of the Arab League Abdul Khalek Hassoua contacted the German Ambassador in Cairo to probe the possibilities of opening an Arab Information Office of the Arab League in Germany. The Germans reacted negatively to the plans, believing the prospective office to be tasked with enforcing the Arab boycott of Israel in Germany and putting pressure on German companies. Moreover, the Germans distrusted the Arab League’s assertion that the Arab Office would stick to its official agenda. The German ambassador in Egypt however warned that a German rejection would be perceived by the Arabs as an affront. Still, there was no official request by the Arab League, when deputy secretary Raif Bellema informed the press in June 1956 that the German authorities had permitted the establishment of the office on their soil. By presenting the Germans with a fait accompli, he probably sought to make it more difficult for them to deny the request for fear of causing an international scandal. Still, the Germans announced that they had not dealt with such a request by the Arab League and were opposed to boycott activities on their soil. Fakoussa disclaimed reports in the German press that he was sent to Bonn to enforce the Arab boycott. Bellema also accommodated the German concerns and claimed to have never spoken to the press to prematurely announce the opening of the Arab Office. Despite the small irritation, the Germans did not see any legal grounds for preventing the establishment of the Arab Office and did not wish to do so to avoid angering the Arabs. Moreover, the Germans thought that the opening of the Arab Office provided them with leverage in case the Arab states were considering recognizing the GDR. This was in line with the ‘Hallstein-Doktrin’, which stipulated that the FRG was the only legitimate German state.

    Since April 1956, the Egyptian journalist Hassan Awas[t] Fakoussa was expected to fill the position as the head of the Arab League Office. The German ambassador in Egypt described him as a moderate, who was respected by the embassy. He was well acquainted with Germany and married to a German woman. Fritz Grobba, who knew Fakoussa, considered him to be friendly to German interests, but alleged that he wrongly pretended to hold a doctoral degree. Interestingly, the AA reports on Fakoussa only mentioned his activities after the war, when he briefly worked for a lawyer in Bonn. They however chose to omit his history in the Third Reich. In the late 1930s, Hassan Fakoussa had been working as a correspondent at the League of Nations in Geneva for the Egyptian newspapers Al Mokattam and Al Muktataf.

    In 1938, he earned a degree from the Geneva Graduate Institute of International Studies with a work on ‘The Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of Alliance’. During the war, Fakoussa resided in Germany, allegedly working for German propaganda for the Middle East. He regularly wrote on Middle Eastern subjects for the Nazi press. In an article in the Zeitschrift für Geopolitik in 1940, he claimed that Britain was engaged in a “war against Islamic nationalism and the religion of Islam”. In the same year, he also authored an article titled ‘The struggle in Palestine’ for the periodical Der Weltkampf. In 1942, he wrote an article for the scholarly periodical Europäischer Wissenschaftsdienst, in which he challenged National Socialist pseudo-scientific theories, which claimed that “Aryan” immigration was the origin of Egyptian civilization. Fakoussa instead defended the African origins of Egyptian civilization and thus offended Fakoussa’s nationalist feeling.

    Sometime after the war, he left Germany for Egypt.   Hassan Fakoussa returned to Germany in late August 1956 to launch the Arab Office. In a conversation with the AA in September 1956, he claimed that he was neither interested in Israel nor the Arab League, but solely in Germany’s interests and would work to promote German-Arab friendship. It was difficult to distinguish whether he was working for the Arab League or Egypt or for both. Fakoussa and the Egyptian embassy in Bad Godesberg, a suburb of Bonn, closely collaborated with the Arab Office located in the same building.

    During the Suez Crisis in October 1956, a wide segment of the public and the press sympathized with Nasser against Germany’s Western allies. Reflecting on this, an AA memorandum expressed concern that a further increase in pro-Arab propaganda in Germany as a result of the activities of the Arab League might be harmful to Adenauer’s pro-Western foreign policy. To counter this tendency, the memorandum raised the possibility of intensifying governmental public diplomacy efforts concerning the Middle East.

