Harmony of the Gospel (Conservative Version) longer form Chapters 29-35

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Introduction (Main article)

Index

Twenty-nine

Chapter 29 Bible texts

He went out with his disciples over the brook Kidron, where there was a garden, into which he and his disciples entered. Now Judas, who betrayed him, also knew the place, for Jesus often met there with his disciples.

Then Jesus said to them, “All of you will be made to stumble because of me tonight, for it is written, ‘I will strike the shepherd, and the sheep of the flock will be scattered.’ But after I AM raised up, I will go before you into Galilee.”

But Peter answered him, “Even if all will be made to stumble because of you, I will never be made to stumble.”

Jesus said to him, “Most certainly I tell you that tonight, before the rooster crows, you will deny me three times.”

Peter said to him, “Even if I must die with you, I will not deny you.”

All of the disciples also said likewise. But Jesus said to them, “All of you will be made to stumble because of me tonight, for it is written, ‘I will strike the shepherd, and the sheep will be scattered.’ However, after I AM raised up, I will go before you into Galilee.”

But Peter said to him, “Although all will be offended, yet I will not.”

Jesus looking at him loved him, and Jesus said to him, “Most certainly I tell you, that you today, even this night, before the rooster crows twice, you will deny me three times.”

But he spoke all the more, “If I must die with you, I will not deny you.”

They all said the same thing. Then Jesus came with them to a place called Gethsemane, they came to a place which was named Gethsemane.

When he was at the place, he said to them, “Pray that you do not enter into temptation.”

And He said to his disciples, “Sit here, while I pray. Sit here, while I go there and pray.”

He took with him Peter and the two sons of Zebedee, James, and John, and began to be sorrowful and severely troubled, to be greatly troubled and distressed.

Then he said to them, “My soul is exceedingly sorrowful, even to death. Stay here and watch. Stay here, and watch with me.”

He was withdrawn from them about a stone’s throw, and he knelt down and prayed, saying, “Father, if you are willing, remove this cup from me. Nevertheless, not my will, but yours, be done.”

He went forward a little, fell on his face, and prayed, saying, “My Father, if it is possible, let this cup pass away from me; nevertheless, not what I desire, but what you desire.”

He went forward a little, and fell on the ground, and prayed that, if it were possible, the hour might pass away from him. He said, “Abba, Father, all things are possible to you. Please remove this cup from me. However, not what I desire, but what you desire.”

An angel from heaven appeared to him, strengthening him. Being in agony he prayed more earnestly. His sweat became like great drops of blood falling down on the ground.

When he rose up from his prayer, he came and found them sleeping, and said to Peter, “Simon, are you sleeping? Could you not watch one hour? Watch and pray, that you may not enter into temptation. The spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak.”

He came to the disciples, and found them sleeping because of grief, and said to them, “Why do you sleep? Rise and pray that you may not enter into temptation.”

Again he went away, and prayed, saying the same words. He went forward a little, and fell on the ground, and prayed that, if it were possible, the hour might pass away from him. He said, “Abba, Father, all things are possible to you. Please remove this cup from me. However, not what I desire, but what you desire.”

Again he returned, he came to the disciples, and found them sleeping, for their eyes were very heavy, and said to Peter, “What, could you not watch with me for one hour? Watch and pray, that you do not enter into temptation. The spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak.”

And they did not know what to answer him. Again, a second time he went away, and prayed, saying, “My Father, if this cup cannot pass away from me unless I drink it, your desire be done.”

He came again and found them sleeping, for their eyes were heavy. He left them again, went away, and prayed a third time, saying the same words. He said, “Abba, Father, all things are possible to you. Please remove this cup from me. However, not what I desire, but what you desire.”

Then he came the third time to his disciples, and said to them, “Sleep on now, and take your rest. It is enough. The hour has come. Behold, the hour is at hand, and the Son of Man is betrayed into the hands of sinners. Arise, let us be going. Behold, he who betrays me is at hand. Arise! Let us get going. Behold: he who betrays me is at hand.”

Immediately, while he was still speaking, behold, Judas, one of the twelve, came, and with him a great multitude with swords and clubs, from the chief priests and elders of the people. Behold, a multitude, and he who was called Judas, one of the twelve, was leading them. Now he who betrayed him had earlier given them a sign, saying, “Whomever I will kiss, that is he. Seize him, and lead him away safely.”

Judas then, having taken a detachment of soldiers and officers from the chief priests and the Pharisees, came there with lanterns, torches, and weapons. Judas, one of the twelve, came—and with him a multitude with swords and clubs, from the chief priests, the scribes, and the elders.

When he had come, Jesus therefore, knowing all the things that were happening to him, went out, and said to them, “Who are you looking for?”

They answered him, “Jesus of Nazareth.”

Jesus said to them, “I AM.”

Judas also, who betrayed him, was standing with them. When therefore he said to them, “I AM,” they went backward, and fell to the ground.

Again therefore he asked them, “Who are you looking for?”

They said, “Jesus of Nazareth.”

Jesus answered, “I told you that I AM. If therefore you seek me, let these go their way,” that the word might be fulfilled which he spoke, “Of those whom you have given me, I have lost none.”

Now he who betrayed him gave them a sign, saying, “Whoever I kiss, he is the one. Seize him.”

Immediately he came to Jesus, immediately he came to him, and said, “Rabbi! Rabbi!”

Then he came near to Jesus to kiss him. But Jesus said to him, “Judas, do you betray the Son of Man with a kiss?”

He said, “Hail, Rabbi!” and he kissed him.

Jesus said to him, “Friend, why are you here?”

Then they came and laid hands on Jesus, and took him. They laid their hands on him, and seized him. When those who were around him saw what was about to happen, they said to him, “Lord, shall we strike with the sword?”

But behold, a certain one of them, one of those who stood by, one of those who were with Jesus stretched out his hand, and drew his sword; Simon Peter therefore, having a sword, drew it, and struck the high priest’s servant, and cut off his right ear, struck the servant of the high priest, and struck off his ear. The servant’s name was Malchus.

But Jesus answered, “Let me at least do this”—and he touched his ear, and healed him.

Jesus therefore said to Peter, “Put the sword into its sheath. The cup which the Father has given me, shall I not surely drink it?”

Then Jesus said to him, “Put your sword back into its place, for all those who take the sword will die by the sword. Or do you think that I could not ask my Father, and he would even now send me more than twelve legions of angels? How then would the Scriptures be fulfilled that it must be so?”

Jesus said to the chief priests, captains of the Temple, and elders, who had come against him, “Have you come out as against a robber, with swords and clubs? When I was with you in the Temple daily, you did not stretch out your hands against me. But this is your hour, and the power of darkness.”

It was the ninth hour of the night, the beginning of the fourth watch, 3 A.M. Jesus answered them, “Have you come out, as against a robber, with swords and clubs to seize me? I was daily with you in the Temple Teaching, and you did not arrest me. But this is so that the Scriptures might be fulfilled.”

In that hour Jesus said to the multitudes, “Have you come out as against a robber with swords and clubs to seize me? I sat daily in the Temple Teaching, and you did not arrest me. But all this has happened that the Scriptures of the prophets might be fulfilled.”

Then all the disciples left him; they all left him, and fled. A certain young man followed him, having a linen cloth thrown around himself over his naked body. The young men grabbed him, but he left the linen cloth, and fled from them naked.

Then was fulfilled what is written in the prophet Amos:

"Behold, I will crush you in your place, as a cart crushes that is full of grain. Flight will perish from the swift; and the strong will not strengthen his force; neither shall the mighty deliver himself; neither shall he stand who handles the bow; and he who is swift of foot will not escape; neither shall he who rides the horse deliver himself; and he who is courageous among the mighty will flee away naked on that day".

John 18:1b-2
Matthew 26:31-35
Mark 14:27-29
Mark 10:21a
Mark 14:30-31
Matthew 26:36
Mark 14:32a
Luke 22:40
Mark 14:32b
Matthew 26:36b-37
Mark 14:33
Matthew 26:38
Mark 14:34
Luke 22:41-42
Matthew 26:39
Mark 14:35-36
Luke 22:43-45a
Mark 14:37-38
Luke 22:45b-46
Mark 14:39
Mark 14:35-36 repeated
Mark 14:40
Matthew 26:40-44
Mark 14:41-42
Matthew 26:45-46
Mark 14:43a
Luke 22:47a
Matthew 26:47
John 18:3
Mark 14:43b
Mark 14:45a
John 18:4-9
Mark 14:44
Luke 22:47b
Matthew 26:48
Mark 14:45b
Luke 22:47c-48
Matthew 26:49
Mark 14:45c "and kissed him"
Matthew 26:50
Mark 14:46
Luke 22:49-50
Mark 14:47
Matthew 26:51
John 18:10
Luke 22:51
John 18:11
Matthew 26:52-54
Luke 22:52-53
Mark 14:48-49
Matthew 26:55-56
Mark 14:50-52
Amos 2:13-16

Compare
World English Bible text
Greek original text
Latin Vulgate text
NRSV text
Scofield Reference Bible (1917 Edition)
Conservative Bible text
multiple versions of any verse
multiple commentaries any passage
interlinear Bible: Hebrew, Greek, English
Bible maps (click initial letter of place name)
Bible Encyclopedias: Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature (studylight.org)
Catholic Encyclopedia Catholic Online (catholic.org)
Hebrew Calendar Converter See exact equivalents of Gregorian Calendar dates.

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Church History (Eusebius): The Ecclesiastical History Of Eusebius Pamphilus: Bishop Of Caesarea, In Palestine (newadvent.org)

The Works of Flavius Josephus William Whiston, Translator, 1737 (sacred-texts.com)

Suetonius: Twelve Caesars: The Lives of the Twelve Caesars by C. Suetonius Tranquilus; To which are added His Lives of the Grammarians, Rhetoricians, and Poets. The Translation of Alexander Thomson, M.D., Revised and corrected by T. Forester, Esq., A.M. (Gutenberg.org)

Tacitus: The Annals, Written 109 A.C.E. Translated by Alfred John Church and William Jackson Brodribb

Sextus Aurelius Victor: Epitome De Caesaribus (roman-emperors.org)

Eutropius: Breviarium - Eutropius's Abridgement of Roman History (tertullian.org)

Cassius Dio: Roman History Epitome (penelope.uchicago.edu)

Early Christian Writings A.D. 30 through 380 (earlychristianwritings.com)
See Biblical Canon and Apocrypha.


"Jesus looking at him loved him, and..."

Mark 10:21a.
An amplification bridge inserted after Matthew 26:31-35 and between Mark 14:27-29 and Mark 14:30-31
The texts are here presented as a sequential progression. They differ sufficiently to justify their reading as two distinct parts of the conversation on the way to Gethsemane.
The statement in Matthew is modified in Mark. Here presented in collated sequence, the resultant reading suggests that Jesus, by his power and authority, in genuine loving response to Peter's protestations of devotional resolve, mitigated what "must be so", while still fulfilling the scriptures: "You will all fall away because of me this night...the sheep will be scattered". Originally Jesus knew that Peter would have denied him three times before the cock crowed, but on hearing Peter's continued, heartfelt passionate resolve to be faithful to him (a declarative prayer of love), Jesus, apparently with compassionate love for him, granted and decreed instead that Peter would deny him thrice before it crowed twice. His denial would be delayed, but the scripture must be fulfilled that "all" would fall away from him that night.
The same parallel fervor and failure is evident in the episode in Mark 10 of the man who ran up to Jesus and knelt and asked him "what must I do to inherit eternal life", and Jesus looking upon him loved him. But the man went away sad. The psychological dynamic here is similar.
Essentially Jesus implicitly altered future events and bestowed on Peter additional grace so that Peter would in fact not deny him before the cock crowed, but he would deny him before it crowed twice, still fulfilling the scriptures that it must be so. Jesus afterward declared in the garden of Gethsemane that he had power to prevent what was to happen by asking his Father, and said, "But how then should the scriptures be fulfilled, that it must be so?" (Matthew 26:53-54). The text of Mark 10:21a is inserted here after Matthew 26:31-35 and between Mark 14:27-29 and Mark 14:30-31 as an amplification to suggest Jesus' motive for the change from "before the cock crows" to "before the cock crows twice".
What Jesus did for Peter may be taken as a lesson on the reward for persistence in prayer (see Luke 18:1). "Prayer changes things." See James 5:13-18.

"like great drops of blood"

Luke 22:44.
This is a serious medical condition called Hematidrosis.
See online article Hematidrosis, by Dave Miller, Ph.D. (apologeticspress.org).
A popular classic text on all medical aspects of the Savior's Passion including hematidrosis is Pierre Barbet's A Doctor At Calvary.
See excellent review and rebuttal of the above: Pierre Barbet Revisited, by Frederick T. Zugibe, M.D., Ph.D. Adjunct Associate Professor of Pathology, Columbia University, College of Physicians & Surgeons, N.Y., Chief Medical Examiner, Rockland County, N.Y. (Retired) (shroud.com)supports the classic Christian understanding of the wounds being in the middle of the palm instead of the wrist.

"a sword"

Mark 14:47. Greek text μάχαιραν machairan.
Greek NT Mark 14:47:
47 εἷς δέ τις τῶν παρεστηκότων σπασάμενος τὴν μάχαιραν ἔπαισε τὸν δοῦλον τοῦ ἀρχιερέως καὶ ἀφεῖλεν αὐτοῦ τὸ ὠτίον.
The sword that cut the servant's ear was the μαχαιρα machaira, or gladius in Latin. The term designates the short Roman gladius, the regular-issue field weapon of the ordinary Roman soldier. In the context of Luke 22:35-38 the machaira that Peter used was one of the "two swords" they had with them earlier in the upper room. The Gospels do not say that the sword was taken from any one of the "great multitude with swords and clubs". Peter "having a sword" is commanded to put the sword into its sheath. It is interesting to speculate on how the apostles acquired this weapon before the Passover, and the Gospels tell us nothing else about the two swords.
See "The Roman Military in the New Testament" (bible.org).
Christians who support the right to bear arms point out that Jesus does not forbid him to have a weapon, but firmly warns him of what will happen to everyone who "takes the sword" as militant extremists have done, which is a wholly different matter.
It has been said that before the time of Emperor Constantine Christians throughout the Roman Empire were universally pacifists who refused military service and would not use any kind of weapon even in self-defense, because of Jesus' words to Peter about those who take the sword. Compare The Early Church, War and Pacifism, By Dr. Robert Morey (churchinhistory.org).
Christian military and security personnel, peace officers and clandestine operatives and agents dedicate themselves to defending against those who take up the sword of violence and war, using authorized deadly force when necessary to stop them. They are not acting on their own in independent, personally motivated violation of the commandment You shall not kill. See Romans 13:4.

"twelve legions of angels"

Matthew 26:53.
A Roman legion typically included six thousand troops and auxiliaries.
See the following OT texts:
2 Kings 18:13–19:35;
2 Chronicles 32;
Isaiah 36:1–37:36.
When Hezekiah was king of Judah, and Sennacherib of Assyria invested the city and threatened to make the LORD like the gods of other nations, the angel of the LORD—one angel alone!—slaughtered 185,000 Assyrian troops, the most feared warriors of their day (Habakkuk 1:5-11). Multiply that number by one legion of six thousand ( = 1,110,000,000), and calculate twelve times that many deaths: 13,320,000,000thirteen billion, three hundred and twenty million.
In Second Samuel 24:15-16 and First Chronicles 21:14-15 one angel alone killed seventy thousand men of Israel and Judah with a sword of pestilence, and was preparing to kill more, when the LORD said, "It is enough."
The "destroyer" killed every firstborn of man and beast in every household and farm throughout the entire territory of the whole country of Egypt that did not observe the ritual of the Passover sacrifice with the mark of blood on the upright and crossbeam of their doorways (Exodus 12:23).
According to most population researchers, about 300,000,000 three hundred million people were alive on earth in A.D. 1 (see online article How Many People Have Ever Lived on Earth? (prb.org). All human life on earth could have been exterminated by twelve legions of angels.

"hour and power of darkness"

Luke 22:53.
Jesus was arrested at the "hour of darkness" (3 A.M.)
The hour of darkness is about 3 A.M. according to the ancient traditions of many cultures, the hour when most people die at night, when physiological human vitality temporarily ebbs, and when hostile military forces favor launching a sudden night attack. See six distinct points of view sharing similar common ground on the time of the hour of darkness:
About 6 hours later Jesus stood before Pontius Pilate. John says, "he brought Jesus forth, and sat down in the judgment seat in a place that is called the pavement, but in the Hebrew, Gabbatha. And it was the preparation of the passover, and about the sixth hour; and he saith unto the Jews, Behold your King!" (John 19:13-14).
It was the preparation of Jesus. See 1 Corinthians 5:7, "Christ our passover is sacrificed for us". Jesus is the Passover in John 19:14.
Jesus was arrested about 3 A.M. during the "hour and power of darkness" and was condemned six hours later at 9 A.M. to be crucified, which is "the third hour of the day", and simultaneously "it was the sixth hour" of his passion.
The evening of passover (the seder) on a Thursday evening followed by the day of passover on a Friday occurred on a Thursday-Friday in A.D. 33 (Friday being the normal weekly "day of preparation" of the normal weekly Saturday Sabbath, and on that year the day of preparation also on the day of Passover).
The Saturday sabbath the next day was also the solemn first day of the 7-day Feast of Unleavened Bread (Exodus 12:1-20), which made that particular Saturday sabbath a solemn "high sabbath" John 19:31. The Jews of that time called the 8 days of the Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread together "The Feast of Unleavened Bread" during which they ate "The Passover" for 8 days, and the day of Passover itself was called "the first day of the feast of unleavened bread" Matthew 26:17. See
Mark says, "And it was the third hour, and they crucified him." Mark 15:25.
See John 19:14; Mark 15:25.
There is in reality no conflict here regarding the time of day. John does not say it was the sixth hour of the day. Mark does not say it was the third hour of the day. See multiple translations of Mark 15:25. "nine in the morning", "third hour". See multiple translations of John 19:14. "noon", "sixth hour", "six o'clock in the morning".
14 ἦν δὲ παρασκευὴ τοῦ πάσχα, ὥρα δὲ ὡσεὶ ἕκτη· καὶ λέγει τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις· ἴδε ὁ βασιλεὺς ὑμῶν.
John 19:14 MOUNCE, John 19:14 Interlinear Greek-English Biblehub.com
The literalist reading of these verses takes their meaning as plain and simple statements of the time of day, and implicitly adds to the book the words "of the day" in both places. Contrary to the principle of sola scriptura (scripture alone), such a literalist reading of the text does not take it as it is, that is, in accordance with the literal sense of scripture. The phrase "it was the preparation of the passover" is read implicitly by literalists as "it was the preparation [day] of the [first day of the feast of the] passover [to come that evening]", a reading which immediately places this text in direct conflict with the Synoptic Gospels. These inserted meanings, implicitly supplied by readers, translators and commentators according to their own ordinary understanding of what they see as the plain and simple meaning of the literal letter of the text (the time of day), is an example of eisegesis, which only offers an inconsistent and contradictory reading of the Biblical text. Some conservative Bible exegetes suggest that John used the secular Hebrew reckoning of the hours of the day used by the Jews in Judea (beginning at 12 midnight), and that Mark used the normal Roman reckoning of the day (beginning at 6 A.M.). But however reasonable this speculation may seem to be, such a resolution of the apparent discrepancy between these two texts cannot be drawn from the text of the Bible alone. They do not include the fact that Matthew, a Jew, in his Gospel also used the Roman reckoning of noon as "the sixth hour" and of 3 P.M. as "the ninth hour". But in addition, it must also be noted that according to the ordinary meaning of "the preparation", whether for the normal Sabbath, or for an high day of solemn assembly, for the Jews "the preparation" always begins at 3 P.M., "the ninth hour of the day", not the third hour (the Synoptics) or the sixth hour (John). And John does not say it was the preparation day of the Passover. He says "it was the preparation of the passover". See discussion in the following articles:
The accounts of Mark and John are set against each other by a literalist reading of the text, giving liberal critics another pretext to reject the historicity and reliability of the Gospels.
The literal (not literalist) reading of these passages in context sees the fact that Jesus is proclaimed by John "the Lamb of God" and sees the clear teaching of the apostles that
"Christ our passover is sacrificed for us" 1 Corinthians 5:7.
See the multiple commentaries on John 19:14.
Professional linguists point out that the grammar of the Greek text refers "the preparation" primarily to the Passover explicitly, and not to the weekly Sabbath day, which that year was also the solemn first day of the seven days of Unleavened Bread immediately following the day of Passover; and they point out that to claim that "the preparation" refers primarily to the Sabbath day which followed the Passover that year would violate the grammatical structure of the text and its plain meaning as a direct and undeniable reference to the Passover.
But conservative textual criticism also takes into account John's particular technique of using ordinary language which can also be understood as having a deeper significance of meaning for the Christian believer: see John 2:1-11 as signifying also the resurrection of Jesus on the third day with the marriage feast of the Lamb of God in the Eucharist, and John 7:30, 44 and 8:20 as anticipating the fact that the Jews did "lay hands on" Jesus on the night he was betrayed as the perfect fulfillment of Leviticus 3:2; 4:4,15,24,29,33; 16:21; Numbers 8:12; 27:18: see Matthew 26:57; Mark 14:46-47: they "laid hands on Jesus" and took him, and led him away. Only in John's Gospel do we have the words, "Behold the lamb of God!", and "Behold the man!" (John 1:36b; 19:5) KJV. It is John who more than any other writer in the New Testament besides Paul presents Jesus as our true Passover and the Paschal Lamb of sacrifice.
Jesus is the Passover. Jesus is being prepared as the passover sacrifice. Jesus begins the preparation of his sacrifice with his announcement at the end of the passover seder that one of those at table with him will betray him. He prays with agony in the garden of Gethsemane, is betrayed by Judas, arrested, tried, abused, brought before Pilate, and then brought before Herod, who sends him back to Pilate. Hours will have passed. It will then be about six hours since his arrest and about 3 hours since the chief priests with the scribes and the elders bring him to Pilate. Then Jesus is scourged and mocked and condemned to be crucified. The hours from sundown to the moment of his sentencing in the morning on the day of Passover is the whole period of his preparation. Read the whole ritual of sacrifice in Leviticus 1–7, which includes a cereal offering of wheat and a drink offering of grape wine. Compare Numbers 15:1-31 and 19:1-22.
All this is the preparation of "Christ our passover" for the great sacrifice of atonement. When Pilate sits him down on the judgment seat to pronounce sentence it is the preparation for what was to come next, and it was indeed the preparation of the passover. ἦν δὲ παρασκευὴ τοῦ πάσχα. And it was indeed about the sixth hour of the preparation of Christ our Passover for sacrifice. After he was condemned, handed over, and was led out, carrying the cross, he was crucified. And it was about 3 hours after the priests, scribes and elders had first brought him before Pilate "when the morning was come" (KJV). The reading of John 19:14 and Mark 15:25 according to the literal sense of scripture, in contrast to the difficulty-creating literalist reading, does not implicitly add the words "...of the day" to the "hour" in John 19:14 and Mark 15:25, and does not add the words "preparation [day] of the [feast of the] passover [to come that evening]", but reads them within the immediate context of the passion of the Lord without any addition, just as they are, according to the grammatical structure of the Greek text of John and the literal sense of scripture:
"he brought Jesus forth, and sat down in the judgment seat in a place that is called the pavement, but in the Hebrew, Gabbatha. And it was the preparation of the passover, and about the sixth hour" "And they bring him unto the place Golgotha, which is, being interpreted, The place of a skull. And they gave him to drink wine mingled with myrrh: but he received it not. And when they had crucified him, they parted his garments, casting lots upon them, what every man should take. And it was the third hour, and they crucified him." The third hour is 9 A.M., the sixth hour after he had been arrested.
In reality the literal sense reading of these passages in the immediate context of the passion and according to the Bible alone presents no conflict. He was crucified at 9 A.M., six hours after they laid hands on him; and he cried out and poured out his spirit and died at 3 P.M., 12 hours after they laid hands on him.
Christianity has always claimed that the scriptures of the Bible can be interpreted with correct understanding only according to the mind of the Holy Spirit indwelling the Church "the household of God, which is the church of the living God, the pillar and bulwark of the truth" 1 Timothy 3:15b. See 1 Corinthians 2:14-16: "we have the mind of Christ". This is the core controversy at the heart of Christian history. Catholic, Orthodox, Russian, Protestant, Evangelical, Reformed, Baptist, Independent and Fundamentalist churches, The Latter Day Saints, and New Age organizations with their metaphysical schools and teachers, each claim to have the mind of Christ.
See Deuteronomy 4:29, Matthew 7:7-8, John 7:16-17.


He went out with His students over the Kidron brook. A garden grew there, and He and His students walked into it. Judas, who betrayed him, also knew the place; Jesus had gone there often with His students.

Then Jesus told them, "All of you will have doubts about Me this night. Scripture says, 'I will strike the shepherd, and the sheep of the flock will be scattered abroad.' But after I have risen, I will go ahead of you into Galilee."

Peter, in answer, said to Him, "Even if all men doubt You, I will never doubt You."

Jesus told him, "I tell you truly: on this night, before the rooster crows, you will deny me three times."

Peter told him, "Even if I die with You, I will never deny You." The other students said the same.

where Jesus told them, "All of you are going to have doubts about Me tonight. It is prophesied, 'I will kill the shepherd, and then the sheep will be scattered.' But I shall rise and I shall go into Galilee before you."

But Peter said, "Even if everyone doubts You, I never will."

Jesus loved him, so he said to him,

And Jesus said to him, "Hear me when I say that tonight, before the rooster crows twice, you are going to disavow Me three times."

But Peter protested, with agitation, "Even if I end up having to die with you, I'll never disavow you." Everyone chimed in to say the same.

Then Jesus came with them to a place called Gethsemane,

By now, they were at a place called Gethsemane.

And when He arrived there, He said to them, "Pray that you do not succumb to temptation."

Jesus told his disciples, "Take a seat here, everyone. I want to pray."

and said to the students, "Stay here, while I go and pray over there."

He took Peter and the two sons of Zebedee with Him, and began to be pained and distressed.

Then he went away from them, taking Peter, James, and John, and he became very upset and distressed.

Then He told them, "My soul is very distressed, even to death. Stay here and keep watch with Me."

He said to them, "My soul is dying of sadness. Stay here and keep your eyes open."

And he was withdrawn from them about a stone's cast, and kneeled down, and prayed, And He withdrew from them to about a stone's throw away, and knelt down, and prayed, saying, "Father, if you are willing, relieve me of this burden: nevertheless it is not my will, but Yours, that shall be done."

And He went a little further on, and fell on His face, and prayed, "O Father, if You can, let this cup pass from Me. But don't do what I want, but rather what You want."

He wandered away a little, and fell to the ground. He prayed that if there were any possible way, he wouldn't have to go through what was to come. He said, "Oh Father, anything is possible for you. I don't want this fate. Take it away. But let it be what you want, not what I want."

And there appeared an angel unto him from heaven, strengthening him. And then an angel from Heaven appeared to Him there, giving Him strength. And being in an agony he prayed more earnestly: and his sweat was as it were great drops of blood falling down to the ground. And being in agony He prayed more intensely: and His sweat came forth like great drops of blood falling down to the ground. And when He rose up from prayer,

When he came back and found His students sleeping, he said to Peter, "Simon are you sleeping? Couldn't you keep your eyes open for an hour? Keep them open and pray, or else you might fail the test. The spirit is willing, but the body is weak."

and returned to His disciples, He found them sleeping from their burdens, and said to them, "Why do you sleep? Arise and pray, unless you want to fall into temptation."

Again, he went away and prayed, and he said the same thing again.

He wandered away a little, and fell to the ground. He prayed that if there were any possible way, he wouldn't have to go through what was to come. He said, "Oh Father, anything is possible for you. I don't want this fate. Take it away. But let it be what you want, not what I want."

When he got back, he found them asleep again (they were really tired), and they had no idea how to answer him.

And he came to the students, and found them asleep, and said to Peter, "Couldn't you stay up with Me for one hour? Stay up and pray that you not enter into a test. The spirit is indeed willing, but the flesh is weak."

He went away again the second time, and prayed, "My Father, if this cup cannot pass from Me unless I drink from it, then let it be done as You wish."

And He came and found them asleep again, because their eyes were heavy. And He left them, and went away again, and prayed for a third time, saying the same words.

The third time he came back, he told them, "Just sleep now. I have prayed enough, and the time has come for the Son of man to be betrayed into the hands of sinners. Get up, we must go. Look, the betrayer is here."

Then He came to His disciples, and told them, "Sleep on now, and take your rest. The hour has arrived, and the Son of man is being betrayed into the hands of sinners. Get up, and let's go. Behold, the one who is to betray me has arrived."

And just as he was saying that,

And while He was speaking,

And while He was still speaking, Judas, one of the Twelve, came. With him came a great crowd armed with swords and sticks, from among the leading priests and elders of the people. Now the traitor gave them a sign. He said, "The Man that I kiss, He is the One. Hold Him fast."

they saw a crowd, and Judas, one of the twelve disciples, walked ahead of them,

Judas came in, along with many armed men, sent by the leading priests, scribes, and elders.

So Judas, after he had brought a Roman cohort and a group from among the ranking priests and Pharisees' attendants, came there with two kinds of lights, and with weapons.

And as soon as he was there,

So Jesus, knowing all the things that were going to happen to Him, went out, and asked them, "Whom are you looking for?"

They answered Him, "Jesus of Nazareth."

And He told them, "I am he."

Judas the traitor was standing with them. So as soon as he told them, "I am he," they backed up and fell to the ground. Then He asked them again: "Whom are you looking for?"

And they said, "Jesus of Nazareth."

Jesus answered, "I said that I am he. So if you're looking for Me, let these men go."

This was so that the saying might be fulfilled, which He had just spoken: "Of those that You gave Me, none have perished."

The betrayer had made an arrangement with them: "The man I kiss is the man you want. Take him and keep him safe."

he went directly to Jesus, saying "Rabbi! Rabbi!"

and approached Jesus to kiss Him. But Jesus said to him, "Judas, do you betray the Son, a human being, with a kiss?"

And at once he came to Jesus, and said, "Hello, Teacher," and kissed Him.

and kissed him.

And Jesus said to him, "Friend, why have you come?" Then the crowd came, and laid hands on Jesus, and arrested Him.

And the armed people grabbed Jesus and took him away.

When those who were with Him saw what was about to happen, they said to Him, "Lord, shall we attack with the sword?"

And one of them struck the servant of the high priest, and cut off his right ear.

But one of the men who were standing by drew a sword and struck the high priest's slave, cutting off his ear.

And then one of the men with Jesus reached with his hand, drew his sword, and struck a slave of the High Priest and cut off his ear.

Then Simon Peter, who had a short Roman infantry-sized sword, drew it, and struck the High Priest's slave, and cut off his right ear. That slave's name was Malchus. Jesus said to Peter, "Put your sword back in its sheath. Shall I fail to drink the cup that My Father gave me?"

Then Jesus told him, "Put your sword back into its place. Everyone who takes the sword will die by the sword. Do you really think that I can't pray to My Father, and He wouldn't immediately give Me more than twelve brigades of His messengers? But in that case, how would the Scriptures be fulfilled, the ones that say that this is how it has to be?"

And Jesus answered saying, "Do not interfere."

And He touched his ear, and healed him. Then Jesus said to the chief priests, captains of the temple, and elders who had approached Him, "Have you come here, as if against a thief, with swords and staffs? When I was with you daily in the temple, you did not lay a hand on me; but this is your time, and the strength of ignorant immorality."

In that same hour Jesus said to the crowds, "Have you come out as you would against an insurrectionist, to arrest Me with swords and sticks? I was sitting every day with you, teaching in the Temple, and you didn't arrest Me then."

But all this happened, so that the Scriptures of the prophets would be fulfilled.

Jesus said, "Are you coming to get me with your swords and sticks as you would an insurrectionist? I was right there with you, teaching in the temple every single day, and you never came for me then. But the scriptures will have to be fulfilled."

Then all the students left Him behind, and ran away.

Then they all abandoned him and fled. A young man there following him, with a linen sheet wrapped around his naked body, when he was grabbed by the men. He ran away naked, leaving the sheet behind.

(Conservative Bible Amos 2:13-16 has not been translated)

Thirty

Chapter 30 Bible texts

So the detachment, the commanding officer, and the officers of the Jews seized Jesus. They seized him, and bound him, and led him away; they led Jesus away to the high priest.

Those who had taken Jesus led him away to Caiaphas the high priest, where the scribes and the elders were gathered together, and brought him into the high priest’s house, and led him to Annas first, for he was father-in-law to Caiaphas, who was high priest that year. Now it was Caiaphas who advised the Jews that it was expedient that one man should perish for the people. All the chief priests, the elders, and the scribes came together with him.

But Peter followed him from a distance, to the court of the high priest. Simon Peter followed Jesus, as did another disciple. Peter had followed him from a distance, up to where he came into the court of the high priest. Now that disciple was known to the high priest, and entered in with Jesus into the court of the high priest; but Peter was standing at the door outside. So the other disciple, who was known to the high priest, went out and spoke to her who kept the door, and brought in Peter. Then the maid who kept the door said to Peter, “Are you also one of this man’s disciples?”

He said, “I am not,” and entered in and sat with the officers, to see the end.

When they had kindled a fire in the middle of the courtyard, and had sat down together, Peter sat among them. He was sitting with the officers, and warming himself in the light of the fire. A certain servant girl saw him as he sat in the light, and looking intently at him, said, “This man also was with him.”

He denied Jesus, saying, “Woman, I do not know him.” (This was the first denial.)

Now the servants and the officers were standing there, having made a fire of coals, for it was cold. They were warming themselves. Peter was with them, standing and warming himself. After a little while someone else saw him, and said, “You also are one of them!”

But Peter answered, “Man, I am not!”

They led Jesus to Annas first, for he was father-in-law to Caiaphas, who was high priest that year. The high priest Annas therefore asked Jesus about his disciples and about his Teaching. Jesus answered him, “I spoke openly to the world. I always Taught in synagogues, and in the Temple, where the Jews always meet. I said nothing in secret. Why do you ask me? Ask those who have heard me what I said to them. Behold, they know the things which I said.”

When he had said this, one of the officers standing by slapped Jesus with his hand, saying, “Do you answer the high priest like that?”

Jesus answered him, “If I have spoken evil, testify of the evil; but if well, why do you beat me?”

Annas sent him bound to Caiaphas, the high priest.

Now Simon Peter was standing and warming himself. They said therefore to him, “You are not also one of his disciples, are you?”

He denied it and said, “I am not.”

One of the servants of the high priest, being a relative of him whose ear Peter had cut off, said, “Did I not see you in the garden with him?”

Peter therefore denied it again, and immediately the rooster crowed.

Now the chief priests and the whole council sought witnesses against Jesus to put him to death, and found none. The chief priests, the elders, and the whole council therefore sought false testimony against Jesus, that they might put him to death; and they found none. Even though many false witnesses came forward, they found none. For many gave false testimony against him, and their testimony did not agree with each other.

