Harvard University

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Harvard University
City: Cambridge, Massachusetts
Type: Private
Students: 21,000
Faculty: 2,100[1]
Sports: baseball, basketball, heavyweight crew, lightweight crew, cross country, fencing, field hockey, football, golf, ice hockey, lacrosse, skiing, sailing, soccer, softball, squash, swimming and diving, tennis, track and field, volleyball, water polo, wrestling[2]
Colors: Crimson
Mascot: Crimson
Endowment: $39.4 billion (as of 6/30/19)[3]
Website: http://www.harvard.edu/
Annenberg Hall, the freshman dining facility, (copyright Harvard)

Harvard University is a private university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, about three miles west of MIT. It ranked #1 in US News's 2009 "National Universities: Top Schools" list,[4] and is usually ranked either first or second in most lists of a similar nature. In an example of O'Sullivan's First Law, Harvard was founded on the biblical principle that "Let every student be plainly instructed and earnestly pressed to consider well the main end of his life and studies is to know God and Jesus Christ which is eternal life" (John 17:3).[5] But Harvard's Christian success was taken over by liberals like everything else that is not affirmatively conservative.

Founded in 1636 (as "New College" at Cambridge; the school renamed itself "Harvard College" in 1639.), it is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States. It was originally founded by Congregationalists for the purpose of training ministers.

Harvard is one of the eight schools in the Ivy League. Harvard accepts applications from homeschooled children.[6]

The Harvard University libraries contain more than 16 million volumes and is the largest and most important academic library in the world. It began in the 1638 bequest of 400 books from John Harvard (a young clergyman; the University was named after him). The core of the University's collections is found in Widener Library, but there are 70 libraries in all. It is renowned for special collections of incunabula, law, anthropology, East Asian studies, Slavic studies, Hebraica and Judaica, American history and literature, British and European history and literature, literary manuscripts, and fine arts.

The Harvard University Press is a leading academic publisher of scholarly monographs, and has published more than 4,000 titles, including the Loeb Classical Library.



With some 17,000 Puritans migrating to New England by 1620, Harvard was founded by ministers who realized the need for training clergy for the new commonwealth, a "church in the wilderness." it was named for John Harvard, its first benefactor. It received its corporate charter in 1650 and became a university in 1780.

In the words of Harvard's founders:

"After God had carried us safe to New England, and we ... rear'd convenient places for God's worship ... dreading to leave an illiterate Ministry to the Churches, when our present Ministers shall lie in the Dust ... it pleased God to stir up the heart of one Mr. Harvard, a godly gentleman and a lover of learning ... to give the one half of his estate ... towards the erecting of a college and all his Library."

Harvard's Rules & Precepts dated September 26, 1642, included the following:[7]

"Let every Student be plainly instructed, and earnestly pressed to consider well, the maine end of his life and studies is, to know God and Jesus Christ which is eternall life, John 17:3"
Harvard College was founded in 1636 making Boston the intellectual center of New England

When the college's first president Henry Dunster abandoned Puritanism in favor of the Baptist faith in 1653, he provoked a controversy that highlighted two distinct approaches to dealing with dissent in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. The colony's Puritan leaders, whose own religion was born of dissent from mainstream Church of England, generally worked for reconciliation with members who questioned matters of Puritan theology but responded much more harshly to outright rejection of Puritanism. Dunster's conflict with the colony's magistrates began when he failed to have his infant son baptized, believing, as a newly converted Baptist, that only adults should be baptized. Efforts to restore Dunster to Puritan orthodoxy failed, and his apostasy proved untenable to colony leaders who had entrusted him, in his job as Harvard's president, to uphold the colony's religious mission. Thus, he represented a threat to the stability of society. Dunster exiled himself in 1654 and moved to nearby Plymouth Colony, where he died in 1658.[8]

In 1692, the Puritan preacher Increase Mather became President of Harvard. One of his acts was replacing Roman Classics with books by Christian authors in ethics classes, and maintaining a high standard of discipline. Both Harvard College Lawes of 1642 and Harvard College Laws of 1700 testify to its original high level of discipline.[9] Students were required to observe rules of pious decorum inconceivable in the nineteenth century, and ultimately to prove their fitness for the bachelor's degree by showing that they could 'read the original of the Old and New Testament into the Latin tongue, and resolve them logically.'[10]

The early motto of Harvard was Veritas Christo et Ecclesiae, meaning "Truth For Christ and the Church." In the early classes half the graduates became ministers. By the 1760s the proportion was down to 15%. Ten out of the first twelve presidents were also ministers. Systematic theological instruction was inaugurated in 1721 and by 1827 Harvard became a nucleus of theological teaching in New England.[11]