    As it soon became clear, Hassan Fakoussa did not wait for his agreements with the German authorities to be put in written form, but started his propaganda activities right away, intent on creating facts on the ground. Instead of coordinating with the AA and promoting German-Arab friendship, he published material critical of Israel and sought to strengthen the pro-Arab network in Germany, being involved in the establishment of the Deutsch-Arabischer Verein in December 1956. Moreover, he sought to collect a list of Arab students in Germany. He probably sought to exercise political influence and a measure of control over them, as the Egyptian embassy in Switzerland did. Feeling irritated by Fakoussa’s activities, the AA proposed several measures to restrain them. In 1957, the Egyptian Embassy in Bad Godesberg made its first attempts at public diplomacy. It started publishing the Cairo-Brief (Engl. Cairo letter), a periodical that regularly reported on economic news related to the Middle East and Egypt. In the same year, Fakoussa also launched the magazine Arabische Korrespondenz, which added to German irritation. Many of its articles criticized the German government. They were also marked by conspiratorial and Arab nationalistic thought. The AA was therefore considering taking steps to make Fakoussa leave Germany without attracting too much attention.

    In conversations with the Egyptian embassy and its ambassador Ahmed Razek, the Germans urged the Egyptians to exert a moderating influence on Fakoussa. The latter however defended Fakoussa’s polemics as an act of self-defense against propaganda emanating from the Israeli embassy and the Jewish newspaper Allgemeine Wochenzeitung der Juden in Deutschland. In reply, the Germans intimated that they were also ready to advise the Israelis to tone down their rhetoric. In the aftermath of the demarche, the Germans believed that Fakoussa moderated his voice. For this reason and because the German ambassador to Egypt Walther Becker advised against expelling Fakoussa to avoid a scandal with the Arabs and for lack of a more moderate alternative Arab League representative, no further steps were taken. There was another reason for the Germans to tread with care in the matter. In January 1958, Arab League General Secretary Abdul Khalek Hassouna informed the German ambassador in Cairo, Walther Becker, that the idea of moving the Arab Office to the GDR had been discussed during one of the League’s recent sessions. From there, Arab propaganda towards the German public could be carried out unhindered. Such a step would have afforded the GDR further legitimacy, which the AA sought to prevent. Thus, contrary to initial considerations, when the Germans hoped to gain leverage against the Arabs by allowing the opening of the Arab Office in the German capital, the Arabs now used their leverage to secure the continuation of Arab propaganda in the FDR. The next episode also showed that Germany was susceptible to Arab pressure regarding the tolerance of anti-Israeli and anti-Semitic propaganda on its soil.

    In early May 1959, the German police confiscated an Arab League booklet titled ‘Palästinas Schicksal’ (Engl. Palestine’s Fate), that contained a foreword by Hassan Fakoussa. In the anglophone world, the booklet was distributed under the title ‘Palestine Destiny’. The German police decided to confiscate the magazine after an article appeared in the Allgemeine Wochenzeitung der Juden in Deutschland written by a certain Mr. Kaufmann, which claimed that parts of the publication were copied from a 1957 anti- Semitic booklet published in Cairo with the title ‘The Secrets of Zionism’ (Arab. Asrar al-Sahyuniya). Arab propaganda sought to exploit the incident, with Radio Baghdad reporting that the German government had banned all Arab propaganda against Zionism. The Egyptian Foreign Office protested the confiscation and the Moroccan ambassador in Bonn personally intervened with undersecretary Herbert Dittmann. As a result of the intervention, an indictment against the printing-house responsible for printing the booklet was halted. After the affair, Fakoussa continued to reprint antiSemitic articles from the Arab press in his Arabische Korrespondenz. For instance, it peddled one of the favorite themes of Arab and Islamic propaganda, the J.. war [supposedly] "against religion". Thus, an article in 1963 alleged that Israel was distributing falsified[sic] Coran books in the US and Africa, which offered a pro-Zionist interpretation of the Islamic scriptures. This was part of Israel’s plan[sic] to gain favor among the new African states. The article also accused Zionists of falsifying[sic] Christianity by asking the Catholic church to remove material characterizing Jews as the murderers of Christ.