After about one hour passed, some stood up, and gave false testimony against him, saying, “We heard him say, ‘I will destroy this Temple that is made with hands, and in three days I will build another made without hands.’ ”

Even so, their testimony did not agree.

“We heard him say, ‘I will destroy this Temple with hands, and in three days I will build another made without hands.’ ”
“We heard him say, ‘Destroy this Temple, and I will build another.’ ”
“We heard him say, ‘I will destroy this Temple with my hands, and in three days I will build another made without hands.’ ”
“We heard him say, ‘Destroy this Temple, and I will build another made without hands.’ ”
“We heard him say, ‘I will destroy this Temple that is made with hands, and in three days I will build another.’ ”
“We heard him say, ‘I will destroy this Temple in three days, and in three days I will build another that is made without hands.’ ”

Even so their testimony did not agree.

But at last two false witnesses came forward, and said, “This man said, ‘I am able to destroy the Temple of God, and to build it in three days.’ ”

The high priest stood up, and said to him, “Have you no answer? What is this that these testify against you?”

But Jesus held his peace. He stayed quiet, and answered nothing. The high priest answered him, “I adjure you by the living God, that you tell us whether you are the Christ, the Son of God.”

Jesus said to him, “You have said it. Nevertheless, I tell you, after this you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of Power, and coming on the clouds of the heaven.”

Again the high priest asked him, “Are you the Christ, the Son of the Blessed?”

Jesus said, “I AM. You will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of Power, and coming with the clouds of the heaven.”

Then the high priest tore his clothing, the high priest tore his clothes, saying, “He has spoken blasphemy! Why do we need any more witnesses? Behold, now you have heard his blasphemy," and said, “What further need have we of witnesses? You have heard the blasphemy! What do you think?”

They answered, “He is worthy of death!”

They all condemned him to be worthy of death. Then they spat in his face and beat him with their fists, and some slapped him. Some began to spit on him, and to cover his face, and to beat him with fists, and to tell him, “Prophesy!”

The officers struck him with the palms of their hands, saying, “Prophesy to us, you Christ! Who hit you?”

Now Peter was sitting outside in the court, and a maid came to him; as Peter was in the courtyard below, one of the maids of the high priest came, saying, “You were also with Jesus, the Galilean!”

And seeing Peter warming himself, she looked at him, and said, “You were also with the Nazarene, Jesus!”

But he denied it before them all, saying, “I do not know what you are talking about. I neither know, nor understand what you are saying.”

He went out on the porch. When he had gone out onto the porch, someone else saw him, and said to those who were there, “This man also was with Jesus of Nazareth.”

The maid saw him, and began again to tell those who stood by, “This is one of them.”

But he again denied it, with an oath, “I do not know the man.” (This was the second denial.)

After a little while again those who stood by came and said to Peter, “Surely you are also one of them, for your speech makes you known.”

Those who stood by said to Peter, “You truly are one of them, for you are a Galilean, and your speech shows it.”

Another confidently affirmed, saying, “Truly this man also was with him, for he is a Galilean!”

But Peter said, “Man, I do not know what you are talking about!”

Then he began to curse, and to swear, “I do not know this man of whom you speak! I do not know the man!” (This was the third denial.)

And immediately, while he was still speaking, the rooster crowed, a rooster crowed. The rooster crowed the second time. The Lord turned and looked at Peter. Then Peter remembered the Lord’s word, the word which Jesus had said to him, how he said to him, “Before the rooster crows, you will deny me three times.” Then Peter remembered the word, how that Jesus said to him, “Before the rooster crows twice, you will deny me three times.”

When he thought about that, he wept. Then he went out and wept bitterly.

The men who held Jesus mocked him and beat him. Having blindfolded him, they struck him on the face and asked him, “Prophesy! Who is the one who struck you?”

They spoke many other things against him, insulting him.

Now when morning had come, immediately in the morning the chief priests, with the elders and scribes, and the whole council, held a consultation; and all the chief priests and the elders of the people took counsel against Jesus to put him to death.

Then as soon as it was day, the assembly of the elders of the people were gathered together, both chief priests and scribes, and they led him away into their council, saying, “If you are the Christ, tell us.”

But he said to them, “If I tell you, you will not believe, and if I ask, you will in no way answer me or let me go. From now on, the Son of Man will be seated at the right hand of the power of God.”

They all said, “Are you then the Son of God?”

He said to them, “You say it, because I AM.”

Three times they had asked him, and three times he had answered. They said, “Why do we need any more witness? For we ourselves have heard from his own mouth!”

The whole company of them rose up, and bound Jesus, and led him away. They bound him, carried him away, and brought him before Pontius Pilate, the governor, and delivered him up to Pilate.

Then Judas, who betrayed him, when he saw that Jesus was condemned, felt remorse, and brought back the thirty pieces of silver to the chief priests and elders, saying, “I have sinned in that I betrayed innocent blood.”

But they said, “What is that to us? You see to it.”

He threw down the pieces of silver in the sanctuary, and departed. He went away and hanged himself. The chief priests took the pieces of silver, and said, “It is not lawful to put them into the treasury, since it is the price of blood.”

They took counsel, and bought the potter’s field with them, to bury strangers in. Therefore that field was called “The Field of Blood” to this day. Then that which was spoken through Jeremiah the prophet was fulfilled, saying,

" 'Arise, and go down to the potter's house.'
"Thus said the LORD, 'Go, and buy a potter’s earth-en flask, and take some of the elders of the people, and of the elders of the priests; and go out to the valley of the son of Hinnom, which is by the entry of the gate Harsith, and proclaim there the words that I will tell you. Say, "Hear the LORD’s word, kings of Judah, and inhabitants of Jerusalem: The LORD of Armies, the God of Israel says, 'Behold, I will bring evil on this place, which whoever hears, his ears will tingle. Because they have forsaken me, and have defiled this place, and have burned incense in it to other gods that they did not know, they, their fathers, and the kings of Judah, and have filled this place with the blood of innocents, and have built the high places of Baal, to burn their children in the fire for burnt offerings to Baal, which I did not command, nor speak, which did not even enter into my mind. Therefore, behold, the days come,' says the LORD, 'that this place will no more be called "Topheth", nor "The Valley of the son of Hinnom", but "The valley of Slaughter".
" ' I will make the counsel of Judah and Jerusalem void in this place. I will cause them to fall by the sword before their enemies, and by the hand of those who seek their life. I will give their dead bodies to be food for the birds of the sky and for the animals of the earth. I will make this city an astonishment and a hissing. Everyone who passes by it will be astonished and hiss because of all its plagues. I will cause them to eat the flesh of their sons and the flesh of their daughters. They will each eat the flesh of his friend in the siege and in the distress, with which their enemies, and those who seek their life, will distress them.
" 'Then you shall break the container in the sight of the men who go with you, and shall tell them, "the LORD of Armies says: 'Even so I will break this people and this city, as one breaks a potter’s vessel, that cannot be made whole again. They will bury in Topheth, to the point where there is no place left to bury. This is what I will do to this place,' says the LORD, 'and to its inhabitants, even making this city as Topheth. The houses of Jerusalem, and the houses of the kings of Judah, which are defiled, will be as the place of Topheth, even all the houses on whose roofs they have burned incense to all the army of the sky and have poured out drink offerings to other gods.' " '
"Then Jeremiah came from Topheth, where the LORD had sent him to prophesy, and he stood in the court of the LORD’s house, and said to all the people: 'The LORD of Armies, the God of Israel says, "Behold, I will bring on this city and on all its towns all the evil that I have pronounced against it, because they have made their neck stiff, that they may not hear my words." ' "

And that which was spoken by the prophet Zechariah was fulfilled, saying,

"I said to them, 'If you think it best, give me my wages; and if not, keep them.' So they weighed for my wages thirty pieces of silver. The LORD said to me, 'Throw it to the potter, the handsome price that I was valued at by them!' I took the thirty pieces of silver, and threw them to the potter, in the LORD’s house."

And they took the thirty pieces of silver, the price of him upon whom a price had been set, whom some of the children of Israel priced, and they gave them for the potter’s field, as the Lord commanded.

John 18:12
Mark 14:53a
Luke 22:54b
Matthew 26:57
John 18:13-14
Mark 14:53b
Luke 22:54c
Matthew 26:58a
Mark 14:54a
John 18:15-17
Matthew 26:58b
Luke 22:55
Mark 14:54b
John 18:18
Luke 22:56-58
John 18:13 (repeated)
John 18:19-27
Mark 14:55
Matthew 26:59-60a
Mark 14:56
Luke 22:59a
Mark 14:57-59
Matthew 26:60b-62
Mark 14:60
Matthew 26:63a
Mark 14:61a
Matthew 26:63b-64
Mark 14:61b-62
Matthew 26:65
Mark 14:63-64a
Matthew 26:66
Mark 14:64b
Matthew 26:67
Mark 14:65
Matthew 26:68
Mark 14:66a
Matthew 26:69a
Mark 14:66b
Matthew 26:69b
Mark 14:67
Matthew 26:70
Mark 14:68
Matthew 26:71
Mark 14:69-70a
Matthew 26:72
Mark 14:70b after a little while again
Matthew 26:73
Mark 14:70c
Luke 22:59b-60a
Mark 14:71
Matthew 26:74a
Luke 22:60b
Matthew 26:74b
Mark 14:72a
Luke 22:61
Matthew 26:75a
Luke 22:61c
Mark 17:72b
Matthew 26:75b
Luke 22:62-65
Matthew 27:1a
Mk 15:1a
Matthew 27:1b
Luke 22:66–23:1
Matthew 27:2
Mark 15:1b
Matthew 27:3-9a
Jeremiah 18:2
Jeremiah 19
Zechariah 11:12-13
Matthew 27:9b-10

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Church History (Eusebius): The Ecclesiastical History Of Eusebius Pamphilus: Bishop Of Caesarea, In Palestine (newadvent.org)

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Suetonius: Twelve Caesars: The Lives of the Twelve Caesars by C. Suetonius Tranquilus; To which are added His Lives of the Grammarians, Rhetoricians, and Poets. The Translation of Alexander Thomson, M.D., Revised and corrected by T. Forester, Esq., A.M. (Gutenberg.org)

Tacitus: The Annals, Written 109 A.C.E. Translated by Alfred John Church and William Jackson Brodribb

Sextus Aurelius Victor: Epitome De Caesaribus (roman-emperors.org)

Eutropius: Breviarium - Eutropius's Abridgement of Roman History (tertullian.org)

Cassius Dio: Roman History Epitome (penelope.uchicago.edu)

Early Christian Writings A.D. 30 through 380 (earlychristianwritings.com)
See Biblical Canon and Apocrypha.


The Trial of Jesus.

Matthew 26:57–27:26; Mark 14:53–15:20; Luke 22:54–23:25; John 18:12–19:16.
Many have insisted that this was not a trial, but an informal hearing.
Legal experts over eighteen centuries have highlighted a multitude of highly questionable procedural irregularities in the Gospel accounts of the arrest and sentencing of the Lord Jesus Christ for blasphemy and sedition. Others have questioned the historicity and factuality of the accounts of the trial in the Gospels, as being anecdotal hearsay of people who were certainly not present at the proceedings. See
Although the taking and condemnation of Jesus by the Jews under the authority of Caiaphas has been called a trial, all the evidence seen in the Gospels indicates that this was in fact a more forceful form of the same kind of confrontation that had already occurred in the court of the Temple, and was not intended to be a trial. This is a difference in degree not in kind. All criticism of the procedure from beginning to end paradoxically presents strong evidence, against the critics' arguments, that this could not have been a trial. A trial by the Sanhedrin has been supposed solely on the basis that witnesses came forward with testimony and that the high priest as the chief presiding judge asked the chief priests and scribes and elders for their judgment. Matthew 26:59, 65-66; Mark 14:55-59, 63-64.
The Gospel writers do not use κρίνομαι krinomai "[on] trial" (RSV) "[in] question" (KJV). They do not use ἀπολογίᾳ apologia "defense" (RSV) "answer" (KJV). They do not use βῆμα Bema "tribunal" (RSV) "judgment [seat]" (KJV). They do not use κριτὴν kriton "judge" or κριτὰς kritas "judges". They do not use τὰ κατὰό,ή,τὰ ho,he,ta κατά kata "[the] case" (RSV) "[the] cause" (KJV). They do not use δίκην dikon "sentence" (RSV) "judgment" (KJV). Compare the Greek texts concerning the trials of St. Paul before his judges. Acts 18:12-17, verses 12 and 16-17; 22:30-23:7, verse 6; 24:10, 19-21, verse 21; 25:14-15; 2 Timothy 4:16. See Strong's numbers 2919, 627, 968 and 2922, 2923, and 3588, 2596, and 1349.
Every element of a trial is missing. The legalistic letter-of-the-law Jews would not have outwardly violated Torah or the tradition of the elders regarding conduct of a trial, no matter how guilty they might believe the accused to be (see Romans 2:17-20; 7:12). The leading authorities had decided instead to directly confront Jesus for themselves in an informal setting, just as the chief priests and scribes and elders, and the Pharisees and Sadducees, had already done when they had earlier (Sunday through Thursday) confronted him with questions in the Temple. They had decided to question him for themselves rather than depending on rumor and reports from those representatives they had sent to question him, however reliable they might deem their sources to be. They were already persuaded of his guilt from what they had heard, but they chose to question him directly in a first-hand, face-to-face meeting away from the people, to avoid any interruption of their questioning by disruptive reaction and interference from onlookers and supporters (Matthew 21:26, 46; Mark 11:32; 12:12; Luke 19:47-48; 20:3-6; 22:6; 20:19, 26; John 12:19). Because he had manifested openly his contempt for them, they were certain that he would not cooperate with any summons to come speak to them; he had already evaded capture on several occasions, and they did not know where to find him; so to guarantee his presence at their gathering of inquiry and examination they would bring him by force, aided by the welcome cooperation of Judas Iscariot, and question him for themselves.
However solemn was the gathering in the house of the high priest, it was not a trial, as critics have asserted, but a hostile preliminary investigation and determination of indisputable evidence out of his own mouth of Jesus' intention to foment a populist rebellion against them and against Rome by his provocative teachings on the law and his representation of himself as a legitimate Son of David, a rebellion which Rome would overwhelmingly put down by bloodshed and war (John 11:47-50). The witnesses present were onlookers who had also heard Jesus speak, selected individuals who would be called upon to prejudicially confirm or deny whatever he had previously said about his teaching and doctrine. When Jesus remained silent, these witnesses were called.
It was not blasphemous to declare oneself a "Messiah" or a "Son of God" any more than it would have been to claim to be an angel. The Pharisees who composed the majority of the Sanhredrin would dismiss such a charge at once since blasphemy could only be applied to anyone who claimed to be God Almighty (Matthew 26:63-66; Mark 14:61-62). Jesus' declaration that he was a Messiah, according to their political interpretation of his claim, merely referred to an earthly desire to ascend to the throne of David—an act of sedition against Rome surely, but not one of blasphemy. If Jesus were charged with sedition, then a gathering of the Sanhedrin would not be necessary. The affair would be preliminarily investigated by the High Priest before turning the matter over to the Roman authorities. (Indeed Caiaphas would not wish to involve the Sanhedrin if Jesus really was seditious.) See
A refusal to explicitly deny that he was the Son of God when adjured on that point was the basis of the separate charge of blasphemy. Matthew 26:63-66; Mark 14:61-64 (see John 10:24-39, verse 33: "you, being a man, make yourself God").
Their purpose was to be rid of Jesus and the perceived threat he represented to Jewish and Roman social, political and religious stability and to their authority as representatives of Moses and of God. He had exposed their hypocrisy. A charge of sedition before Pontius Pilate, the cruel and arbitrary Roman procurator and governor of Judea, was sufficient to accomplish their purpose. A trial before the whole Sanhedrin was not necessary to achieve it.

"The high priest Annas"

An amplification for clarification based on John 18:13, 19, 24.
Annas is Ananus the son of Seth and father-in-law of Caiaphas the high priest. Cyrenius (Luke 2:2, "Quirinius" RSV), had deprived the popular high priest Joazar of the dignity of the office of high priest which had been conferred on him by the people and had appointed Ananus high priest in his place. The Roman Valerius Gratus, procurator of Judea, had deposed Ananus from the office of high priest and had appointed Caiaphas in his place (Josephus, Antiquities 18.2.1-2 [26, 34-35]). While Annas lived he was still regarded unofficially by the people as their true high priest, however unpopular he was, and therefore worthy of primacy of respect. Jesus was taken first to Annas for preliminary examination; once he was satisfied, he then handed Jesus to Caiaphas.

"We heard him say...Even so their testimony did not agree."

Readers have speculated to no purpose on various possible ways they might have disagreed.
Such speculation is a distraction. See 2 Timothy 2:14; Titus 3:9.
Amplification of the text is here provided by addition of six similar yet differing variations (for a total of seven) to illustrate how they might not agree in every detail, so the reader can cease speculating about this and other similar puzzles and attend to more useful pursuits.

"What is this that these testify against you?"

Matthew 26:62 and Mark 14:60 RSV.
This redacted line is according to the more literal translation of both texts, which are identical in the Greek Bible, and are therefore the same statement.
τί οὗτοί σου καταμαρτυροῦσιν

"I adjure you by the living God..."

Matthew 26:63.
A solemn obligation imposed on Jesus by the High Priest in the line of Aaron, requiring him to answer.
Caiaphas, having the religious authority of the high priest that year, as the official head and representative of the whole people, lawfully placed Jesus under obligation to answer without evasion or equivocation the question he posed to him. (Compare Romans 13:1-2; Matthew 23:1-2; John 11:49-52; Josephus Antiquities 18.2.2 [35] and 18.4.3 [95].)
See St. Thomas Aquinas, SUMMA THEOLOGIAE II-II En Qu.89-91. Oaths and Adjuration (two pages—scroll down, click right-hand arrow at bottom of page). See question, "Whether it is lawful to adjure a man?".
In summary: Whoever adjures a man, compels him after a fashion. It properly belongs to a man's superior to induce him to swear, for the superior imposes an oath on his subject. He cannot put others under such an obligation unless they be his subjects, whom he can compel on the strength of the oath they have taken. A man by invoking the name of God, or any holy thing, intends by this adjuration to put one who is his subject under an obligation to do a certain thing, in the same way as he would bind himself by oath. Superiors may bind their inferiors by this kind of adjuration, if there be need for it. A man by an adjuration intends to put another under an obligation, in the same way as he would bind himself by oath: for thus did the high-priest presume to adjure our Lord Jesus Christ (Matthew 26:63). To adjure is not to induce a man to swear, but to employ terms resembling an oath in order to provoke another to do a certain thing. When we adjure a man we intend to alter his will by appealing to his reverence for a holy thing.
Compare multiple commentaries on John 19:11 and Deuteronomy 17:12.

"The high priest tore his clothes"

Matthew 26:65, Mark 14:63.
This tearing of clothes was a cultural expression of deep mourning or righteous indignation and moral outrage.
Many commentators have said that Caiaphas violated a regulation of the Torah which forbids the high priest to "rend his garments", and according to the Torah he is therefore cursed for breaking the law of Moses and he must die. Leviticus 10:6; 21:10; Deuteronomy 27:26; Numbers 15:27-31. They see this as a sign that the covenant with Israel was definitively broken, and that the kingdom was torn from Israel and given to Jesus the Son of David. 1 Samuel 15:27-28; 1 Kings 11:28-32. See
However, others counter that the high priest was not ritually mourning a death, but expressing genuinely horrified outrage, permissible under the law. The Torah of Moses actually offers no such exception under any circumstance (Leviticus 21:10); nevertheless the tradition of the elders as recorded in the Talmud does allow the high priest to tear his garments from the bottom up "not like an ordinary priest"—
Babylonian Talmud: Horayoth 12b MISHNAH. A HIGH PRIEST RENDS HIS GARMENTS FROM BELOW AND AN ORDINARY PRIEST FROM ABOVE.
They also suggest he was most likely not wearing the high priest's ceremonial garments that night, but his own clothing (having already decided in advance that he would have ample reason to tear them), and he was not presiding in the temple over a solemn ritual during the day, but in the high priest's house hosting an unofficial and informal gathering of the scribes and elders present for the purpose of "hearing him" for themselves (see John 7:50-51; Deuteronomy 17:6; Exodus 23:7).
The Bible also presents other serious occasions when the high priest tore his clothes in grief and dismay without violating the Torah. 2 Kings 18:37; 19:1; 1 Maccabees 2:14; 11:71.
Compare the expression of grief in Leviticus 24:16; Numbers 14:1-6; Acts 14:13-15.

"The Lord turned and looked at Peter."

Luke 22:61a.
A striking act, immediately coinciding with the third denial and the cock crowing.
Some readers find this detail puzzling or impossible, since Jesus was inside the house and Peter was outside in the courtyard. But it is not impossible that large windows and open doorways looked out onto the courtyard from an adjoining main room designed for gatherings and open discussions and debates, and public receptions or hostings of important dignitaries any season of the year. Readers who are unaware of this and who fail to place themselves in the scene within the courtyard of the high priest with an open view of the activities within might not visualize the architecture of the high priest's house, especially if they are unaware of first century Mediterranean house designs for the wealthy and powerful. The high priest's guards were also present in the courtyard, along with a large number of bystanders.
Peter had gone into the courtyard of the high priest "to see the outcome" (Matthew 26:58). The Greek word here is ἰδεῖν ideon (to see), from είδο eido, "see", Strong's number 1492: look (on), perceive, see. Hence the proceedings in that part of the house were visible from the courtyard outside.
As soon as the cock crowed and Peter remembered Jesus' words, he instantly looked across the courtyard from the porch toward Jesus standing inside before his accusers. Jesus, standing in the midst of the seated gathering, at that very moment turned and looked at Peter from inside the house through one of the doors or windows open to the courtyard, and Peter wept. This is a remarkable instance of Jesus' divine omniscience.
Luke had prefaced his Gospel with a statement that all his information had been obtained from eyewitnesses. This is not an exception.

"I AM" Greek ἐγώ εἰμι

Luke 22:70.
This is also the Greek translation of the Tetragrammaton of God's NAME in the Septuagint Old Testament.
See "I AM" Sayings in the Fourth Gospel, compiled by Felix Just, S.J., PhD.
Twenty–four of these are emphatic, explicitly including the pronoun "I" (Greek ἐγώ ego - "I am" ἐγώ εἰμι ego eimi), which would not be necessary in Greek grammar.
John 4:26; 6:20; 6:35; 6:41; 6:48; 6:51; 8:12; 8:16; 8:18; 8:23 (twice); 8:24; 8:28; 8:58; 10:7; 10:9; 10:11; 10:14; 11:25; 13:19; 14:6; 14:9; 15:1; 15:5; 18:5; 18:6; 18:8.
In all other New Testament books, “I am” occurs a total of eighty–six times (in the present tense; not counting, "I was" or "I will be"), of which only twenty–four are emphatic.
Matthew 14:27; 22:32; 24:5; 26:22, 25;
Mark 6:50; 13:6; 14:62;
Luke 1:19 (the angel Gabriel); 21:8; 22:70; 24:39;
Acts 9:5; 10:21; 18:10; 22:3, 8; 26:15, 29;
Revelation 1:8, 17; 2:23; 21:6; 22:16.
Many translators add "he" to the text where it does not appear in the Greek, as in John 18:5 and 8 "I am [he]". This is an example of eisegesis in which the translator obscures the fuller significance and meaning of Jesus' words by "correcting" the Bible (Revelation 22:18-19). Moreover, many commentaries on the "I AM" texts listed here say nothing about this unusual form of utterance by Jesus in referring to himself. Defenders of the addition of "he" to the "I AM" texts suggest that it is a legitimate dynamic translation of meaning in proper English, as distinct from a literal formal translation word-for-word "which might only confuse the ordinary reader". Perhaps the worst possible rendering of this text says, "Relax! It's only me!"
In the Hebrew Bible, the meaning of God's name (YHWH) is closely related to "I am" (see Exodus 3:14; 6:2; Deuteronomy 32:39; Isaiah 43:25; 48:12; 51:12; etc.). In the LXX, most of these passages are translated with the Greek expression ἐγώ εἰμι ego eimi:
Exodus 3:14 – God said to Moses, "I AM WHO I AM." And he said, "Say this to the people of Israel, I AM has sent me to you."
14 καὶ εἶπεν ὁ Θεὸς πρὸς Μωυσῆν λέγων· ἐγώ εἰμιὤν. καὶ εἶπεν· οὕτως ἐρεῖς τοῖς υἱοῖς ᾿Ισραήλ· ὁ ὢν ἀπέσταλκέ με πρὸς ὑμᾶς.
Exodus 6:2 – And God said to Moses, "I [am] the LORD" (Ego Kyrios).
2 ᾿Ελάλησε δὲ ὁ Θεὸς πρὸς Μωυσῆν καὶ εἶπε πρὸς αὐτόν· ἐγὼ Κύριος·
Deuteronomy 32:39a – "See now that I, even I, am [he], and there is no god beside me;"
39 ἴδετε ἴδετε ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι, καὶ οὐκ ἔστι Θεὸς πλὴν ἐμοῦ·
Isaiah 48:12 – "Hearken to me, O Jacob, and Israel, whom I called! I am He, I am the first, and I am the last."
12 ῎Ακουέ μου, ᾿Ιακὼβ καὶ ᾿Ισραήλ, ὃν ἐγὼ καλῶ· ἐγώ εἰμι πρῶτος, καὶ ἐγώ εἰμι εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα,
Thus, many interpreters believe that in the Gospel of John Jesus is making divine claims, saying "ἐγώ εἰμι".

"as the Lord commanded [me]"

Matthew 27:9-10.
Not a quotation from Jeremiah.
See commentaries on verse 9.
Biblical commentators from the end of the second century to the present day have all puzzled over this passage and asserted without any doubt that this is not a quotation from Jeremiah but from Zechariah. This is strong indirect textual evidence of the probability that the words "saying" and "me" were early scribal additions, innocently inserted by copyists who assumed the words of Matthew 27:9-10 were a direct quotation from the prophet Jeremiah. Yet all textual analysts point out that the wording does not directly correspond to any extant manuscript witness of the Book of Zechariah, leading many to the conclusion of confusion on the part of Matthew and the assumption that the passage is a loose reference to a scripture which he has wrongly attributed to Jeremiah.
In this Harmony of the Gospel (Conservative Version) the single word "me" is omitted while the word "saying" is retained, and texts from both Jeremiah and Zechariah are inserted as amplifications of the meaning of the passage, as showing that the circumstances surrounding the thirty pieces of silver and Judas' repentance, and the purchase of the potter's field, were according to prophesies of Jeremiah indirectly referenced and instantly recognizable and understood by first-century Jewish-Christians to whom the Gospel was originally addressed, so that an actual quotation of the pertinent passages of prophesy was not necessary. Matthew states simply that what they did fulfilled what had been spoken by the prophet Jeremiah. But he does not quote Jeremiah. This is an established fact beyond any possible doubt.
Compare Matthew 2:23; 9:13; 12:42; 19:8; and Matthew 21:33-42 with Isaiah 5 and Psalm 118:22-23. All of these are quotations by Matthew made without explicitly citing their source. Matthew 27:7-10 is here read as consistent with this pattern. Verse 9 is thus presented as a statement of fact, and not as a direct quotation of prophesy. What was done by Judas and the chief priests with the thirty pieces of silver did fulfill prophesy. And Matthew tells us what they did, and that it was a commandment of the Lord. Compare 1 Kings 17:8-16 in which the widow of Zeraphath was commanded by the Lord to feed Elijah but she was not aware that she was fulfilling a commandment of the Lord. See John 11:49-52 in which Caiaphas, as the high priest, did utter prophesy commanded by the Lord but he did not know it. The chief priests did with the money just as the Lord commanded, but they were not aware that they had been commanded to do so.
The words "saying" at the end of verse 9, and "me" at the end of verse 10, make a factual statement into a quotation that no one to this day has been able to fully reconcile with Jeremiah or Zechariah. On the conservative higher-critical principle that scripture is wholly consistent, this constitutes evidence strongly suggesting that the words "saying" and "me" are early inadvertent scribal additions not original to Matthew. The text of the RSV thus reconstructed reads:
Then was fulfilled what had been spoken by the prophet Jeremiah, and they took the thirty pieces of silver, the price of him on whom a price had been set by some of the sons of Israel, and they gave them for the potter's field as the Lord directed.
While this is an entirely reasonable speculative hypothesis, yet because of a lack of textual evidence which might demonstrate that these two words are omitted in early witnesses to the text of Matthew, it cannot be definitively proven, and therefore, simply on that basis alone, the suggestion of scribal error by addition is rejected as "groundless theorizing" by more liberal exegetes and critics, who prefer to both emphasize a lack of evidence and emphasize those extant apparent textual differences which speciously support their doubts about the consistency and veracity of the Bible as a whole. See Hermeneutics.

Then the cohort, and its commanding tribune, and the Jewish attendants took Jesus and bound him.

Next they took and led him

Then the armed men took Jesus to the High Priest,

And those who had arrested Jesus led Him away to Caiaphas the High Priest, where the scribes and the elders were already assembled.

into the high priest's home.

First they led Him away to Annas, father-in-law to Caiaphas, who was serving as High Priest in that year. Now Caiaphas was the one who had given advice to the Jews, that it was expedient for one man to die for the people.

and all the leading priests, elders, and scribes were assembled there.

Peter followed from a distance.

But Peter followed Him at a distance to the palace of the High Priest,

Peter followed from a distance, all the way into the High Priest's palace,

Simon Peter followed Jesus, and so did another student: that student was known to the High Priest, and went in with Jesus into the High Priest's palace. But Peter stood outside, at the door. Then that other student went out, the one whom the High Priest knew personally, and spoke to the woman guarding the door, and brought Peter in. Then the slave-girl who guarded the door said to Peter, "Aren't you also one of this Man's students?" He said, "I am not."

and went in, and sat with the attendants, to see the end.

Once they started a fire in the middle of the hall, and sat together, Peter sat down with them.

and he sat down at the fire with the attendants to keep warm.

The slaves and attendants were standing there, and had made a fire from coals, because it was cold. They were warming themselves, and Peter stood with them, to warm himself.

But a maid noticed Peter as he sat there, and looked carefully at him, saying, "This man was also with Him."

Peter denied Him, saying, "Woman, I do not know Him."

Shortly, another man saw him, and said, "You are another one of them!" But Peter said, "I am not."

The High Priest then asked Jesus about His students, and the things that He taught. Jesus answered him, "I was speaking openly to the world. I was even teaching in the synagogue, and in the Temple, where the Jews always go. I have never said anything in hiding."

Why are you asking Me? Ask those who heard Me, what I have said to them. Look, they know what I said."

When He had said that, one of the attendants slapped Jesus with the palm of his hand, and said, "Are you going to answer that way to the High Priest?"

Jesus answered him, "If I have said anything offensive, then give evidence about what I said that was so offensive; but if I have spoken good things, why did you strke Me?"

Annas had, of course, sent Him to High Priest Caiaphas with His hands bound.

Simon Peter was standing and warming himself. So they said to him, "Aren't you also one of His students?" He denied it, and said, "I am not."

One of the High Priest's slaves, a relative of the one whose ear Peter had cut off, said, "Didn't I see you in the garden with Him?"

Peter denied once again. And immediately the rooster crowed.

The leading priests and the rest of the Sanhedrin asked for testimony against Jesus so they could put him to death, but found none.

Now the leading priests, and the elders, and the entire Sanhedrin, sought trumped-up testimony against Jesus, to have Him condemned to death. But they found none. Even though many lying witnesses came, they still found none.

There was much false testimony, and the witnesses contradicted each other.

And about an hour later,

Then certain particularly deceitful witnesses said, "We heard Him say, 'I will destroy this handmade temple, and within three days I will build another without using My hands."

But these witnesses also contradicted each other.

At last came two lying witnesses, who said, "This fellow said, 'I can destroy the Temple of God and rebuild it in three days.'"

And the High Priest got up, and said to Him, "Have you no answer to what these witnesses are saying against You?"

The High Priest stood up and asked Jesus, "Do you have nothing to say? Just what are they saying about you?"

But Jesus kept quiet.

Jesus kept silent.

Then the High Priest in answer said, "I am putting you under oath by the living God: Tell us whether you are the Messiah, the Son of God."

Jesus said to him, "You just said it. Nevertheless I tell you: Hereafter you will see 'the Son of man sitting on the right hand of power, and coming in the clouds of heaven.'"

The High Priest started interrogating him again: "Are you the Christ, the Son of the blessed?"

Jesus answered, saying "I am, and you all are going to see the Son of man sitting at the right hand side of power and coming in the clouds of heaven."

Then the High Priest tore his clothes, and said, "He has spoken blasphemy! Why do we need witnesses anymore? You have heard His blasphemy!

The High Priest ripped his shirt down the middle, saying "We don't need any more witnesses! You all heard the blasphemy, now how do you vote?"

"How say you?" In answer, they voted "Guilty and sentenced to death."

And they all condemned him to death.

Then they spat in His face, and struck Him, and others slapped Him with the flats of their hands,

Some of them spat on him. They put a bag over his head and punched him. They taunted him, "Tell us the future, Prophet!", and the attendants slapped him.

and said, "Who hit You, Messiah? Guess!"

Meanwhile, Peter was downstairs in the palace,

Now Peter was sitting outside in the palace. A young woman came to him,

when one of the high priest's maids came by.

saying, "You were also with Jesus of Galilee."

And when she saw Peter warming himself, she looked at him and said, "You were with Jesus of Nazareth."

But he denied it in front of everyone, saying, "I don't know what you're talking about!"

He denied it, saying, "I do not know what you are talking about." And as he went out to the porch, the rooster crowed.

And when he had gone out onto the portico, another young woman saw him, and said to everyone present, "This man was also with Jesus of Nazareth!"

And a maid saw him again, and began to say to them that stood by, This is one of them. And another maid saw him, and said to the bystanders, "This is one of them."

But he denied it again.

And again he denied; this time he swore and said, "I don't know the Man!"

And again

And after awhile the bystanders came up to him and said to Peter, "You have to be one of them; your own words give you away."

the bystanders said to Peter, "Surely, you are one of them, for your accent is Galilean."

another man confidently said, "Surely this man was with Him, for he is a Galilean."

But Peter said, "I don't know what you're talking about."

But he began to swear, saying, "I do not know the man you speak of."

Then he started to curse and swear, saying, "I don't know the Man!"

And at that exact moment, as he was speaking, the cock crowed.

And immediately the rooster crowed.

And the cock crowed for the second time.

The Lord turned, and looked at Peter.

Peter then remembered the words of the Lord,

And Peter remembered the words that Jesus had said to him: "Before the rooster crows, you will deny Me three times."

and how He had told him, "Before the cock crows, you will deny me three times."

Peter recalled what Jesus had told him, "Before the cock crows twice, you will deny Me three times." And he wept at the thought.

And he went out and wept bitterly.

And with that Peter left, and wept bitterly.

The men who held Jesus mocked Him, and hit Him. When they blindfolded Him, they struck Him in the face, and asked Him, "Prophesize for us - which one of us just hit you?"

They said many other blasphemous things against Him as well.

