Soil Liquefaction is the process by which saturated, unconsolidated soil or sand is converted into a suspension. It is commonly observed in quicksand, quick clay, turbidity currents, and as a result of earthquake shock in unconsolidated sediments. It can be caused when flowing water reduces the friction between sand particles (as from an underground spring), or when a sudden change in pressure or repeated shock acting on water saturated or supersaturated sediments (as in an earthquake). Although the effects of liquefaction had been observed and understood for years, it was dramatically brought to the attention of engineers and seismologists in 1964 during the Niigata, Japan and Alaska earthquakes. It was a major factor in the destruction in San Francisco's Marina District during the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake.
Liquefaction in earthquakes
For a more detailed treatment, see Earthquake liquefaction.
The shock or repeated shock of earthquake waves can cause water-saturated soil to rearrange itself in such a way that it essentially becomes a suspension of solids in the liquid. Heavy structures on such areas can suddenly sink or shift. Buried objects can shift and relatively low density objects can float to the surface.
- "Often during earthquakes, fine-grained water-saturated sediments may lose their former strength and form into a thick mobile mudlike material. The process is called liquefaction. The liquefied sediment not only moves about beneath the surface but may also rise through fissures and “erupt” as mud boils and mud 'volcanoes.'"
- "... the ground shaking reduces the strength of earth material on which heavy structures rest. Parts of many major cities, particularly port cities, have been built on naturally occurring bodies of soft, unconsolidated clay-rich sediment (such as the delta deposits of a river) or on filled areas in which large amounts of loose earth materials have been dumped to build up the land level. These water-saturated deposits often experience a change in property known as liquefaction when shaken by an earthquake. The material loses strength to the degree that it becomes a highly fluid mud, incapable of supporting buildings, which show severe tilting or collapse."
This can be demonstrated on a small scale by saturating a bucket of sand with water; place a stone on the currently solid top of the sand, then repeatedly strike the side of the bucket with a hammer and watch the rock sink.
The initial packing density of the sand plays an important role in whether the soil deposit will liquefy, as shown in earthquake liquefaction.
Liquefaction in quicksand
For a more detailed treatment, see Quicksand.
Quicksand forms when water saturates an area of loose sand and the ordinary sand is agitated. When the water trapped in the batch of sand can't escape, it creates liquefied soil that can no longer support weight. Quicksand can be formed by standing or flowing underground water (as from an underground spring), or by earthquakes. In the case of flowing underground water, the force of the water flow opposes the force of gravity, causing the granules of sand to be more buoyant. In the case of earthquakes, the shaking force can increase the pressure of shallow groundwater, liquefying sand and silt deposits. In both cases, the liquefied surface loses strength, causing buildings or other objects on that surface to sink or fall over.
The saturated sediment may appear quite solid until a change in pressure or shock initiates the liquifaction causing the sand to form a suspension with each grain surrounded by a thin film of water. This cushioning gives quicksand, and other liquefied sediments, a spongy, fluidlike texture. Objects in the liquefied sand sink to the level at which the weight of the object is equal to the weight of the displaced sand/water mix and the object floats due to its buoyancy.
Liquefaction in quick clay
For a more detailed treatment, see Quick clay.
Quick clay, also known as Leda Clay in Canada, is a unique form of highly sensitive clay, with the tendency to change from a relatively stiff condition to a liquid mass when it is disturbed. Undisturbed quick clay resembles a water-saturated gel. When a block of clay is held in the hand and struck, however, it instantly turns into a flowing ooze, a process known as spontaneous liquefaction. Quick clay behaves this way because, although it is solid, it has a very high water content, up to 80%. The clay retains a solid structure despite the high water content, because surface tension holds water-coated flakes of clay together in a delicate structure. When the structure is broken by a shock, it reverts to a fluid state.
Quick clay has been the underlying cause of many deadly landslides. In Canada alone, it has been associated with more than 250 mapped landslides. Some of these are ancient, and may have been triggered by earthquakes. 
For a more detailed treatment, see Turbidity current.
Submarine landslides are turbidity currents and consist of a flow of water saturated sediments flowing downslope. An example occurred 18 November 1929, when an earthquake struck the continental slope off the coast of Newfoundland. Minutes later, transatlantic telephone cables began breaking sequentially, farther and farther downslope, away from the epicenter. Twelve cables were snapped in a total of 28 places. Exact times and locations were recorded for each break. Investigators suggested that a 60-mile-per-hour (100 km/h) submarine landslide or turbidity current of water saturated sediments swept 400 miles (600 km) down the continental slope from the earthquake’s epicenter, snapping the cables as it passed.
- Harold L. Levin, Contemporary Physical Geology, 2nd edition (New York: Saunders College Publishing, 1986).
- Arthur N. Strahler, Physical Geology (New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1981), p. 202.
- Bruce C. Heezen and Maurice Ewing, “Turbidity Currents and Submarine Slumps, and the 1929 Grand Banks Earthquake,” American Journal of Science, Vol. 250, December 1952, pp. 849–873.