Amihai Mazar first received his B.A. from the Hebrew University in Archaeology and Biblical History in 1966. Mazar then received an M.A. in Archaeology from the Hebrew University in 1972, and a Ph.D. from the Hebrew University in 1976. Between 1979-1980, Amihai Mazar underwent Post-Doctoral Studies in the University of London as a Research Fellow.
Between 1977-1981, Amihai Mazar was a lecturer at both the Hebrew University and Ben-Gurion University. Between 1982-1985, he became a Senior Lecturer in the Hebrew University, and then an Associate Professor between 1983-1993. Between 1994-2000 he was the Eleazar Sukenik Chair in the Archaeology of Israel, and became Professor Emeritus in the Hebrew University in 2010.
Amihai Mazar has also served as a Member of the Council of the Israel Exploration Society, the Management Committee of the Archaeological Survey of Israel, the Council of the Israel Antiquities Authority, and the International Committee for the Evaluation of Archaeology Study Programs. He has also served as the Head of the Division of Biblical Archaeology and Institute of Archaeology, as well as Vice President of the Anglo-Israel Archaeology Society. Abroad, Amihai Mazar was Guest Professor of the Department of Oriental Studies in the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Research Associate at Harvard University, and Guest professor of the Department of Anthropology and Program in Judaic Studies in the University of California at San Diego. Amihai Mazar has also served as the director of several archaeological projects, including at ancient sites such as Tell Qasile, Khirbet Abu et-Twein, Tel Batash, biblical Timnah, The "Bull Site", Khirbet Marjameh, Giloh (Jerusalem), Hurvat Shilhah, Tell Qasile, Hartuv, Early Bronze I site, Tel Beth-Shean, and Tel Rehov.
Amihai Mazar is a member of the Israel Exploration Society, American Schools of Oriental Research, and Society of Biblical Literature.
In 2006, Amihai Mazar received the The Israel Museum Percia Schimmel Prize for his research in the archaeology of Israel. Then, in 2007, the American Schools of Oriental Research awarded him the G.E. Wright Publication, and he also received The Michael Landau Prize for Scientific Research in that same year, awarded to him by the Mifal Hapayis Fund for Sciences and Research. In 2009, he later received The Israel Prize for his research and contributions to archaeology.