The departure of Increase Mather from the presidency in 1701 marked the beginning of a long term struggle between orthodoxy and liberalism. Harvard's first secular president was John Leverett, who began his term in 1708. Leverett left the curriculum largely intact and sought to keep the College independent of the overwhelming influence of any single sect.[12]

Seven alumni were killed in the American Revolution. Loyalists were outnumbered seven to one by patriots among the graduates of Harvard and, at the conclusion of the war, found themselves outside of both American and British society, especially lacking business contacts. Patriots, however, were much more mixed in their later careers, with some going on to wealth and others receding into obscurity. John Adams became the second president of the United States.[13]

19th century

The takeover of Harvard by the Unitarians in 1805 resulted in the secularization of the American college. By 1850 Harvard was the "Unitarian Vatican." The "liberals" (Unitarians) allied themselves with high Federalists and began to create a set of private societies and institutions meant to shore up their cultural and political authority, a movement that prefigured the emergence of the Boston Brahmin class. On the other hand, the theological conservatives used print media to argue for the maintenance of open debate and democratic governance through a diverse public sphere, seeing the liberals' movement as an attempt to create a cultural oligarchy in opposition to Congregationalist tradition and republican political principles.[14]

In 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on his campus at Harvard College. Agassiz's approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans' 'participation in the Divine Nature' and the possibility of understanding 'intellectual existences.' Agassiz's perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that one can grasp the 'divine plan' in all phenomena. When it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on a presumed archetype for his evidence. This dual view of knowledge was in concert with the teachings of Common Sense Realism derived from Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid and Dugald Stewart, whose works were part of the Harvard curriculum at the time. The popularity of Agassiz's efforts to 'soar with Plato' probably also derived from other writings to which Harvard students were exposed, including Platonic treatises by Ralph Cudworth, John Norris, and, in a Romantic vein, Samuel Coleridge. The library records at Harvard reveal that the writings of Plato and his early modern and Romantic followers were almost as regularly read during the 19th century as those of the 'official philosophy' of the more empirical and more deistic Scottish school.[15]

Charles W. Eliot, president 1869–1909, eliminated the favored position of Christianity from the curriculum while opening it to student self-direction. While Eliot was the most crucial figure in the secularization of American higher education, he was motivated not by a desire to secularize education, but by Transcendentalist Unitarian convictions. Derived from William Ellery Channing and Ralph Waldo Emerson, these convictions were focused on the dignity and worth of human nature, the right and ability of each person to perceive truth, and the indwelling God in each person.[16]

Football, originally organized by students as an extracurricular activity, was banned twice by the university for being a brutal and dangerous sport. However, by the 1880s, football became a dominant force at the college as the alumni became more involved in the sport. In 1882, the faculty formed a three-member athletic committee to oversee all intercollegiate athletics, but, due to increasing student and alumni pressure, the committee was expanded in 1885 to include three student and three alumni members. The alumni's role in the rise and commercialization of football, the leading moneymaker for athletics by the 1880s, was evident in the fundraising for the first steel-reinforced concrete stadium. The class of 1879 donated $100,000 - nearly one-third of the cost - to the construction of the 35,000-seat stadium, which was completed in 1903, with the remainder to be collected from future ticket sales.[17]


Over the years, Harvard has grown to include a number of major schools.[18]

They include:

  • Arts and Sciences
  • Engineering and Applied Sciences
  • Harvard Medical School
  • Harvard School of Dental Medicine
  • Harvard Business School (Founded in 1908, HBS was originally located in Harvard Yard. The present campus, with its stately Georgian buildings following the gentle curve on the Boston side of the Charles River, was dedicated in June 1927.) [19]
  • Graduate School of Design
  • Harvard Divinity School
  • Graduate School of Education
  • John F. Kennedy School of Government
  • Harvard Law School
  • Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study
  • Harvard School of Public Health

High grades

In 2001, Harvard was focused upon as part of a controversy in which high, but allegedly unwarranted, GPA's (Grade Point Averages) were awarded. While in 1940 C-minus was the most common GPA at Harvard, and in 1955 only 15 percent of undergraduates had a GPA of B-plus or higher, in the year 2000, 50% in of all the grades given were As or A-minuses, with just six percent being C-pluses or lower. More than 90 percent of the class of 2001 had earned grade-point averages of B-minus or higher.

