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Sunken Village by Timm Ulrichs Munich.JPG

Country Germany
State Bavaria
Settled 1158 (first mentioned)
Population 1,407,836
Area (sq mi) 119.86 sq mi
Population density (/sq mi) 12,000/sq mi
Current mayor Dieter Reiter
Co-ordinates 48.1° N., 0.7° E.[1]
Click here for the Munich pact of 1938.

Munich (German: München) is Germany's third largest city and the capital of the federal state of Bavaria. Munich is assumed to have been settled since the 8th century, but it was mentioned for the first time in official documents in 1156 as a settlement of Benedictine monks. The name Munich, or München in German, is said to refer to those monks. In Italian, Munich is known as Monaco di Baviera to differentiate it from Monaco.

Since 1810 the Oktoberfest is celebrated in Munich.

In 1919, following Germany's defeat in the First World War, the city was briefly a Communist utopia. In 1923, it was the scene of the beer hall Putsch that failed to bring Adolf Hitler's NSDAP to power, and was called the "Capital of the Movement" during the Third Reich, i.e. the Hitler movement.

In post-war Germany Munich became a center for high-tech industry. It is also a center of brewing, with the Löwenbräu, Spaten, and HB brands being particularly notable. Munich is best known as the home of F.C. Bayern München, Germany's most successful football club, and TSV 1860 München, a smaller and less successful club that is more popular in Munich.

In 1972, Munich was host to the summer Olympics and the terrorist attacks known as the Munich massacre, which resulted in the Israeli response Operation Wrath of God.

Munich is ruled by center-left SPD , and its mayor is Christian Ude.[2]

In 2023, ruins were found of Munich synagogue destroyed by Hitler.

Eighty-five years after Adolf Hitler ordered the destruction of Munich's main synagogue, construction workers have found rubble from the building in a nearby river. They uncovered columns from the synagogue and a stone tablet showing some of the Ten Commandments.The Jewish community and local figures are delighted with the discovery...

There had been no sign of the building since it was torn down in June 1938, after Hitler demanded its removal as an "eyesore". Five months later, Jews, synagogues and Jewish-run businesses were attacked across Nazi Germany in the deadly November pogrom widely known as Kristallnacht... The 90-year-old head of the Jewish community in Munich, Charlotte Knobloch, was thrilled by the discovery as she had worshipped in the old synagogue as a girl before it was destroyed... The stone tablet originally came from above.[3]

External links


  1. (1922) World Almanac and Book of Facts for 1923, series: World Almanac and Book of Facts (in English). New York: Press Pub Co. (The New York World), 63.  Rounded down toward zero.
  3. Paul Kirby, "Ruins found of Munich synagogue destroyed by Hitler." BBC News, July 5, 2023. [1]. [2].