    Given his experience in the Third Reich, it is not surprising that Fakoussa showed a greater tendency to work with pro-Nazi and far-right circles to lobby Arab interests in Germany than his Arab League counterparts in New York and Switzerland. In his function as the Arab representative in Bonn, he was advised by Johann von Leers, whom he went to see in Cairo. Fakoussa also contributed regularly to the far-right Deutsche Soldaten-Zeitung. One of the more bizarre episodes was Fakoussa’s collaboration with the German Sudeten committee, which represented ethnic German expellees from Czechoslovakia. He helped put one of its leaders, Rudolf Hilf, in touch with diplomats and notables of the Arab world residing in Bonn. Hilf subsequently travelled to Egypt, where he met with former allies of the Germans like the Mufti, former SS-Handschar imam Haris Korkut and Anwar el-Sadat. Hilf strove to gain the support of the Arab state to introduce a “right to homeland” in the UN. He assumed that there was common ground between the Germans and the Arabs, as the latter would be interested in such a right because of the Arab-Palestinian refugees. But eventually, it would also serve the interests of the German expellees. Fakoussa’s Arabische Korrespondenz maintained that Germany was suffering from a “Hitler complex”, which prevented Germany from pursuing its natural alliance with the Arabs. This “Hitler complex,” as the editor in chief of an Egyptian newspaper implied in an article reprinted by the Arabische Korrespondenz, was fostered by Israel. The article claimed, “that the FRG had become the most important area of this kind of Israeli propaganda”, which sought to cultivate a feeling of collective guilt within the Germans and thereby exploit them economically, through restitution, and politically, by gaining diplomatic recognition. Fakoussa seems to have realized at some point that his collaboration with pro-Nazi and fascist elements like Priester’s Deutsch-Soziale Bewegung had become a liability and that he had to reach out to larger segments of the German population in order to make a difference: “[I] had come to Germany to promote German-Arab relations in all areas. Were I to found a German-Arab Institute, it would be in the general interest of the German-speaking peoples and of the Arab people and states, and not in the interest of individuals, parties, or circles. The Arabs are fighting against foreign interference in their politics and consequently would never think of supporting a group in some other country against its government.” Colluding with the far-right was certainly not a winning strategy to convince the German public of the justness of the Arab cause. Moreover, anti-Semites barely needed any convincing to feel sympathy for the Arabs and hatred for Israel. Thus, the German far-right continued to strongly sympathize with Arab nationalism throughout the 1960s, as discussed in more detail in Chapter 5. Instead of the far-right, Arab League representatives increasingly sought to move closer to the New Left and the nascent student movement during the 1960s. Fakoussa had been interested in the presence of Arab students in Germany since the beginning of his propaganda activity. This was in line with the policy of Egypt and other Arab states of instrumentalizing their students studying in the West as propagandists, for which there is evidence from different countries. According to secret information received by the Swiss government, an experienced Egyptian propagandist, who masqueraded as a student, had established the European branch of the Union of Arab Students (Ger. Union Arabischer Studenten) in 1956 as a front organization to secure the loyalty of Arab students to Nasser and spread his view-points. A Jerusalem Post article from 1959 likewise found that here was a system of tight political control of the Arab students in the US, which were organized in the Organization of Arab Students. The Arab students received propaganda material from the Arab embassies and the Arab League Offices. Those who did not participate in anti-Israel campaigning faced difficulties when returning home. According to the article, the Arab students had the advantage that they were more sociable and had more time at their disposal than the Israelis, making it easier for them to conduct propaganda. The main target of their activities was not Americans, but foreign students from Asian and African countries. In Germany, there were plenty of foreign student groups active in the late 1950s and 1960s, that advocated on behalf of the Third World. One such group was the AfroAsiatische Studenten-Union (Engl. Afro-Asiatic Student Union). Along with many other guests, Fakoussa was hosted by the group at the celebration of its five-year anniversary in 1962. The Arabische Korrespondenz however provided no evidence that Fakoussa ever tried to further co-opt this group. The most important Arab student organization in Germany was the General Union of Palestinian Students (GUPS), which had operated there since the early 1960s. Its activities were first directed at the numerous Arab students located in West Germany. Between 1962 and 1964 alone, 873 events were held in Germany. This group will be discussed in more detail in the next chapter. There is no information on whether the Arab League provided any support to them. In sum, one gets the impression that Fakoussa invested little effort in recruiting the student and New Left political movements into the fold of the pro-Arab scene in Germany and remained fixated on the traditional friends of the Arabs. The conference of the Council of Arab Ministers of Information in Cairo in 1964 and the establishment of the PLO in May of the same year resulted in an emphasis of Arab propaganda on the Palestine issue and the topic of anti-Imperialism, appealing to the political Left. Arab students were thought to be important purveyors of these themes. Thus, Nasser sent an address to the yearly conference of the Arab Student Union in the US in 1964, exhorting them: “The Palestine cause is no race or religious matter, but the regaining of freedom for a people und restoration of its legitimate right, to life with honor in its own country. (…). Brothers, it is our duty, to call to the attention of all peoples, that they should not be deluded by Zionist propaganda or distorted fact. It is your difficult responsibility to be in a struggle with Zionism. You can confront it, if each one of you represents his country in its struggle and aspirations with resolve and high ideals.” In line with the greater focus on Palestine, Fakoussa and the Arab League in Germany started a new magazine in 1964 titled Palästina Nachrichten (Engl. Palestine News). In a 1965 article on the Deir Yassin, ..The events at Deir Yassin were presented as an indictment of (supposedly, it so propagated) J... character. .. still followed the commands of the Book of Joshua in the Old Testament, when God had ordered the Israelites ... The Arab mentality[sic] on the other hand, the author claimed, was free[sic] from brutality. After ten years in Germany, in mid-1966, Hassan Fakoussa was recalled to Egypt to work for the oil department of the Arab League. His interim replacement was