The next morning,

In the morning the high priests held an urgent consultations with the elders and scribes, and the full membership of the Sanhedrin,

all the leading priests and elders of the people held a conference against Jesus, seeking a means to have Him executed.

At dawn, the elders and the high priests and scribes got together, and brought Him before their council, and questioned Him, "Are you the Christ? Tell us."

And He said to them, "If I tell you, you will not believe, And if I ask you, you will not answer me, or let me go. After today, the Son, a human being, shall sit at the right hand of the power of God."

Then they all said, "Are you, then, the Son of God?" And He said to them, "You say that I am."

They said, "Do we even need any more witnesses? We ourselves have heard His words."

And the whole assembly of them arose, and led Him to Pilate.

And they bound Him, led Him away, and delivered him to Pontius Pilate, the Roman governor.

and decided to take Jesus to Pontius Pilate.

Then Judas, who had betrayed Him, when he saw that He had been convicted, had a change of mind, and brought the thirty pieces of silver back to the leading priests and elders, and told them, "I have sinned by betraying innocent blood." And they said, "So what? That's your problem, not ours."

And he threw down the pieces of silver in the temple, and left, and went out and killed himself. And the leading priests took the silver pieces, and said, "We can't put this into the treasury; this is blood money."

And they held a conference, and used the money to buy a potter's field for burying foreigners. And that is why that field is called the Field of Blood, even today. Thus these words were fulfilled that were spoken by the prophet Jeremiah:

(Conservative Bible text of Jeremiah 19 has not been translated
See Conservative Bible Jeremiah 19 KJV)

(Conservative Bible text of Zechariah 11:12-13 has not been translated
See Conservative Bible Zechariah 11 KJV)

"And they took the thirty pieces of silver, the price of the Precious One, held precious by the children of Israel, and gave them to buy a potter's field, as the Lord instructed Me."

Thirty-one

Chapter 31 Bible texts

They led Jesus therefore from Caiaphas into the Praetorium. It was early, and they themselves did not enter into the Praetorium, that they might not be defiled, but might eat the Passover. Pilate therefore went out to them, and said, “What accusation do you bring against this man?”

They answered him, “If this man were not an evildoer, we would not have delivered him up to you.”

Pilate therefore said to them, “Take him yourselves, and judge him according to your law.”

Therefore the Jews said to him, “It is illegal for us to put anyone to death,” that the word of Jesus might be fulfilled, which he spoke, signifying by what kind of death he should die.

They began to accuse him, saying, “We found this man perverting the nation, forbidding paying taxes to Caesar, and saying that he himself is Christ, a king.”

Pilate therefore entered again into the Praetorium, called Jesus, and said to him, “Are you the King of the Jews?”

Now Jesus stood before the governor: and the governor Pilate asked him, saying, “Are you the King of the Jews?”

Jesus said to him, “So you say”; he answered, “So you say.”

Jesus answered him, “Do you say this by yourself, or did others tell you about me?”

Pilate answered, “I am not a Jew, am I? Your own nation and the chief priests delivered you to me. What have you done?”

Jesus answered, “My Kingdom is not of this world. If my Kingdom were of this world, then my servants would fight, that I would not be delivered to the Jews. But now my Kingdom is not from here.”

Pilate therefore said to him, “Are you a king then?”

Jesus answered, “You say that I am a king. For this reason I have been born, and for this reason I have come into the world, that I should testify to the truth. Everyone who is of the truth listens to my voice.”

Pilate said to him, “What is truth?”

When he had said this, he went out again to the Jews. Pilate said to the chief priests and the multitudes, “I find no basis for a charge against this man.”

The chief priests accused him of many things. When he was accused by the chief priests and elders, he answered nothing. Then Pilate said to him, “Do you not hear how many things they testify against you?”

He gave him no answer, not even one word, so that the governor marveled greatly. Pilate again asked him, “Have you no answer? See how many things they testify against you!”

But Jesus made no further answer, so that Pilate marveled. Pilate said to the chief priests and the multitudes, “I find no basis for a charge against this man.”

But they insisted, saying, “He stirs up the people, Teaching throughout all Judea, beginning from Galilee even to this place.”

But when Pilate heard Galilee mentioned, he asked if the man was a Galilean. When he found out that he was in Herod’s jurisdiction, he sent him to Herod, who was also in Jerusalem during those days.

Now when Herod saw Jesus, he was exceedingly glad, for he had wanted to see him for a long time, because he had heard many things about him. He hoped to see some miracle done by him. He questioned him with many words, but he gave no answers. The chief priests and the scribes stood, vehemently accusing him.

Herod with his soldiers humiliated him and mocked him. Dressing him in luxurious clothing, they sent him back to Pilate. Herod and Pilate became friends with each other that very day, for before that they were enemies with each other.

While he was sitting on the judgment seat, his wife sent to him, saying, “Have nothing to do with that righteous man, for I have suffered many things today in a dream because of him.”

Now he had to release one prisoner to them at the feast. At the feast the governor was accustomed to release to the multitude one prisoner, whom they desired; he used to release to them one prisoner, whom they asked of him. There was one called Barabbas.

They had then a notable prisoner, called Jesus Barabbas—one who was thrown into prison for a certain revolt in the city, and for murder, bound with his fellow insurgents, men who in the insurrection had committed murder. Now Barabbas was a robber.

The multitude, crying aloud, began to ask him to do as he always did for them.

Pilate called together the chief priests, the rulers, and the people, and said to them, “You brought this man to me as one that perverts the people, and behold, having examined him before you, I found no basis for a charge against this man concerning those things of which you accuse him. Neither has Herod, for I sent you to him, and see, nothing worthy of death has been done by him. I will therefore chastise him and release him. I find no basis for a charge against him. But you have a custom, that I should release someone to you at the Passover. Therefore, do you want me to release to you the King of the Jews?” Pilate answered them, saying, “Do you want me to release to you the King of the Jews?” for he perceived that for envy the chief priests had delivered him up.

But the chief priests stirred up the multitude, that he should release Barabbas to them instead. When therefore they were gathered together, Pilate said to them, “Whom do you want me to release to you? Jesus Barabbas, or Jesus, who is called Christ?”

For he knew that because of envy they had delivered him up.

But they all cried out together, saying, “Away with this man! Release to us Barabbas!”

Now the chief priests and the elders persuaded the multitudes to ask for Barabbas, and destroy Jesus. Then they all shouted again, saying, “Not this man, but Barabbas!”

But the governor answered them, “Which of the two do you want me to release to you?”

They said, “Barabbas!”

Pilate said to them, “What then shall I do to Jesus, who is called Christ?”

They all said to him, “Let him be crucified!”

But the governor said, “Why? What evil has he done?”

But they cried out exceedingly, saying, “Let him be crucified!”

Then Pilate spoke to them again, wanting to release Jesus. Pilate again asked them, “What then should I do to him whom you call the King of the Jews?”

But they shouted, saying, “Crucify! Crucify him!”

He said to them the third time, “Why? What evil has this man done? I have found no capital crime in him. I will therefore chastise him and release him.”

They cried out again, “Crucify him!”

Pilate said to them, “Why, what evil has he done?”

But they cried out exceedingly, “Crucify him!”

So when Pilate saw that nothing was being gained, but rather that a disturbance was starting, he took water, and washed his hands before the multitude, saying, “I am innocent of the blood of this righteous person. You see to it.”

All the people answered, “May his blood be on us, and on our children!”

Then he released to them Barabbas, but Jesus he flogged. Pilate, wishing to please the multitude, released Barabbas to them, and handed over Jesus, when he had flogged him. So Pilate then took Jesus, and flogged him.

The soldiers twisted thorns into a crown, and put it on his head, and dressed him in a purple garment. They kept saying, “Hail, King of the Jews!” and they kept slapping him.

Then Pilate went out again, and said to them, “Behold, I bring him out to you, that you may know that I find no basis for a charge against him.”

Jesus therefore came out, wearing the crown of thorns and the purple garment. Pilate said to them, “Ecce homo! Behold, the man!”

When therefore the chief priests and the officers saw him, they shouted, saying, “Crucify! Crucify!”

Pilate said to them, “Take him yourselves, and crucify him, for I find no basis for a charge against him.”

The Jews answered him, “We have a law, and by our law he ought to die, because he made himself the Son of God.”

When therefore Pilate heard this saying, he was more afraid. He entered into the Praetorium again, and said to Jesus, “Where are you from?”

But Jesus gave him no answer. Pilate therefore said to him, “You are not speaking to me? Do you not know that I have power to release you and have power to crucify you?”

Jesus answered, “You would have no power at all against me, unless it were given to you from above. Therefore he who delivered me to you has greater sin.”

At this, Pilate was seeking to release him, but the Jews cried out, saying, “If you release this man, you are not Caesar’s Friend! Everyone who makes himself a king speaks against Caesar!”

When Pilate therefore heard these words, he brought Jesus out and sat him down on the judgment seat at a place called “The Pavement”, but in Hebrew, “Gabbatha.” Now it was the Day of Preparation, before the Sabbath, the Preparation Day of the Passover, at about the sixth hour,. He said to the Jews, “Behold, your King!”

But they were urgent with loud voices, asking that he might be crucified. They cried out, “Away with him! Away with him! Crucify him!”

Pilate said to them, “Shall I crucify your King?”

The chief priests answered, “We have no king but Caesar!”

And their voices and the voices of the chief priests prevailed.

So then he delivered him to them to be crucified. Pilate decreed that what they asked for should be done. He released him who had been thrown into prison for insurrection and murder, for whom they asked, but he delivered Jesus up to their will. So they took Jesus and led him away.

Then the governor’s soldiers took Jesus into the Praetorium. The soldiers led him away within the court, which is the Praetorium; and they called together the whole cohort, and gathered the whole garrison together against him. They stripped him, and put a scarlet robe on him. They clothed him with a purple cloak, and weaving a crown of thorns, they put it on him. They braided a crown of thorns and put it on his head, and a reed in his right hand; and they kneeled down before him. They began to salute him, and mocked him, saying, “Hail, King of the Jews! Hail, King of the Jews!”

They spat on him, and took the reed and struck him on the head. They struck his head with a reed, and spat on him, and bowing their knees, did homage to him. When they had mocked him, they took the purple cloak off him, they took the scarlet robe off him, and put his own garments on him—they put his clothes on him, and led him away. They led him out to crucify him.

John 18:28-32
Luke 23:2
John 18:33
Matthew 27:11
Mark 15:2
Luke 23:3
John 18:34-38a
Luke 23:4
Mark 15:3
Matthew 27:12
Matthew 27:13-14
Mark 15:4-5
Luke 23:4-12 verse 4 repeated
Matthew 27:19
Luke 23:17
Matthew 27:15
Mark 15:6-7a
Matthew 27:16
Luke 23:19
Mark 15:7b
John 18:40b
Mark 15:8
Luke 23:13-16
John 18:38b-39
Mark 15:9-11
Matthew 27:17-18
Luke 23:18
John 18:40a
Matthew 27:20-23
Luke 23:20
Mark 15:12
Luke 23:21-22
Mark 15:13-14
Matthew 27:24-26ab
Mark 15:15ab
John 19:1-14
Luke 23:23a
John 19:15
Luke 23:23b
John 19:16a
Matthew 27:26c
Mark 15:15c
Luke 23:24-25
John 19:16b
Matthew 27:27a
Mark 15:16
Matthew 27:27b
Matthew 27:28
Mark 15:17
Matthew 27:29
Mark 15:18
Matthew 27:30
Mark 15:19
Mark 15:20a
Matthew 27:31ab
Mark 15:20b
Matthew 27:31c

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Church History (Eusebius): The Ecclesiastical History Of Eusebius Pamphilus: Bishop Of Caesarea, In Palestine (newadvent.org)

The Works of Flavius Josephus William Whiston, Translator, 1737 (sacred-texts.com)

Suetonius: Twelve Caesars: The Lives of the Twelve Caesars by C. Suetonius Tranquilus; To which are added His Lives of the Grammarians, Rhetoricians, and Poets. The Translation of Alexander Thomson, M.D., Revised and corrected by T. Forester, Esq., A.M. (Gutenberg.org)

Tacitus: The Annals, Written 109 A.C.E. Translated by Alfred John Church and William Jackson Brodribb

Sextus Aurelius Victor: Epitome De Caesaribus (roman-emperors.org)

Eutropius: Breviarium - Eutropius's Abridgement of Roman History (tertullian.org)

Cassius Dio: Roman History Epitome (penelope.uchicago.edu)

Early Christian Writings A.D. 30 through 380 (earlychristianwritings.com)
See Biblical Canon and Apocrypha.


"and they themselves did not enter into the Praetorium, that they might not be defiled, but might eat the Passover."

John 18:29.
The Solemnity of Unleavened Bread. See the following two articles:
"Passover" here in John 18:29 is a reference to the solemn Feast of Unleavened Bread, the second day of Passover, which begins at sundown. It coincided that year with the weekly Sabbath day, making that Sabbath "an high day" (John 19:31).
By the first century, the yearly celebrations of Passover and the seven days of Unleavened Bread immediately following were both indifferently referred to as Passover and Unleavened Bread. They were regarded as one. Passover was called Unleavened Bread and Unleavened Bread was called Passover. They "ate the Passover" all eight days.
The Christian New Testament also calls Passover "the first day of Unleavened Bread".
Matthew 26:2, 18-19; Mark 14:1, 12-16; Luke 21:22, 7-15; John 13:1.
The solemn first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread was the second day of the eight-day observance of the Passover season of Unleavened Bread and was therefore also the Passover, "an high day" and also the Sabbath. The chief priests did not wish to become ritually defiled.
See Exodus 12:2-20; 13:3-10; Leviticus 23:5-8; Numbers 28:16-25; Deuteronomy 16:2-8.
The day of Passover that year also coincided with the normal weekly day of preparation (of the Sabbath) on Friday, the sixth day. The weekly day of preparation that Friday was the day of Passover that year.
See marginal notes, chapter 29.
See also Can you date the crucifixion of Jesus Christ using astronomy? (holtz.org). The date determined by astronomical calculation is Friday 3 April A.D. 33, Passover beginning Thursday evening Nisan 14.

"Jesus Barabbas, or Jesus, who is called Christ?"

Matthew 27:16-17.
This reading is found in only a few textual witnesses, but its absence in the majority may be a result of reverence for the name of Jesus. It is entirely possible that the double name is the original reading in Matthew. Jesus was a common Jewish name, an Aramaic form of Joshua. The Aramaic name Barabbas means "son of the father". The audience for whom the Gospel of Matthew was originally written knew this, and it would be evident to them that a choice offered the Jews between Jesus Barabbas and Jesus, the true Son of the Father is ironic.

"Now it was the Preparation of the Passover, at about the sixth hour."

John 19:14.
The sixth hour since Jesus was arrested in the Garden of Gethsemane, and the sixth hour of his Passion.
According to Mark and Luke it was the third hour of the day, about 9 A.M. Jesus was arrested about the "hour of darkness", which is traditionally 3 A.M. The sixth hour after would be about 9 A.M. The Greek text does not say it was the Preparation day of the Passover and about the sixth hour of the day, but says "it was the preparation of the Passover" and "it was about the sixth hour". John's characteristic use of language includes deeper meanings for the Christian than the surface letter of the text presents to the ordinary literalistic reader.
See 1 Corinthians 5:7, "Christ our Passover is sacrificed". It was the Preparation of Jesus Christ our Passover for the sacrifice he was about to make in reparation for the sins of all mankind, past, present and future.
An uninformed "clear and plain" literal surface reading of the text eisegetically introduces a problem which does not exist. The average literalist reader assumes that Passover is only one day and not seven or eight days in duration. A literalistic and Fundamentalist comparative reading of the Synoptics (Matthew, Mark, Luke) sees inexplicable and confusing contradiction in the account of John. Such a reading is divorced from the actual literal sense of scripture, a sense which can be found within the whole of the context of the Bible, and in the conservative sola scriptura Protestant principle that scripture is divinely inspired, inerrant and self-consistent, and in the apostolic tradition of the Orthodox and Catholic Church.
Reasoning from the sacred tradition that the Bible is the inspired word of God who cannot lie, Jesus ate the Passover, Passover is the first day of Unleavened Bread, the days of Unleavened Bread are seven, the chief priests wish to eat the Passover, therefore Passover is more than one day and Jesus ate the real Passover, as the Bible says, and the chief priests are planning to eat the Passover on the second day of the Passover which is Unleavened Bread, as the Bible says, and thus there is no inconsistency in John's Gospel when compared with the Synoptics and the rest of the Bible.
See discussion and analysis of this specious difficulty in marginal notes, chapter 29.

"Caesar's Friend"

John 19:12.
A political title of authority, similar to an official officer of the Emperor's Cabinet, or to a trusted and appointed official supporter and officer of international affairs of state in the President's administration in Europe, Asia, Africa, South America or the Pacific.
Compare Daniel 2:48-49; 4:29-30/4:96-97; 5:29; 14:2; 1 Maccabees 6:14; 7:8; 10:59-60; 11:27; 14:38-39; 15:32; 2 Maccabees 10:12-13; 14:11. Those who betrayed the trust of the title of "Friend of Caesar" were subject to removal, disgrace, and exile, even execution for treason. The chief priests were threatening to denounce Pilate to the Emperor if he released Jesus.
History records that he was afterward recalled to Rome to give an account of his specific handling of the case of Jesus of Nazareth and of his generally harsh and arbitrary conduct as procurator of Judea. Historically uncertain legend tells that he and his wife Procula both became Christians and died as martyrs for the faith. The Orthodox Church celebrates their feast days. The Abyssinian Church reckons him as a saint, and assigns 25 June to him and to Claudia Procula, his wife. The belief that she became a Christian goes back to the second century, and may be found in Origen (Hom., in Mat., xxxv). The Greek Church assigns her a feast on 27 October (Catholic Encyclopedia: Pontius Pilate).

"he brought Jesus out and sat him down on the judgment seat"

John 19:14
Many manuscripts have "he brought Jesus out and seated him on the judge's bench" (NAB), which in the Greek is ambiguous. It can mean that Pilate brought Jesus out and with ceremony solemnly sat himself down on the judgment seat; or it can mean that Pilate brought Jesus out and sat Jesus down on the judgment seat to mock the Jews and Jesus (see John 19:2-3; Matthew 27:28-31; Mark 15:17-20; Luke 23:11). In John's thought, Jesus is the real judge of the world, and John may here be portraying him seated on the judgment bench. Pilate did say to the Jews, “Behold, your King!” (John 19:14-15). This reading of Jesus on the judgment seat is entirely consistent with the way John uses language to simultaneously include Christian doctrine and the fulfillment of Old Testament prophesy in his narration of particular details of Jesus' ministry, passion, death and resurrection. Another particular example is the marriage on the third day, when Jesus is present with his disciples and water is transformed into wine, and his disciples believe in him. Jesus rose on the third day, and every Eucharist is the marriage feast of the Lamb of God with his Bride the Church (Revelation 19:6-9; 20:1-10).
See multiple commentaries and Catholic NRSVCE Bible notes on John 18 and 19.

scourging

John 19:1-16 and Matthew 27:26-31, Mark 15:15-20.
There was only one scourging.
The scourging in John, where Jesus is clothed afterward in a purple garment and brought out, is the scourging before he is condemned by Pilate to be crucified. Luke says nothing about Jesus being scourged, and both Matthew and Mark simply state ambiguously that Pilate handed Jesus over to be crucified, having scourged him. John says they struck him with their hands, but he does not say that they put a reed in his hand and then struck him on the head with it; Matthew and Mark do. In Matthew and Mark, after he was condemned, having (already) been scourged by Pilate, he was taken away into the praetorium and stripped, and a scarlet robe was put on him and he was clothed in a purple cloak. A robe and a cloak are two different garments, and there is no confusing them.
The scarlet robe and purple cloak of the RSV text is read here in agreement with other versions, but not all versions and manuscripts agree. Many have a scarlet robe or cloak and a purple cloak or robe.
Compare versions of Matthew 27:28 and Mark 15:17.
Keeping the action in narrative sequence strictly in accordance with the sequence of the accounts in the Gospels, Pilate having scourged him, the resultant redacted narrative text here strongly suggests that the soldiers stripped Jesus of the purple garment and put the scarlet robe upon him and clothed him in a purple cloak, and mocked him again. It does present the plaiting of a crown of thorns twice, but this is not impossible, especially if they had decided to make one that was more painful.

Then they led Jesus from Caiaphas to the Praetorium. It was early, and they themselves did not go into the Praetorium, because they did not want to make themselves ritually unclean before they had eaten their Passover meal.

Then Pontius Pilate went out to them, and said, "What charge are you bringing against this Man?"

In answer, they told him, "If he were not doing evil, we would not have handed Him over to you."

Then Pilate told them, "Then you take Him, and try Him according to your Law."

So the Jews told him, "We are not allowed to put any man to death."

This is how the saying of Jesus would be fulfilled, as He had said, signifying the sort of execution He would suffer.

And they began to accuse Him, saying, "We found this man corrupting the nation, forbidding others to give tribute to Caesar, saying that He Himself is Christ and King."

Then Pilate went back into the Praetorium, and called Jesus, and said to him, "Are You the King of the Jews?"

And Jesus stood before the governor. The governor asked Him, "Are you the King of the Jews?"

Pilate asked Him, "Are you the King of the Jews?" And in answer He said, "You say that."

And Pilate questioned Him, saying, "Are You the King of the Jews?" And He answered him saying, "You are saying it".

Jesus answered him, "Are you saying something that came from you, or did others tell you that about Me?"

Pilate answered, "Am I a Jew? Your own national group and the ranking priests have handed You over to me. Now what have You done?"

Jesus answered, "My sovereignty does not come from this world. If by sovereignty came from this world, then my group would fight to stop me from being handed over to the Jews. But now my sovereignty is not from here."

So Pilate said to Him, "Are You a ruler, then?"

Jesus answered, "You say that I am a ruler. I was born for this purpose, and came into this world for this reason, that I should testify to the truth. Everyone who cares about the truth hears My Voice."

Pilate asked Him, "What is 'Truth'?" And when he had said that, he went out again to the Jews,

Then Pilate said to the chief priests and to the people, "I find no fault in this man".

And the leading priests accused Him of many things,

And when He was accused by the leading priests and elders,

but He did not answer.

He gave no answer.

Then Pilate said to him, "Don't you hear how many things to which they testify against You?"

And Jesus never said one word in answer, so that the governor was shocked as he had never been shocked before.

Pilate asked Him again, "Have You nothing to say? Look at how many accusations they make against You."

But Jesus said nothing, and Pilate was shocked as he had never been shocked before in his career.

Then Pilate said to the chief priests and to the people, "I find no fault in this man".

And they became more aggressive, saying, "He stirs up the people, teaching throughout all the Jewish lands, beginning from Galilee to this place".

When Pilate heard the mention of Galilee, he asked whether Jesus was a Galilean. And as soon as he realized that He belonged under Herod's jurisdiction, he sent Him to Herod, who was also at Jerusalem at that time.

And when Herod saw Jesus, he was exceeding glad: for he had hoped to meet Him for a long time, because he had heard many things about Him; and he hoped to witness a miracle done by Him. Then he questioned Him at length; but He provided no answers. And the chief priests and scribes stood and vehemently accused Him.

And Herod and his soldiers stripped Him, and mocked Him, and dressed Him in a gorgeous robe, and returned Him to Pilate. And on that day Pilate and Herod became friends: for up until that time they were adversaries.

When he had sat down on the judgment seat, his wife sent him a message: "Don't have anything to do with That Just Man. I have had many nightmares today on His account!"

(For under the law he must release one prisoner at the time of the feast.)

Now at the festival the governor was accustomed to release to the people a prisoner, whomever they wanted released.

Now at Passover, Pilate always released one prisoner, chosen by the people. There was one named Barabbas,

And at the time they held a notable prisoner, named Barabbas.

(Who for committing sedition in the city, and for murder, had been imprisoned.)

who was imprisoned because he had rebelled and committed murder in the rebellion.

Now Barabbas was an insurrectionist.

And the crowds cried aloud, begging Pilate to release a prisoner as he always had.

And Pilate, when he had summoned the chief priests and the rulers and the people, said to them, "You have brought this man to me, as one who corrupts the people: and, bear witness; I, having examined him before you, have found no fault in this man regarding your accusations: nor has Herod: for I sent you to him; and there, nothing worthy of death was found either. I will therefore chastise him, and release him".

and told them, "I find nothing in Him at all to accuse Him of. But you have a custom by which I release one person to you at Passover. So: do you want me to release the King of the Jews to you?"

So Pilate answered them, saying, "Do you wish me to release the King of the Jews?" since he knew the leading priests had brought Jesus to him out of envy of His popularity.

But the leading priests influenced the people to request the release of Barabbas.

So when they were assembled, Pilate told them, "Whom do you want me to release to you? Barabbas, or Jesus that is called Christ?" because he knew that they had handed Him over out of envy.

And they cried out all at once, saying, "Keep this man, and release Barabbas instead!":

And they cried out again, and said, "Not this Man, but Barabbas!"

But the leading priests and elders had persuaded the crowd to ask for Barabbas, and destroy Jesus. The governor said in answer, "Which of these two do you want me to release to you?"

They said, "Barabbas."

Pilate said to them, "Then what should I do with Jesus called Christ?"

They all said to him, "Let Him be crucified!"

And the governor said, "Why? What crime has He committed?"

But they cried out even more loudly: "Let Him be crucified!"

Pilate however, being inclined to release Jesus, spoke to them again.

So Pilate said to the crowds, "What, then, do you wish me to do to the Man you call the King of the Jews?"

But they cried out, saying, "Crucify Him, crucify Him!".

And he reasoned with them a third time, "Why, what evil has He done? I have found nothing worthy of death in His acts: I will therefore chastise Him, and let Him go".

And the crowds cried out, "Crucify Him."

So Pilate said to them, "Why? What has he done wrong?" And they cried out louder, "Crucify Him!"

When Pilate realized that he could not win, and indeed risked having a riot on his hands, he took water, and washed his hands in front of the crowd, saying, "I am innocent of this man's blood; this is your responsibility!"

Then all the people shouted in answer, "Let His blood be on us, and on our children!"

So he released Barabbas to them, and when he had had Jesus scourged,

So Pilate, to keep the people content, released Barabbas to them, and had Jesus scourged

So Pilate took Jesus and had Him gone over with the cat-of-nine-tails. And the soldiers plaited an emperor's crown of thorns, and put it on His head, and put a purple robe on Him, and said, "Hail, King of the Jews!" And they struck Him with their hands.

So Pilate went out again, and said to them, "Look! I am bringing Him out to you, so that you can understand that I find no basis for a charge against Him!"

Then Jesus came out, wearing the crown of thorns, and the purple robe. And Pilate said to them, "Look at the Man!"

So when the ranking priests and their attendants saw Him, they cried out and said, "Crucify Him! Crucify Him!"

Pilate told them, "You take Him and crucify Him. I find no basis in Him for that."

The Jews answered him, "We have a Law, and by our Law he has to die, because He made Himself the Son of God!"

So when Pilate heard those words, he was even more afraid than before. Again he went into the Praetorium, and said to Jesus, "Where did You come from?"

But Jesus didn't answer him. Then Pilate asked him, "Aren't you going to speak to me? Don't you know that I have the authority to release You, and have the authority to crucify You?"

Jesus answered, "You couldn't have any authority at all against Me, unless it were given to You from above. So he who handed me over to you has the greater sin."

And from that point on, Pilate tried to release Him. But the Jews cried out and said, "If you let this Man go, you are not Caesar's friend! Whoever makes himself a king is speaking against Caesar!"

So when Pilate heard them say that, he brought Jesus out, and sat down in his curule chair of judgment in a place that is called the Pavement, but in Hebrew, Gabbatha. It was the preparation day of the Passover season, and about the noon hour. And he said to the Jews, "Look at your King!"

And their reaction was immediate and loud, demanding that He should be crucified.

But they cried out, "Away with Him, away with Him! Crucify Him!" Pilate said to them, "Shall I crucify your King?"

The High Priest said in answer, "We have no king but Caesar!"

And their voices and those of the chief priests prevailed.

So he handed Him over to them to be crucified.

he handed him over to be crucified.

and sent to be crucified.

And Pilate issued the sentence as they demanded. And he pardoned to them the man who was imprisoned for sedition and murder, who they had requested; but he delivered Jesus to their will.

They took Jesus and led him away.

Then the soldiers of the governor took Jesus into the garrison courtyard,

The soldiers then took Him into the garrison barracks (the Praetorium) and summoned the entire garrison.

and gathered the entire garrison together to watch Him.

And they tore His clothes off, and put a red infantryman's cloak on Him.

They dressed Him in purple and made a wreath of thorns, which they stuck on His head.

Then they wove together a crown of thorns and put it on His head, and put a reed in His right hand. Then they dropped to one knee before Him, and mocked Him, saying, "Hail, King of the Jews!"

They then began to deliver mocking salutes: "Hail, King of the Jews!"

And they spat on Him, and took the reed away from Him, and batted Him on the head with it.

They beat His head with a stick and spat on Him, and genuflected in mock worship of Him.

After mocking Him, they stripped Him of the purple robe,

And after they were finished mocking Him, they took the war cloak off Him, and put his own clothes back on Him,

dressed Him in His own clothes, and led Him out to crucify Him.

and led Him away to crucify Him.

Thirty-two

Chapter 32 Bible texts

He went out, bearing his cross, to the place called “The Place of a Skull”, which is called in Hebrew, “Golgotha”, in Latin "Calvaria"—"Calvary".

When they led him away, as they came out, they found a man of Cyrene, Simon by name; they grabbed one Simon of Cyrene, coming from the country, and they compelled him to go with them, that he might carry his cross. They compelled one passing by, coming from the country, Simon of Cyrene, the father of Alexander and Rufus, to go with them, that he might help bear his cross, and they laid on him the cross, one end of the cross, to help carry it behind Jesus. So Jesus went forth, still bearing his cross, and Simon helped bear it behind him.

A great multitude of the people followed him, including women who also mourned and lamented him. But Jesus, turning to them, said, “Daughters of Jerusalem, do not weep for me, but weep for yourselves and for your children. For behold, the days are coming in which they will say, ‘Blessed are the barren, the wombs that never bore, and the breasts that never nursed.’ Then they will begin to tell the mountains, ‘Fall on us!’ and tell the hills, ‘Cover us.’ For if they do these things in the green tree, what will be done in the dry?”

There were also others, two criminals, led with him to be put to death. They brought him to the place called Golgotha, which is, being interpreted, “The place of a skull,” in Latin "Calvaria"—Calvary.

When they came to the place that is called “The Skull”, in Latin "Calvaria"—Calvary, a place called “Golgotha”, that is to say, “The place of a skull,” where they crucified him—they gave him sour wine to drink mixed with bitter gall; they offered him wine mixed with bitter myrrh to drink, but he did not take it. When he had tasted it, he would not drink.

Then it was the third hour, and they crucified him, and with him two others. There were two robbers crucified with him, one on his right hand and one on the left. They crucified him there with the criminals, one on the right and the other on the left, on either side one, and Jesus in the middle. With him they crucified two robbers; one on his right hand, and one on his left. The Scripture was fulfilled, which says,

“He was counted with transgressors.”

Jesus said, “Father, forgive them, for they do not know what they are doing.”

Then the soldiers, crucifying him, when they had crucified Jesus, when they had crucified him, took his garments and made four parts; dividing his garments among them, they cast lots. They parted his garments among them, they divided his clothing among them, casting lots, casting lots on them, what each should take; to every soldier a part; and also the coat. Now the coat was without seam, woven from the top throughout. Then they said to one another, “Let us not tear it, but cast lots for it to decide whose it will be,” that the Scripture might be fulfilled, which says,

“They parted my garments among them. For my cloak they cast lots.”

Therefore the soldiers did these things.

Pilate wrote a title also, and put it on the cross. The inscription was written over him in letters of Hebrew, and Latin, and Greek: “THIS IS JESUS OF NAZARETH, THE KING OF THE JEWS.” The superscription of his accusation was written over him, “THIS IS THE KING OF THE JEWS”—“THE KING OF THE JEWS.” They set up over his head the accusation against him, “THIS IS JESUS, THE KING OF THE JEWS.” There was written, “JESUS OF NAZARETH, THE KING OF THE JEWS.” Therefore many of the Jews read this title, for the place where Jesus was crucified was near the city; and it was written in Hebrew, in Latin, and in Greek. The chief priests of the Jews therefore said to Pilate, “Do not write, ‘The King of the Jews,’ but, ‘He said, “I am King of the Jews.” ’ ”

Pilate answered, “What I have written, I have written.”

And they sat and watched him there.

Those who passed by blasphemed him, wagging their heads, and saying, “You who destroy the Temple, and build it in three days, save yourself! If you are the Son of God, come down from the cross!”

Likewise the chief priests also mocking, with the scribes, the Pharisees, and the elders, said, “He saved others, but he cannot save himself. If he is the King of Israel, let him come down from the cross now, and we will believe in him. He trusts in God. Let God deliver him now, if he wants him; for he said, ‘I am the Son of God.’ ”

The robbers also who were crucified with him cast on him the same reproach.

Those who passed by blasphemed him, wagging their heads, and saying, “Ha! You who destroy the Temple, and build it in three days, save yourself, and come down from the cross!”

Likewise, also the chief priests mocking among themselves with the scribes said, “He saved others. He cannot save himself. Let the Christ, the King of Israel, now come down from the cross, that we may see and believe him.”

Those who were crucified with him also insulted him.

But standing by Jesus’s cross were his mother, his mother’s sister, Mary the wife of Clopas, and Mary Magdalene. Therefore when Jesus saw his mother, and the disciple whom he loved standing there, he said to his mother, “Woman, behold, your son!”

Then he said to the disciple, “Behold, your mother!”

From that hour, the disciple took her to his own home.

The people stood watching. The rulers with them also scoffed at him, saying, “He saved others. Let him save himself, if this is the Christ of God, his chosen one!”

The soldiers also mocked him, coming to him and offering him vinegar, and saying, “If you are the King of the Jews, save yourself!”

They read the inscription over him, "This is the King of the Jews."

One of the criminals who was hanged insulted him, saying, “If you are the Christ, save yourself and us!”

But the other, repenting, answered, and rebuking him said, “Do you not even fear God, seeing you are under the same condemnation? And we indeed justly, for we receive the due reward for our deeds, but this man has done nothing wrong.”

He said to Jesus, “Lord, remember me when you come into your Kingdom.”

Jesus said to him, “Assuredly I tell you, today you will be with me in Paradise.”

It was now about the sixth hour, and darkness came over the whole land. When the sixth hour had come, there was darkness over the whole land. Now from the sixth hour there was darkness over all the land to the ninth hour.

About the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, “Eli, Eli, lima sabachthani?” That is, “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?”

Some of them who stood there, when they heard it, said, “This man is calling Elijah.”

At the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, “Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani?” which is, being interpreted, “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?”

Some of those who stood by, when they heard it, said, “Behold, he is calling Elijah.”

After this, Jesus, seeing that all things were now finished, that the Scripture might be fulfilled, said, “I am thirsty.”

