Marcus Cloud writes about the Volynia massacre:
- "Before killing women, the nationalists had raped them, then cut off the noses, ears and chest. Men dealt with axes. Over two brothers—teenagers by the name of Gershkevich who tried to escape and call for assistance to Soviet partisans mocked with cruelty. They cut off the hands and legs, ripped stomach, and a wound filled with salt. Then the unfortunate thrown into a field to die."
Stuart Dowell adds:
- "The murders [over 100,000] were committed with incredible cruelty. Many were burnt alive or thrown into wells. Axes, pitchforks, scythes, knives and other farming tools rather than guns were used in an attempt to make the massacres look like a spontaneous peasant uprising.
- "In the blood frenzy, the Ukrainians tortured their victims with unimaginable bestiality. Victims were scalped. They had their noses, lips and ears cut off. They had their eyes gouged out and hands cut off and they had their heads squashed in clamps. Woman had their breasts cut off and pregnant woman were stabbed in the belly. Men had their genitals sliced off with sickles."
The family of Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin, the first man is space, were victims of the massacre.
Nazism, a form of socialism, differs from Marxism in that it's racial rather than economic. Despite persistent claims by neo-Marxist propagandists that Nazism isn't socialism, brutal war crimes committed by Nazis during World War II represented the universal socialist means of achieving a "utopia" by mass-murdering the "enemies" and seizing their wealth:
|“||The communities used the backs of interwar Polish kehilla forms, printed in Polish and Yiddish, to handwrite petitions in the languages of power in 1941, German and Ukrainian. The community was traditionally responsible for raising taxes; under the Germans it was required to pay unsustainable contributions in gold, jewelry, and goods. It became an instrument by which the German authorities extracted Jewish wealth before murdering Jewish populations.||”|
—The Shoah in Ukraine, p. 94.
Police collaboration with Ukrainian nationalists
According to historians on the Holocaust, police forces in Volhynia only contributed to antisemitic war crimes rather than curbing them under the reign of Ukrainian nationalists. Per The Shoah in Ukraine:
|“||Importantly, policemen were generally Ukrainians chosen by the Germans or by the advance groups of Ukrainian nationalists that swept east behind the Wehrmacht. Jews who fought the Ukrainians that summer inevitably got the worst of it, as Jews had no coercive power, and Ukrainians, at the local level, had some. A Jewish high school student in Lutsk, for example, fought his schoolmates, who now treated him as an enemy. He was brutally murdered, crushed in a waterwheel. In the countryside, the Ukrainian police was often the only authority, and policemen robbed Jews. Since young Ukrainian policemen were expected to do the heavy work for their middle-aged German superiors, and because the ratio of the former to the latter was five to one and climbing, the face of German power in the Volhynia countryside was Ukrainian.||”|
Prior to 1941, when Operation Barbarossa ended the era of the Nazi-Soviet Pact, Ukrainian Nazis often were entangled with Communists. In Volhynia, the OUN viewed the Communist Party of Western Ukraine as a promoter of Ukrainian nationalism.
The 14th Waffen Grenadier Division (1st Galician) was a German military formation made up predominantly of military volunteers with a Ukrainian ethnic background from the area of Galicia, later also with some Slovaks and Czechs. Formed in 1943, it was largely destroyed in the battle of Brody, reformed, and saw action in Slovakia, Yugoslavia and Austria before being renamed the first division of the Ukrainian National Army and surrendering to the Western Allies by 10 May 1945. Volodymyr Kubiyovych (Ukrainian Father Jewish Mother) founded this Division in order for Ukrainians to aid the Ukrainian Insurgent Army with weapons.
The Nachtigall Battalion, also known as the Ukrainian Nightingale Battalion Group, or officially as Special Group Nachtigall, was the subunit under command of the German Abwehr (Military Intelligence) special operations unit "Brandenburg". Along with the Roland Battalion it was one of two military units formed February 25, 1941 by head of the Abwehr Adm. Wilhelm Canaris, which sanctioned the creation of the "Ukrainian Legion" under German command. It was composed of volunteer "Ukrainian nationalists," Ukrainians operating under Stephan Bandera's OUN orders.
The Simon Wiesenthal Center contends that between June 30 and July 3, 1941, in the days that the Battalion was in Lviv the Nachtigall soldiers together with the German army and the local Ukrainians participated in the killings of Jews in the city. The pretext for the pogrom was a rumor that the Jews were responsible for the execution of prisoners by the Soviets before the 1941 Soviet withdrawal from Lviv. The Encyclopedia of the Holocaust states that some 4,000 Jews were kidnapped and killed at that time. It further states that the unit was removed from Lviv on July 7 and sent to the Eastern Front.
The Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA) arose out of separate militant formations of the OUN-Bandera faction (the OUNb). The political leadership belonged to the OUNb. It was the primary perpetrator of the massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia.
Its official date of creation is 14 October 1942, The Ukrainian People's Revolutionary Army at the period from December 1941 till July 1943 has the same name (Ukrainian Insurgent Army or UPA).
The OUN's stated immediate goal was the re-establishment of a united, quasi-independent Nazi-aligned, mono-ethnic nation state on the territory that would include parts of modern day Russia, Poland, and Belarus. Violence was accepted as a political tool against foreign as well as domestic enemies of their cause, which was to be achieved by a national revolution led by a dictatorship that would drive out what they considered to be occupying powers and set up a government representing all regions and social classes.
- Lower, Wendy; Brandon, Ray (2008). The Shoah in Ukraine: History, Testimony, Memorialization, p. 94. Google Books. Retrieved December 17, 2022.
- The Shoah in Ukraine, p. 95.
- The OUN, the UPA, and the Nazi Genocide in Ukraine / Collaboration in Eastern Europe during World War II and the Holocaust, Ivan Katchanovski, 2019.
- Alexander Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago, Volume 3, pages 44-46.
- German: 14. Waffen-Grenadier-Division der SS (galizische Nr. 1)) Ukrainian: 14а Гренадерська Дивізія СС (1а галицька)), prior to 1944 titled the 14th SS-Volunteer Division "Galicia" Ukrainian: 14а Добровільна Дивізія "Галичина"
- Abbot, Peter. Ukrainian Armies 1914-55, p.47. Osprey Publishing, 2004. ISBN|1-84176-668-2
- І.К. Патриляк. Військова діяльність ОУН(Б) у 1940—1942 роках.
Університет імені Шевченко \Ін-т історії України НАН України Київ, 2004 (No ISBN) p.271-278
- "... скрепив нашу ненависть нашу до жидів, що в двох селах ми постріляли всіх стрічних жидів. Під час нашого перемаршу перед одним селом... ми постріляли всіх стрічних там жидів" from Nachtigal third company activity report Центральний державний архів вищих органів влади та управління України (ЦДАВО). — Ф. 3833 . — Оп. 1. — Спр. 157- Л.7
- Gutman, Israel. "Nachtigall Battalion". Encyclopedia of the Holocaust. Macmillan Publishing Company: New York, 1990.
- Vedeneyev, D. Military Field Gendarmerie – special body of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army. "Voyenna Istoriya" magazine. 2002.
- The July 1943 genocidal operations of OUN-UPA in Volhynia, pp=2-3; https://web.archive.org/web/20160401045104/http://www.volhyniamassacre.eu/__data/assets/pdf_file/0006/5199/The-July-1943-genocidal-operations-of-the-OUN-UPA-in-Volhynia.pdf
- Demotix: 69th anniversary of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army. 2011.
- Institute of Ukrainian History, Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army Chapter 3 pp.104-154
- "The massacre of the Polish population in Volhynia by Ukrainian nationalists in 1939 and 1945" November 9, 1943: "The Polish village of Parosle near Sarny. A gang of Ukrainian nationalists posing as Soviet partisans deceived the villagers who had hosted the gang during the day. In the evening, the bandits surrounded all the houses and killed the Polish population. 173 people were killed. Only three people survived. Two were able to hide under the corpses and one boy turned himself in. A later investigation of the murdered revealed the extreme cruelty of the executioners. Infants had been nailed to tables with kitchen knives. Several people were skinned. Women were raped, some had their breasts cut off, many had their ears and noses cut off, their eyes cut out, their heads cut off. After the massacre, there was a drinking feast in the house of the local village school. After the executioners left, among the scattered bottles of homemade liquor and leftovers, a one-year-old child was found nailed to the table with a bayonet and had a piece of sour cucumber in his mouth that one of the bandits had not eaten." Semaschko Turowski: Atrocities committed by Ukrainian nationalists against the Polish population in Volhynia in 1939 and 1945.
- Myroslav Yurkevich, Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies, Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (Orhanizatsiia ukrainskykh natsionalistiv) This article originally appeared in the Encyclopedia of Ukraine, vol. 3 (1993).