    Hamdy Azzam...
  18. Davar⁩ - ⁨דבר⁩⁩ 30 November 1951.

    Nazi conspiracies - in the Middle East

    German statesmen are touring the Islamic countries. -

    Von Papen's near and "distant" past. -

    The Nazi Center in Cairo. -

    German agents and experts in Arab countries. -

    German penetration into markets in Islamic countries

    ...Papen met with King Farouk's associates. The former Jerusalem Mufti, Haj Amin Husseini and the Arab professor Salim Idris, are the link between the Nazi center in Cairo and the court of Farouk and the Arab League.

    Nazi agents and former German generals sit in all the capitals of Arab countries. With tight contact renewed their actions the Arab "General" Kawkaji, who in recent days has visited Latin America and the Nazi "colonies" in those countries, and other Arab personalities, from former Hitler's associates ...

    Special attention deserves the participation of German-Nazi advisers in the training of Arab armies. Hundreds of Nazis, SS men. Formerly German generals and colonels, recruited by Kaukji and Nazi spy Miller in Germany and transferred via Rome to Damascus and Cairo. German pilots work as experts and instructors in Egypt...

    מזימות נאציות — במזרח התיכון

    מדינאים גרמניים מסיירים בארצות האיסלם. ‭ ‭— ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

    העבר הקרוב ו"הרחוק" של פון פאפן. ‭— ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

    המרכז הנאצי בקאהיר. ‭— ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

    סוכנים ומומחים גרמנים בארצות ערב. ‭— ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

    חדירת הגרמנים לשווקים בארצות האיסלאם

    ... פאפן נפגש עם מקורביו של המלך פארוק. המופתי הירושלמי לשעבר, חג' אמין חוסייני והפרופ' הערבי סלים אידריס הם המקשרים בין המרכז הנאצי בקאהיר ובין חצר פארוק והליגה הערבית.

    סוכנים נאצים וגנרלים גרמנים לשעבר יושבים בכל הבירות של ארצות ערב. במגע אמיץ אתם מחדשים את פעולותיהם ה"גנרל" הערבי קאוקאג'י, שביקר בימים האחרונים באמריקה הלאטינית וב"קולוניות" הנאציות שבאותן ארצות, ואישים ערבים אחרים, ממקורביו של היטלר לשעבר...

    ראויה לתשומת לב מיוחדת השתתפות יועצים גרמנים-נאציים בהדרכת צבאות-ערב. מאות נאצים, אנשי ס.ס. לשעבר וביניהם כמה גנרלים וקולונלים גרמניים, גויסו ע"י קאוקג'י והמרגל הנאצי מילר בגרמניה והועברו דרך רומא לדמשק ולקאהיר. טייסים גרמנים עובדים כמומחים וכמדריכים במצרים. יודעי דבר מאשרים, שאירגונים צבאיים במצרים, העוסקים בטארור אנטי-בריטי באזור הסואץ, פועלים בפיקוד מדריכים גרמנים-נאצים...

  19. Briefings and arguments. (1968). Israel: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Research Department, p. 14. [7].
    The Arabs and neo-Nazi organizations:

    The influence of the Nazis staying in Cairo is also evident in the Arabs' connections with neo-Nazi and anti-Semitic activity around the world. The Arab anti-Semite also acted in this direction. H. A. Fakoussa who spent the war years in Germany and after that cultivated the connections with neo-Nazi bodies.

    Under the guise of Arab friendship, Germany founded anti-Semitic organizations such as: Freunde der deutch-arabischen verstaendigung headed by: the infamous Erwin Schoenborn. Or: Deutch-Arabische Gezellschaft - which was founded to involve 'political action' in cultural action'.