Observers point out that entering freshmen typically have straight-A averages in high school, SAT scores near 800 in all fields, and have demonstrated an unusual ability to engage in serious study. The days when Harvard included many "Gentleman C" students there for social activities are long gone.

Felipe Calderon at Harvard's Panel on Davos Forum, 2013.

In a Harvard Crimson article, noted conservative Harvard professor Harvey Mansfield contended that "Grade inflation got started … when professors raised the grades of students protesting the war in Vietnam..." "At that time, too, white professors, imbibing the spirit of the new policies of affirmative action, stopped giving low grades to black students, and to justify or conceal this, also stopped giving low grades to white students." The problem was essentially seen as the predominance of the notion of self-esteem, "in which the purpose of education is to make students feel capable and 'empowered,' and professors should hesitate to pass judgment on what students have learned." Such assertions resulted in no small controversy.

Harvard alumnus and author Ross Douthat attributed this problem partly to socioeconomic differences, and noted that "Harvard students are creatively lazy, gifted at working smarter rather than harder", being brilliant largely in their tactics "to achieve a maximal GPA in return for minimal effort." Few people who have taught at Harvard agree with Douthat's notions.[20]

Notable Alumni


Swords of Iron

Oct 7, 2023 atrocities: the thousands of "Palestinian" Arab Muslim barbarian (Hamas/PIJ, PFLP & ordinary Gazans) onslaught on southern Israel - under Allah Akbar cries: massacring youth at a festival, torching families alive at their homes, suffocating shelters with people in them, mass torture, mass rape - some even post mortem - all while laughing, slaughtering children in front of their parents - parents in front of their children, beheading babies, dismembering bodies, kidnapping kids, men women into Gaza while parading them to cheers of other racist Arab masses. It led to operation Swords of Iron.

Harvard's Arab Alumni Association offers support for Arabs who wrote pro Hamas letter following Palestinian atrocities (Oct 2023

Following a group of racist Arab students in Harvard's pro Hamas' letter - denounced widely (as well as Mrs Claudine Gay's response), Harvard's Arab Alumni Association (HAAA) asked members to support Arab students whose groups signed the Hamas letter HAAA asks alumni to consider providing "legal counsel, healthcare, mental health." [21]

Three such students are doxxed and lose job a week later.

In addition, Ibrahim Bharmal participated in physically and verbally assaulting an Israeli student during an anti-Israel "die-in" protest at Harvard University (Harvard) on October 18, 2023. Bharmal 'worked for the Council on American Islamic Relations' CAIR.[22]

Claudine Gay

As the three top universities heads were grilled pn Dec 5, 2023 (at the days of op. Swords of Iron) by GOP'S Elise Stefanik on the question: "Does calling for the genocide of Jews violate your policy," Liz Nagill of UPenn led the terrible answer: "depending on the context," which the other two (MIT's, Harvard's), just copied her reply. More noticeable pathetic was the fake Claudine Gay's reply.

Claudine Gay - copying from Magill

Outrage urupted. "All three were denounced for lawyerly responses to questions about whether they would discipline students who called for the genocide of Jews."[23]

Days later Magill resigned.

Harvard’s Claudine Gay used 'free speech' as a defense after a history of squelching it. In fact:

When it comes to free speech, Harvard is abysmal.

It finished dead last in the 2024 College Free Speech Rankings from our organization, the Foundation for Individual Rights and Expression.

FIRE’s results come from survey data of more than 55,000 students at 248 schools, assessing openness, tolerance, self-expression, administrative support for free speech and campus speech policies.

Harvard's final score? Zero. [24]

As reports surfaced that Harvard President Claudine Gay plagiarized one of Dr. Carol Miller Swain's books in Gay's 1997 Ph.D. thesis.[25]

Dr. Swain argued that the Ivy League won't condemn her because she's a 'high pedigree minority.'[26]

Dr. Swain addressed the dual scandals facing Harvard and other Ivy League schools — a double standard for anti-Semitism and academic plagiarism. [27]

Meanwhile, Harvard doxxing truck hounded Claudine Gay: 'The best friend Hamas ever had.'[28]

Weeks later, 'major law firm pulls out of recruiting at Harvard.'[29]

Then, weeks later, more fraud of Claudine Gay was revealed, with some 40 cases of plagiarism.[30]

See also

Further reading

  • Abelmann, Walter H., ed. The Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology: The First 25 Years, 1970-1995 (2004). 346 pp.
  • Bethell, John T.; Hunt, Richard M.; and Shenton, Robert. Harvard A to Z (2004). 396 pp. the best guide excerpt and text search
  • Harvard U. Education, Bricks and Mortar: Harvard Buildings and Their Contribution to the Advancement of Learning (1949) online edition
  • James, Henry. Charles W. Eliot: President of Harvard University, 1869-1909 (1930) online edition
  • Keller, Morton. Making Harvard Modern: The Rise of America's University (2001), major history covers 1933 to 2002 online edition
  • Ulrich, Laurel Thatcher, ed. Yards and Gates: Gender in Harvard and Radcliffe History (2004). 337 pp.
  • Wright, Conrad Edick. Revolutionary Generation: Harvard Men and the Consequences of Independence (2005). 298 pp.