Now a vessel full of vinegar was set there. So immediately one of them ran, and took a sponge, and filled it with vinegar; and filling a sponge full of vinegar, they put a sponge full of the vinegar on hyssop, and put it on a reed, and held it at his mouth, and gave it to him to drink, saying, “Let him be. Let us see whether Elijah comes to take him down,” and gave him a drink.

The rest said, “Let him be. Let us see whether Elijah comes to save him.”

When Jesus therefore had received the vinegar, he said, “It is finished”—thus there came a great voice out of the Temple of heaven, from the throne, saying, “It is done.”

And having said this, Jesus cried again with a loud voice, Jesus cried out with a loud voice. Jesus, crying with a loud voice, said, “Father, into your hands I commit my spirit!”, and yielded up his spirit.

He bowed his head, and gave up his spirit—he breathed his last, and gave up the spirit. When the centurion, who stood by opposite him, saw that he cried out like this and breathed his last, he said, “Truly this man was the Son of God!”

Behold, the veil of the Temple was torn in two from the top to the bottom. The sun was darkened, and the veil of the Temple was torn in two. The veil of the Temple was torn in two from the top to the bottom. The earth quaked and the rocks were split. The tombs were opened, and many bodies of the saints who had fallen asleep were raised; and coming out of the tombs after his resurrection, they entered into the holy city and appeared to many.

Now the centurion, and those who were with him watching Jesus, when they saw the earthquake, and the things that were done, feared exceedingly, saying, “Truly this was the Son of God.”

When the centurion saw what was done, he glorified God with truth, saying, “Certainly this was a righteous man.”

All the multitudes that came together to see this, when they saw the things that were done, returned home beating their breasts. There were also women watching from afar. All his acquaintances and the women who followed with him from Galilee stood at a distance, watching these things. Many women were there watching from afar, who had followed Jesus from Galilee, serving him, among whom were both Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James the less and of Joses, and Salome the mother of the sons of Zebedee; who, when he was in Galilee, followed him and served him; and many other women who came up with him to Jerusalem.

After these things, when evening had now come, because it was the Preparation Day, that is, the day before the Sabbath, behold, a rich man from Arimathaea, named Joseph, who was a member of the council, a good and righteous man (he had not consented to their counsel and deed), from Arimathaea, a city of the Jews—Joseph of Arimathaea, a prominent council member who also himself was looking for God’s Kingdom, who was also waiting for God’s Kingdom, who himself was also Jesus’s disciple came. Joseph of Arimathaea, being a disciple of Jesus, but secretly for fear of the Jews, asked of Pilate that he might take away Jesus’s body. This man went to Pilate, he boldly went in to Pilate, and asked for Jesus’s body.

Pilate marveled if he were already dead; and summoning the centurion, he asked him whether he had been dead long. When he found out from the centurion, Pilate gave him permission; he granted the body to Joseph. Then Pilate commanded the body to be given up.

Therefore the Jews, because it was the Preparation Day, so that the bodies would not remain on the cross on the Sabbath (for that Sabbath was a special one, the day after the Day of the Passover that year), asked of Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away. Therefore the soldiers came, and broke the legs of the first, and of the other who was crucified with him; but when they came to Jesus, and saw that he was already dead, they did not break his legs. However one of the soldiers pierced his side with a spear, and immediately blood and water came out. He who has seen has testified, and his testimony is true. He knows that he tells the truth, that you may believe. For these things happened that the Scripture might be fulfilled, “A bone of him will not be broken.”

Again another Scripture says, “They will look on him whom they pierced.”

John 19:17
Luke 23:26a
Matthew 27:32a
Luke 23:26b
Matthew 27:32b
Mark 15:21
Luke 23:26c-32
Mark 15:22
Luke 23:33a
Matthew 27:33-34
Mark 15:23
Mark 15:25
Matthew 27:38
Luke 23:33b
John 19:18
Mark 15:27-28
Luke 23:34a
John 19:23a
Luke 23:34b
Mark 15:24
Matthew 27:35
John 19:23b-24
John 19:19a
Mark 15:26
Luke 23:37
Matthew 27:37
John 19:19b-22
Matthew 27:36
Matthew 27:39-44
Mark 15:29-32
John 19:25-27
Luke 23:35-36
Luke 23:38-44
Mark 15:33
Matthew 27:45-47
Mark 15:34-35
John 19:28-29a
Matthew 27:48a
Mark 15:36a
Matthew 27:48b
Mark 15:36b
John 19:29b
Matthew 27:48c
Mark 15:36c
John 19:29c
Mark 15:36d
Matthew 27:48d-49
John 19:30a
Revelation 16:17b
Luke 23:45
Mark 15:38
Mark 15:37a
Luke 23:46
Mark 15:37b
Matthew 27:50
John 19:30b
Mark 15:39
Matthew 27:51-54
Luke 23:47-49
Mark 15:40a
Matthew 27:55-56
Mark 15:40b-41
Mark 15:40b-41
John 19:38a
Matthew 27:57a
Mark 15:42
Matthew 27:57b
Luke 23:50-51
Mark 15:43a
John 19:38b
Matthew 27:58a
Luke 23:52
Mark 15:43b-45
John 19:38c
Matthew 27:58b
John 19:31-37

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Church History (Eusebius): The Ecclesiastical History Of Eusebius Pamphilus: Bishop Of Caesarea, In Palestine (newadvent.org)

The Works of Flavius Josephus William Whiston, Translator, 1737 (sacred-texts.com)

Suetonius: Twelve Caesars: The Lives of the Twelve Caesars by C. Suetonius Tranquilus; To which are added His Lives of the Grammarians, Rhetoricians, and Poets. The Translation of Alexander Thomson, M.D., Revised and corrected by T. Forester, Esq., A.M. (Gutenberg.org)

Tacitus: The Annals, Written 109 A.C.E. Translated by Alfred John Church and William Jackson Brodribb

Sextus Aurelius Victor: Epitome De Caesaribus (roman-emperors.org)

Eutropius: Breviarium - Eutropius's Abridgement of Roman History (tertullian.org)

Cassius Dio: Roman History Epitome (penelope.uchicago.edu)

Early Christian Writings A.D. 30 through 380 (earlychristianwritings.com)
See Biblical Canon and Apocrypha.


"He went out, bearing his cross, to the place called 'The Place of a Skull'"

John 19:17.
This does not contradict the account of Simon carrying the cross in Matthew 27:32, Mark 15:21, and in Luke 23:26 "...and laid on him the cross, to carry it after Jesus." .
They lifted the end of the cross and laid it on Simon. In accordance with Roman law, Jesus still carried his cross, with Simon behind him ("after him") helping bear the weight. With Jesus in front bearing one end and Simon behind him bearing the other, they carried it together in tandem. Jesus himself in front of Simon carried his cross to the place of execution (John), and Simon (forced to help him bear the load) carried the cross behind him (Luke).
The Synoptic Gospels do not say that they took the cross away from Jesus or that they lifted it off him when they laid it on Simon to carry "behind him" or "after him". A truly exegetical reading in full accordance with sound principles of legitimate textual criticism takes note also of what is not in the text.
Reading John 29:17 as a contradiction of the Synoptic Gospels is an eisegetical interpretation which asserts a problem where none exists, and turns the text into a proof text against the internal consistency and veracity of the Bible, speciously turning scripture against scripture, in accordance with a liberal and atheistic agenda against Christianity.
See commentaries on Luke 23:26.
(in particular, Barnes, Matthew Poole)
See also article The Scourging of Jesus Christ, by Don Dedrick (dondedrick.com)
Compare the interlinear texts:
Matthew 27:32, Mark 15:21, Luke 23:26.
See especially the commentaries on John 19:17.

" 'THE KING OF THE JEWS'...'THIS IS THE KING OF THE JEWS'...'THIS IS JESUS, THE KING OF THE JEWS'...'JESUS OF NAZARETH, THE KING OF THE JEWS. ' "

Mark 15:26; Luke 23:38; Matthew 27:37; John 19:19
Pilate was evidently indulging his cruel and sardonic sense of humor. This accusation as expressed separately in each of the four Gospels can be redacted more concisely into one as:
[THIS IS] JESUS OF NAZARETH,
THE KING OF THE JEWS
.
This particular redacted form of the accusation, as a speculative, textually-critical historical reconstruction, assumes with the majority of commentators that each of the Gospel writers used a portion of what each of them regarded as the most important element of the accusation, each according to his own style of expression, or each exactly according to the defectively partial memory of those eyewitnesses interviewed decades after the event. The (probable) historical relic of the crucifixion called the Titulus Crucis, the wooden plank on which is written the accusation that was placed above Jesus on the cross, has a form corresponding exactly to the text in John 19:19, written in each of the three languages, Hebrew, Latin and Greek. See the following:
The reconstructive approach claims that the Gospels cannot be expected to offer exacting certitude regarding every detail of precisely what was said or done, but only at best generally reliable indications of the most important and basically essential facts, according to the strong impression they made on the witnesses to the acts and teaching of Jesus, and the way they remembered them after constant retelling over many years and recalled about three decades afterward—an interval spanning from the early thirties up to the recording in writing of their accounts by the Evangelists in the late fifties, sixties, seventies and nineties of the first century.
In contrast to this critical assumption compare the prophetic assertions in Matthew 28:20; Mark 16:20; Luke 24:44-48; John 14:25-26. (See Biblical accuracy.) All four of the Gospels say, "The King of the Jews". The apparent difficulty in harmonizing Mark 15:26, Luke 23:38, Matthew 27:37 and John 19:19 from the Greek manuscript witnesses comes from including the words "This is" as part of the inscription and inclosing them within quotation marks used to cite the inscription in translation, instead of leaving them outside the marks as introducing the accusation. Compare the interlinear Bible texts of these verses at the words, "this", "this is",
Οὗτός and Οὗτός ΕΣΤΙΝ.
Quotation marks are a relatively new convention of writing. Some of the controversies over translations of the Gospel come from disagreement over whether a particular text is an observation of the author or a statement made by Jesus: for example, the various versions of John 3:15-21. Some Bible editions present the text of 16-21 as spoken by Jesus, others present it as commentary by the apostle John, the only difference being the placement of quotation marks. See commentaries on John 3:16.
See article Quotation marks: From KJV today (thekingsbible.com).

"they gave him sour wine to drink mixed with gall; they offered him wine mixed with myrrh to drink, but he did not take it. When he had tasted it, he would not drink."

Matthew 27:34 and Mark 15:23 redacted.
See the multiple commentaries on these verses. The soldiers were not Jews, and the wine they drank was fermented and sour to the taste, like vinegar, what might today be called "very dry" to the palette. Myrrh in liquid form was used both as a medicine and as a preservative of the body for burial; mixed with alcoholic wine it was a powerful sedative having an anesthetic and stupefying effect, and was offered to those condemned to be crucified as a mercy to reduce their pain and suffering. Jesus refused to drink it.
In addition: Jesus at his last supper had said that he would not taste (again) of the fruit of the vine before the kingdom of God has come (Luke 22:18). The nazirite vow included everything produced from grapes, including wine vinegar. When Jesus on the cross knew that all things had been accomplished, he said, "I thirst", and he drank the alcoholic wine vinegar the soldier gave him. If the kingdom had not come at that moment, Jesus would not have tasted of that fruit (product) of the vine. (Sola scriptura reading.)
On the conservative principle that all facts in scripture are true, the text that says "vinegar" and the text that says "wine" must both be true. The only conclusion that can be drawn from this principle and from these texts taken together is that the vinegar Jesus was given and received on the cross was the sharply tart-tasting alcoholic wine normally drunk by Roman soldiers, which they had on hand there at the crucifixion and which tastes like vinegar. (John 19:29a "Now a vessel full of vinegar was set there.") It was not grape juice.
See the following five outstanding articles:
See also the two following excellent articles:

"wagging their heads"

Matthew 27:39; Mark 15:29.
They shook their heads back and forth, a "no" gesture of rejection and dismay and of denial, like the wagging of a dog's tail. Sometimes people shake their heads this way in pity over another person's stupidity ("how can they be so stupid?"), or over an assassination or declaration of war, or the tragic misfortune that has struck someone, the news of a terrible natural disaster, such as an earthquake, devastating flood, or a violent volcanic eruption which destroyed countless lives and valuable property, or the terrible loss of life when the casualties of a war are finally tabulated.
While this image of "wagging their heads" is similarly expressed in the OT (Jeremiah 18:16; Lamentations 2:15; Zephaniah 2:15), it is entirely possible that here it is also subtly meant to disparage the chief priests as "unclean dogs" surrounding Jesus (Psalm 22:20; 59:1-7, 14-15).

"they put a sponge full of the vinegar on hyssop, and put it on a reed"

A redaction of John 19:29, Matthew 27:48 and Mark 15:36. There is no contradiction here as some assert.
Many commentators have pointed to the obvious difference between a dried reed rod or stick, and a small twig of hyssop, and confidently assert that this is a contradiction and they cannot both be true. See commentaries on John 19:29.
A knowledge of historical details and a realistic visualization of the scene can resolve this apparent discrepancy, without suggesting that John was using purely symbolic imagery and distorting the facts solely to make a theological point. Consider the following facts:
  • The Bible has multiple references to the firm reed staff, stick or measuring rod (Ezekiel 40:3-8; Revelation 11:1; 21:15-16; Matthew 27:29-30).
  • The Bible also refers to the hyssop as a small plant (Exodus 12:22; Leviticus 14:4, 6, 49, 51-52; Numbers 19:6, 18; 1 Kings 4:33 "the hyssop that grows out of the wall").
Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis) is an evergreen bushy herb growing 1 to 2 feet (60 to 90 cm) high on a square stem with linear leaves and flowers in whorls of 6 to 15 blooms. (See images of hyssop.) Hyssop has been used for millennia as a holy herb, consecrated for cleaning holy places. Psalm 51:7, "Purge me with hyssop, and I will be clean." Its name comes from the Hebrew word adobe or ezob, which literally means "holy herb" (See Strong's number 231).
A natural sponge the size of a fist, heavy and soft with fluid, stuck onto the end of a slender reed, will easily fall off. Putting the sponge within a twiggy clump of dried hyssop as a holder and tying the hyssop clump holding the wine-soaked sponge onto the end of a reed is a more stable arrangement. The simple redaction of John 19:29 and Matthew 27:48, Mark 15:36 as here in this Harmony of the Gospel presents a reading that strongly suggests this was done, without altering in any way the meaning of the words of scripture, thus presenting the reader with a reasonable answer to an only apparent contradiction, which supports the internal textual self-consistency of the biblical narratives.

"The sun was darkened, and the veil of the temple was torn in two."

Luke 23:45a.
A simultaneous note of the darkened sky and the death of Jesus, "the sun of righteousness".
The darkening of the sun or the failing of its light was not due to a lunar eclipse. Those who suggest this show either that they do not know scripture or that they do not care what it says. The first day of Passover and Unleavened Bread is celebrated on the eve of the fourteenth day after the first sighting of the new moon, when the moon is full (Exodus 12:18).
Luke uses the factual phrase, "the sun was darkened", with double meaning, both literal and metaphorical. See for example Matthew 4:16 "the people who sat in darkness" and Isaiah 60:2 "darkness shall cover the earth, and thick darkness the peoples". The Christian exegetical reading includes a possible double meaning of Jesus himself as "the sun of righteousness" in Malachi 4:2/3:20, also Psalms 84:11; 89:35-36; Song 6:10; Isaiah 24:34; Jeremiah 15:9; Ezekiel 32:7. The text of Luke 23:45 is not redacted in this text with Matthew 27:45, Mark 15:33 immediately after Luke 23:44 (Luke 23:44-45). It is positioned here at the moment immediately before the Lord cries out and dies. This sequence does not disrupt the integrity of the intact sequence of the text in Luke 23:44-45, a passage in which Luke summarizes the facts, and it does not change its surface meaning. This is done here as an editorial decision, to implicitly include the possible double meaning, without changing the factual character of the statement in verse 45. Consider the fact that Luke first says there was darkness over the whole land, and then he says the sun was darkened and the veil in the temple was torn in two.
Compare multiple versions of Luke 23:45 and multiple commentaries.

"It is finished"

John 19:30.
Douay-Rheims, "It is consummated" (a term also connoting marital union).
Compare this word of John 19:30 with Revelation 16:17 "It is done! " and Revelation 21:6 "It is done! ". Compare the Greek text of "Finished" Τετέλεσται and "Done" Γέγονεν in these same verses (Strong's numbers 1055 and 1096). They may be interpreted as synonymous, but they are not the same. In this context refer to the words of the promise (before his crucifixion) in John 14:2-3 "I go to prepare a place for you", and the Old Testament prophecies, "He will build the house of the Lord" 2 Samuel 7:13, "He will build the temple of the Lord" Zechariah 6:12-13. See also Matthew 16:18; Ephesians 2:19-22; Hebrews 12:18-29. Jesus had finished "the work" the Father had given him to do (John 17:4), and he had fulfilled the prophecies of his suffering and death at the hands of the Jews and the Gentiles. Only his victory over death and the nether world with his resurrection and rising from the dead, body, soul and spirit, remained to be accomplished.

"and the veil of the temple was torn in two"

Matthew 27:51; Mark 15:38; Luke 23:45.
No reliable extra-biblical historical source mentions this extraordinary occurrence as having taken place any time before the destruction of Jerusalem A.D. 70.
See "Something Awry in the Temple? The Rending of the Temple Veil and Early Jewish Sources that Report Unusual Phenomena in the Temple Around AD 30", Robert L. Plummer JETS 48/2 (June 2005) 301-16 (etsjets.org)
Christian doctrine since the very beginning acknowledges that the body of Christ is the true temple of God and his dwelling in the midst of mankind. See John 2:19-21 "the temple of his body".
Luke was a physician and Luke 23:45 is most probably also intended as a note on a rupture of the pericardium, a membrane which surrounds the heart, which the ancients termed a "veil" or "caul". Compare the ancient usage of "vail" or "caul" in the KJV translations of Hosea 13:8 and Isaiah 3:18 (see Strong's numbers 5458 and 7636) and in Leviticus 3:4, 10, 15; 4:9; 7:4; 8:16, 25; 9:10, 19 (Strong's number 3508). This reading of the tearing of the veil in the temple as referring to the burst pericardial membrane surrounding the heart within Jesus is strongly suggested by the physical fact that when the lance pierced Jesus' side, both "blood and water" came out (John 19:34). Modern physicians taking as factual the Gospel accounts of the crucifixion universally concur in their opinion that the "water" pouring from Jesus' side with the blood is lymphatic fluid, either from the large thoracic duct being punctured or from the ruptured pericardium swollen with fluid due to the trauma of the crucifixion and the massive hemorrhage of a burst heart, or both. A sudden rupture of his heart may account in part physically for the loud cry Jesus uttered just before he expired, immediately after he had said, "Father, into your hands I commend my spirit" (Luke 23:46). Consider the fact that after he had risen Jesus spoke with the disciples throughout a period of 40 days, and he was able to tell them what he had experienced physically. It would have been from his own lips that the account of the tearing of the veil in two within "the temple of his body" was known to the apostles and to the evangelists writing afterward who knew the truth of Christ as "God with us" (Matthew 1:23), who "did tabernacle [dwell] among us" (John 1:14, Young's Literal Translation). The Tabernacle in the wilderness was also called "the Dwelling" ha-Mishkan המשכן (Exodus 26:1 NAB, NJB, NABRE).
Compare what St. Paul says about the veil in 2 Corinthians 3:13-18.

"Pilate marveled if he were already dead; and summoning the centurion, he asked him whether he had been dead long."

Mark 15:44.
The Jews had not yet requested the legs of the crucified be broken and their bodies taken down.
A comparative reading of John, Luke and Matthew, indicates that Joseph of Arimathea had immediately presented his petition to Pilate before the others of the Jews who were involved and also present at the crucifixion came and requested the legs of the dying men be broken. Had this request already been made before Joseph arrived, Pilate would not have needed to ask if Jesus was already dead, and he would not have been so astonished that he called and asked for confirmation from the centurion that Jesus was in fact dead. According to John 19:31-33, the procurator himself granted the Jews' request that the legs of the crucified men be broken, and the soldiers immediately obeyed his order. They were able to give a corroborative report that Jesus was indeed already dead, so that it was unnecessary to break his legs, and they made certain he was dead by piercing him with a lance.
If the words "After this" in John 19:38 are grammatically applied by a limited and narrow reading of Greek grammar solely to the account of the Jews' petition and the subsequent breaking of the legs of the crucified men, then a large discrepancy is presented when a parallel comparative reading of the Gospel accounts is made. However, the grammar of the Greek text actually allows a much broader potential latitude of interpretation of the subject of the words "After all these things" as meaning (more directly) "After Jesus died" and (more fully) "After the remarkable events attending the crucifixion". The request of the Jews is in addition to "these things", "moreover". See the interlinear translation and multiple versions of John 19:38. The conservative redactor accepting the objectively historical truth of the scriptures must carefully consider in what way all four Gospel accounts harmonize without conflict (see Hermeneutics and Divino Afflante Spiritu). For this reason, John 19:38, with the petition of Joseph of Arimathea for permission to take Jesus' body away, is reasonably sequenced before verses 31-36 narrating the petition of the Jews to have the legs of the crucified men broken, along with Matthew 27:57-58 and Luke 23:50-52, and with Mark 15:42-45 which gives the account of Pilate's shock at the unexpected news that Jesus had already died.
Consider also the hostile attitude of the Jewish chief priests toward Jesus in light of Psalm 34:20 "Many are the affictions of the righteous one...He keeps all his bones; not one of them is broken." It would be entirely to their purpose of discrediting Jesus as The Righteous One that they explicitly made the request that his legs be broken along with the wicked robbers with whom "he was numbered", using as a pretext the approaching Sabbath and the law of Moses in Deuteronomy 21:23 to accomplish it. It is not impossible that Joseph was aware of their intent and had come to Pilate with his request for the body before they arrived, in order to preempt their planned request. (See Wisdom of Solomon 2:12-20.)
But while all of this may be reasonable and consistent with the textual evidence and what is known of the corrupt reputation of the Jewish temple establishment in the first century it still remains speculative.

“A bone of him will not be broken.” — “They will look on him whom they pierced.”

John 19:36-37.
See the following Old Testament texts and commentaries:
Exodus 12:46 and commentaries,
Numbers 9:12 and commentaries,
Psalm 34:20 and commentaries;
Zechariah 12:10 and commentaries.


He, carrying His cross, went out into a place called "Place of a Skull," which is called in Hebrew, Golgotha.

And as they led Him away,

As they were coming out, they found a man from Cyrene, named Simon.

they grabbed a man named Simon, a Cyrenian, who arrived from the country,

They forced him to carry His cross.

They forced a man named Simon, a Cyrenian, father of Alexander and Rufus, who was then coming out of the field, to carry His cross.

and they tasked him with carrying the cross, that he should follow with it behind Jesus.

And He was soon followed by a great assembly of people, and of women, who also wailed and lamented Him. But Jesus turning to them said, "Daughters of Jerusalem, weep not for me, but weep for yourselves, and for your children. For you shall see, the days are coming, when they shall say, 'Blessed are the infertile, and the wombs that never bore children, and the babies who never nursed'. Then shall they begin to say to the mountains, 'Fall on us; and to the hills, Cover us'. For if they do these things in a time of abundance, what shall be done in the drought?"

And there were also two others, criminals, who were led with Him to be put to death.

They brought Him to the place called Golgotha, or "Skull Hill."

And when they arrived at the place, which is called Calvary,

And when they had come to a place called Golgotha, i.e. "Skull Hill", they gave Him a vinegar-and-bile mixture to drink. When He had tasted that, He wouldn't drink it.

They gave Him grape juice mixed with myrrh to drink, but He refused it.

Two robbers were crucified with Him, one to His right, and the other to His left.

there they crucified Him, and the criminals, one on His right side, and the other on His left.

They crucified Him there, and the others with Him, to either side of Him, and Jesus in the middle.

They also crucified two robbers with Him, one on His right and the other on His left. With this deed the Scripture was fulfilled, which said, "And He was counted along with the lawless."

Then the soldiers, when they had crucified Jesus, took His clothes and made four portions,

They divided His clothes, and gambled for them.

When they had crucified Him, they divided His clothes among them by gambling for it.

And they crucified Him, and divided His clothes by a throw of dice, so that these prophetic words might be fulfilled: "They divided my clothes among them, and threw dice for my apparel."

one portion to each soldier, and also His tunic. The tunic was seamless and woven from top to bottom. So they said to themselves, "Let's not tear this in pieces. Let's throw dice for it instead, to decide who gets it."

This was so that this Scripture might be fulfilled: They divided My clothes among them, and threw dice for My apparel."

And Pilate wrote a title placard and put it on the cross.

The epigram of his accusation was written over His head: THE KING OF THE JEWS.

And a sign was placed over Him written in Greek, and Latin, and Hebrew, stating "THIS IS THE KING OF THE JEWS".

and set up over his head his written accusation: "This is Jesus, the King of the Jews."

The written message read: "Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews."

Many of the Jews could read this title. The place where Jesus was crucified was close to the city, and it was written out in Hebrew, Greek, and Latin. Then the ranking priests of the Jews said to Pilate, "Don't write, 'King of the Jews,' but write that He said, 'I am King of the Jews.'"

Pilate answered, What I have written, I have written."

And they sat down and watched Him there,

And the passersby taunted him, wagging their heads, and saying, "Hey, You! You said that You could destroy the Temple and build it in three days! Why don't You save Yourself? If You're really the Son of God, come down from the cross! He saved others, but can't save Himself. If he's really the King of Israel, then He can dome down from the cross, and we'll believe Him. He trusted in God, so let Him deliver Him now, if He wants. After all, He said, 'I am the Son of God.'"

The robbers also, who were being crucified with Him, threw those same words in His teeth.

The passersby railed at him, wagging their heads. They said, "Hey, You! You said You could destroy the Temple and rebuild it in three days. So save Yourself and come down from the cross!"

In the same way the leading priests, in a mocking tone, said to themselves with the scribes, "He saved others, but can't save Himself. Let Christ the King of Israel come down now from the cross! Seeing is believing!"

And the men being crucified with Him also insulted Him.

Now Jesus' mother, and His mother's sister, Mary the wife of Cleophas, and Mary Magdalene, were standing next to Jesus' cross. So when Jesus saw His mother, and the student standing by, whom He loved, He said to His mother, "Woman, look at your son!"

Then He told the student, "Look at your mother!" And from that hour that student took her into his own house.

And the people stood in witness. And the rulers who were also there mocked Him, saying, "He saved others; let him save himself, if he is the Christ, the chosen of God".

And the soldiers also mocked Him, approaching Him, and offering Him vinegar, and saying, "If you are the king of the Jews, save yourself".

And one of the criminals who were crucified taunted him, saying, "If you are Christ, save yourself and us".

But the other answered by rebuking him, saying, "Don't you fear God, seeing yourself suffering the same punishment? And we indeed deserve this; for we are receiving the just reward for our deeds: but this man has done nothing wrong."

And he said to Jesus, "Lord, remember me when you arrive in your kingdom".

And Jesus said to him, "Truly I tell you, today you shall be with me in paradise".

And it was at about the sixth hour, when a darkness fell over all the earth until the ninth hour.

When the sixth hour arrived, darkness fell over the whole country until the ninth hour.

Now from the sixth hour of the day, darkness fell over the entire country until the ninth hour.

At the ninth hour Jesus cried out with a loud voice, "Eloi, Eloi, lema sabachthani?" (Translation: "My God, My God, why have You abandoned Me?")

Some of the bystanders, when they heard it, said, "Listen, he's calling Elijah."

And at about the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, "Eli, Eli, lema sabachthani?" That means, "My God, My God, why have You abandoned Me?"

Some of the bystanders, when they heard that, said, "He's calling for Elijah."

After this, Jesus, knowing that everything was now fulfilled, so that Scripture might fulfill Itself, said, "I am thirsty."

There was a pot full of sour wine nearby. Immediately one of them ran from Him,

One of them ran

and took a sponge, and filled it with vinegar,

and filled a sponge with vinegar,

They filled a sponge with sour wine, and put it on a sprig of hyssop,

and put it on a reed,

put it on a stick,

and put it to His mouth.

and gave it to Him to drink. Others said, "Leave Him alone. Let's see whether Elijah will come to take Him down."

and gave it to Him to drink. The rest of them said, "Leave Him alone; let's see whether Elijah will come to save Him."

So when Jesus had drunk the sour wine, He said, "It is finished!"

And the sun was darkened,

and the veil of the temple was torn down the middle.

Then the veil of the Temple was torn in two from top to bottom.

Jesus then cried out again in a loud voice

Jesus shouted something with a loud voice,

And when Jesus had cried out with a loud voice, saying, "Father, into your hands I commend my soul!": And having said this,

He then bowed His head and transferred His spirit.

and breathed his last.

he gave up his soul.

When the centurion, who stood next to Him, saw Him cry out and heave his death-sigh, he said, "Truly this Man was the Son of God."

And at that moment the veil of the Temple was torn into two pieces from top to bottom, and the earth shook, and the rocks split, and the graves were opened, and many bodies of dead saints rose up, and came out of those graves after His Resurrection, and went into the Holy City, and appeared to many people. The centurion, and those standing with him, watching Jesus, saw the earthquake and the other happenings. They were very much afraid, and said, "This must have been the Son of God."

Now when the centurion there saw what had happened, he gave glory to God, saying, "Certainly this was a righteous man".

And all the people who had gathered for this event, witnessing what had happened, struck their chests, and departed. And all His followers, and the women who had followed Him from Galilee, stood far off, watching these things.

Some women were also watching from a distance,

And many women were there watching from a distance. They had been following Jesus ever since He began in Galilee, and used to wait on Him. They included Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James and Joseph, and the mother of Zebedee's sons.

including Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James the younger and of Joseph, and Salome. These women had followed Him while He was in Galilee, and used to wait on Him. With them were many other women who had followed Him to Jerusalem.

After this,

That evening,

Now in the evening, because it was preparation time, i.e. the day before the Sabbath,

a rich man from Arimathea, named Joseph, came. He also had been a student of Jesus.

And witness, there was a man named Joseph, a lawyer; and he was a good man, and a just one: (This man had not consented to the demands and actions of the others;) He was from Arimathea, a Jewish city: and he was faithful in waiting for the kingdom of God.

Joseph of Arimathea, an honorable member of the council, who was also waiting for the Kingdom of God, came forward,

Joseph of Arimathea, a student of Jesus, but secretly because he was afraid of the Jews, asked Pilate that he might remove Jesus' body.

He went to Pilate, and claimed the body of Jesus.

This man went to Pilate, and requested the body of Jesus.

went in boldly to Pilate, and claimed the body of Jesus. Pilate was shocked to hear that He was already dead. He called the centurion to ask him whether He was dead already. When the centurion confirmed it, Pilate gave Joseph permission to take possession of the body.

Pilate gave him permission.

Then Pilate ordered the body turned over to him.

So the Jews, because it was their preparation day, did not want the bodies to stay on the crosses on the Sabbath day. (That Sabbath was a High Sabbath, or High Holy Day.) So they asked Pilate to have their legs broken, so that they might be taken away.

Then the soldiers came, and broke the legs of the first, and of the other man who had been crucified with Him. But when they came to Jesus, and saw that He was already dead, they did not break His legs. But one of the soldiers pierced His side with a spear, and immediately a blood-and-water mixture came out. And he who saw it, has written it down. And his written record is true, and he knows that he is telling the truth, so that you might believe. For these things happened so that Scripture might be fulfilled: "Not one of His bones will be broken."

And again another verse says, "They will look on Him Whom they pierced."

Thirty-three

Chapter 33 Bible texts

Pilate ordered that the body of Jesus be given to Joseph.

He came therefore and bought a linen cloth. Joseph took the body, he took it down; and taking him down, took away his body, and wrapped it in a clean linen cloth. Nicodemus, who at first came to Jesus by night, also came bringing a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about a hundred Roman pounds. So they took Jesus’s body, and bound it in linen cloths with the spices, and wound him in the linen cloth, as the custom of the Jews is to bury.

Now in the place where he was crucified there was a garden. In the garden was a new tomb belonging to Joseph of Arimathea in which no man had ever yet been laid. Then because of the Jews’ Preparation Day (for the tomb was near at hand) they laid Jesus there. They took the body and Joseph laid it in his own new tomb, which he had cut out in the rock, and laid him in a tomb that was cut in stone, in a tomb which had been cut out of a rock, where no one had ever been laid. And he rolled a great stone against the door of the tomb, and departed.

The women, who had come with him out of Galilee, followed after, and saw the tomb. Mary Magdalene was there, and the other Mary, sitting opposite the tomb. It was the day of the Preparation, and the Sabbath was drawing near. Mary Magdalene and Mary, the mother of Joses, saw where he was laid, and how his body was laid. They returned and prepared spices and ointments. On the Sabbath they rested according to the commandment.

Who has believed our message? To whom has the LORD’s arm been revealed? For he grew up before him as a tender plant, and as a root out of dry ground. He has no good looks or majesty. When we see him, there is no beauty that we should desire him. He was despised and rejected by men, a man of suffering and acquainted with disease. He was despised as one from whom men hide their face; and we did not respect him.
Surely he has borne our sickness and carried our suffering; yet we considered him plagued, struck by God, and afflicted. But he was pierced for our transgressions. He was crushed for our iniquities. The punishment that brought our peace was on him; and by his wounds we are healed. All we like sheep have gone astray. Everyone has turned to his own way; and the LORD has laid on him the iniquity of us all.
He was oppressed, yet when he was afflicted he did not open his mouth. As a lamb that is led to the slaughter, and as a sheep that before its shearers is silent, so he did not open his mouth. He was taken away by oppression and judgment. As for his generation, who considered that he was cut off out of the land of the living and stricken for the disobedience of my people? They made his grave with the wicked, and with a rich man in his death, although he had done no violence, nor was any deceit in his mouth.
Yet it pleased the LORD to bruise him. He has caused him to suffer. When you make his soul an offering for sin, he will see his offspring. He will prolong his days and the LORD’s pleasure will prosper in his hand. After the suffering of his soul, he will see the light and be satisfied. My righteous servant will justify many by the knowledge of himself; and he will bear their iniquities. Therefore I will give him a portion with the great. He will divide the plunder with the strong; because he poured out his soul to death and was counted with the transgressors; yet he bore the sins of many and made intercession for the transgressors.

He also went and preached to the spirits in prison. Christ suffered for sins once, the righteous for the unrighteous, that he might bring you to God, being put to death in the flesh, but made alive in the Spirit, in whom he also went and preached to the spirits in prison, who before were disobedient, when God waited patiently in the days of Noah, while the ship was being built. Jesus said the hour is coming when all who are in the tombs will hear his voice.

Now on the next day, Saturday (the second day), which was the day after the Preparation Day, the chief priests and the Pharisees were gathered together to Pilate, saying, “Sir, we remember what that deceiver said while he was still alive: ‘After three days I will rise again.’ Command therefore that the tomb be made secure to the third day, lest perhaps his disciples come at night and steal him away, and tell the people, ‘He is risen from the dead;’ and the last deception will be worse than the first.”

Pilate said to them, “You have a guard. Go, make it as secure as you can.”

So they went with the guard and made the tomb secure, sealing the stone.