    Similar connections were known between the 'Swedish Streicher', Einar Aberg, and an Arab-Christian living in Jerusalem under the rule of Jordan, Antoine A. Albina; and between the head of the Nazi organization in South Africa, Die Boerenasie, R. K. Rudman, and Mahmoud Seleb, in Egypt.

    In a letter from February 1964, Rudman addressed Celeb with the title - Colleague and Brother National Socialist 88. (It turns out that the numbers 88 refer to the Latin Alphabet lelters HH and are initials for the Nazi greeting H... Hitler).

    The connection between Nasser and the German neo-Nazi newspaper Soldatenzeitung came to an open expression in an interview given by the President of Egypt to the newspaper's editor, Dr. Gerhard Frey, who visited Egypt...
  20. Danny Orbach, Hitler's Man in Damascus: The Black Book Scandal The owl, Apr 18, 2020.
    [Alois] Brunner, who was in the hospital at the time, heard the news and must have realized that he, too, was in the crosshairs. The propaganda channels of the new regime accused Sarag of establishing a "ruthless police state, with spies and torturers trained by Nazi experts." President [Maamun al-] Kuzbari's new government has promised to publish all the details in a "black book" that will be published in the very next few weeks. Syrian official sources told the Lebanese newspaper L’Orient that Nasser and Sarraj employed ... Gestapo experts in the fields of propaganda, intelligence, investigations and espionage. Although most of these Nazi torturers remained in Egypt, Cairo entrusted three of them, including Brunner, "Eichmann's aide," to its Syrian province. These helped the Syrians build a more efficient secret service, and introduced sophisticated, modern and unprecedented methods of torture to a state "known in the past for the kindness, tolerance and generosity of its inhabitants."
  21. Heruth - חרות 18 January 1960.

    An increasing anti-Jewish campaign in Lebanon

    By Oded Raz, our writer on Arab affairs

    The Jewish community in Lebanon is the first victim to visit the world recently, which has given its signals in Arab countries as well. The appearance of swastikas on the walls of one of the commercial centers in the capital, Beirut, last week, is the first revelation of an increasing antisemitic campaign, endangering the lives of eight thousand Lebanese Jews.

    The vast majority of Lebanese Jews are concentrated in Beirut, in one neighborhood that is a kind of a closed ghetto, the neighborhood surrounds the Great Synagogue, which is the only one in Lebanon, Lebanese Jews are mainly engaged in trade and liberal professions.


    Hatred Against the Background of Commercial Competition

    Two major events that preceded the painting of the swastikas terrified Lebanese Jews:

    The first is the wave of hatred that has recently grown on the part of Muslim Arabs towards the Jews in the context of trade matters. These Muslims saw the Jews as a factor that pushed their feet away from the trade and nationalists with whom they incited against the Jews as "traitors who help Israel," especially after the recent "Zionist spies" trial in Beirut.

    The second event that had a significant effect on the encouragement of the new wave of anti-Semitism in Lebanon was the article published in the influential official newspaper Al-Hayat الحياة, in which the newspaper acknowledged the existence of a serious anti-Semitic movement in the world and called on the Arabs to join this movement, in order to act against the Jews and the State of Israel.

    Political observers view with grave concern the emergence of swastikas in Lebanon as a bad omen, indicating the existence of an antisemitic body that absorbs its actions from Nazi elements, this body could become a serious factor that would endanger the lives of Lebanese Jews.

    The roots of Nazism are found in Arab countries

    The announcement by French Minister Jacques Soustelle at a protest rally organized by the Committee for the Defense of Democracy last week that the source of anti-Semitism needs to be searched in the Arab League and Pan-Arabism - has serious implications: In Arab countries, there are now roots of Nazism from which Arab nationalists now draw their ideas, some of whom hold key positions in the Arab political arena.

    There are German Nazis in Egypt who are making their mark on the life of the economy, the military and the venomous propaganda against the Jews and the State of Israel. German economic experts help Nasser solve his economic problems. German officers serve as instructors in the Egyptian army. German propagandists are engaged in training and directing anti-Jewish propaganda over the waves of the Sawt al-Arab صوت العرب station and the other propaganda trumpets. These facts were also revealed by Baghdad Radio on its broadcast about a month ago, in which it listed a number of Nazi Germans operating on Arab broadcasting stations under false Arab names.

    Fear of an organized Nazi existence

    The reality of Nazi elements in Arab countries has a tradition. Iraq was famous for the pro-Nazi uprising of Rashid Ali al-Khilani, the man who did much at the end of the last military revolution. Al-Khilani's right-hand man, Sadiq Shanshal, has until recently served as Iraqi propaganda minister ...