  1. Harvard at a Glance. Retrieved on November 21, 2012.
  2. http://www.gocrimson.com/
  3. U.S. and Canadian 2019 NTSE Participating Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year 2019 Endowment Market Value, and Percentage Change in Market Value from FY18 to FY19 (PDF). Retrieved on 2020-09-06.
  4. http://colleges.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com/college/items/2155
  5. https://www.allabouthistory.org/history-of-harvard.htm
  6. Christian Examiner, Sept. 2007, Vol 25, No 9, Pg. 12
  7. http://www.bible-history.com/quotes/harvard_university_1.html
  8. Timothy L. Wood, "'I Spake the Truth in the Feare of God': the Puritan Management of Dissent During the Henry Dunster Controversy," Historical Journal of Massachusetts 2005 33(1): 1-19,
  9. Laws and Statutes for Students of Harvard College
  10. Cotton Mather, the Puritan priest", by Barrett Wendell
  11. http://www.reference.com/browse/Harvard
  12. John Leverett - History - Office of the President
  13. Jack P. Greene, "Harvard Men in a Changing World," Massachusetts Historical Review 2007 9: 166-176,
  14. Neil Brody Miller, "'Proper Subjects for Public Inquiry': the First Unitarian Controversy and the Transformation of Federalist Print Culture," Early American Literature 2008 43(1): 101-135; A Brief History of Christian Influence in U.S. Colleges
  15. David K. Nartonis, "Louis Agassiz and the Platonist Story of Creation at Harvard, 1795-1846," Journal of the History of Ideas 2005 66(3): 437-449, in JSTOR
  16. Stephen P. Shoemaker, "The Theological Roots of Charles W. Eliot's Educational Reforms," Journal of Unitarian Universalist History 2006-2007 31: 30-45,
  17. Ronald A. Smith, "Commercialized Intercollegiate Athletics and the 1903 Harvard Stadium," New England Quarterly, Vol. 78, No. 1 (Mar., 2005), pp. 26-48 in JSTOR
  18. [1]
  19. Campus.
  20. Ross Douthat, "The Truth About Harvard," The Atlantic Monthly March 2005 ; adapted from his book, Privilege: Harvard and the Education of the Ruling Class
  21. Hank Berrien, Harvard Arab Association Asks For Donations For ‘Mental Health’ Of Students Who Blamed Israel For Hamas Attack, DailyWire.com, Oct 17, 2023
  22. REPORT: Harvard Law editor who assaulted Jewish student said by Stanford to have 'compassion and humility' Ibrahim Bharmal 'worked for the Council on American Islamic Relations,' according to Stanford University, CamoysReform, November 1, 2023
  23. College Presidents Under Fire: Who’s In, Who’s Out?, New York Times, Dec 12, 2023
  24. Connor Murnane and Angel Eduardo, Harvard’s Claudine Gay uses ‘free speech’ as a defense after a history of squelching it, NY Post, Dec. 11, 2023.
  25. Swain: Gay's whole career based on fraud. On Tuesday's "Wake Up America," author Dr. Carol Swain reacts to reports that Harvard President Claudine Gay plagiarized one of Swain's books in Gay's 1997 Ph.D. thesis. Newsmax, Dec 13, 2023 On YouTube
  26. Germania Rodriguez Poleo, Academic who accused Harvard President Claudine Gay of plagiarizing her work claims Ivy League school won't condemn her because she 'is the product of an elite system that holds minorities of high pedigree to a lower standard', Dailymail.Com, 18 Dec 2023.
  27. Dr. Carol Swain On Plagiarism And Anti-Semitism At Harvard, Daily Wire News, ' 'DailyWire.com, Dec 17, 2023.
    The following is a transcript of a recent interview between Daily Wire Editor-in-Chief John Bickley and Dr. Carol Swain on a Saturday Extra edition of Morning Wire. Dr. Swain addresses the dual scandals facing Harvard and other Ivy League schools — a double standard for anti-Semitism and academic plagiarism...
  28. Shannon Thaler, Harvard doxxing truck hounds Claudine Gay: 'The best friend Hamas ever had', NY Post, Dec. 13, 2023. ([2] A fleet of billboard-bearing box trucks parked outside of President Claudine Gay’s home on Tuesday and Wednesday, bashing the Ivy League head as “the best friend Hamas ever had.” Adam Guillette / Accuracy in Media).
  29. Jazz Shaw, Major Law Firm Pulls Out of Recruiting at Harvard, Hotair, 12/18/2023.
    Harvard President Claudine Gay is quickly becoming a household name, though not for the reasons she might have liked. She’s also receiving fan mail, but it’s not filled with the type of praise that celebrities typically hope for. The latest example was a letter from Jay Edelson, the founder of Edelson PC, a major law firm. He was writing to inform Gay that his firm would no longer be participating in recruitment events at Harvard Law School and he cited Gay’s recent congressional testimony along with the pro-Hamas rallies on campus as the reason for the decision...
  30. Brian Flood, Embattled Harvard University President Claudine Gay hit with more plagiarism charges, Fox News, December 20, 2023