At sundown, when the Sabbath was past, when the merchants of the Jews immediately open their shops, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James, and Salome, bought spices, and made their preparations, that they might come and anoint him.

Mark 15:46a
John 19:38d
Matthew 27:59a
Luke 23:53a
Mark 15:46b
John 19:38e
Matthew 27:59b
Luke 23:53b
John 19:39-40
Mark 15:46c
John 19:41-42
Matthew 27:60a
Luke 23:53c
Mark 15:46c
Matthew 27:60b
Luke 23:55ab
Luke 23:54
Matthew 27:61
Mark 15:47
Luke 23:55c-56
Isaiah 53
1 Peter 3:18-20
John 5:28b
Matthew 27:62-66
Mark 16:1

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Church History (Eusebius): The Ecclesiastical History Of Eusebius Pamphilus: Bishop Of Caesarea, In Palestine (newadvent.org)

The Works of Flavius Josephus William Whiston, Translator, 1737 (sacred-texts.com)

Suetonius: Twelve Caesars: The Lives of the Twelve Caesars by C. Suetonius Tranquilus; To which are added His Lives of the Grammarians, Rhetoricians, and Poets. The Translation of Alexander Thomson, M.D., Revised and corrected by T. Forester, Esq., A.M. (Gutenberg.org)

Tacitus: The Annals, Written 109 A.C.E. Translated by Alfred John Church and William Jackson Brodribb

Sextus Aurelius Victor: Epitome De Caesaribus (roman-emperors.org)

Eutropius: Breviarium - Eutropius's Abridgement of Roman History (tertullian.org)

Cassius Dio: Roman History Epitome (penelope.uchicago.edu)

Early Christian Writings A.D. 30 through 380 (earlychristianwritings.com)
See Biblical Canon and Apocrypha.


"Pilate ordered that the body of Jesus be given to Joseph."

See Matthew 27:53b.
Amplification of text by reiteration of Matthew 27:58b, for narrative transitional continuity.

"they went with the guard and made the tomb secure, sealing the stone."

Matthew 27:66.
Most likely an assigned Roman guard.
This was the Sabbath of the Lord, "after the day of Preparation". Jews did no work on the Sabbath, not even Jewish soldiers. Sealing the stone was an act that qualified as work on the Sabbath day.
Pilate's words are ambiguous in Greek. They can mean, "You have a guard of your own. I will not assign one." This refers to the temple guard. Or his words can mean, "You have a guard as requested. I'll assign a detail."
Because of the Jewish prohibition against working or ordering work be done by fellow Jews on the Sabbath, it appears unlikely that this assigned detail of guarding a tomb during the days of Passover and Unleavened Bread would have been given to Jewish soldiers. Because even the act of manually placing a physical seal on the stone would have qualified as work on the Sabbath, it appears unlikely that the chief priests or their soldiers would have sealed the stone. All these factors strongly suggest that Pilate assigned a Roman detail, perhaps a minimal detachment of a quaternion, to seal the stone in the presence of the chief priests and then remain on watch to guard the tomb past the third day (Saturday, Sunday, Monday). See "Quarternion of Soldiers" in American Tract Society Bible Dictionary (studylight.org)

"he also went and preached to the spirits in prison"

1 Peter 3:19. A controversial passage.
Jesus rested in the tomb on the Sabbath. And according to many interpreters of the First Letter of St. Peter (1 Peter) he was also working, for when he was put to death in the flesh but made alive in the spirit, "he went and preached to the spirits in prison". His death is expressed in the Apostles' Creed: "he descended into hell" (traditionally understood as the grave, the abode of the dead, Hebrew Sheol, not the place of the damned and fallen angels, the Bottomless Pit or the Lake of Fire). See 1 Peter 3:19 and commentaries. See the context in 1 Peter 3:18-22. Compare official Catholic Bible notes (NAB).
Notice the words, "baptism saves you now" 1 Peter 3:21. See commentaries. The literal "clear and plain" meaning of this text is controverted and rejected by many Protestant Christian denominations, who firmly assert it has for centuries been grossly misinterpreted and twisted and turned into a pagan superstition by the Devil to support the practice of infant baptism which they condemn as unbiblical. The "clear and plain" meaning of 1 Peter 3:21 is accepted literally without qualification by the Orthodox and Catholic churches according to ancient apostolic tradition as the application of the saving blood of Jesus Christ to the soul of the baptized through the washing away of sin, "by water and the word" Ephesians 5:26-27.
"Are you washed in the blood of the Lamb?"
Elisha A. Hoffman 1878.
See the following articles discussing the question: "Does Baptism Save Us Now?":

"At sundown, when the Sabbath was past...bought spices"

Mark 16:1
The markets immediately opened as soon as the Sabbath ended at sunset. The women most probably labored all night preparing the ointments and powders to anoint the body. See Mark 16:2 and Luke 23:56.
The collation and redaction of the texts pertaining to the preparation of the spices arranged here in strict sequence circumstantially presents the critical exegete with an apparent suggestion that the women began the work of preparing the spices up to the moment the sun had set, and then temporarily suspended their efforts, for the observance of the Sabbath rest. Then, when the Sabbath was past, as soon as the sun had set on Saturday evening, they went and obtained the rest of the spices they needed and finished their preparations by early dawn Sunday.
A reasonable objection to this suggested reading points out that it represents an eisegetical attempt to forcibly make the texts harmonize, without any substantiating support from either internal textual evidence of the texts alone or from the ancient commentaries.
A reasonable response to this objection points out that there is also no solid textual reason to suppose that this harmonized reading does violence to the meaning of the texts, and that a comparative reading of them together presents no obvious internal textual contradiction. The assumption made here is that the Gospels simply report as actual fact that they prepared the spices before going to the tomb and that the scriptures do not contradict themselves, having God as the primary author of them by inspired guidance, who cannot contradict himself or be in error. Titus 1:2; Hebrews 6:18; James 1:17; compare 1 Timothy 3:15.

Joseph then purchased a quality shroud,

So he came and

and carried Jesus off,

When Joseph had taken possession of the body,

And he took the body down,

took the body of Jesus.

he wrapped it in a clean linen cloth,

and wrapped it in linen,

Nicodemus came, too, who had first come to Jesus by night. He brought a mixture of myrrh and aloe vera, weighing about a hundred Roman pounds. Then they took the body of Jesus, and wrapped it in a shroud with the spices, according to Jewish burial custom.

wrapped Him in the shroud,

In the place where He was crucified, a garden grew. In the garden was a new tomb, where no man had yet been interred. So they interred Jesus there, because it was the preparation day of the Jews, for the tomb was close by.

and buried it in his own new tomb, one that he had chiseled out in the rock.

and laid it in a tomb that was carved from stone, in which no man had been laid to rest.

and laid Him in a tomb cut out of rock, and rolled a stone to cover the entrance of the tomb.

He had a large stone rolled across the entrance to the tomb, and went away.

And the women too, who had come with Him from Galilee, followed afterward, and looked upon the tomb,

And this was the day of preparation, prior to the sabbath.

And Mary Magdalene and the other Mary were sitting next to the tomb.

Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of Joseph saw the place where He was laid.

and how His body was interred. And they returned, and prepared spices and ointments; and rested on the sabbath day according to the commandment.

(Conservative Bible Isaiah 53 not translated.
See Conservative Bible Isaiah 51-58 (Translated) Chapter 53 KJV.)

For Christ has also suffered—once—for sins, the Just for the unjust, so that He might bring us to God. He was put to death in the flesh, but revived in the Spirit. By that Spirit he also went and preached to other imprisoned spirits. These spirits were disobedient, while God was patiently waiting in the days of Noah, while he was building his Ark, in which a few souls—eight, to be exact—were saved by water.

the hour is coming when all those buried in graves will hear His voice.

The next day, the day following the day of preparation, the leading priests and the Pharisees came together to Pilate. They said, "Sir, we remember what that Liar said, while He was still alive, 'After three days I will rise again.' So give orders that the tomb be secured until the third day. We don't want His students to come in the middle of the night and steal His body, and tell the people, 'He has risen from the dead.' If that happens, we'll have an even worse problem."

Pilate told them, "You'll have a guard. Go and make it as secure as you can."

So they went, and secured the tomb by sealing the stone, and posted a guard.

After the sabbath had come and gone, Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of James and Salome, bought aromatic spices with which to anoint Jesus' body.

Thirty-four

Chapter 34 Bible texts

But now after the Sabbath, as it began to dawn on the first day of the week, at early dawn, Mary Magdalene went early, while it was still dark, to the tomb; Mary Magdalene and the other Mary came to see the tomb. They and some others came to the tomb, bringing the spices which they had prepared. Very early on the first day of the week, they came to the tomb when the sun had risen, while it was still dark, and thick clouds of darkness overshadowed the land. Now they were Mary Magdalene, Joanna, and Mary the mother of James, and the other women with them. They were saying among themselves, “Who will roll away the stone from the door of the tomb for us?” for it was very big.

Behold, there was a great earthquake, for an angel of the Lord descended from the sky, and came and rolled away the stone from the door, and sat on it. His appearance was like lightning, and his clothing white as snow. For fear of him, the guards shook, and became like dead men.

And Mary Magdalene saw the stone taken away from the tomb. Looking up, they saw that the stone was rolled back; they found the stone rolled away from the tomb, and the guards like dead men. Therefore she ran and came to Simon Peter and to the other disciple whom Jesus loved, and said to them, “They have taken away the Lord out of the tomb, and we do not know where they have laid him!”

Therefore Peter and the other disciple went out, and they went toward the tomb.

Now while they were going, the other women were astonished. The guards came to themselves and fled from the tomb, for trembling and astonishment had come on them. The angel answered the women, “Do not be afraid, for I know that you seek Jesus, who has been crucified. He is not here, for he has risen, just like he said. Come, see the place where the Lord was lying. Go quickly and tell his disciples, ‘He has risen from the dead, and behold, he goes before you into Galilee; there you will see him.’ Behold, I have told you.”

They obeyed the Lord's messenger. They entered in, and did not find the Lord Jesus’s body. Entering into the tomb, they saw a young man sitting on the right side, dressed in a white robe, and they were amazed. Many bodies of the saints who had fallen asleep were raised; and coming out of the tombs after his resurrection, they entered into the holy city and appeared to many. He said to them, “Do not be amazed. You seek Jesus, the Nazarene, who has been crucified. He has risen. He is not here. Behold, the place where they laid him! But go, tell his disciples and Peter, ‘He goes before you into Galilee. There you will see him, as he said to you.’ ”

While they were greatly perplexed about this, behold, two men stood by them in dazzling clothing. Becoming terrified, they bowed their faces down to the earth. They said to them, “Why do you seek the living among the dead? He is not here, but is risen. Do you remember what he told you when he was still in Galilee, saying that the Son of Man must be delivered up into the hands of sinful men and be crucified, and the third day rise again?”

They remembered his words. They went out, and fled from the tomb, for trembling and astonishment had come on them. They said nothing to anyone; for they were afraid. They departed quickly from the tomb with fear and great joy, and ran to bring his disciples word, and returned from the tomb.

While they were going, Peter and the other disciple both ran together. Mary came behind them. The other disciple outran Peter, and came to the tomb first. Stooping and looking in, he saw the linen cloths lying, yet he did not enter in. Then Simon Peter came, following him. Stooping and looking in, he saw the strips of linen lying by themselves, and entered into the tomb. He saw the linen cloths lying, and the cloth that had been on his head, not lying with the linen cloths, but rolled up in a place by itself. So then the other disciple who came first to the tomb also entered in, and he saw and believed. For as yet they did not know the Scripture, that he must rise from the dead; and he departed to his home, Peter departed to his home, wondering what had happened. So the disciples went away again to their own homes.

But Mary was standing outside at the tomb weeping. So as she wept, she stooped and looked into the tomb, and she saw two angels in white sitting, one at the head, and one at the feet, where the body of Jesus had lain. They asked her, “Woman, why are you weeping?”

She said to them, “Because they have taken away my Lord, and I do not know where they have laid him.”

When she had said this, she turned around and saw Jesus standing, and did not know that it was Jesus, for she was weeping. She turned back toward the tomb. Jesus said to her, “Woman, why are you weeping? Who are you looking for?”

She, supposing him to be the gardener, said to him, “Sir, if you have carried him away, tell me where you have laid him, and I will take him away.”

Jesus said to her, “Mary.”

She turned and said to him, “Rabboni!” which is to say, “Teacher!”

Jesus said to her, “Do not hold me, for I have not yet ascended to my Father; but go to my brothers and tell them, ‘I am ascending to my Father and your Father, to my God and your God.’ ”

She ran to tell the disciples.

The other women were running to bring his disciples word. As they went to tell his disciples, behold, Jesus met them, saying, “Rejoice!”

They came and took hold of his feet, and worshiped him. Then Jesus said to them, “Do not be afraid. Go tell my brothers that they should go into Galilee, and there they will see me.”

Now while they were going, behold, some of the guards came into the city, and told the chief priests all the things that had happened. When they were assembled with the elders, and had taken counsel, they gave a large amount of silver to the soldiers, saying, “Say that his disciples came by night, and stole him away while we slept. If this comes to the governor’s ears, we will persuade him and make you free of worry.”

So they took the money and did as they were told. This saying was spread abroad among the Jews, and continues to this day.

Now when he had risen early on the first day of the week, he appeared first to Mary Magdalene, from whom he had cast out seven demons. She went and told those who had been with him, as they mourned and wept. Mary Magdalene came and told the disciples that she had seen the Lord, and that he had said these things to her. When they heard that he was alive, and had been seen by her, they disbelieved. The other women returned from the tomb, and told all these things to the eleven and to all the rest. Now they were Mary Magdalene, Joanna, and Mary the mother of James. The other women with them told these things to the apostles. These words seemed to them to be nonsense, and they did not believe them. But Peter got up and ran to the tomb. Stooping and looking in, he saw the strips of linen lying by themselves, and he departed to his home, wondering what had happened.

After these things he was revealed in another form to two of them, as they walked, on their way into the country.

Behold, two of them were going that very day to a village named Emmaus, which was sixty stadia, about seven miles, from Jerusalem. They talked with each other about all of these things which had happened. While they talked and questioned together, Jesus himself came near, and went with them. But their eyes were kept from recognizing him. He said to them, “What are you talking about as you walk, and are sad?”

One of them, named Cleopas, answered him, “Are you the only stranger in Jerusalem who does not know the things which have happened there in these days?”

He said to them, “What things?”

They said to him, “The things concerning Jesus, the Nazarene, who was a prophet mighty in deed and word before God and all the people; and how the chief priests and our rulers delivered him up to be condemned to death, and crucified him. But we were hoping that it was he who would redeem Israel. Yes, and besides all this, it is now the third day since these things happened. Also, certain women of our company amazed us, having arrived early at the tomb; and when they did not find his body, they came saying that they had also seen a vision of angels, who said that he was alive. Some of us went to the tomb, and found it just like the women had said, but they did not see him.”

He said to them, “Foolish men, and slow of heart to believe in all that the prophets have spoken! Did not the Christ have to suffer these things and to enter into his glory?”

Beginning from Moses and from all the prophets, he explained to them in all the Scriptures the things concerning himself. They came near to the village where they were going, and he acted like he would go farther. They urged him, saying, “Stay with us, for it is almost evening, and the day is almost over.”

He went in to stay with them. When he had sat down at the table with them, he took the bread and gave thanks. Breaking it, he gave it to them. Their eyes were opened and they recognized him, then he vanished out of their sight. They said to one another, “Were our not hearts burning within us, while he spoke to us along the way, and while he opened the Scriptures to us?”

They went away and told it to the rest. They rose up that very hour, returned to Jerusalem, and found the eleven gathered together, and those who were with them, saying, “The Lord is risen indeed, and has appeared to Simon!”

They related the things that happened along the way, and how he was recognized by them in the breaking of the bread. They did not believe them, either.

As they said these things, Jesus himself stood among them, and said to them, “Peace be to you.”

For I delivered to you first of all that which I also received: that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures, that he was buried, that he was raised on the third day according to the Scriptures, and that he appeared to Cephas, then to the twelve.

When therefore it was evening on that day, the first day of the week, and when the doors were locked where the disciples were assembled, for fear of the Jews, Jesus came and stood in the middle, and said to them, “Peace be to you.”

But they were terrified and filled with fear, and supposed that they had seen a spirit. He said to them, “Why are you troubled? Why do doubts arise in your hearts? See my hands and my feet, that it is truly me. Touch me and see, for a spirit does not have flesh and bones, as you see that I have.”

When he had said this, he showed them his hands and his feet; he showed them his hands and his side. The disciples therefore were glad when they saw the Lord. While they still did not believe for joy, and wondered, he said to them, “Do you have anything here to eat?”

They gave him a piece of a broiled fish and some honeycomb. He took them, and ate in front of them. Jesus therefore said to them again, “Peace be to you. As the Father has sent me, even so I send you.”

(And we have seen and testify that the Father has sent his Son as the Savior of the world. “As the Father has sent me, even so I send you.”)

When he had said this, he breathed on them, and said to them, “Receive the Holy Spirit! If you forgive anyone’s sins, they are forgiven them. If you retain anyone’s sins, they are retained.”

He said to them, “This is what I told you, while I was still with you, that all things which are written in the law of Moses, the prophets, and the psalms, concerning me must be fulfilled.”

Then he opened their minds, that they might understand the Scriptures. Beginning from Moses and from all the prophets, he explained to them in all the Scriptures the things concerning himself.

In Genesis:

The LORD God said to the serpent, “I will put hostility between you and the woman, and between your offspring and her offspring. He will bruise your head, and you will bruise his heel.”
God spoke to Noah and to his sons with him, saying, “As for me, behold, I establish my covenant with you, and with your offspring after you, and with every living creature that is with you: the birds, the livestock, and every animal of the earth with you, of all that go out of the ship, even every animal of the earth.
He also said, "Blessed by the LORD my God be Shem"
Now the LORD said to Abram, “Leave your country, and your relatives, and your father’s house, and go to the land that I will show you. I will make of you a great nation. I will bless you and make your name great. You will be a blessing. I will bless those who bless you, and I will curse him who treats you with contempt. All the families of the earth will be blessed through you.”
Melchizedek king of Salem brought out bread and wine. He was priest of God Most High. He blessed him, and said, “Blessed be Abram of God Most High, possessor of heaven and earth. Blessed be God Most High, who has delivered your enemies into your hand.” And Abram gave him a tenth of all.
Abram said, “Behold, you have given no children to me: and, behold, one born in my house is my heir.” Behold, the LORD’s word came to him, saying, “This man will not be your heir, but he who will come out of your own body will be your heir.” The LORD brought him outside, and said, “Look now toward the sky, and count the stars, if you are able to count them.” He said to Abram, “So your offspring will be.” He believed in the LORD, who credited it to him for righteousness.
I will establish my covenant with Isaac,
Abraham took the wood of the burnt offering and laid it on Isaac his son. He took in his hand the fire and the knife. They both went together. Isaac spoke to Abraham his father, and said, “My father?” He said, “Here I am, my son.” He said, “Here is the fire and the wood, but where is the lamb for a burnt offering?” Abraham said, “God will provide himself the lamb for a burnt offering, my son.” So they both went together. They came to the place which God had told him of. Abraham built the altar there, and laid the wood in order, bound Isaac his son, and laid him on the altar, on the wood.
Abraham lifted up his eyes, and looked, and saw that behind him was a ram caught in the thicket by his horns. Abraham went and took the ram, and offered him up for a burnt offering instead of his son. Abraham called the name of that place “The LORD Will Provide”. As it is said to this day, “On the LORD’s mountain, it will be provided.” The LORD’s angel called to Abraham a second time out of the sky, and said, “ ‘I have sworn by myself,’ says the LORD, ‘because you have done this thing, and have not withheld your son, your only son, that I will bless you greatly, and I will multiply your offspring greatly like the stars of the heavens, and like the sand which is on the seashore. Your offspring will possess the gate of his enemies. All the nations of the earth will be blessed by your offspring, because you have obeyed my voice.’ ”
Joseph found favor in his sight. He ministered to him, and he made him overseer over his house, and all that he had he put into his hand.

(This is applied to Joseph, the son of David, the husband of Mary, of whom Jesus was born, who is called Christ.)

“Joseph is a fruitful vine, a fruitful vine by a spring. His branches run over the wall. The archers have severely grieved him, shot at him, and persecuted him: But his bow remained strong. The arms of his hands were made strong, by the hands of the Mighty One of Jacob, (from there is the shepherd, the stone of Israel), even by the God of your father, who will help you, by the Almighty, who will bless you, with blessings of heaven above, blessings of the deep that lies below, blessings of the breasts, and of the womb. The blessings of your father have prevailed above the blessings of your ancestors, above the boundaries of the ancient hills. They will be on the head of Joseph, on the crown of the head of him who is separated from his brothers.
As for you, you meant evil against me, but God meant it for good, to save many people alive, as is happening today. Now therefore do not be afraid. I will provide for you and your little ones.” He comforted them, and spoke kindly to them.

In Exodus:

Then Moses called for all the elders of Israel, and said to them, “Draw out, and kill the Passover. You shall take a bunch of hyssop, and dip it in the blood that is in the basin, and strike the lintel and the two door posts with the blood that is in the basin. For the LORD will pass through to strike; and when he sees the blood on the lintel, and on the two door posts, the LORD will pass over, and will not allow the destroyer to strike you.
The LORD said to Moses and Aaron, “This is the ordinance of the Passover. Do not break any of its bones.”
He shall bring the bull to the door of the Tent of Meeting before The LORD; and he shall lay his hand on the head of the bull, and kill the bull before the LORD. The anointed priest shall take some of the blood of the bull, and bring it to the Tent of Meeting. The priest shall put some of the blood on the horns of the altar; and he shall pour out the rest of the blood of the bull at the base of the altar of burnt offering, He shall take all the fat of the bull of the sin offering from it: the fat that covers the innards, and all the fat that is on the innards, and the two kidneys, and the fat that is on them, which is by the loins, and the cover on the liver, with the kidneys, he shall remove, as it is removed from the bull of the sacrifice of peace offerings. The priest shall burn them on the altar of burnt offering. He shall carry the bull’s skin, all its meat, with its head, and with its legs, its innards, and its dung—all the rest of the bull—outside of the camp to a clean place where the ashes are poured out, and burn it on wood with fire. It shall be burned where the ashes are poured out.

In Numbers:

Moses lifted up his hand, and struck the rock with his rod twice, and water came out abundantly. The congregation and their livestock drank.
So Moses made a bronze serpent, and set it on a pole; and if a serpent bit any man, he would look at the bronze serpent and live.
I see him, but not now. I see him, but not near. A star will come out of Jacob. A scepter will rise out of Israel.

In Deuteronomy:

The LORD your God will raise up to you a Prophet from among you, of your brothers, like me. You shall listen to him. This is according to all that you desired of The LORD your God in Horeb in the day of the assembly, saying, “Let me not hear again the LORD my God’s voice, neither let me see this great fire any more, that I not die.”
The LORD said to me, “They have well said that which they have spoken. I will raise them up a Prophet from among their brothers, like you. I will put my words in his mouth, and he shall speak to them all that I shall command him.

In Samuel:

“The LORD kills and makes alive. He brings down to Sheol and brings up.
I will raise up a faithful Priest for myself who will do according to that which is in my heart and in my mind. I will build him a sure house. He will walk before my anointed forever.
Nathan spoke to David all these words, “The LORD tells you that The LORD will make you a house. When your days are fulfilled, and you sleep with your fathers, I will raise up your offspring after you, who will proceed out of your body, and I will establish his kingdom. He will build a house for my name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever. I will be his father, and he will be my son. If he commits iniquity, I will chasten him with the rod of men, and with the stripes of the children of men; but my loving kindness will not depart from him, as I took it from Saul, whom I put away before you. Your house and your kingdom will be made sure forever before you. Your throne will be established forever.”

In The Kings:

Moreover the LORD will raise up a king for himself over Israel,

In The Chronicles:

Tell my servant David, “Moreover I tell you that the LORD will build you a house. It will happen, when your days are fulfilled that you must go to be with your fathers, that I will raise up your offspring after you, who will be of your sons; and I will establish his kingdom. He will build me a house, and I will establish his throne forever. I will be his father, and he will be my son. I will not take my loving kindness away from him, as I took it from him that was before you; but I will settle him in my house and in my kingdom forever. His throne will be established forever.”

In the Psalms:

Why do the nations rage, and the peoples plot a vain thing? The kings of the earth take a stand, and the rulers take counsel together, against the LORD, and against his Anointed.
From the lips of babes and infants you have established strength, because of your adversaries, that you might silence the enemy and the avenger. When I consider your heavens, the work of your fingers, the moon and the stars, which you have ordained; what is man, that you think of him? What is the son of man, that you care for him? For you have made him a little lower than the angels, and crowned him with glory and honor. You make him ruler over the works of your hands. You have put all things under his feet: All sheep and cattle, yes, and the animals of the field, the birds of the sky, the fish of the sea, and whatever passes through the paths of the seas.
Have mercy on me, LORD. See my affliction by those who hate me, and raise me up from the gates of death, that I may show all of your praise. I will rejoice in your salvation in the gates of the daughter of Zion. The nations have sunk down in the pit that they made. In the net which they hid, their own foot is taken. The LORD has made himself known. He has executed judgment. The wicked is snared by the work of his own hands. Meditation. Selah. The wicked shall be turned back to Sheol, even all the nations that forget God. For the needy shall not always be forgotten, nor the hope of the poor perish forever. Arise, LORD! Do not let man prevail. Let the nations be judged in your sight.
The LORD assigned my portion and my cup. You made my lot secure. The lines have fallen to me in pleasant places. Yes, I have a good inheritance. I will bless the LORD, who has given me counsel. Yes, my heart instructs me in the night seasons. I have set the LORD always before me. Because he is at my right hand, I shall not be moved. Therefore my heart is glad, and my tongue rejoices. My body shall also dwell in safety. For you will not leave my soul in Sheol, neither will you allow your holy one to see corruption.
My God, my God, why have you forsaken me? Why are you so far from helping me, and from the words of my groaning? My God, I cry in the daytime, but you do not answer; in the night season, and am not silent. But you are holy, you who inhabit the praises of Israel. Our fathers trusted in you. They trusted, and you delivered them. They cried to you, and were delivered. They trusted in you, and were not disappointed. But I am a worm, and no man; a reproach of men, and despised by the people. All those who see me mock me. They insult me with their lips. They shake their heads, saying, “He trusts in the LORD. Let him deliver him. Let him rescue him, since he delights in him.” But you brought me out of the womb. You made me trust while at my mother’s breasts. I was thrown on you from my mother’s womb. You are my God since my mother bore me. Do not be far from me, for trouble is near. For there is no one to help. Many bulls have surrounded me. Strong bulls of Bashan have encircled me. They open their mouths wide against me, lions tearing prey and roaring. I am poured out like water. All my bones are out of joint. My heart is like wax. It is melted within me. My strength is dried up like a potsherd. My tongue sticks to the roof of my mouth. You have brought me into the dust of death. For dogs have surrounded me. A company of evildoers have enclosed me. They have pierced my hands and feet. I can count all of my bones. They look and stare at me. They divide my garments among them. They cast lots for my clothing. But do not be far off, LORD. You are my help. Hurry to help me! Deliver my soul from the sword, my precious life from the power of the dog. Save me from the lion’s mouth! Yes, you have rescued me from the horns of the wild oxen. I will declare your name to my brothers. Among the assembly, I will praise you. You who fear the LORD, praise him! All you descendants of Jacob, glorify him! Stand in awe of him, all you descendants of Israel! For he has not despised nor abhorred the affliction of the afflicted, Neither has he hidden his face from him; but when he cried to him, he heard. My praise of you comes in the great assembly. I will pay my vows before those who fear him. The humble shall eat and be satisfied. They shall praise the LORD who seek after him. Let your hearts live forever. All the ends of the earth shall remember and turn to the LORD. All the relatives of the nations shall worship before you. For the kingdom is the LORD’s. He is the ruler over the nations. All the rich ones of the earth shall eat and worship. All those who go down to the dust shall bow before him, even he who cannot keep his soul alive. Posterity shall serve him. Future generations shall be told about the Lord. They shall come and shall declare his righteousness to a people that shall be born, for he has done it.
Sacrifice and offering you would not; but a body have you prepared me: whole-burnt-offering and sacrifice for sin you did not require. Then I said, Behold, I come: in the volume of the book it is written concerning me, I desired to do thy will, O my God, and your law in the midst of my heart. I have preached righteousness in the great congregation; lo! I will not refrain my lips; O Lord, you know my righteousness. I have not hid your truth within my heart, and I have declared your salvation; I have not hid your mercy and your truth from the great congregation.
My enemies speak evil against me: “When will he die, and his name perish?” If he comes to see me, he speaks falsehood. His heart gathers iniquity to itself. When he goes abroad, he tells it. All who hate me whisper together against me. They imagine the worst for me. “An evil disease”, they say, “has afflicted him. Now that he lies he shall rise up no more.” Yes, my own familiar friend, in whom I trusted, who ate bread with me, has lifted up his heel against me. But you, LORD, have mercy on me, and raise me up, that I may repay them. By this I know that you delight in me, because my enemy does not triumph over me. As for me, you uphold me in my integrity, and set me in your presence forever. Blessed be the LORD, the God of Israel, from everlasting and to everlasting! Amen and amen.
Be merciful to me, God, be merciful to me, for my soul takes refuge in you. Yes, in the shadow of your wings, I will take refuge, before disaster has passed. I cry out to God Most High, to God who accomplishes my requests for me. He will send from heaven, and save me, he rebukes the one who is pursuing me. Selah. God will send out his loving kindness and his truth. My soul is among lions. I lie among those who are set on fire, even the sons of men, whose teeth are spears and arrows, and their tongue a sharp sword. Be exalted, God, above the heavens! Let your glory be above all the earth! They have prepared a net for my steps. My soul is bowed down. They dig a pit before me. They fall into the middle of it themselves. Selah. My heart is steadfast, God. My heart is steadfast. I will sing, yes, I will sing praises. Wake up, my glory! Wake up, lute and harp! I will wake up the dawn. I will give thanks to you, Lord, among the peoples. I will sing praises to you among the nations. For your great loving kindness reaches to the heavens, and your truth to the skies. Be exalted, God, above the heavens. Let your glory be over all the earth.
Save me, God, for the waters have come up to my neck! I sink in deep mire, where there is no foothold. I have come into deep waters, where the floods overflow me. I am weary with my crying. My throat is dry. My eyes fail looking for my God. Those who hate me without a cause are more than the hairs of my head. Those who want to cut me off, being my enemies wrongfully, are mighty. I have to restore what I did not take away. God, you know my foolishness. My sins are not hidden from you. Do not let those who wait for you be shamed through me, Lord LORD of Armies. Do not let those who seek you be brought to dishonor through me, God of Israel. Because for your sake, I have borne reproach. Shame has covered my face. I have become a stranger to my brothers, an alien to my mother’s children. For the zeal of your house consumes me. The reproaches of those who reproach you have fallen on me. When I wept and I fasted, that was to my reproach. When I made sackcloth my clothing, I became a byword to them. Those who sit in the gate talk about me. I am the song of the drunkards. But as for me, my prayer is to you, LORD, in an acceptable time. God, in the abundance of your loving kindness, answer me in the truth of your salvation. Deliver me out of the mire, and do not let me sink. Let me be delivered from those who hate me, and out of the deep waters. Do not let the flood waters overwhelm me, neither let the deep swallow me up. Do not let the pit shut its mouth on me. Answer me, LORD, for your loving kindness is good. According to the multitude of your tender mercies, turn to me. Do not hide your face from your servant, for I am in distress. Answer me speedily! Draw near to my soul and redeem it. Ransom me because of my enemies. You know my reproach, my shame, and my dishonor. My adversaries are all before you. Reproach has broken my heart, and I am full of heaviness. I looked for some to take pity, but there was none; for comforters, but I found none. They also gave me poison for my food. In my thirst, they gave me vinegar to drink. Let their table before them become a snare. May it become a retribution and a trap. Let their eyes be darkened, so that they cannot see. Let their backs be continually bent. Pour out your indignation on them. Let the fierceness of your anger overtake them. Let their habitation be desolate. Let no one dwell in their tents. For they persecute him whom you have wounded. They tell of the sorrow of those whom you have hurt. Charge them with crime upon crime. Do not let them come into your righteousness. Let them be blotted out of the book of life, and not be written with the righteous. But I am in pain and distress. Let your salvation, God, protect me. I will praise the name of God with a song, and will magnify him with thanksgiving. It will please the LORD better than an ox, or a bull that has horns and hoofs. The humble have seen it, and are glad. You who seek after God, let your heart live. For the LORD hears the needy, and does not despise his captive people. Let heaven and earth praise him; the seas, and everything that moves therein! For God will save Zion, and build the cities of Judah. They shall settle there, and own it. The children also of his servants shall inherit it. Those who love his name shall dwell therein.
Hear my teaching, my people. Turn your ears to the words of my mouth. I will open my mouth in a parable.
Turn again, we beg you, God of Armies. Look down from heaven, and see, and visit this vine, the stock which your right hand planted, the branch that you made strong for yourself. It is burned with fire. It is cut down. They perish at your rebuke. Let your hand be on the man of your right hand, on the son of man whom you made strong for yourself. So we will not turn away from you. Revive us, and we will call on your name. Turn us again, LORD God of Armies. Cause your face to shine, and we will be saved.
God presides in the great assembly. He judges among the gods. “How long will you judge unjustly, and show partiality to the wicked?” Selah. “Defend the weak, the poor, and the fatherless. Maintain the rights of the poor and oppressed. Rescue the weak and needy. Deliver them out of the hand of the wicked.” They do not know, neither do they understand. They walk back and forth in darkness. All the foundations of the earth are shaken. I said, “You are gods, all of you are sons of the Most High. Nevertheless you shall die like men, and fall like one of the rulers.” Arise, God, judge the earth, for you inherit all of the nations.
Those who go down to the sea in ships, who do business in great waters; These see the LORD's deeds, and his wonders in the deep. For he commands, and raises the stormy wind, which lifts up its waves. They mount up to the sky; they go down again to the depths. Their soul melts away because of trouble. They reel back and forth, and stagger like a drunken man, and are at their wits’ end. Then they cry to the LORD in their trouble, and he brings them out of their distress. He makes the storm a calm, so that its waves are still. Then they are glad because it is calm, so he brings them to their desired haven. Let them praise the LORD for his loving kindness, for his wonderful deeds for the children of men! Let them exalt him also in the assembly of the people, and praise him in the seat of the elders.
The LORD says to my Lord, “Sit at my right hand, unto the day I make your enemies your footstool for your feet.” The LORD will send out the rod of your strength out of Zion. Rule among your enemies. Your people offer themselves willingly in the day of your power, in holy array. Out of the womb of the morning, you have the dew of your youth. The LORD has sworn, and will not change his mind: “You are a Priest forever in the order of Melchizedek.”
Give thanks to the LORD, for he is good, for his loving kindness endures forever. Let Israel now say that his loving kindness endures forever. Let the house of Aaron now say that his loving kindness endures forever. Now let those who fear the LORD say that his loving kindness endures forever. Out of my distress, I called on the LORD. The LORD answered me with freedom. the LORD is on my side. I will not be afraid. What can man do to me? the LORD is on my side among those who help me. Therefore I will look in triumph at those who hate me. It is better to take refuge in the LORD, than to put confidence in man. It is better to take refuge in the LORD, than to put confidence in princes. All the nations surrounded me, but in the LORD’s name, I cut them off. They surrounded me, yes, they surrounded me. In the LORD’s name I indeed cut them off. They surrounded me like bees. They are quenched like the burning thorns. In the LORD’s name I cut them off. You pushed me back hard, to make me fall, but the LORD helped me. The LORD is my strength and song. He has become my salvation. The voice of rejoicing and salvation is in the tents of the righteous. “The right hand of the LORD does valiantly. The right hand of the LORD is exalted! The right hand of the LORD does valiantly!” I will not die, but live, and declare the LORD’s works. The LORD has punished me severely, but he has not given me over to death. Open to me the gates of righteousness. I will enter into them. I will give thanks to the LORD. This is the gate of the LORD; the righteous will enter into it. I will give thanks to you, for you have answered me, and have become my salvation. The stone which the builders rejected has become the cornerstone. This is the LORD’s doing. It is marvelous in our eyes. This is the day that the LORD has made. We will rejoice and be glad in it! Save us now, we beg you, LORD! LORD, we beg you, send prosperity now. Blessed is he who comes in the LORD’s name! We have blessed you out of the LORD’s house. The LORD is God, and he has given us light. Bind the sacrifice with cords, even to the horns of the altar. You are my God, and I will give thanks to you. You are my God, I will exalt you. Oh give thanks to the LORD, for he is good, for his loving kindness endures forever.
For your servant David’s sake, do not turn away the face of your anointed one. The LORD has sworn to David in truth. He will not turn from it: “I will set the fruit of your body on your throne. If your children will keep my covenant, my testimony that I will teach them, their children also will sit on your throne forever more.” For the LORD has chosen Zion. He has desired it for his habitation. “This is my resting place forever. I will live here, for I have desired it. I will abundantly bless her provision. I will satisfy her poor with bread. I will also clothe her priests with salvation. Her saints will shout aloud for joy. I will make the horn of David to bud there. I have ordained a lamp for my anointed. I will clothe his enemies with shame, but on himself, his crown will shine.”
Where could I go from your Spirit? Or where could I flee from your presence? If I ascend up into heaven, you are there. If I make my bed in Sheol, behold, you are there! If I take the wings of the dawn, and settle in the uttermost parts of the sea, even there your hand will lead me, and your right hand will hold me. If I say, “Surely the darkness will overwhelm me. The light around me will be night,” even the darkness does not hide from you, but the night shines as the day. The darkness is like light to you. For you formed my inmost being. You knit me together in my mother’s womb. I will give thanks to you, for I am fearfully and wonderfully made. Your works are wonderful. My soul knows that very well. My frame was not hidden from you, when I was made in secret, woven together in the depths of the earth. Your eyes saw my body. In your book they were all written, the days that were ordained for me, when as yet there were none of them. How precious to me are your thoughts, God! How vast is their sum! If I would count them, they are more in number than the sand. When I wake up, I am still with you.

