A visa is an official endorsement on a document or passport denoting that the bearer may enter and/or exit the country or territory which issued it. Visas usually have conditions attached which relate to the purpose that its holder has for going to the country concerned. For example, a visitor's visa holder will usually be prohibited from working or studying in the issuing country or territory.
In fact, many countries have a list of countries and territories whose citizens do not need visas to visit if their stay is within a certain time limit. However, people who wish to work, study or immigrate normally need to apply for a visa to do so beforehand. The main exception to this is for European Union citizens seeking to exercise treaty rights in another member state.
Several nations require their citizens to obtain an exit visa in order to leave the country. In Iran women need written permission from their husbands to leave the country. Ordinary citizens of the Soviet Union were not allowed no leave without and exit visa and permission from the KGB to obtain a passport. Exit visa systems still exist only for foreign workers in; Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Oman, and Russia. North Korea, and Uzbekistan still require their citizens to obtain an exit visa to leave the country for any reason. The exit visa system in Uzbekistan is currently being abolished. Exits visas were abolished in Portugal in 1974 and Cuba in 2013.
- Khan, Azfar and Hélène Harroff-Tavel (2011). "Reforming the Kafala: Challenges and Opportunities in Moving Forward", Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 20, Nos. 3-4, pp. 293-313
- 'As If I Am Not Human' — Abuses against Asian Domestic Workers in Saudi Arabia. Human Rights Watch (2008-07-08). Archived from the original on 23 July 2012. Retrieved on 2017-05-19.
- Uzbekistan Moves To Abolish Exit Visas.
- Uzbekistan postpones visa-free regime until 2021 (en).
- Maria Ioannis B. Baganha. Portuguese Emigration After World War II.
- Refugees, United Nations High Commissioner for. "Refworld | Cuba: The Habilitación visa and permit, including differences between the two documents, as well as requirements and procedures to obtain the documents; consequences for violating the terms of the Habilitación; whether Law 989 is still in effect; requirements and procedures for émigrés to return to Cuba permanently", Refworld. (en)