    Political observers rely on the assumptions of Arab personalities of the Nazi past on the one hand and the Nazi German foundations found in Arab countries on the other, and express their concern for an organized Nazi body operating in Arab countries and centered in Cairo, where it receives political authority.

    In view of all this, the situation of the Jews still in the Arab lands must be seen as extremely serious. The swastikas that appeared in Beirut may also spread to other Arab countries and there is a serious danger to the lives and very existence of these Jews in the future.
    מסע אנטי-יהודי הולך וגובר בלבנון

    מאת עודד רז, סופרנו לענינים ערביים

    הקהילה היהודית בלבנון היא הקורבן הראשון הפוקד לאחרונה את העולם, אשר נתן את אותותיו גם במדינות ערב. הופעתם של צלבי קרס על קירות אחד המרכזים המסחריים בעיר הבירה ביירות, בשבוע שעבר, הוא הגילוי הראשון למסע אנטישמי ההולך וגובר, ומסכן את חייהם של שמונת אלפים יהודי לבנון.

    רוב רובם של יהודי לבנון מרוכזים בביירות, בשכונה אחת המהווה מעין גיטו סגור ומסוגר, השכונה סובבת את ביה הכנסת הגדול, שהוא היחידי בלבנון, יהודי לבנון עוסקים בעיקר במסחר ובמקצועות חפשיים.

    שנאה על רקע התחרות מסחרית

    שני מאורעות מרכזיים שקדמו לציור צלבי הקרס הפילו אימתם על יהודי לבנון.

    הראשון הוא גל השנאה שגבר לאחרונה מצד הערבים המוסלמים כלפי היהודים על רקע עניני המסחר. מוסלמים אלה ראו ביהודים גורם אשר דחק את רגליהם מהמסחר והלאומנים שבהם הסיתו נגד היהודים כ"בוגדים המסייעים לישראל", ביחוד לאחר משפט "המרגלים הציוניים" שנערך לאחרונה בביירות.

    המאורע השני שהשפיע לא במעט על עידודו של גל האנטישמיות החדש בלבנון היתה הכתבה שפורסמה בעתון הרשמי רב ההשפעה 'אל-חיאת' בה הודה העתון בקיום תנועה אנטישמית רצינית בעולם וקרא לערבים להצטרף לתנועה זו, כדי לפעול נגד היהודים ומדינת ישראל.

    משקיפים מדיניים רואים בדאגה חמורה את הופעת צלבי הקרס בלבנון כאות המבשר רעות, המעיד על קיום גוף אנטישמי שיונק את פעולותיו מיסודות נאציים, גוף זה עלול להפוך לגורם רציני שיסכן את חייהם של יהודי לבנון ויעודד פעולות פוגרום לא רק בלבנון אלא גם בארצות ערביות אחרות בהן מצויים יהודים.

    שרשי הנאציזם מצויים בארצות-ערב

    הכרזתו של המיניסטר הצרפתי ז'אק סוסטל באספת מחאה שאורגנה ע"י הועדה להגנת הדמוקרטיה בשבוע שעבר שיש לחפש את המקור לאנטישמיות בליגה הערבית והפאן ערביות, יש לה משמעות רצינית: בארצות ערב מצויים עתה שרשי הנאציזם מהם יונקים עתה את רעיונותיהם ערבים לאומנים, אשר חלק מהם מחזיק בתפקידים מרכזיים בזירת המדינית הערבית.

    במצרים נמצאים נאצים גרמניים המטביעים את חותמם על חיי הכלכלה, הצבא והתעמולה הארסית נגד היהודים ומדינת ישראל. מומחים כלכליים גרמניים מסייעים בידי נאצר לפתרון בעיותיו הכלכליות. קצינים גרמניים משמשים מדריכים בצבא המצרי. תעמלנים גרמניים עוסקים בהדרכה ובכיוון התעמולה האנטי יהודית מעל גלי תחנת "סַוְּת אל-ערבּ" ושופרות התעמולה האחרים. עובדות אלה גילה אף רדיו בגדד בשידורו לפני כחודש, בו מנה שורה של גרמנים נאצים הפועלים בתחנות השידור הערביות בשמות ערביים בדויים.