In the Book of Proverbs:

My son, do not forget my teaching; but let your heart keep my commandments: for they will add to you length of days, years of life, and peace. Do not let kindness and truth forsake you. Bind them around your neck. Write them on the tablet of your heart. So you will find favor, and good understanding in the sight of God and man.

(As it is written: "Jesus increased in wisdom and in stature, and in favor with God and man.")

“The LORD possessed me in the beginning of his work, before his deeds of old. I was set up from everlasting, from the beginning, before the earth existed. When there were no depths, I was born, when there were no springs abounding with water. Before the mountains were settled in place, before the hills, I was born; while as yet he had not made the earth, nor the fields, nor the beginning of the dust of the world. When he established the heavens, I was there. When he set a circle on the surface of the deep, when he established the clouds above, when the springs of the deep became strong, when he gave to the sea its boundary, that the waters should not violate his commandment, when he marked out the foundations of the earth, then I was the craftsman by his side. I was a delight day by day, always rejoicing before him, rejoicing in his whole world. My delight was with the sons of men. “Now therefore, my sons, listen to me, for blessed are those who keep my ways. Hear instruction, and be wise. Do not refuse it. Blessed is the man who hears me, watching daily at my gates, waiting at my door posts. For whoever finds me, finds life, and will obtain favor from the LORD. But he who sins against me wrongs his own soul. All those who hate me love death.”
One who corrects a mocker invites insult. One who reproves a wicked man invites abuse.

In the Book of Wisdom:

But let us lie in wait for the righteous man, because he annoys us, is contrary to our works, reproaches us with sins against the law, and charges us with sins against our training. He professes to have knowledge of God, and calls himself a child of the Lord. He became to us a reproof of our thoughts. He is grievous to us even to look at, because his life is unlike other men’s, and his paths are strange. We were regarded by him as worthless metal, and he abstains from our ways as from uncleanness. He calls the latter end of the righteous happy. He boasts that God is his father. Let us see if his words are true. Let us test what will happen at the end of his life. For if the righteous man is God’s son, he will uphold him, and he will deliver him out of the hand of his adversaries. Let us test him with outrage and torture, that we may find out how gentle he is, and test his patience. Let us condemn him to a shameful death, for he will be overseen according to his words.” Thus they reasoned, and they were led astray; for their wickedness blinded them,
But a righteous man who is dead will condemn the ungodly who are living, and youth that is quickly perfected will condemn the many years of an unrighteous man’s old age. For the ungodly will see a wise man’s end, and will not understand what the Lord planned for him, and why he safely kept him. They will see, and they will despise; but the Lord will laugh them to scorn. After this, they will become a dishonored carcass and a reproach among the dead forever; because he will dash them speechless to the ground, and will shake them from the foundations. They will lie utterly waste. They will be in anguish and their memory will perish. They will come with coward fear when their sins are counted. Their lawless deeds will convict them to their face. Then the righteous man will stand in great boldness before the face of those who afflicted him, and those who make his labors of no account. When they see him, they will be troubled with terrible fear, and will be amazed at the marvel of salvation. They will speak among themselves repenting, and for distress of spirit they will groan, “This was he whom we used to hold in derision, as a parable of reproach. We fools considered his life madness, and his end without honor. How was he counted among sons of God? How is his lot among saints? Truly we went astray from the way of truth. The light of righteousness did not shine for us. The sun did not rise for us. We took our fill of the paths of lawlessness and destruction. We traveled through trackless deserts, but we did not know the Lord’s way. What did our arrogance profit us? What good have riches and boasting brought us? Those things all passed away as a shadow, like a message that runs by, like a ship passing through the billowy water, which, when it has gone by, there is no trace to be found, no pathway of its keel in the billows. Or it is like when a bird flies through the air, no evidence of its passage is found, but the light wind, lashed with the stroke of its pinions, and torn apart with the violent rush of the moving wings, is passed through. Afterwards no sign of its coming remains. Or it is like when an arrow is shot at a mark, the air disparted closes up again immediately, so that men do not know where it passed through. So we also, as soon as we were born, ceased to be; and we had no sign of virtue to show, but we were utterly consumed in our wickedness.” Because the hope of the ungodly man is like chaff carried by the wind, and as foam vanishing before a tempest; and is scattered like smoke by the wind, and passes by as the remembrance of a guest that waits but a day. But the righteous live forever. Their reward is in the Lord, and the care for them with the Most High. Therefore they will receive the crown of royal dignity and the diadem of beauty from the Lord’s hand; because he will cover them with his right hand, and he will shield them with his arm.
Now I was a clever child, and received a good soul. Or rather, being good, I entered an undefiled body.
For blessed is wood through which comes righteousness.

In the Book of the Wisdom of Jesus the son of Sirach:

I have stretched out my branches as the cedar tree, and my branches are of honor and grace. As the vine I have brought forth a pleasant odor: and my flowers are the fruit of honor and riches. I am the mother of fair love, and of fear, and of knowledge, and of holy hope. In me is all grace of the way and of the truth, in me is all hope of life and of virtue. Come over to me, all of you who desire me, and be filled with my fruits. For my spirit is sweeter than honey, and my inheritance more than honey and the honeycomb. My memory extends to everlasting generations. Those who eat me, shall hunger for more: and those who drink me, shall thirst for more. One who heeds me, shall not be confounded: and those who work with my help, shall not sin. Those who explain me shall have life everlasting. I, wisdom have poured out rivers. I, like a brook out of a river of powerful water; I, like a channel of a river, and like an aqueduct, came out of paradise. I said: I will water my garden of plants, and I will water abundantly the fruits of my meadow. And behold, my brook became a great river, and my river became a sea: For I make doctrine to shine forth to all as the morning light, and I will declare it afar off. I will penetrate to all the lower parts of the earth, and will behold all who sleep, and will enlighten all who hope in the Lord. I will yet pour out doctrine as prophecy, and will leave it to those who seek wisdom, and will not cease to instruct their offspring even to the holy age. See for yourself that I have not labored for myself only, but for all who seek out the truth.

In Isaiah:

He said, “Go, and tell this people, ‘You hear indeed, but do not understand. You see indeed, but do not perceive.’ Make the heart of this people fat. Make their ears heavy, and shut their eyes; lest they see with their eyes, hear with their ears, understand with their heart, and turn again, and be healed.”
Therefore the Lord himself will give you a sign. Behold, the virgin will conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel (that is, God with us).
The LORD of Armies is who you must respect as holy. He is the one you must fear. He is the one you must dread. He will be a sanctuary, but for both houses of Israel, he will be a stumbling stone and a rock that makes them fall. For the people of Jerusalem, he will be a trap and a snare. Many will stumble over it, fall, be broken, be snared, and be captured.”
Wrap up the covenant. Seal the law among my disciples. I will wait for the LORD, who hides his face from the house of Jacob, and I will look for him. Behold, I and the children whom the LORD has given me are for signs and for wonders in Israel from the LORD of Armies, who dwells in Mount Zion.
But there shall be no more gloom for her who was in anguish. In the former time, he brought into contempt the land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali; but in the latter time he has made it glorious, by the way of the sea, beyond the Jordan, Galilee of the nations. The people who walked in darkness have seen a great light. The light has shined on those who lived in the land of the shadow of death.
I will thrust you from your office. You will be pulled down from your station. It will happen in that day that I will call my servant Eliakim (that is, my servant "the God of raising") the son of Hilkiah (that is, the son of "the portion of the LORD"), and I will clothe him with your robe, and strengthen him with your belt. I will commit your government into his hand; and he will be a father to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and to the house of Judah. I will lay the key of David’s house on his shoulder. He will open, and no one will shut. He will shut, and no one will open. I will fasten him like a nail in a sure place. He will be for a throne of glory to his father’s house. They will hang on him all the glory of his father’s house, the offspring and the issue, every small vessel, from the cups even to all the pitchers. “In that day,” says the LORD of Armies, “the nail that was fastened in a sure place will give way. It will be cut down and fall. The burden that was on it will be cut off, for the LORD has spoken it.”
Therefore the Lord LORD says, “Behold, I lay in Zion for a foundation a stone, a tried stone, a precious cornerstone of a sure foundation. He who believes shall not act hastily.
The Lord said, “Because this people draws near with their mouth and honors me with their lips, but they have removed their heart far from me, and their fear of me is a commandment of men which has been taught; therefore, behold, I will proceed to do a marvelous work among this people, even a marvelous work and a wonder; and the wisdom of their wise men will perish, and the understanding of their prudent men will be hidden.”
“Comfort, comfort my people,” says your God. “Speak comfortably to Jerusalem; and call out to her that her warfare is accomplished, that her iniquity is pardoned, that she has received of the LORD’s hand double for all her sins.” The voice of one who calls out, “Prepare the way of the LORD in the wilderness! Make a level highway in the desert for our God. Every valley shall be exalted, and every mountain and hill shall be made low. The uneven shall be made level, and the rough places a plain. The LORD’s glory shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together; for the mouth of the LORD has spoken it.” The voice of one saying, “Cry!” One said, “What shall I cry?” “All flesh is like grass, and all its glory is like the flower of the field. The grass withers, the flower fades, because the LORD’s breath blows on it. Surely the people are like grass. The grass withers, the flower fades; but the word of our God stands forever.” You who tell good news to Zion, go up on a high mountain. You who tell good news to Jerusalem, lift up your voice with strength! Lift it up! Do not be afraid! Say to the cities of Judah, “Behold, your God!” Behold, the Lord LORD will come as a mighty one, and his arm will rule for him. Behold, his reward is with him, and his recompense before him. He will feed his flock like a shepherd. He will gather the lambs in his arm, and carry them in his bosom. He will gently lead those who have their young.
“Behold, my servant, whom I uphold, my chosen, in whom my soul delights: I have put my Spirit on him. He will bring justice to the nations. He will not shout, nor raise his voice, nor cause it to be heard in the street. He will not break a bruised reed. He will not quench a dimly burning wick. He will faithfully bring justice. He will not fail nor be discouraged, before he has set justice in the earth, and the islands wait for his law.”
Since you have been precious and honored in my sight, and I have loved you, therefore I will give people in your place, and nations instead of your life. Do not be afraid, for I am with you. I will bring your offspring from the east, and gather you from the west. I will tell the north, ‘Give them up!’ and tell the south, ‘Do not hold them back! Bring my sons from far away, and my daughters from the ends of the earth—everyone who is called by my name, and whom I have created for my glory, whom I have formed, yes, whom I have made.’ ” Bring out the blind people who have eyes, and the deaf who have ears. Let all the nations be gathered together, and let the peoples be assembled. Who among them can declare this, and show us former things? Let them bring their witnesses, that they may be justified, or let them hear, and say, “That is true.”
“You are my witnesses,” says the LORD, “with my servant whom I have chosen; that you may know and believe me, and understand that I am he. Before me there was no God formed, neither will there be after me. I myself am the LORD. Besides me, there is no savior. I have declared, I have saved, and I have shown, and there was no strange god among you. Therefore you are my witnesses”, says the LORD, “and I am God. Yes, since the day was, I am he. There is no one who can deliver out of my hand. I will work, and who can hinder it?”
“Look to me, and be saved, all the ends of the earth; for I am God, and there is no other. I have sworn by myself. The word has gone out of my mouth in righteousness, and will not be revoked, that to me every knee shall bow, every tongue shall take an oath. They will say of me, ‘There is righteousness and strength only in the LORD.’ ” Even to him will men come. All those who raged against him will be disappointed. All the offspring of Israel will be justified in the LORD, and will rejoice!
Listen, islands, to me. Listen, you peoples, from afar: the LORD has called me from the womb; from the inside of my mother, he has mentioned my name. He has made my mouth like a sharp sword. He has hidden me in the shadow of his hand. He has made me a polished shaft. He has kept me close in his quiver. He said to me, “You are my servant, Israel, in whom I will be glorified.” But I said, “I have labored in vain. I have spent my strength in vain for nothing; yet surely the justice due to me is with the LORD, and my reward with my God.” Now the LORD, he who formed me from the womb to be his servant, says to bring Jacob again to him, and to gather Israel to him, for I am honorable in the LORD's eyes, and my God has become my strength. Indeed, he says, “It is too light a thing that you should be my servant to raise up the tribes of Jacob, and to restore the preserved of Israel. I will also give you as a light to the nations, that you may be my salvation to the end of the earth.”
Behold, my servant will deal wisely. He will be exalted and lifted up, and will be very high. Just as many were astonished at you—his appearance was marred more than any man, and his form more than the sons of men—so he will cleanse many nations. Kings will shut their mouths at him; for they will see that which had not been told them, and they will understand that which they had not heard. Who has believed our message? To whom has the LORD’s arm been revealed? For he grew up before him as a tender plant, and as a root out of dry ground. He has no good looks or majesty. When we see him, there is no beauty that we should desire him. He was despised and rejected by men, a man of suffering and acquainted with disease. He was despised as one from whom men hide their face; and we did not respect him. Surely he has borne our sickness and carried our suffering; yet we considered him plagued, struck by God, and afflicted. But he was pierced for our transgressions. He was crushed for our iniquities. The punishment that brought our peace was on him; and by his wounds we are healed. All we like sheep have gone astray. Everyone has turned to his own way; and the LORD has laid on him the iniquity of us all. He was oppressed, yet when he was afflicted he did not open his mouth. As a lamb that is led to the slaughter, and as a sheep that before its shearers is silent, so he did not open his mouth. He was taken away by oppression and judgment. As for his generation, who considered that he was cut off out of the land of the living and stricken for the disobedience of my people? They made his grave with the wicked, and with a rich man in his death, although he had done no violence, nor was any deceit in his mouth. Yet it pleased the LORD to bruise him. He has caused him to suffer. When you make his soul an offering for sin, he will see his offspring. He will prolong his days and the LORD’s pleasure will prosper in his hand. After the suffering of his soul, he will see the light and be satisfied. My righteous servant will justify many by the knowledge of himself; and he will bear their iniquities. Therefore I will give him a portion with the great. He will divide the plunder with the strong; because he poured out his soul to death and was counted with the transgressors; yet he bore the sins of many and made intercession for the transgressors.
“Do not be afraid, for you will not be ashamed. Do not be confounded, for you will not be disappointed. For you will forget the shame of your youth. You will remember the reproach of your widowhood no more. For your Maker is your husband; the LORD of Armies is his name. The Holy One of Israel is your Redeemer. He will be called the God of the whole earth. For the LORD has called you as a wife forsaken and grieved in spirit, even a wife of youth, when she is cast off,” says your God.
“Hey! Come, everyone who thirsts, to the waters! Come, he who has no money, buy, and eat! Yes, come, buy wine and milk without money and without price. Why do you spend money for that which is not bread, and your labor for that which does not satisfy? Listen diligently to me, and eat that which is good, and let your soul delight itself in richness. Turn your ear, and come to me. Hear, and your soul will live. I will make an everlasting covenant with you, even the sure mercies of David. Behold, I have given him for a witness to the peoples, a leader and commander to the peoples. Behold, you shall call a nation that you do not know; and a nation that did not know you shall run to you, because of the LORD your God, and for the Holy One of Israel; for he has glorified you.” Seek the LORD while he may be found. Call on him while he is near. Let the wicked forsake his way, and the unrighteous man his thoughts. Let him return to the LORD, and he will have mercy on him, to our God, for he will freely pardon. “For my thoughts are not your thoughts, and your ways are not my ways,” says the LORD. “For as the heavens are higher than the earth, so are my ways higher than your ways, and my thoughts than your thoughts.
Arise, shine; for your light has come, and the LORD’s glory has risen on you. For, behold, darkness will cover the earth, and thick darkness the peoples; but the LORD will arise on you, and his glory shall be seen on you. Nations will come to your light, and kings to the brightness of your rising. “Lift up your eyes all around, and see: they all gather themselves together. They come to you. Your sons will come from far away, and your daughters will be carried in arms. Then you shall see and be radiant, and your heart will thrill and be enlarged; because the abundance of the sea will be turned to you. The wealth of the nations will come to you. A multitude of camels will cover you, the dromedaries of Midian and Ephah. All from Sheba will come. They will bring gold and frankincense, and will proclaim the praises of the LORD.
The Lord LORD’s Spirit is on me, because the LORD has anointed me to preach good news to the humble. He has sent me to bind up the broken hearted, to proclaim liberty to the captives and release to those who are bound, to proclaim the year of the LORD's favor
They will rebuild the old ruins. They will raise up the former devastated places. They will repair the ruined cities that have been devastated for many generations. Strangers will stand and feed your flocks. Foreigners will work your fields and your vineyards. But you will be called the LORD’s Priests. Men will call you the servants of our God.
Their offspring will be known among the nations, and their offspring among the peoples. All who see them will acknowledge them, that they are the offspring which the LORD has blessed.” I will greatly rejoice in the LORD! My soul will be joyful in my God, for he has clothed me with the garments of salvation. He has covered me with the robe of righteousness, as a bridegroom decks himself with a garland and as a bride adorns herself with her jewels. For as the earth produces its bud, and as the garden causes the things that are sown in it to spring up, so the Lord LORD will cause righteousness and praise to spring up before all the nations.
“I am inquired of by those who did not ask. I am found by those who did not seek me. I said, ‘See me, see me,’ to a nation that was not called by my name. I have spread out my hands all day to a rebellious people, who walk in a way that is not good, after their own thoughts; I will destine you to the sword, and you will all bow down to the slaughter; because when I called, you did not answer. When I spoke, you did not listen; but you did that which was evil in my eyes, and chose that in which I did not delight.” Therefore the Lord LORD says, “Behold, my servants will eat, but you will be hungry; behold, my servants will drink, but you will be thirsty. Behold, my servants will rejoice, but you will be disappointed; Behold, my servants will sing for joy of heart, but you will cry for sorrow of heart, and will wail for anguish of spirit. You will leave your name for a curse to my chosen; and the Lord LORD will kill you. He will call his servants by another name, so that he who blesses himself in the earth will bless himself in the God of truth; and he who swears in the earth will swear by the God of truth; because the former troubles are forgotten, and because they are hidden from my eyes. “For, behold, I create new heavens and a new earth; and the former things will not be remembered, nor come into mind.
“For I know their works and their thoughts. The time comes that I will gather all nations and languages, and they will come, and will see my glory. “I will set a sign among them, and I will send those who escape of them to the nations, to Tarshish, Pul, and Lud, who draw the bow, to Tubal and Javan, to far-away islands, who have not heard my fame, nor have seen my glory; and they shall declare my glory among the nations. They shall bring all your brothers out of all the nations for an offering to the LORD, on horses, in chariots, in litters, on mules, and on camels, to my holy mountain Jerusalem, says the LORD, as the children of Israel bring their offering in a clean vessel into the LORD’s house. Of them I will also select Priests and Levites,” says the LORD. “For as the new heavens and the new earth, which I will make, shall remain before me,” says the LORD, “so your offspring and your name shall remain. It shall happen that from one new moon to another, and from one Sabbath to another, all flesh will come to worship before me,” says the LORD. “They will go out, and look at the dead bodies of the men who have transgressed against me; for their worm will not die, nor will their fire be quenched, and they will be loathsome to all mankind.”

In Jeremiah:

“Declare this in the house of Jacob, and publish it in Judah, saying, ‘Hear this now, foolish people without understanding, who have eyes, and do not see, who have ears, and do not hear: Do you not fear me?’ says the LORD ‘Will you not tremble at my presence, who have placed the sand for the bound of the sea, by a perpetual decree, that it cannot pass it? Though its waves toss themselves, yet they cannot prevail. Though they roar, they still cannot pass over it.’
“But this people has a revolting and a rebellious heart. They have revolted and gone. They do not say in their heart, ‘Let us now fear the LORD our God, who gives rain, both the former and the latter, in its season, who preserves to us the appointed weeks of the harvest.’ “Your iniquities have turned away these things, and your sins have withheld good from you. For wicked men are found among my people. They watch, as fowlers lie in wait. They set a trap. They catch men. As a cage is full of birds, so are their houses full of deceit. Therefore they have become great, and grew rich. They have grown fat. They shine; yes, they excel in deeds of wickedness. They do not plead the cause, the cause of the fatherless, that they may prosper; and they do not defend the rights of the needy.
“Should I not punish for these things?” says the LORD. “Should my soul not be avenged on such a nation as this?
“An astonishing and horrible thing has happened in the land. The prophets prophesy falsely, and the priests rule by their own authority; and my people love to have it so. What will you do in the end of it?
The LORD of Armies says, “Glean thoroughly the remnant of Israel like a vine. Turn again your hand as a grape gatherer into the baskets.” To whom should I speak and testify, that they may hear? Behold, their ear is uncircumcised, and they cannot listen. Behold, the LORD’s word has become a reproach to them. They have no delight in it. Therefore I am full of the LORD’s wrath. I am weary with holding it in. “Pour it out on the children in the street, and on the assembly of young men together; for even the husband with the wife will be taken, the aged with him who is full of days. Their houses will be turned over to others, their fields and their wives together; for I will stretch out my hand on the inhabitants of the land, says the LORD.”
“ ‘I will utterly consume them, says the LORD. No grapes will be on the vine, no figs on the fig tree, and the leaf will fade. The things that I have given them will pass away from them.’ ”
The LORD says, “Do not let the wise man glory in his wisdom. Do not let the mighty man glory in his might. Do not let the rich man glory in his riches. But let him who glories glory in this, that he has understanding, and knows me, that I am the LORD who exercises loving kindness, justice, and righteousness in the earth, for I delight in these things,” says the LORD. “Behold, the days come,” says the LORD, “that I will punish all those who are circumcised only in their flesh: Egypt, Judah, Edom, the children of Ammon, Moab, and all who have the corners of their hair cut off, who dwell in the wilderness, for all the nations are uncircumcised, and all the house of Israel are uncircumcised in heart.”
“Arise, and go down to the potter’s house, and there I will cause you to hear my words.” Then I went down to the potter’s house,
Thus said the LORD, “Go, and buy a potter’s earthen container, and take some of the elders of the people, and of the elders of the priests; and go out to the valley of the son of Hinnom, which is by the entry of the gate Harsith, and proclaim there the words that I will tell you. Say, ‘Hear the LORD’s word, kings of Judah, and inhabitants of Jerusalem: the LORD of Armies, the God of Israel says, “Behold, I will bring evil on this place, which whoever hears, his ears will tingle.
Behold, the days come,” says the LORD, “that this place will no more be called ‘Topheth’, nor ‘The Valley of the son of Hinnom’, but ‘The valley of Slaughter’.
“ ‘ “I will make the counsel of Judah and Jerusalem void in this place. I will cause them to fall by the sword before their enemies, and by the hand of those who seek their life. I will give their dead bodies to be food for the birds of the sky and for the animals of the earth. I will make this city an astonishment and a hissing. Everyone who passes by it will be astonished and hiss because of all its plagues. I will cause them to eat the flesh of their sons and the flesh of their daughters. They will each eat the flesh of his friend in the siege and in the distress, with which their enemies, and those who seek their life, will distress them.” ’
“Then you shall break the container in the sight of the men who go with you, and shall tell them, ‘the LORD of Armies says: “Even so I will break this people and this city, as one breaks a potter’s vessel, that cannot be made whole again. They will bury in Topheth, to the point where there is no place to bury. This is what I will do to this place,” says the LORD, “and to its inhabitants, even making this city as Topheth.” ’ ”
Then Jeremiah came from Topheth, where the LORD had sent him to prophesy, and he stood in the court of the LORD’s house, and said to all the people: “The LORD of Armies, the God of Israel says, ‘Behold, I will bring on this city and on all its towns all the evil that I have pronounced against it, because they have made their neck stiff, that they may not hear my words.’ ”
“Behold, the days come,” says the LORD, “that I will raise to David a righteous Branch, and he will reign as king and deal wisely, and will execute justice and righteousness in the land. In his days Judah will be saved, and Israel will dwell safely. This is his name by which he will be called: the LORD our righteousness.
The LORD’s word has come to me, and I have spoken to you, rising up early and speaking; but you have not listened.
The LORD has sent to you all his servants the prophets, rising up early and sending them (but you have not listened or inclined your ear to hear), saying, “Return now everyone from his evil way, and from the evil of your doings, and dwell in the land that the LORD has given to you and to your fathers, from of old and even forever more.
For the LORD, the God of Israel, says to me: “Take this cup of the wine of wrath from my hand, and cause all the nations to whom I send you to drink it.
Then I took the cup at the LORD's hand.
It will come to pass in that day, says the LORD of Armies, that I will break his yoke from off your neck, and will burst your bonds. Strangers will no more make them their bondservants; but they will serve the LORD their God, and David their king, whom I will raise up to them. Therefore do not be afraid, O Jacob my servant, says the LORD. Do not be dismayed, Israel. For, behold, I will save you from afar, and save your offspring from the land of their captivity.
The LORD says: “A voice is heard in Ramah, lamentation and bitter weeping, Rachel weeping for her children. She refuses to be comforted for her children, because they are no more.”
“Behold, the days come,” says the LORD, “that I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah: not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt; which covenant of mine they broke, although I was a husband to them,” says the LORD. “But this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days,” says the LORD: “I will put my law in their inward parts, and I will write it in their heart. I will be their God, and they shall be my people. They will no longer each teach his neighbor, and every man teach his brother, saying, ‘Know the LORD;’ for they will all know me, from their least to their greatest,” says the LORD: “for I will forgive their iniquity, and I will remember their sin no more.”
What you have spoken has happened. Behold, you see it. You have said to me, Lord LORD, ‘Buy the field for money, and call witnesses;’

In the Book of Lamentations:

I am the man who has seen affliction by the rod of his wrath. He has led me and caused me to walk in darkness, and not in light. Surely he turns his hand against me again and again all day long.
He has built against me, and surrounded me with bitterness and hardship. He has made me dwell in dark places, as those who have been long dead. He has walled me about, so that I cannot go out. He has made my chain heavy. Yes, when I cry, and call for help, he shuts out my prayer. He has walled up my ways with cut stone. He has made my paths crooked. He is to me as a bear lying in wait, as a lion in secret places. He has turned away my ways, and pulled me in pieces. He has made me desolate. He has bent his bow, and set me as a mark for the arrow. He has caused the shafts of his quiver to enter into my kidneys. I have become a derision to all my people, and their song all day long. He has filled me with bitterness. He has stuffed me with wormwood. He has also broken my teeth with gravel. He has covered me with ashes. You have removed my soul far away from peace. I forgot prosperity. I said, “My strength has perished, along with my expectation from the LORD.” Remember my affliction and my misery, the wormwood and the bitterness. My soul still remembers them, and is bowed down within me. This I recall to my mind; therefore I have hope. It is because of the LORD’s loving kindnesses that we are not consumed, because his compassion does not fail. They are new every morning. Great is your faithfulness. “The LORD is my portion,” says my soul. “Therefore I will hope in him.” The LORD is good to those who wait for him, to the soul who seeks him. It is good that a man should hope and quietly wait for the salvation of the LORD. It is good for a man that he bear the yoke in his youth. Let him sit alone and keep silence, because he has laid it on him. Let him put his mouth in the dust, if it is so that there may be hope. Let him give his cheek to him who strikes him. Let him be filled full of reproach. For the Lord will not cast off forever. For though he causes grief, yet he will have compassion according to the multitude of his loving kindnesses.

In the Book of Baruch:

Be of good cheer, O my children, cry to God, and he shall deliver you from the power and hand of the enemies. For I have trusted in the Everlasting, that he will save you; and joy is come to me from the Holy One, because of the mercy which shall soon come to you from the Everlasting your Savior.

In Ezekiel:

The LORD said to him, “Go through the middle of the city, through the middle of Jerusalem, and set a Tau-mark on the foreheads of the men that sigh and that cry over all the abominations that are done within it.” To the others he said in my hearing, “Go through the city after him, and strike. Do not let your eye spare, neither have pity. Kill utterly the old man, the young man, the virgin, little children and women; but do not come near any man on whom is the Tau-mark. Begin at my sanctuary.” Then they began at the old men who were before the house.
“Therefore the Lord LORD says to them: ‘Behold, I, even I, will judge between the fat sheep and the lean sheep. Because you thrust with side and with shoulder, and push all the diseased with your horns, to the point that you have scattered them abroad; therefore I will save my flock, and they will no more be a prey. I will judge between sheep and sheep. I will raise up one shepherd over them, and he will feed them, even my servant David. He will feed them, and he will be their shepherd. I, the LORD, will be their God, and my servant David prince among them. I, the LORD, have spoken it. “ ‘I will make with them a covenant of peace.
They will know that I, the LORD, their God am with them, and that they, the house of Israel, are my people, says the Lord LORD. You my sheep, the sheep of my pasture, are men, and I am your God,’ says the Lord LORD.”

In Daniel:

“You, O king, saw, and behold, a great image. This image, which was mighty, and whose brightness was excellent, stood before you; and its appearance was terrifying. As for this image, its head was of fine gold, its breast and its arms of silver, its belly and its thighs of bronze, its legs of iron, its feet part of iron, and part of clay. You saw until a stone was cut out without hands, which struck the image on its feet that were of iron and clay, and broke them in pieces. Then the iron, the clay, the bronze, the silver, and the gold were broken in pieces together, and became like the chaff of the summer threshing floors. The wind carried them away, so that no place was found for them. The stone that struck the image became a great mountain, and filled the whole earth.
“The God of heaven will set up a kingdom which will never be destroyed, nor will its sovereignty be left to another people; but it will break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms, and it will stand forever. Because you saw that a stone was cut out of the mountain without hands, and that it broke in pieces the iron, the bronze, the clay, the silver, and the gold; the great God has made known to the king what will happen hereafter. The dream is certain, and its interpretation sure.”
“I saw in the night visions, and behold, there came with the clouds of the sky one like a Son of man, and he came even to the ancient of days, and they brought him near before him. Dominion was given him, and glory, and a kingdom, that all the peoples, nations, and languages should serve him. His dominion is an everlasting dominion, which will not pass away, and his kingdom that which will not be destroyed.
The kingdom and the dominion, and the greatness of the kingdoms under the whole sky, will be given to the people of the saints of the Most High. His kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions will serve and obey him.’

In Hosea:

“Come! Let us return to the LORD; for he has torn us to pieces, and he will heal us; he has injured us, and he will bind up our wounds. After two days he will revive us. On the third day he will raise us up, and we will live before him.
“When Israel was a child, then I loved him, and called my son out of Egypt.

In Joel:

The sun will be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, before the great and terrible day of the LORD comes. It will happen that whoever will call on the LORD’s name shall be saved;

in Amos:

It will happen in that day,” says the Lord LORD, “that I will cause the sun to go down at noon, and I will darken the earth in the clear day.
Behold, the eyes of the Lord LORD are on the sinful kingdom, and I will destroy it from off the surface of the earth; except that I will not utterly destroy the house of Jacob,” says the LORD. “For, behold, I will command, and I will sift the house of Israel among all the nations, as grain is sifted in a sieve, yet not the least kernel will fall on the earth. All the sinners of my people will die by the sword, who say, ‘Evil will not overtake nor meet us.’ In that day I will raise up the tent of David who is fallen, and close up its breaches, and I will raise up its ruins, and I will build it as in the days of old;

In Obadiah:

Saviors will go up on Mount Zion to judge the mountains of Esau, and the kingdom will be the LORD's.

(We have seen and testify that the Father has sent the Son as the Savior of the world. For as the Father has sent the Son as the savior of the world, even so I send you. Whoever converts a sinner from the error of his way will save his soul from death and will cover a multitude of sins.)