    Harvard ‘received a complaint outlining over 40 allegations of plagiarism,’ according to the Free Beacon.

    Harvard president facing 40 new allegations of plagiarism.

    Embattled Harvard University President Claudine Gay has been slapped with additional charges of plagiarism.

    The Washington Free Beacon reported Harvard "received a complaint outlining over 40 allegations of plagiarism" against Gay on Tuesday, noting a letter was sent to Harvard's research integrity officer, Stacey Springs, outlining the claims.

    "The document paints a picture of a pattern of misconduct more extensive than has been previously reported and puts the Harvard Corporation, the university's governing body — which said it initiated an ‘independent review’ of Gay's scholarship and issued a statement of support for her leadership — back in the spotlight," Free Beacon reporter Aaron Sibarium wrote.

    The Free Beacon reported that it "independently verified the veracity of the new allegations against Gay, as well as the identity of the complainant," who is a professor at another university who requested "anonymity for fear of retaliation."

    Earlier this month, Harvard Corporation, the school’s highest governing body, announced it would stand by Gay despite intense backlash to controversial comments about antisemitism and accusations of plagiarism, although it admitted a probe found "instances of inadequate citation" in her academic writings.

    The Free Beacon previously reported that in four papers published between 1993 and 2017, including her doctoral dissertation, Gay "paraphrased or quoted nearly 20 authors — including two of her colleagues in Harvard University’s department of government — without proper attribution," according to an analysis by the investigative news site.

    The Free Beacon reported it worked with scholars to analyze "29 potential cases of plagiarism," and most believed Gay, a political scientist, had violated Harvard’s own policies against plagiarism by simply changing a few words at times without proper citation. The Manhattan Institute’s Christopher Rufo and journalist Christopher Brunet also published instances of what they said were problematic sections of her Ph.D. dissertation that "violate Harvard’s own stated policies on academic integrity."

    Derrick Johnson & Claudine Gay NAACP President Derrick Johnson recently defended embattled Harvard President Claudine Gay, claiming "attacks on her leadership are nothing more than political theatrics advancing a white supremacist agenda." (Getty)

    According to the Free Beacon, new allegations included "dozens of additional cases in which Gay quoted or paraphrased authors without proper attribution" that were submitted to Harvard's research integrity officer.

    "They range from missing quotation marks around a few phrases or sentences to entire paragraphs lifted verbatim," Sibarium wrote. "The full list of examples spans seven of Gay's publications — two more than previously reported — which comprise almost half of her scholarly output."

    The Free Beacon obtained a copy of the complaint sent to Harvard's research integrity officer that said it was "impossible" for the school’s probe to have reviewed all of the accusations in time to claim Gay didn’t violate Harvard's standards for research.

    "Know that it is impossible that your office has already reviewed the entirety of these materials as many examples below have not been previously reported or submitted to Harvard," the letter stated.

    Harvard did not immediately respond to a request for comment from Fox News Digital.

    "Lurking in the background of the complaint is the question of whether Gay, Harvard's 30th president, will be held to the same standards as the university's own students, dozens of whom are disciplined for plagiarism each year. The school has typically been softer on faculty accused of academic dishonesty, either giving them a symbolic slap on the wrist or dismissing the charges altogether," Sibarium wrote.

    Harvard sees early admission applications drop by 17%.

External links