    חשש לקיום נאצי מאורגן

    מציאות יסודות נאציים במדינות ערב היא בעל מסורת. עיראק נתפרסמה במרד הפרו נאצי של רשירץד עאלי אל־כילאני, האיש שפעל רבות בשלהי המהפכה הצבאית האחרונה. יד ימינו של אל־כילאני, צַדֶיק שַנְשַל, שימש עד הזמן האחרון כשר התעמולה העיראקי.‭.. ‬ ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

    משקיפים מדיניים מסתמכים בהנחותיהם על האישים הערביים בעלי העבר הנאצי מחד ועל היסודות הגרמניים הנאצים המצויים בארצות ערב מאידך, ומביעים את חששם לקיום גוף נאצי מאורגן הפועל במדינות ערב ומרכזו בקהיר, שם הוא מקבל את הסמכות המדינית לפעולותיו ולהתפתחותו.

    נוכח כל זה יש לראות את מצבם של היהודים המצויים עדיין בארצות ערב כחמור ביותר. צלבי הקרס שהופיעו בביירות עלול להתפשט גם על שאר מדינות ערב ויש בכך סכנה רצינית לחיים ולעצם קיומם של יהודים אלו בעתיד.

  22. B'nai B'rith Messenger, 17 September 1965.

    World Press In A Nutshell

    By Oscar Gavrilovich

    COMPILED AND WRITTEN EXCLUSIVELY FOR THE B'NAI B'RITH MESSENGER

    Arab Links With Nazi Underworld

    LATELY European papers exposed Arab backing of global nazi and neo-nazi organizations.

    One of the periodicals, devoting several pages to this unsavory partnership was Paris La Terre Retrouvee.

    It contends that the first inkling of such a unison came in 1960. when the now deceased former SS-officer Karl-Heinz Priester invited 300 leaders of neo-nazi groups to come to Wiesbaden, West Germany, for an organizational meeting of a world-wide neo-nazi party.

    West German authorities, however, prohibited this assembly and seized the documents which Priester had brought with him.

    From these it was established that Priester, a co-founder of the Fascist Internationale at Malmo Sweden, was also one of the Arab League's top agents in Europe.

    Digging farther into the links between Arabs and nazis, the name of Mohammed Al-Shazli popped up. He was a colonel on the United Arab Republic's general staff, and a former military attache to London The Fuehrers of the English nazi party, Colin Jordan and John Tyndall, readily admitted to the London Daily Telegraph their intention of carrying on an anti-Semitic propaganda with the financial support of the United Arab Republic.

    ACTUALLY COL. AL-SHAZLI and the two nazi leaders formally agreed that the English nazi party would dissiminate Arab propaganda material against Israel. In exchange the U. A. R. would finance the anti-Jewish nazi campaign in England. The Arabs and nazis, however, made the mistake of putting their agreement Into writing which then came into the wrong hands.

    La Terre Retrouvee has published the entire text of the accord between the English nazi party and the UAR marked top secret. It stresses the need of a joint fight against the organized forces of Zionism and the World Jewry to be financed by the United Arab Republic.

    The agreement then enumerates the appropriations which the UAR would grant to the nazi party for specific services , for the publication of propaganda bulletins , leaflets and books, and for the distribution of already existing hate material against Israel and the Jews.

    Thus, says the French periodical, the myth that Arabs are not anti-Jewish, only anti-Zionist finally has been dispelled.
  23. Shazly Appointment Raises Storm, JTA, January 14, 1974.

    A storm is brewing here over the Foreign Office’s anticipated acceptance of Gen. Saad el-Shazly as the new Egyptian Ambassador to Britain. Informed sources told the Jewish. Telegraphic Agency yesterday that approval of Shazly’s appointment is expected next week despite the general’s known association with British neo-Nazis when he served in London as a military attache in 1963 and the recent revelation that he was the author of a pamphlet issued to Egyptian troops during the Yom Kippur War exhorting them to kill captured Israeli soldiers.

    The JTA was told that the Foreign Office wants to avoid what it describes as a major political row with Egypt even though it is “somewhat annoyed” with Cairo for having announced the designation of Shazly before his accreditation was confirmed, a move contrary to standard diplomatic practice. The Foreign Office had refused to confirm or deny that Shazly was the Egyptian Ambassador-designate even after the news was out in Cairo. But on Friday, a Foreign Office spokesman finally admitted that an application for accreditation of Shazly had been received from the Egyptian government.