In Jonah:

Jonah prayed to the LORD, his God, out of the fish’s belly. He said, “I called because of my affliction to the LORD. He answered me. Out of the belly of Sheol I cried. You heard my voice. For you threw me into the depths, in the heart of the seas. The flood was all around me. All your waves and your billows passed over me. I said, ‘I have been banished from your sight; yet I will look again toward your holy Temple.’ The waters surrounded me, even to the soul. The deep was around me. The weeds were wrapped around my head. I went down to the bottoms of the mountains. The earth barred me in forever: yet have you brought up my life from the pit, LORD my God. When my soul fainted within me, I remembered the LORD. My prayer came in to you, into your holy Temple. Those who regard lying vanities forsake their own mercy. But I will sacrifice to you with the voice of thanksgiving. I will pay that which I have vowed. Salvation belongs to the LORD.” Then the LORD spoke to the fish, and it vomited out Jonah on the dry land.
The LORD’s word came to Jonah the second time, saying, “Arise, go to Nineveh, that great city, and preach to it the message that I give you.” So Jonah arose, and went to Nineveh, according to the LORD’s word. Now Nineveh was an exceedingly great city, three days’ journey across.
God saw their works, that they turned from their evil way. God relented of the disaster which he said he would do to them, and he did not do it.

In Micah:

They will strike the judge of Israel with a rod on the cheek. But you, Bethlehem Ephrathah, being small among the clans of Judah, out of you one will come out to me that is to be ruler in Israel; whose goings out are from of old, from ancient times. Therefore he will abandon them up to the time that she who is in labor gives birth. Then the rest of his brothers will return to the children of Israel. He shall stand, and shall shepherd in the strength of the LORD, in the majesty of the name of the LORD his God: and they will live, for then he will be great to the ends of the earth.

In Nahum:

Who can stand before his indignation? Who can endure the fierceness of his anger? His wrath is poured out like fire, and the rocks are broken apart by him. The LORD is good, a stronghold in the day of trouble; and he knows those who take refuge in him. But with an overflowing flood, he will make a full end of his adversaries, and will pursue his enemies into darkness.
Did one not come out of you, who plotted evil against the LORD, and counseled villainy?
Behold, on the mountains the feet of him who brings good news, who publishes peace!

In Habakkuk:

“Look among the nations, watch, and wonder marvelously; for I am working a work in your days, which you will not believe though it is told you.
For the earth will be filled with the knowledge of the LORD's glory, as the waters cover the sea.

In Zephaniah:

Be silent at the presence of the Lord LORD, for the day of the LORD is at hand. For the LORD has prepared a sacrifice. He has consecrated his guests.
I will take away out from among you your proudly exulting ones, and you will no more be arrogant in my holy mountain. But I will leave among you an afflicted and poor people, and they will take refuge in the LORD’s name. The remnant of Israel will not do iniquity, nor speak lies, neither will a deceitful tongue be found in their mouth, for they will feed and lie down, and no one will make them afraid.”
Sing, daughter of Zion! Shout, Israel! Be glad and rejoice with all your heart, daughter of Jerusalem. The LORD has taken away your judgments. He has thrown out your enemy. The King of Israel, the LORD, is among you. You will not be afraid of evil any more. In that day, it will be said to Jerusalem, “Do not be afraid, Zion. Do not let your hands be weak.” The LORD, your God, is among you, a mighty one who will save. He will rejoice over you with joy. He will calm you in his love. He will rejoice over you with singing. I will remove those who grieve about the appointed feasts from you. They are a burden and a reproach to you. Behold, at that time I will deal with all those who afflict you, and I will save those who are lame, and gather those who were driven away. I will give them praise and honor, whose shame has been in all the earth. At that time I will bring you in, and at that time I will gather you; for I will give you honor and praise among all the peoples of the earth.

In Haggai:

For this is what the LORD of Armies says: ‘Yet once, it is a little while, and I will shake the heavens, the earth, the sea, and the dry land; and I will shake all nations.

In Zechariah:

‘The LORD of Armies says, “Behold, the man whose name is the Branch: and he shall grow up out of his place; and he shall build the LORD’s Temple; even he shall build the LORD’s Temple; and he shall bear the glory, and shall sit and rule on his throne; and he shall be a Priest on his throne; and the counsel of peace shall be between them both.
I said to them, “If you think it best, give me my wages; and if not, keep them.” So they weighed for my wages thirty pieces of silver. The LORD said to me, “Throw it to the potter, the handsome price that I was valued at by them!” I took the thirty pieces of silver, and threw them to the potter, in the LORD’s house.

And in Malachi:

From the rising of the sun even to its going down, my name is great among the Gentiles, and in every place incense will be offered to my name, and a pure offering: for my name is great among the Gentiles,” says the LORD of Armies.
“Now, you priests, this commandment is for you. If you will not listen, and if you will not take it to heart, to give glory to my name,” says the LORD of Armies, “then I will send the curse on you, and I will curse your blessings. Indeed, I have cursed them already, because you do not take it to heart. Behold, I will rebuke your offspring, and will spread dung on your faces, even the dung of your feasts; and you will be taken away with it. You will know that I have sent this commandment to you, that my covenant may be with Levi,” says the LORD of Armies. “My covenant was with him of life and peace; and I gave them to him that he might be reverent toward me; and he was reverent toward me, and stood in awe of my name. The law of truth was in his mouth, and unrighteousness was not found in his lips. He walked with me in peace and uprightness, and turned many away from iniquity. For the priest’s lips should keep knowledge, and they should seek the law at his mouth; for he is the messenger of the LORD of Armies. But you have turned away from the path. You have caused many to stumble in the law. You have corrupted the covenant of Levi,” says the LORD of Armies. “Therefore I have also made you contemptible and wicked before all the people, according to the way you have not kept my ways, but have had respect for persons in the law.
“Behold, I send my messenger, and he will prepare the way before me; and the Lord, whom you seek, will suddenly come to his Temple; and the messenger of the covenant, whom you desire, behold, he comes!” says the LORD of Armies. “But who can endure the day of his coming? And who will stand when he appears? For he is like a refiner’s fire, and like launderers’ soap; and he will sit as a refiner and purifier of silver, and he will purify the sons of Levi, and refine them as gold and silver; and they shall offer to the LORD offerings in righteousness. Then the offering of Judah and Jerusalem will be pleasant to the LORD, as in the days of old, and as in ancient years.”
But to you who fear my name shall the sun of righteousness arise with healing in its wings. You will go out, and leap like calves of the stall.
Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet before the great and terrible day of the LORD comes. He will turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the hearts of the children to their fathers, lest I come and strike the earth with a curse.”


And much of what the scriptures have said about him is also set forth in The Letter to the Hebrews.

He said to them, “Thus it is written, and thus it was necessary for the Christ to suffer and to rise from the dead the third day, and that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his name to all the nations, beginning at Jerusalem. You are witnesses of these things. Behold, I send out the promise of my Father on you. But wait in the city of Jerusalem for the moment when you are clothed with power from on high.”

But Thomas, one of the twelve, was not with them when Jesus came.

Matthew 28:1a
Luke 24:1a
John 20:1a
Matthew 28:1b
Luke 24:1b
Mark 16:2
Matthew 4:16
Luke 24:10a
Mark 16:3-4a
Matthew 28:2-4
John 20:1b
Mark 16:4b
Luke 24:2
John 20:2-3
Matthew 28:5-7
Luke 24:3
Mark 16:5
Matthew 27:52b-53
Mark 16:6-7
Luke 24:4-8
Mark 16:8
Matthew 28:8
Luke 24:9a
John 20:3-7
Luke 24:12b
John 20:8
Luke 24:12c
John 20:10-17
Matthew 28:9-15
Mark 16:9-11
John 20:18
Luke 24:9-12
Mark 16:12
Luke 24:13-32
Mark 16:13
Luke 24:33-36a
1 Corinthians 15:3-5
John 20:19
Luke 24:37-40
John 20:20
Luke 24:41-44
John 20:21
1 John 4:14
John 5:22
John 20:22-23
Luke 24:44-45
Luke 24:27

Genesis 3:14a, 15
Genesis 9:8-10, 26
Genesis 12:1-3
Genesis 14:18-20
Genesis 15:3-6
Genesis 17:21a
Genesis 22:7-9, 13-18
Genesis 39:4
Genesis 49:22-26
Genesis 50:20-21
Exodus 12:21a, 21c, 22a, 23 adapted
Exodus 12:43a, 46c
Leviticus 4:4-5, 7a, 7c, 8-12
Numbers 20:11a
Numbers 21:9
Numbers 24:17a
Deuteronomy 18:15-18
1 Samuel 2:6, 35
2 Samuel 7:17a, 11b-14a, 16
1 Kings 14:14a
1 Chronicles 17:7a, 10b-14
Psalms 2:1-2
Psalms 8:2, 4-8
Psalms 9:13-19
Psalms 16:5, 8-10
Psalms 22
Psalms 39(40):6-10 LXX
Psalms 41:5-13
Psalms 57
Psalms 69:1-4, 6-36
Psalms 78:1-2a
Psalms 80:14-19
Psalms 82
Psalms 107:23-32
Psalms 110:1-4
Psalms 118
Psalms 132:10-18
Psalms 139:7-18
Proverbs 3:1-4
John 2:52
Proverbs 8:22-36
Proverbs 9:7
Wisdom 2:12-21
Wisdom 4:16–5:16
Wisdom 8:19-20
Wisdom 14:7 "For blessed is the wood through which comes righteousness." (the wood of the cross)
Ecclesiasticus 24:22-31, 40-47 DR
same as Sirach 24:16-22, 30-34 RSV KJV
Isaiah 6:9-10
Isaiah 7:14
Isaiah 8:13-18
Isaiah 9:1-2
Isaiah 22:19-25
Isaiah 28:16
Isaiah 29:13-14
Isaiah 40:1-11
Isaiah 42:1-4
Isaiah 43:4-13
Isaiah 45:22-25
Isaiah 49:1-6
Isaiah 52:13–53:12
Isaiah 54:4-6
Isaiah 55:1-9
Isaiah 60:1-6
Isaiah 61:1-2a, 5-6a, 9-11
Isaiah 65:1-2, 12-17
Isaiah 66:18-24
Jeremiah 5:20-31
Jeremiah 6:9-12
Jeremiah 8:13
Jeremiah 9:23-26
Jeremiah 18:2-3a
Jeremiah 19:1-3, 6-12, 14-15
Jeremiah 23:5-6
Jeremiah 25:3b-5, 15, 17a
Jeremiah 30:8-10
Jeremiah 31:15, 31-34
Jeremiah 32:24b-25a
Lamentations 3:1-3, 5-32
Baruch 4:21-22
Ezekiel 34:20-25a, 30-31
Daniel 2:31-35, 44-45
Daniel 7:13-14, 27
Hosea 6:1-2
Hosea 11:1
Joel 2:31-32a
Amos 8:9
Amos 9:8-11
Obadiah 21
1 John 4:14
John 20:21
Jonah 2
Jonah 3:1-3, 10
Micah 5:1b-4
Nahum 1:6-8, 11, 15a
Habakkuk 1:5
Habakkuk 2:14
Zephaniah 1:7
Zephaniah 3:11b-20a
Haggai 2:6-7a
Zechariah 6:12b-13
Zechariah 11:12-13
Malachi 1:11
Malachi 2:1-9
Malachi 3:1-4
Malachi 4:2, 5-6

Luke 24:46-49
John 20:24 abbreviated

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Bible Encyclopedias: Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature (studylight.org)
Catholic Encyclopedia Catholic Online (catholic.org)
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Church History (Eusebius): The Ecclesiastical History Of Eusebius Pamphilus: Bishop Of Caesarea, In Palestine (newadvent.org)

The Works of Flavius Josephus William Whiston, Translator, 1737 (sacred-texts.com)

Suetonius: Twelve Caesars: The Lives of the Twelve Caesars by C. Suetonius Tranquilus; To which are added His Lives of the Grammarians, Rhetoricians, and Poets. The Translation of Alexander Thomson, M.D., Revised and corrected by T. Forester, Esq., A.M. (Gutenberg.org)

Tacitus: The Annals, Written 109 A.C.E. Translated by Alfred John Church and William Jackson Brodribb

Sextus Aurelius Victor: Epitome De Caesaribus (roman-emperors.org)

Eutropius: Breviarium - Eutropius's Abridgement of Roman History (tertullian.org)

Cassius Dio: Roman History Epitome (penelope.uchicago.edu)

Early Christian Writings A.D. 30 through 380 (earlychristianwritings.com)
See Biblical Canon and Apocrypha.


"Behold, there was a great earthquake"

Matthew 28:2
This was a seismic aftershock, coming a day and a half after the primary quake which struck when Jesus expired on the cross, and seven days after the ground trembled and the city was shaken by a precursor tremor when he entered Jerusalem.
Seismologists see in a literal reading of Matthew 21:10, 27:51-54, 28:2 signs of an initial tremor occurring when Jesus entered Jerusalem on Palm Sunday, followed by subsequent quake activity on two occasions, five days and seven days later, the primary quake occurring the moment after Jesus died on the cross on Good Friday afternoon, and a secondary violent tremor or aftershock early Easter Morn which moved the large stone, accompanied by an associated blinding geoelectrical arc (which resembles lightning). This is the naturalistic explanation.
See article Metamorphic Contributions to Electrical Phenomena in the Earth's Crust, by Daniel S. Helman, August 2013, pdf (academia.edu), specifically Chapter 6. Electricity and Magnetism Within Metamorphic Reactions and Deformation Mechanisms, page 136)
However, no lightning bolt and no geoelectrical arc phenomenon ever spoke to anyone. See Matthew 28:2-7.

"The guards awakened and fled from the tomb, for trembling and astonishment had come on them."

Amplification of text.
The guards at some point departed from the tomb and went into the city (Matthew 28:11) but the accounts in the Gospels do not specify when. A normal Roman guard was a quaternion of four. The guards looked dead to the women who came to the tomb. This suggests they were either unconscious, or paralyzed with astonishment, frozen with fear and unable to move. The angel had not departed. A least three realistic possibilities present themselves to the conservative redactor.
  • They could have remained in a state of unconsciousness on the ground all the time the women were at the tomb and the angels spoke to them, and all during the entire time Peter and the beloved disciple and Mary Magdalene were there. They would still have been lying there after the two apostles had departed to their homes, and all during the entire time Jesus was speaking to Mary Magdalene. When the followers of Jesus, and Jesus himself, had departed, the guards recovered and went into the city and spoke to the priests. The amplification "The guards fled from the tomb" could be inserted immediately after Mark 16:8 and Luke 24:9 and before Matthew 28:11.
  • In the sequence here, as suggested by collating and redacting the Gospel accounts intact without any resulting contradiction, it is entirely possible that the guards could have recovered and departed trembling after the first group of women had heard the angels speak and had fled from the tomb. The amplification "The guards fled from the tomb" could be inserted before the arrival of Peter and the beloved disciple. The guards would have been gone when Jesus spoke to Mary Magdalene and were already on their way into the city to speak to the priests.
  • Or as suggested here, instead of the previous two possibilities, the guards quickly recovered. And seeing the angel still there, they deserted their post and fled with trembling and astonishment, leaving the women standing there. Some minutes afterward, at the same time the women were running to tell Jesus' disciples what they had seen and heard, some of the guard considered what they should do under the circumstances. If they did not report, they would eventually be found and executed for desertion. They then went into the city and spoke to the priests. As a practical scenario, this one seems most probable.
All three possibilities are entirely reasonable. None of them affects the structure of Christian doctrine. There appears to be no compelling reason to exclude any one of them from any Harmony of the Gospel that might be composed by any researcher or student of the Bible.

"Many bodies of the saints who had fallen asleep were raised; and coming out of the tombs after his resurrection, they entered into the holy city and appeared to many."

Matthew 27:52b-53
This passage has been redactively inserted here based on the chronological statement "came out of their tombs after his resurrection". Mark 16:5 says the women "saw a young man", and Luke 24:4 says "two men stood by them". These texts taken together as factual testimony indicate three male human beings in physical form. They are certainly messengers, but the texts do not specifically indicate them as "angels", Greek aggloi αγγλοι, presenting them as distinct from the angel that descended from heaven and rolled back the stone and sat on it (Matthew 28:2), and perhaps distinct from the two angels that appeared to Mary Magdalene as she stooped and looked into the tomb after the departure of Peter and the other disciple (John 20:12), although it is possible that the "two men" who appeared to the other women as messengers may have been these two "angels in white, sitting where the body of Jesus had lain"—but we do not know this with certainty, since in the Bible some spirit-messengers have apparently manifested themselves in appearance as men, for example Genesis 19; Judges 13; Tobit 5 and 12; Daniel 8:15-16; 10:16-19; 12:5-10; Acts 10:1-8, 30-32; 16:9-10; Hebrews 13:2
See the following commentaries:

"They went out, and fled from the tomb, for trembling and astonishment had come on them. They said nothing to anyone; for they were afraid."

Mark 16:8
This is held by many recent scholars to be the original ending of the Gospel of Mark. According to these scholars, the remaining verses 9-20, called the Longer Ending, also a portion called the Shorter Ending, are additions to the Gospel of Mark.
Other numerous scholars affirm the authenticity of the Longer Ending as part of the Gospel of Mark. Mark 16:9-20 and the Shorter Ending are both included here in the redacted text of this Harmony of the Gospel (Conservative Version).
See the following:
A fourth century manuscript of the Bible, the Codex Washingtonianus, preserved in the Freer Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., also includes within the Longer Ending, after verse 14, a text known today as "The Freer Logion". The Longer Ending with the text of the Freer Logion was known to Jerome in the fourth century, who quoted part of it.
See the following:
The Council of Trent defined the Canon of Trent which is the Roman Catholic biblical canon. The Decretum de Canonicis Scripturis, issued in 1546 at the fourth session of the Council, affirms that Jesus commanded that the gospel was "to be preached by His Apostles to every creature" — a statement clearly based on Mark 16:15. The decree proceeded to affirm, after listing the books of the Bible according to the Roman Catholic canon, that
"If anyone receive not, as sacred and canonical, the said books entire with all their parts, as they have been used to be read in the Catholic Church, and as they are contained in the old Latin Vulgate edition, and knowingly and deliberately condemn the traditions aforesaid; let him be anathema." —The Council of Trent: The Fourth Session - Hanover Historical Texts Project (history.hanover.edu)
Since Mark 16:9-20 (without the Freer Logion) is part of the Gospel of Mark in the Vulgate, and the passage (without the Freer Logion) has been routinely read in the churches since the ancient times of early Christianity (as demonstrated by its use by Ambrose, Augustine of Hippo, Peter Chrysologus, Severus of Antioch, Leo the Great, etc.), the Council's decree affirms the canonical status of the passage. This passage (without the Freer Logion) was also used by Protestants during the Protestant Reformation; Martin Luther used Mark 16:16 as the basis for a doctrine in his Shorter Catechism. Mark 16:9-20 (without the Freer Logion) was included in the Rheims New Testament, the 1599 Geneva Bible, the King James Bible and other influential translations as canonical scripture inspired by God.
The text of the Freer Logion, found only in the fourth century Codex Washingtonianus, was not included in the Vulgate, the Rheims New Testament, the 1599 Geneva Bible, the King James Bible or other influential translations; however, it has been included in the footnotes and marginal notes of some more recent editions of the Bible, such as the Oxford Annotated Bible with Apocrypha, The New Revised Standard Version, The New American Bible, The New Jerusalem Bible, and other versions and editions of more recent date.

"If this comes to the governor’s ears, we will persuade him and make you free of worry."

Matthew 28:14.
The penalty in the Roman army for sleeping on watch in a military situation was death, so the soldiers would have welcomed the protection against punishment. However this was not properly a military situation, but one the procurator and the guards would have considered absurd: guarding a Jewish tomb against grave-robbers for only two days and nights. Historically, there is no certainty that the death penalty would have been strictly applied to soldiers in this particular circumstance.

"he showed them his hands and his feet—he showed them his hands and his side"

Luke 24:40, John 20:20.
"hands" is the translation of χείρ cheir, which anciently means more than the modern, limited meaning, which is restricted to denoting only the anatomical palms of the hands, and also includes the wrists as belonging to the hands. A large blunt nail piercing straight through the middle of the palm would not penetrate through that area of the wrist having the necessary firmness of sinew and bone to hold the weight of a man hanging on a cross and it would tear outward through the hand between the fingers. Instead, an angled penetration at a 45o slant toward the forearm, from the lower part of the palm near the wrist into the internal structure of the bones and tendons of the wrist, and exiting the back of the wrist more toward the elbow, in the area where the wrist joins the forearm, is structurally strong enough to hold the weight of a man. This would produce a wound in the palm of the hand which exits the back of the forearm in the area where it joins the wrist. The Shroud of Turin also shows similar corresponding wounds. The palms of the hands are not visible.
This angular strategy is similar to pounding a nail into a wall at a vertical 45o angle to hold a heavy item that might otherwise pry loose a nail horizontally positioned.

"Beginning from Moses and from all the prophets, he explained to them in all the Scriptures the things concerning himself."

Luke 24:27.
Old Testament texts are here indented.
Fulfilled prophecies from Moses and the Prophets and the Psalms, including the prophetic texts pertaining to Christ in the Deuterocanonicals, some of them rejected by some as apocryphal.
See for example the compiling of texts by St. Paul in Romans 3:9-19. He compiles without differentiation together as a single text the following scriptures:
Psalm 14:1-3
Psalm 53:1-3
Psalm 5:9
Psalm 140:3
Psalm 10:7
Isaiah 59:7-8
Psalm 36:1
See the multiple commentaries on Romans 3:10 ff etcetera.
The catena (Gr. κατενα "chain") of scriptural texts similarly presented here in this Harmony of the Gospel is an expansive amplification of Luke 24:44-48:
“Thus it is written, and thus it was necessary for the Christ to suffer and to rise from the dead the third day, and that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his name to all the nations, beginning at Jerusalem. You are witnesses of these things.”
The extensive selection of texts quoted here is not arbitrary nor is it entirely speculative. The quotations directly cited in the Gospels and the Letters of the New Testament indicate what scriptures Christ opened to their understanding, and those are all included here. This gives the reader easy access to biblical prophecies fulfilled by Jesus Christ, as a form of Bible study within the context of the resurrection, and as an opportunity for the devoutly prayerful Christian to be virtually present by anamnesis as the Lord himself opens the scriptures.
An explicit listing as presented here also practically demonstrates why the Gospel writers do not extensively cite all of the scriptures fulfilled by Christ in their accounts of the Gospel, which were read aloud to Christian assemblies gathered for prayer and worship. Instead, the Holy Spirit demonstrates through the Gospels enough evidence to support the apostolic claim that Jesus did not come to abolish the law and the prophets but to fulfil them, and to testify that he is indeed the Christ, the Anointed One, the expected Messiah, the descendant of David and Son of God, the Word made flesh who has redeemed the whole world in reparation, atonement, for sin through his passion, blood, death, resurrection and ascension into heaven.
See chart of 351 Old Testament Prophecies Fulfilled in Jesus Christ (newtestamentchristians.com)
Chapter and verse numbers are not included in this text display of Old Testament scriptures.
See the following five articles, which do not agree in every detail on who and when.
Most Old Testament texts quoted in the New Testament by Jesus himself and the apostles are according to the wording of the LXX which is the Old Testament of the ancient apostolic Christian Greek Bible, and not from the Hebrew Masoretic Text used by the translators of the King James Version.
See the following substantiating resources:
Regarding the Book of Wisdom, The World English Bible (WEB) states: "The Wisdom of Solomon is recognized as Deuterocanonical Scripture by the Roman Catholic, Greek Orthodox, and Russian Orthodox Churches."
Regarding the Book of Sirach, The World English Bible (WEB) states: "The Wisdom of Jesus the Son of Sirach, also called Ecclesiasticus, is recognized as Deuterocanonical Scripture by the Roman Catholic, Greek Orthodox, and Russian Orthodox Churches."
Regarding the Book of Baruch, The World English Bible (WEB) states: "The Book of Baruch is recognized as Deuterocanonical Scripture by the Roman Catholic, Greek Orthodox, and Russian Orthodox Churches."
See Apocrypha: External links and Biblical Canon.
See also: Essay: How to choose a Bible

"Now I was a clever child, and received a good soul...being good, I entered an undefiled body.

Wisdom 8:19-20.
WEB text: "19 Now I was a clever child, and received a good soul fell. 20 Or rather, being good, I came into an undefiled body."
RSV text: "19 As a child I was by nature well endowed, and a good soul fell to my lot; 20 or rather, being good, I entered an undefiled body."
Greek Bible Greek text: "19 παῖς δὲ ἤμην εὐφυὴς ψυχῆς τε ἔλαχον ἀγαθῆς, 20 μᾶλλον δὲ ἀγαθὸς ὢν ἦλθον εἰς σῶμα ἀμίαντον."
Greek Bible English text: "19 For I was a witty child, and had a good spirit. 20 Yea, rather, being good, I came into a body undefiled."
See Hebrews 10:5, interlinear and commentaries
Many Catholics see in Wisdom 8:20, and in the Hebrews 10:5 citation of the LXX version of Psalm 40:6, an Old Testament prophecy of both the Immaculate Conception of Mary, and the Virgin Birth of Jesus. They read in these texts the body of Mary as untouched by sin, so that Jesus "entered an undefiled body" (so that when "the Word became flesh and dwelt amongst us" Jesus in her womb would be untouched by sinful flesh); and they also read in these texts the human nature of the body and soul of Jesus incarnated in her womb, in his own enfleshment as coming to or entering into "an undefiled body".
Protestant Evangelicals and Fundamentalists utterly reject the doctrine of Mary ever being sinless, declaring firmly that she, together with the rest of humanity, was as corrupt and vile as the worst and least sinner who ever lived and lives today, because of her declaration, "my spirit rejoices in God my savior" (Luke 1:46-47).
Catholics answer that God, unlimited by time, in eternity, preveniently intervened in time and in history with the saving power of the redeeming blood of Jesus Christ on the cross applied to her soul, and to her whole bodily being, at the exact moment she was conceived, to save her too; not for her sake alone but for the sake and dignity of his Son, who was to be incarnate of her flesh, as a descendant of King David according to the flesh (see Romans 1:2). She being aware of this through the Holy Spirit, proclaimed that God is indeed her savior.
This answer is dismissed by Fundamentalists as facile sophistry unsupported by the Bible, and invented by the Devil to promote pagan superstition and the worship of Mary as a goddess, as part of the Catholic apostasy from the pure Gospel of Jesus Christ.
Orthodox theologians also reject the Catholic doctrine of the Immaculate Conception, teaching that the guilt of Original Sin is not inherited at the moment of conception; therefore every human being is conceived in a state of innocent grace, and thus it was not necessary to teach that God preserved Mary free of the guilt and effects of Original Sin the moment she was conceived. Many Orthodox theologians held to a view that by special grace the Mother of God did not commit any personal sins. Others asserted that Mary was sanctified through her response to Archangel Gabriel at the annunciation, "Behold I am the handmaid of the Lord. Let it be done to me according to your word" (Luke 1:38).
See the following articles:
Christians who actually believe the entire Bible is the inspired and inerrant written Word of God should include careful study of the following scriptural texts:
See Cafeteria Christianity, Intolerance, Hate, Prejudice.

Note to the reader: Conservapedia cannot tell the reader what to believe. Every effort is made to present balanced encyclopedic information free of liberal and atheistic bias.


"I spread out my branches...Like a vine...I am the mother of fair love...Come to me...Those who eat me...those who drink me...like a canal from a river...I will again pour out teaching like prophecy...to all generations"

Sirach 24:16-22, 30-34 KJV RSV — parallel Ecclesiasticus 24:22-31, 40-47 Douay-Rheims.
Compare fulfillment in John 15:1-8; Luke 13:34 "mother hen"; John 7:38.
The versification of the cited text of Sirach/Ecclesiasticus chapter 24 differs in the versions. Here is a parallel text chart:
KJV RSV / DR
16 / 22
17 / 23
--- / 24
19 / 26
20 / 27-28
21 / 29
22 / 30-31
--- / 40 (omitted in online English/Vulgate)
30 / 41
31 / 42-43
32 / 44
--- / 45
33 / 46
34 / 47
Verse 40 alone is from the 2009 (MMIX) Saint Benedict Press edition of the 1899 Douay-Rheims Bible (DR), translated from the Latin Vulgate text of Saint Jerome (Saint Benedict Press, LLC, Charlotte, North Carolina). All other verses of the Ecclesiasticus text here are copied and pasted from the online English/Latin parallel Bible and then updated to modern spelling format for this Harmony of the Gospel (Conservative Version).
Here is the World English Bible (WEB) text of Sirach 24:16-22, 30-34 (the WEB omits verse 18):
16 As the terebinth I stretched out my branches; And my branches are branches of glory and grace. 17 As the vine I put forth grace; And my flowers are the fruit of glory and riches. 18 — 19 Come to me, you that are desirous of me, And be you filled with my produce. 20 For my memorial is sweeter than honey, And my inheritance than the honeycomb. 21 They that eat me will yet be hungry; And those who drink me will yet be thirsty. 22 He that obeys me will not be ashamed; And those who work in me will not do amiss.
30 And I came out as a stream from a river, And as a conduit into a garden. 31 I said, I will water my garden, And will water abundantly my garden bed; And, behold, my stream became a river, And my river became a sea. 32 I will yet bring instruction to light as the morning, And will make these things to shine forth afar off. 33 I will yet pour out doctrine as prophecy, And leave it to generations of ages. 34 Behold that I have not labored for myself only, But for all those who diligently seek her.

"Tau-mark"

Ezekiel 9:4-6. Hebrew text תָּ֜ו "put a Tau on the foreheads of the men".
A Tau [ת] is the letter in the Old Hebrew alphabet at the time of Ezekiel that most closely resembles a cross (see Paleo-Hebrew letter tav also Middle-Hebrew / Modern Hebrew parallel alphabet display). Many commentators see in this remarkable action the first foreshadowing prophetic mention of salvation through the saving Sign of the Cross. However, most versions of the Bible in English including KJV read "mark" or "X" (as in "make your mark") instead of the literal "tau" because the letter "vav" [ ו ] is suffixed to it to make it a verbal word. This is similar to writing "Ay" instead of "A" and "TE" instead of "T" (or "aitch" instead of "H") to phonetically indicate the sound-name of the letter. For ת "Tau" a U.S. Marine would say "Tango", signifying "T". In Ezekiel 9:4 the writer similarly uses תָּ֜ו (mark) to signify the letter ת. A few annotated and critical study Bibles mention in footnote to Ez 9:4 this fact about the graphic appearance of the letter tau and the pronunciation of the Hebrew-spelled word meaning the "mark" of that letter. For its context within the history of salvation read the entire chapter: Ezekiel 9.
See commentary on Ezekiel 9, verses 4 and 6 "do not touch them".
See Strong's Concordance "MARK" at Ezekiel 9:4 keyed to Strong's number 8420 תָּ֜ו tâv: a mark, by implication, a signature:—desire, mark.
The New American Bible (1970) footnote states:
"9, 4: Ezekiel is pre-eminently the prophet of personal retribution; the innocent inhabitants of Jerusalem are to be spared when the idolatrous are punished. An X: literally, the Hebrew letter taw, which had the form of a cross."

"Saviors"

Obadiah 21.
Those who save from the enemies of the Lord, who act as did the Judges, in his name as representing him in his image.
See 1 John 4:14 "We have seen and testify that the Father has sent the Son as the Savior of the world."
Compare John 20:21 "As the Father has sent me, even so I send you", as saviors of the world "by the washing of water with the Word" (Ephesians 5:25-27).
See also:
  • Romans 10:12-15 "how are they to hear without a preacher?"
  • 1 Corinthians 1:21; 4:15; 15:1-2 "to save", "For I became your father in Christ Jesus", "by which you are saved"
  • 2 Corinthians 5:18-20 "God making his appeal through us"
  • James 5:19-20 "whoever brings back a sinner...will save his soul from death and will cover a multitude of sins."

"Branch"

Psalm 80:15 ben [ בֵּן ]; Proverbs 11:28 aleh [ עלה ]; Isaiah 4:2 tsemach [ צמח ]; 11:1 netzer [ ונצר ] ; 60:21 netzer [ ונצר ]; Jeremiah 23:5 tsemach [ צמח ]; 33:15 tsemach [ צמח ]; Zechariah 3:8 tsemach [ צמח ] and 6:12 "Behold, the man whose name is the Branch" tsemach [ צמח ].
Compare Matthew 2:23 "He went and dwelt in a city called Nazareth, that what was spoken by the prophets might be fulfilled. 'He shall be called a Nazarene'. This is a paronomasia (biblical word-play) on "Nazareth", "netzer" (branch), and "nazirite" (separated one).
See Strong's numbers 3478, 3479, 3480; also 5342 netzer (branch), 6780 tsemach (Branch), 5139 naziyr, nazir
compare Numbers 6:1-8, Judges 13:5-7, Amos 2:11, Luke 22:18 (nazirite vow)

The Letter to the Hebrews

The title in the text here is linked for the convenience of the reader to the online text of the World English Bible translation of Hebrews 1:1—13:17, omitting the appended ending 13:18-25.
The Book of HEBREWS is a perfect supporting conclusion to the list of texts of OLD TESTAMENT Bible proofs. This outstanding exposition of scripture, which also stands as one of the finest pieces of world literature, is best read within the context of the interpretation of everything written about Jesus in the law of Moses and the prophets and the psalms, as presented here in this Harmony of the Gospel just before the chapter ending at Luke 24:46-49 and John 20:24.
Andrew Schlafly is fully persuaded that Jesus himself wrote this work during the 40 days he appeared to the apostles he had chosen, while he was with them and spoke of the kingdom of God, and that he left it with them just as Isaiah, Jeremiah and Daniel also entrusted their writings to their disciples, with copies to be kept in earthen jars.
See Isaiah 8:16; Jeremiah 36 and 51:59-60; Daniel 12:4, 9.
This is fully in accord with the practical and material secondary meaning of 2 Corinthians 4:5-7, "We have this treasure in earthen vessels". See Dead Sea scrolls.
Hebrews is written to the whole church as an encouragement to every follower of Christ to remain faithful during the persecutions they were already facing from the Jews and in the coming persecutions from the pagan nations which were certain to occur in centuries to come (Matthew 5:11-12; John 15:18-20).
The claim that Hebrews is from Jesus himself who is the perfection of God (Hebrews 1:3; 6:26; Colossians 1:19), is a highly controversial claim never advanced before the 21st century, based on the critically attested grammatically perfect Greek of the text. It was met with universal rejection by biblical scholars and theologians the moment it was publicly proposed. No mention of Jesus composing or dictating any writing is found in any early Christian writings or commentaries on scripture from the second century onward, other than the apocryphal Letters of Christ and Abgarus.
Among the various authors historically proposed since the second century are Paul, Priscilla, Barnabas, Apollos, Timothy, Epaphras, Silas, Philip, Clement of Rome, and others. See the following five articles:

After the Sabbaths, as the dawn began on the first day of the week,

Now on the first day of the week, very early in the morning,

On the first day of the week, Mary Magdalene came early, while it was still dark, to the tomb,

Mary Magdalene and the other Mary came to see the tomb.

they came to the sepulchre, bringing the spices they had prepared, and other items to anoint the dead.

Very early in the morning on the day after the sabbath, they came to the tomb of Jesus at sunrise.

It was Mary Magdalene, and Joanna, and Mary, the mother of Jesus, and other women who were with them,

And the women said to each other, "Who will roll away the stone blocking the tomb door?"