    ASSOCIATION WITH NEO-NAZIS CITED

    The announcement prompted Michael Fidler, a Conservative MP and past president of the Board of Deputies of British Jews, to send a letter of protest to Foreign Secretary Sir Alex Douglas-Home. The text of Fidler’s letter, made available to the JTA today, said in part: “It would be infamous if Gen. Shazly, with his record eleven years ago in London of close association with the National Socialist Movement and/or other fascist organizations in Britain should now be permitted to come here in such capacity. The entire British community would be shocked to think that a person who could act in this fashion should now be coming again in this capacity.”

    Fidler enclosed a copy of a news item from the Daily Express “which quotes more recent sentiments expressed by Shazly in connection with the killing of Jews–whether Israeli prisoners of war or other.”

    The notorious Shazly pamphlet was brought to the attention of members of Parliament of all parties and British veterans and student groups last week by Moshe Barneah, secretary of the Israeli branch of Amnesty international. He noted that thousands of them were distributed to Egyptian soldiers by the Army information Service with instructions signed by Shazly who was chief of staff of the Egyptian Army at the time of the Yom Kippur War.

    The instructions ordered Egyptian soldiers to “kill mercilessly” all Israeli POWs. “Hit them, kill them wherever you find them as they (the Jews) are a nation of [sic] treacherous character. They pretend to give up only to kill you in treacherous ways,” the pamphlets said.

    A spokesman for the Egyptian Embassy here “strongly denied” yesterday that the former Egyptian chief of staff had at any time given orders to kill Israeli POWs. The spokesman claimed that such orders bearing Shazly’s Lame were forged by Israeli veterans organizations.
  24. The Looming Tower, al-Qaeda and the road to 9/11 (book), by Lawrence Wright
  25. 25.0 25.1 Prevent World War III. Issues 73-76, 1969/70. No. 76. Summer-Fall Issue, 1970. [8] [9] [10] [11] [12]
  26. Shakti, Vol. 4, (S.M. Sondhi., 1967), p. 20
    ...For a secular India cannot support the UAR's 'Jehad' against Israel any more than Pakistan's jehad ' against Kashmir...
  27. Robert Roswell Palmer, ‎Joel Colton, "A History of the Modern World," (Knopf, 1992), p. 942: The Arab-Israeli Wars after Independence At first Egypt took the lead in the jehad, or holy war, against Israel.
  28. World History Lecture Thirteen
  29. A reflection on the "what-might-have-beens", FPM, Jun 7, 2016. Joseph Puder.
  30. LaMerhav⁩ - ⁨למרחב⁩⁩, 28 March 1966

    גרמניה המזרחית עויינת את ישראל

    לפני ימים מספר אמר נשיאה של מצרים לעורכו הראשי של כתב העת הלבנוני "אל־חוואדיס": תוך תריסר ימים היינו מסוגלים להכחיד את ישראל, אילו יצרו הערבים חזית אחידה והיו מוכנים לצאת לקרב. כלומר — נאצר מכריז על רצונו הטוב והכנה להשמיד את ישראל. אלא מה? לא נסתייע הדבר עד כה בידו. משום שעמי ערב אינם מאוחדים ואינם מוכנים לצאת לקרב. למעשה לא חידש נאצר דבר בשיחתו עם עורך "אל־חוואדיס". הוא כבר הכריז הכרזות כאלה כהנה וכהנה. בסתיו אשתקד אמר בקבלת־פנים, שנערכה בקאהיר לכבוד נשיאה של פולין, כי מצרים אינה יכולה בשום פנים להשלים עם קיומה של ישראל. אלא שהאורח הפולני התעלם אז מדבריו וסירב להכליל בהודעה הפולנית־מצרית, המשותפת שפורסמה בתום ביקורו של נשיא פולין במצרים, פיסקה התוקפת את ישראל.

    East Germany is hostile to Israel a few days ago, said Egypt's president to the main editor of the Lebanese periodical Al-Hawadis: within a dozen days, we would be able to eradicate Israel, if the Arabs created a uniform front and were ready to go into battle. In other words, Nasser declares his good will and honesty to destroy Israel. But what? He failed, because the Arab nations not united and are not willing to go into battle. In fact, Nasser was not renewed in his conversation with the Editor of Al-Hawadis. He had already declared such announcements and so on.

    In the fall last year, he said in the reception held in Cairo for President of Poland, that Egypt can not accept Israel's existence. But the Polish guest then ignored him and refused to include in the Polish-Egyptian notice, jointly published at the end of the visit of Poland President in Egypt - a paragraph attacking Israel.