And a great earthquake struck, because a Messenger from the Lord came down from heaven, came to the tomb, rolled back the stone from its entrance, and sat on it. His appearance was like lightning, and his clothes were as white as snow. And the guards shook out of fear of him, and passed out, like so many corpses.

and saw that the stone had been taken away from the tomb.

But when they looked, they saw that the massive stone had been rolled to the side.

But they found the stone had been rolled away from the tomb,

She ran and came to Simon Peter, and to the other student, whom Jesus loved, and told them, "They have taken away the Lord out of the tomb, and we don't know where they have laid Him!"

So Peter went out, and that other disciple, and came to the tomb.

And the Messenger said in answer to the women, "Don't be afraid. I know you're looking for Jesus, Who was crucified. He isn't here. He has been raised up, as He said He would be. Come and see the place where He was lying. And go quickly, and tell His students that He has been raised up from the dead. Look, He's going ahead of you into Galilee; you'll see Him there. I have told you."

And as they entered, they did not see the body of the Lord Jesus.

And as they entered the tomb, they saw a young man sitting on the right side, wearing a long white garment, and they were afraid. The man said to them, "Don't be afraid. You're looking for Jesus of Nazareth, Who was crucified. He has been raised up, He is not here - look at the place where they laid Him. Leave now, and tell Peter and the students of Jesus that He has gone ahead of you into Galilee: you will see him there, as he told you."

As they stood there, astonished, two men in shining clothes came to them, and they grew afraid, and bowed their faces to the ground. The men said to them, "Why are you looking for the living here among the dead? He is not here; He is risen: remember how He told you when He was still in Galilee, The Son, a human being, must be delivered into the hands of sinful men, and be crucified, and on the third day, rise again."

They remembered His words,

They left quickly and ran away from the tomb, shaking and ecstatic both at once. They were so afraid that they didn't say a word to any man.

And they went away quickly from the tomb, in fear and in great joy, and ran to bring word to His students.

And returned from the tomb,

But Peter stood and ran to the tomb,

They both ran together, and the other disciple outran Peter, and came to the tomb first. He stooped down and looked in, and saw the shroud stretched around nothing, but did not go in. Then Peter came after him, and went into the tomb, and saw the empty shroud lying there,

and crouching inside, he saw the linen clothes laying alone.

and the facecloth, that had been around His head. The facecloth was not lying with the shroud, but was rolled up in a place apart from them. Then that other student went in also, the one who had come to the tomb first. He saw, and believed. For they still did not know the Scripture that said that He must rise again from the dead. Then the disciples went away again, to their own homes.

He left, wondering what could have happened.

But Mary was standing outside at the tomb, weeping. As she was weeping, she stopped down and looked into the tomb. She saw two Messengers of God, robed in white, and sitting, one at the head and the other at the foot, where the body of Jesus had lain. They said to her, "Woman, why are you weeping?"

She told them, "Because they have taken away my Lord, and I don't know where they have laid Him."

When she had said that, she turned around, and saw Jesus standing, and did not realize that it was Jesus. Jesus said to her, "Woman, why are you weeping? For whom are you looking?" She thought He was the gardener, said to him, "Sir, if you have carried Him away from here, tell me where you have laid Him, and I will take Him away."

Jesus said to her, "Mary." She turned to face him, and said to him, "Rabboni!" (Which means, "Teacher.") Jesus told her, "Stop clinging to me; I haven't ascended to My Father yet. Go to My brothers, and tell them, 'I am ascending to My Father, and your Father, and to my God, and your God.'"

And as they were going to tell His students, behold, Jesus met them, saying, "Hello, everyone."

And they came and held Him by His feet, and kissed His feet. Then Jesus told them, "Don't be afraid. Go and tell My brothers that they must go into Galilee. There they will see Me."

Now when they were going, some of the guards came into the city, and told the leading priests everything that had happened. When the leading priests met with the elders and conferred with them, they gave a lot of silver pieces to the soldiers, and said, "Say, 'His students came in the night and stole Him away while we were asleep.' And if the governor hears about this, we will persuade him and keep you out of trouble." So they took the bribe, and did as they had been instructed. This tale is commonly told among the Jews to this day.

Conservative Bible Mark 16:9-11

(the text of Mark 16:9-13 is not included in the Conservative Bible translation)

Mary Magdalene came and told the students that she had seen the Lord, and that He had said these things to her.

And returned from the tomb, and told all these things to the eleven disciples, and to all the others. It was Mary Magdalene, and Joanna, and Mary, the mother of Jesus, and other women who were with them, who described these events to the apostles. But their story seemed like a fairy tale, and so the men did not believe them. But Peter stood and ran to the tomb, and crouching inside, he saw the linen clothes laying alone. He left, wondering what could have happened.

Conservative Bible Mark 16:12

(the text of Mark 16:9-13 is not included in the Conservative Bible translation)

Now ponder this: two of them went that same day to the town of Emmaus, about six miles from Jerusalem, and they talked together about all the things which had happened. Before long, while they shared thoughts and ideas about this, Jesus himself approached them, and walked with them; but their perception was clouded, so they did not recognize Him. He said to them, "What are these things you are discussing as you walk, which have made you so sad?"

One of them, whose name was Cleopas, answered Him, "Have you only just arrived in Jerusalem, and haven't you heard about what happened in the past few days?"

He replied to them, "What things?"

And they said to Him, "About Jesus of Nazareth, who was a mighty prophet in deeds and words before God and all the people: how the chief priests and our rulers caused Him to be sentenced to death, and had Him crucified. We had believed that He would have been the redeemer of Israel: and beside all this, today is the third day since these things occurred. Some of the women from our group astonished us, for they were at the sepulchre early today; when they did not find His body there, they came back, saying that they had also seen a vision of angels, who said that He was alive. Some of our group went to the sepulchre, and found it just as the women had described but they didn't see Him either."

Then He said to them, "Oh foolish ones, reluctant to believe all that the prophets have spoken of: should Christ have not suffered these things, and then entered into his glory?

And beginning with Moses and all the prophets, He lectured them in all of the scriptures concerning himself. As they approached the village where they were heading, He acted as if He intended to travel further. But they held Him back, saying, "Stay with us: for it is nearly evening, and the day is almost over."

So He went in to linger with them. As He dined with them, He took the bread, blessed and broke it [as Jesus had done], and handed it to them. This opened their eyes, and they recognized Him; whereupon He disappeared from their sight. They said to one another, "Did our hearts not burn within us, while he talked with us along the way, and while he revealed the scriptures to us?"

Conservative Bible Mark 16:13

(the text of Mark 16:9-13 is not included in the Conservative Bible translation)

They left at that time, and returned to Jerusalem, and found the eleven gathered together, and the others who accompanied them, saying to them, "The Lord has risen indeed, and has appeared to Simon."

They told them of the things which occurred along the way, and how He was revealed to them through the breaking of bread.

And as they spoke of this, Jesus Himself stood in the midst of them, and said to them, "Peace be upon you".

For I first delivered to you what I also received: that Christ died for our sins, according to Scripture. He was buried, and He rose again on the third day, according to Scripture. He was seen by Cephas, then a member of the Twelve.

Then on the evening of the same day, which was the first day of the week, when the doors were closed where the students were staying on account of their fear of the Jews, Jesus came and stood in the middle of them, and said to them, "Peace be to you."

But they were terrified and frightened, and believed that they were seeing a ghost. He said to them, "Why are you worried? And why does doubt arise in your hearts? Look upon my hands and my feet, and see that this is me, myself: touch me, and see; for a ghost would not have skin and bones, as you can see that I have."

When He had said this, He showed them His hands and His feet.

When He had said that, He showed them His hands and His side. The students were glad when they saw the Lord.

Before they were ready to accept this wonderful news, He asked them, "Do you have any food?"

So they gave Him a piece of broiled fish, and some honeycomb. And he took it, and did eat before them.

And He took them, and ate them in front of them.

Then Jesus told them again, "Peace be to you. As My Father sent me, I also am sending you in the same way."

When He had said that, He breathed on them, and told them, "Receive the Holy Spirit. The sins you remit, no matter whose they are, are remitted to them; and the sins you retain, no matter whose they are, are retained."

And beginning with Moses and all the prophets, He lectured them in all of the scriptures concerning himself.


The following texts can be accessed at >Conservative Bible:

Genesis 3:14a, 15 — Genesis 9:8-10 — Genesis 12:1-3 — Genesis 14:18-20 — Genesis 15:3-6 — Genesis 17:21a — Genesis 22:7-9, 13-18 — Genesis 39:4 — Genesis 49:22-26 — Genesis 50:20-21 — Exodus 12:21a, 21c, 22a, 23 adapted — Exodus 12:43a, 46c — Leviticus 4:4-5, 7a, 7c, 8-12 — Numbers 20:11a — Numbers 21:9 — Numbers 24:17a — Deuteronomy 18:15-18 — 1 Samuel 2:6, 35 — 2 Samuel 7:17a, 11b-14a, 16 — 1 Kings 14:14a — 1 Chronicles 17:7a, 10b-14 — Psalms 2:1-2 — Psalms 8:2, 4-8 — Psalms 9:13-19 — Psalms 16:5, 8-10 — Psalms 22 — Psalms 39(40):6-10 (Greek text) — Psalms 41:5-13 — Psalms 57 — Psalms 69:1-4, 6-36 — Psalms 78:1-2a — Psalms 80:14-19 — Psalms 82 — Psalms 107:23-32 — Psalms 110:1-4 — Psalms 118 — Psalms 132:10-18 — Psalms 139:7-18 — Proverbs 3:1-4 — John 2:52 "in favor with God and man" — Proverbs 8:22-36 — Proverbs 9:7 —

The following texts were removed: (modern conservative texts accessible at >USCCB Bible)

Wisdom 2:12-21 — Wisdom 4:16–5:16 — Wisdom 8:19-20 — Wisdom 14:7 (the wood of the cross) — Ecclesiasticus 24:22-31, 40-47 D-R modern (parallel Sirach 24:16-22, 30-34 RSV KJV)

The following texts can be accessed at >Conservative Bible:

Isaiah 6:9-10 — Isaiah 7:14 — Isaiah 8:13-18 — Isaiah 9:1-2 — Isaiah 22:19-25 — Isaiah 28:16 — Isaiah 29:13-14 — Isaiah 40:1-11 — Isaiah 42:1-4 — Isaiah 43:4-13 — Isaiah 45:22-25 — Isaiah 49:1-6 — Isaiah 52:13–53:12 — Isaiah 54:4-6 — Isaiah 55:1-9 — Isaiah 60:1-6 — Isaiah 61:1-2a, 5-6a, 9-11 — Isaiah 65:1-2, 12-17 — Isaiah 66:18-24 — Jeremiah 5:20-31 — Jeremiah 6:9-12 — Jeremiah 8:13 — Jeremiah 9:23-26 — Jeremiah 18:2-3a — Jeremiah 19:1-3, 6-12, 14-15 — Jeremiah 23:5-6 — Jeremiah 25:3b-5, 15, 17a — Jeremiah 30:8-10 — Jeremiah 31:15, 31-34 — Jeremiah 32:24b-25a — Lamentations 3:1-3, 5-32

The following text was removed: (modern conservative text accessible at >USCCB Bible)

Baruch 4:21-22

The following texts can be accessed at >Conservative Bible:

Ezekiel 9:4-6 — Ezekiel 34:20-25a, 30-31 — Daniel 2:31-35, 44-45 — Daniel 7:13-14, 27 — Hosea 6:1-2 — Hosea 11:1 — Joel 2:31-32a — Amos 8:9 — Amos 9:8-11 — Obadiah 21 —

We've seen and testify that the Father sent the Son to be the World's Savior.

Then Jesus told them again, "Peace be to you. As My Father sent me, I also am sending you in the same way."

The following texts can be accessed at >Conservative Bible:

— Jonah 2 — Jonah 3:1-3, 10 — Micah 5:1b-4 — Nahum 1:6-8, 11, 15a — Habakkuk 1:5 — Habakkuk 2:14 — Zephaniah 1:7 — Zephaniah 3:11b-20a — Haggai 2:6-7a — Zechariah 6:12b-13 — Zechariah 11:12-13 — Malachi 1:11 — Malachi 2:1-9 — Malachi 3:1-4 — Malachi 4:2, 5-6


He said to them, "These are the words which I had spoken of, while I was with you before, that all things must be fulfilled, which were written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the psalms, concerning me."

Then He opened their minds, that they might understand the scriptures, and said to them, "Therefore it was written, and therefore it required Christ to suffer, and to rise from the dead on the third day: and that repentance and forgiveness of sins should be preached in His name among all nations, beginning at Jerusalem. You are witnesses to these things. Watch, for I will send the promise of my Father upon you: but wait here in Jerusalem, until you are imbued with power from on high."

But Thomas, one of the Twelve, called the Twin, was not with them when Jesus came.

Thirty-five

Chapter 35 Bible texts

I delivered to you first of all that which I also received: that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures, that he was buried, that he was raised on the third day according to the Scriptures, and that he appeared to Cephas (that is, "Rock"), then to the twelve. But Thomas, one of the twelve, called Didymus (that is, "the Twin"), was not with them when Jesus came. The other disciples therefore said to him, “We have seen the Lord!”

But he said to them, “Unless I see in his hands the print of the nails, put my finger into the print of the nails, and put my hand into his side, I will not believe.”

But the eleven disciples went into Galilee, to the mountain where Jesus had sent them. And afterward he was revealed to the eleven themselves as they sat at the table.

After eight days again his disciples were inside and Thomas was with them. Jesus came, the doors being locked, and stood in the middle, and said, “Peace be to you.”

When they saw him, they bowed down to him, but some doubted, and he rebuked them for their unbelief and hardness of heart, because they did not believe those who had seen him after he had risen.

Then he said to Thomas, “Reach here your finger, and see my hands. Reach here your hand, and put it into my side. Do not be unbelieving, but believing.”

Thomas answered him, “My Lord and my God!”

Jesus said to him, “Because you have seen me, you have believed. Blessed are those who have not seen, and have believed.”

Jesus did many other signs in the presence of his disciples, which are not written in this book; but these are written, that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Anointed, the Son of God, and that believing you may have life in his name.

After these things, Jesus revealed himself again to the disciples at the sea of Tiberias. He revealed himself this way. Simon Peter (Rock), Thomas called Didymus, Nathanael of Cana in Galilee, and the sons of Zebedee, and two others of his disciples were together. Simon Peter said to them, “I am going fishing.”

They told him, “We are also coming with you.”

They immediately went out, and entered into the boat. That night, they caught nothing. But when day had already come, Jesus stood on the beach, yet the disciples did not know that it was Jesus. Jesus therefore said to them, “Children, have you anything to eat?”

They answered him, “No.”

He said to them, “Cast the net on the right side of the boat, and you will find some.”

They cast it therefore, and now they were not able to draw it in for the multitude of fish. That disciple therefore whom Jesus loved said to Peter, “It is the Lord!”

So when Simon Peter heard that it was the Lord, he wrapped his coat around himself (for he was naked), and threw himself into the sea. But the other disciples came in the little boat (for they were not far from the land, but about two hundred cubits away, about ninety-five yards), dragging the net full of fish. So when they got out on the land, they saw a fire of coals there, with fish and bread laid on it. Jesus said to them, “Bring some of the fish which you have just caught.”

Simon Peter went up, and drew the net to land, full of one hundred fifty-three great fish. Even though there were so many, the net was not torn. Jesus said to them, “Come and eat breakfast!”

None of the disciples dared inquire of him, “Who are you?” knowing that it was the Lord.

Then Jesus came and took the bread, gave it to them, and the fish likewise. This is now the third time that Jesus was revealed to his disciples after he had risen from the dead. So when they had eaten their breakfast, Jesus said to Simon Peter, “Simon, son of Jonah, do you love me more than these?” (In asking this, he used the word agapeo.)

He said to him, “Yes, Lord; you know that I have affection for you.” (In answering this, he used instead the word philos.)

He said to him, “Feed my lambs.”

He said to him again a second time, “Simon, son of Jonah, do you love me?” (In asking this, he used the word agapeo.)

He said to him, “Yes, Lord; you know that I have affection for you.” (In answering this, he used instead the word philos.)

He said to him, “Tend my sheep.”

He said to him the third time, “Simon, son of Jonah, do you have affection for me?” (In asking this, he used instead the word philos.)

Peter was grieved because he asked him the third time, “Do you have affection for me?”

He said to him, “Lord, you know everything. You know that I have affection for you.” (In answering this, he now used the word agapeo.)

Jesus said to him, “Feed my sheep. Most certainly I tell you, when you were young, you dressed yourself and walked where you wanted to. But when you are old, you will stretch out your hands, and another will dress you and carry you where you do not want to go.”

Now he said this, signifying by what kind of death he would glorify God. When he had said this, he said to him, “Follow me.”

Then Peter, turning around, saw a disciple following. This was the disciple whom Jesus loved, the one who had also leaned on Jesus’s breast at the supper and asked, “Lord, who is going to betray you?”

Peter seeing him, said to Jesus, “Lord, what about this man?”

Jesus said to him, “If I desire that he stay to the day when I come, what is that to you? You follow me.”

This saying therefore went out among the brothers, that this disciple would not die. Yet Jesus did not say to him that he would not die, but, “If I desire that he stay to the day when I come, what is that to you?”

This is the disciple who testifies about these things, and wrote these things. We know that his witness is true.

There are also many other things which Jesus did, which if they would all be written, I suppose that even the world itself would not have room for the books that would be written.

The first book I wrote, Friend of God, concerned all that Jesus began both to do and to Teach, up to the day in which he was received up, after he had given commandment through the Holy Spirit to the apostles whom he had chosen. To these he also showed himself alive after he suffered, by many proofs, appearing to them over a period of forty days, and speaking about God’s Kingdom. Then he appeared to over five hundred brothers at once, most of whom remain to now, but some have also fallen asleep. Then he appeared to James, then to all the apostles.

Jesus came to them and spoke to them.

He led them out as far as Bethany. Being assembled together with them, he commanded them, “Do not depart from Jerusalem, but wait for the promise of the Father, which you heard from me. For John indeed baptized in water, but you will be baptized in the Holy Spirit not many days from now.”

Therefore when they had come together, they asked him, “Lord, are you now restoring the kingdom to Israel?”

He said to them, saying, “It is not for you to know times or seasons which the Father has set within his own authority. But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you. You will be witnesses to me in Jerusalem, in all Judea and Samaria, and to the uttermost parts of the earth. Go into all the world, and preach the Good News to the whole creation. He who believes and is baptized will be saved; but he who disbelieves will be condemned. These signs will accompany those who believe: in my name they will cast out demons; they will speak with new languages; they will take up serpents; and if they drink any deadly thing, it will in no way hurt them; they will lay hands on the sick, and they will recover. All authority has been given to me in heaven and on earth. Go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, Teaching them to observe all things that I commanded you. Behold, I am with you always, even to the end of the age.” Amen.

And when he had said these things, he lifted up his hands, and blessed them. While he blessed them, he withdrew from them, and was carried up into heaven. As they were looking, he was taken up, and a cloud received him out of their sight.

So then the Lord, after he had spoken to them, was received up into heaven, and sat down at the right hand of God.

While they were looking steadfastly into the heaven as he went, behold, two men stood by them in white clothing, who also said, “You men of Galilee, why do you stand looking into the heaven? This Jesus, who was received up from you into the heaven, will come back in the same way as you saw him going into the heaven.”

They worshiped him.

Then they returned to Jerusalem from the mountain called Olivet, which is near Jerusalem, a Sabbath day’s journey away, and returned to Jerusalem with great joy. When they had come in, they went up into the upper room where they were staying; that is Peter, John, James, Andrew, Philip, Thomas, Bartholomew, Matthew, James the son of Alphaeus, Simon the Zealot, and Judas the son of James. All these with one accord continued steadfastly in prayer and supplication, along with the women, and Mary the mother of Jesus, and with his brethren, his relatives descended from David according to the flesh.

1 Corinthians 15:3-5
John 20:24-25
Matthew 28:16
Mark 16:14a
John 20:26
Matthew 28:17
Mark 16:14b
John 20:27–21:25
Acts 1:1-3
1 Corinthians 15:6-7
Matthew 28:18a
Luke 24:50a
Mark 16:15a
Acts 1:4-8
Mark 16:15b-18
Matthew 28:18b-20
Acts 1:9a
Luke 24:50b-51
Acts 1:9b
Mark 16:19
Acts 1:10-11
Luke 24:52a
Acts 1:12
Luke 24:52b
Acts 1:13-14
Romans 1:3

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Church History (Eusebius): The Ecclesiastical History Of Eusebius Pamphilus: Bishop Of Caesarea, In Palestine (newadvent.org)

The Works of Flavius Josephus William Whiston, Translator, 1737 (sacred-texts.com)

Suetonius: Twelve Caesars: The Lives of the Twelve Caesars by C. Suetonius Tranquilus; To which are added His Lives of the Grammarians, Rhetoricians, and Poets. The Translation of Alexander Thomson, M.D., Revised and corrected by T. Forester, Esq., A.M. (Gutenberg.org)

Tacitus: The Annals, Written 109 A.C.E. Translated by Alfred John Church and William Jackson Brodribb

Sextus Aurelius Victor: Epitome De Caesaribus (roman-emperors.org)

Eutropius: Breviarium - Eutropius's Abridgement of Roman History (tertullian.org)

Cassius Dio: Roman History Epitome (penelope.uchicago.edu)

Early Christian Writings A.D. 30 through 380 (earlychristianwritings.com)
See Biblical Canon and Apocrypha.


"Do you love me?"

John 21:15 ff.
See multiple versions and commentaries.

"Jesus came"

Matthew 28:18; John 20:19, 24; 21:13.
Subtle inclusion of simultaneous reference to fulfillment of Old Testament prophesies of the One to come. He has come. And he will come again (Acts 1:11).
See also John 14:23.
Preterists claim that the Second Coming of Christ was fulfilled in the first century along with the Resurrection of the Dead and the Final Judgment.
See Revelation, Book of (historical exegesis).

"They worshiped him"

Luke 24:52A
They fell to their knees, kneeling and bowing with their faces to the ground, in awe and wonder.
This form of deep respect and reverential awe is also found in Matthew 2:11; 8:2; 9:18; 14:33; 15:25; 18:26; 28:9, 17; Mark 5:6; 15:19; Luke 24:52; John 9:38; Acts 10:25; Revelation 19:4.
Many Christian houses of worship have seats and pews equipped with kneelers to allow the worshipers a convenient opportunity to kneel with relative ease and to express in humble bodily posture their reverent worship of God the Father, Son and Holy Spirit.
Many Protestant denominations, scandalized by abuses of worship in the Catholic and Orthodox churches, and seeking to avoid anything that resembles Catholic forms of worship, prohibit the use of kneelers in their churches, emphasizing the dignity of God's people blessed with the privilege of standing before him.
The great cathedrals and basilicas of Medieval Catholic Europe, including St. Peter's were built without seats or pews, and their congregations universally stood, men, women with infants, and children, during the entire period of worship, which sometimes lasted two hours or more.

"These signs will accompany those who believe: in my name they will cast out demons; they will speak with new languages; they will take up serpents; and if they drink any deadly thing, it will in no way hurt them; they will lay hands on the sick, and they will recover."

Mark 16:17-18
See multiple commentaries on Mark 16:17
See multiple commentaries on Mark 16:18
The signs promised by Jesus are all attested through the Acts of the Apostles and the letters of St. Paul (especially 1 Corinthians 12–14).
Throughout the entire history of Christianity from the apostolic age through the Middle Ages to the present day, for almost 2,000 years, all of these signs have been manifested and attested in the Catholic Church and in the Orthodox Church, in rumored and legendary accounts, and in substantiated and strictly documented miracles of the saints.
It is remarkable that the 16th century leaders of the Protestant Reformation do not appear to have worked any miraculous cures or remarkable phenomena as divine support of their claims to have restored the purity of the Gospel. See Cessationism
Mainstream Protestant denominations do not emphasize miracles, and normally regard reports of the signs of exorcisms, glossolalia, miracles of protection from harm, and of healings, with a measure of cautious scepticism, in favor of preaching faith in Christ for salvation, conversion of unbelievers and the ordinary compassion of doing of good in his name.
Many Pentecostal and Holiness churches since the 19th century have claimed to have all four of these signs, some of them making snake-handling and poison consumption regular requirements as sure and certain evidence of Christian belief in the power of the Holy Spirit in their midst, and the use of prayer-blessed oil and anointed cloths and handkerchiefs for healings.
More liberal Christian denominations and theologians doubt the reality of biblical accounts of miracles and maintain that reports of so-called modern day miracles are solely the product of uncritical and wishful thinking and delusions of superstitious and hysterical personalities. They maintain that advances in psychology and psychiatry, and in medicine have accounted for all of the disorders and diseases attributed to demons and for all the miraculous cures as worked through the power of suggestion. See Philosophical naturalism and Mind and body.

"appearing to them over a period of forty days, and speaking about God’s Kingdom.

Acts 1:3.
Gnostics from the second century onward, and New Age teachers of esotericism claim that Jesus during the these forty days taught secret doctrines of the Kingdom to the apostles, which he forbade them to entrust to writing or to divulge to the uninitiated masses.
However, Christian tradition since the time of the apostles has always seen the teachings of the Kingdom of God as openly contained in the Four Canonical Gospels and expanded upon by the Holy Spirit without change, in the Epistles or Letters of the Apostles Peter, James, John and Paul, and the Book of the Revelation to John which comes from Jesus himself who received it from God the Father (Revelation 1:1).
Jesus himself testified that he said nothing in secret (John 20:20-21). He explained everything in private to his disciples (Mark 4:34; Luke 24:27), but he also commanded that everything they heard in private should be proclaimed "from the housetops" to the public (Matthew 10:27; Luke 12:3).
An abundance of Gospel texts explicitly speak of the Kingdom of God. These texts are therefore taken here as openly expressive of the substance of what Jesus taught them "about the kingdom of God".
The following texts (linked for immediate access) may be read in the context of this chapter of the Harmony of the Gospel (Conservative Version) as a Bible study of the kingdom of God as taught by Jesus himself to the apostles during the forty days he appeared to them (Acts 1:3):
Isaiah 2:2-5
Daniel 2:34-35
Daniel 2:44-45
Daniel 7:13-14
Hebrews 1:1—13:17
Matthew 5:2—7:27
Matthew 8:11-12
Matthew 9:6-8
Matthew 9:38-40
Matthew 10:7-42
Matthew 12:25-50
Matthew 13:3-52
Matthew 18
Matthew 19:3-30
Matthew 22:2-14
Matthew 23
Matthew 24:3—25:46
Matthew 26:26-28
Matthew 28:18-20
Mark 2:17-27
Mark 4:2-34
Mark 7:14-23
Mark 9:35-50
Mark 10:2-31
Mark 11:22-26
Mark 12:28-34
Mark 13:5-37
Mark 14:22-24
Mark 16:15-18
Luke 4:16-27
Luke 5:31-32
Luke 5:35-39
Luke 6:3-5
Luke 6:20-49
Luke 8:4-18
Luke 8:21
Luke 9:46-50
Luke 10:2-16
Luke 10:23-37
Luke 11:2-13
Luke 11:29-36
Luke 12:2-12
Luke 12:22-59
Luke 13:18-21
Luke 13:23-30
Luke 14:15-35
Luke 15:1—17:10
Luke 17:20—18:30
Luke 19:12-27
Luke 20:9-18
Luke 20:34-38
Luke 21:7-36
Luke 22:19-20
Luke 22:24-30
Luke 22:35-38
Luke 24:26-27
Luke 24:44-49
John 3:3-8
John 4:19-24
John 4:37-38
John 4:44
John 5:17-47
John 6:29-69
John 7:16-18
John 7:28-29
John 7:37-38
John 8:12-18
John 8:23-29
John 8:34-38
John 8:42-47
John 8:51
John 8:54-58
John 9:39
John 10:1-18
John 10:34-38
John 12:23-26
John 12:44-50
John 13:34-35
John 14:1—17:26
John 20:21-23
John 20:29


end of chapter
See Luke 24:53 and Mark 16:53. These texts properly belong to the next chapter with the Pentecost.
Luke 24:53 "and were continually in the temple, praising and blessing God. Amen."
Mark 16:20 "They went out, and preached everywhere, the Lord working with them, and confirming the word by the signs that followed. Amen."

For I first delivered to you what I also received: that Christ died for our sins, according to Scripture. He was buried, and He rose again on the third day, according to Scripture. He was seen by Cephas, then a member of the Twelve.

But Thomas, one of the Twelve, called the Twin, was not with them when Jesus came. So the other disciples told him, "We have seen the Lord!" But he told them, "Unless I see the mark of the nails in His hands, and put my finger into the mark of the nails, and thrust my hand into His side, I will not believe."

Eight days later, His students were indoors, and Thomas was with them. Then Jesus appeared, despite the closed doors, and stood in the middle of them, saying "Peace of mind be with you."

Then He said to Thomas, "Reach your finger here, and become aware of My wrists. Reach your hand here, and probe My side. Don't be in denial; but accept the truth."

Thomas, in answer, said, "My Lord and my God!"

Jesus told him, "Thomas, you believe because you have seen. Blessed are those who have not seen, and still believed."

And Jesus actually worked many other signs in front of His students, that are not written in this book.

[The ones written here] are written, so that you might believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that, in believing, you might have life through His Name.

After these things Jesus again revealed himself to the disciples at the sea of Tiberias. He revealed himself in this way:

There were Simon Peter, Thomas called the Twin, Nathaniel from Cana of Galilee, the two sons of Zebedee and two others of his disciples. Simon Peter said to them, "I am going fishing."

They said to him, "We will come with you." And they went out and immediately got into the boat. However, that night they caught nothing. But when the morning had come, Jesus was standing on the shore—but the students didn't know that it was Jesus.

Then Jesus said to them, "Children, do you have any food?" They answered him, "No."

And He said to them, "Throw out the net on the starboard side of the boat, and you will find fish." So they threw, and now they could not draw the net in for the great quantity of fish that it now held.

So that student whom Jesus loved told Peter, "It's the Lord!" Now when Simon Peter heard that it was the Lord, he put on his outer coat (because he was naked) and jumped into the sea.

The other students came in a little boat (for they were not far from land, not more than two hundred cubits), dragging the net with the fish in it. Then as soon as they had come to land, they saw a coal fire on the beach, and fish laid on it, and bread.

Jesus told them, "Bring me some of the fish that you caught."

Simon Peter went up, and dragged the net onto the beach. It was full of large fish, numbering 153, and though it held so many, the net was not broken.

Jesus told them, "Come and have breakfast." None of the students dared ask him, "Who are You?" because they knew it was the Lord.

Then Jesus came, and took bread, and gave it to them, and gave them some fish in the same way.

This is now the third time that Jesus revealed Himself to His students, after He had risen from the dead.

So when they had eaten their meal, Jesus said to Simon Peter, "Simon, son of Jonah, do you love Me more than these men do?" "Yes, Lord; You know that I am Your friend." He said to him, "Feed My lambs."

He asked him again a second time, "Simon, son of Jonah, do you love Me?" "Yes, Lord; You know that I am Your friend." He told him, "Feed My sheep."

He asked him a third time, "Simon, son of Jonah, are you My friend?" Peter was upset because He had asked him a third time, "Do you love Me?" And he told Him, "Lord, you know all things; of course you know that I am Your friend!" Jesus told him, "Feed my sheep.

Truly, truly I tell you: When you were young, you put your clothes on and walked wherever you wanted. But when you get old, you will reach out with your hands, and someone else will clothe you, and carry you where you do not want to go."

He said this to signify by what manner of death he would glorify God. And when He had said that, He told him, "Follow Me."

Then Peter, turning around, saw the student whom Jesus loved following. That student was also reclining at the table. He said, "Lord, who was it who betrayed You?"

Peter saw him and said to Jesus, "Lord, what will this man do?"

Jesus told him, "If I want him to stay alive until I come, what business is that of yours? You follow Me."

This story was told abroad among the brothers, that that student should not die. But Jesus did not tell him, "You will not die." Rather, He said, "If I want him to stay alive until I come, what business is that of yours?"

This is the student who bears witness to these things, and wrote these things. We know that his testimony is true.

There were also many other things that Jesus did—and if every one of them were written down, I doubt that even the whole world would have room for the books that would be written.

Then the eleven students went away into Galilee, into a mountain where Jesus had told them to go.

(Conservative Bible Mark 16:14a, 14b-18, 19 not translated See Conservative Bible Mark 9-16 (Translated) Chapter 16 KJV)

And when they saw Him, they fell at His feet, but some had doubts.

[Mark 16:14b-18]

My former treatise to you, Theophilus, was concerning all that Jesus began to do and teach until the day he ascended to heaven; after that, through the Divine Guide, he gave commandments to the apostles he had chosen. To them he showed himself alive after his tribulation with many infallible proofs, spending forty days with them and speaking of the Kingdom of God.

After that, he was seen by more than five hundred brothers at once. The majority of these are still alive today, but some have fallen asleep. After that, he was seen by James, and then by all the apostles.

And Jesus came and spoke to them, saying, "All the power in heaven and earth is given to Me. So go and make students from all ethnic groups, baptizing them in the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Divine Guide, teaching them to keep absolutely everything that I commanded you. And remember that I am with you always, even to the end of the world."

He led them out as far as Bethany,

When they were together, he commanded them that they should not leave Jerusalem until the promise of the Father, which he had spoken of, had been fulfilled, For John baptized with water, but they should be baptized with the Divine Guide in a few days.

At this time they asked him, "Lord, will you soon restore the kingdom of Israel?"

And he said to them, "It is not for you to know the times or seasons, which the Father has decided.

But you shall receive power once the Divine Guide has come upon you, and you shall tell all you meet about me, in Jerusalem, all Judea, and Samaria, and to the ends of the Earth."

Having said this,

and He lifted up his hands, and blessed them. It came to pass, that while He blessed them, He parted from them, and He was carried up into Heaven.

he ascended into heaven as they watched, and a cloud obscured him from their sight.

[Mark 16:19]

And as they stared towards heaven, two men in white stood by, and said, "Men of Galilee, why do you stare into heaven? This same Jesus who has been taken up from you into heaven will return in the same way he was taken up."

They worshiped Him,

They then returned to Jerusalem from the mounts of Olives, which is a sabbath day's journey from Jerusalem.

and returned to Jerusalem with great joy:

They went into an upstairs room, where Peter, James, John, Andrew, Philip, Thomas, Bartholomew, Matthew, James the son of Alphaeus, Simon the Zealot, and Judas the brother of James all lived.

They prayed together with the women and the family of Jesus. (Conservative Bible Acts 1:14)
(KJV Acts 1:14 These all continued with one accord in prayer and supplication, with the women, and Mary the mother of Jesus, and with his brethren.)
Note: the explicit Bible phrase "and Mary the mother of Jesus" (καὶ Μαριὰμ τῇ μητρὶ τοῦ Ἰησοῦ, Tischendorf 8th ed.) is excluded from the Conservative Bible text of Acts 1:14 without any explanation. This is no accident. The textual statement is a genuine part of the Bible, and is found in all the earliest extant manuscripts and in every extant Bible translation that has ever been made and published since the second century, including the Peshitta (Aramaic). See


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