According to the University of Cambridge, historically, the "most notable spread of atheism was achieved through the success of the 1917 Russian Revolution, which brought the Marxist-Leninists to power."
The Soviet Union practiced state atheism. See: Atheism and communism and Soviet atheism
The abstract for the 2013 journal article Micro- and meso-level influences on obesity in the former Soviet Union: a multi-level analysis which was published in the European Journal of Public Health indicates:
|“|| Limited evidence exists on obesity in the former Soviet Union (fSU), particularly its micro- and meso-level determinants...
A total of 13% of the males and 18% of the females were categorized as obese. Factors associated with obesity in males were older age, increasing educational achievement, declining self-reported health, alcohol consumption and automobile ownership. Males who were current smokers, not married and perceived physical activity to be important were less likely to be obese. For females, obesity was associated with older age, completion of secondary-level education, declining self-reported health and average household financial situation. Unmarried women were less likely to be obese. Multi-level analysis indicated that individuals living in communities with higher presence of garbage were more likely to be obese.
Soviet Union, food production, famine and cannibalism
See also: Atheism and economics and Atheism and sloth and Atheism and cannibalism
In 1982, the website Foreign Affairs indicated about the Soviet Union and food production:
|“||What has changed during these two decades? How is it possible that the Soviet Union has almost exactly the same area of arable and permanent crop land per head of the population as has the United States, namely 0.89 hectares (2.2 acres), and cannot feed its population adequately, whereas U.S. agriculture not only supplies the population with one of the richest diets in the world but in addition supplies more food for export than any other country?||”|
Kerry Kubulius in his article entitled Cannibalism in the Soviet Union wrote:
|“|| In the years 1920-21, the Soviet Union was hit hard by famine. Civil war had wiped out grain stores, and drought affected harvests. Struggling peasants and Gulag prisoners alike fell victim to starvation. Hungry individuals ate what they could find – the last of their livestock, cats and dogs, and then finally, fellow human beings. Cannibalism in Soviet Russia and elsewhere in the Soviet Union manifested itself in prisons camps, in urban settings, and in the countryside. The practice of cannibalism was seen as a survival measure rather than a true crime by those who had nothing else to eat....
It goes without saying that cannibalism in the Soviet Union was outlawed. Those who were caught cannibalizing their fellow citizens were sent to prisons, even though cannibalism was practiced in the Gulag, as well...
While some individuals ate the bodies of the already dead, others murdered for the purpose of providing themselves with food. Gangs of children would kill adults, while adults would find children to murder and eat. Escaped prisoners might take along fellow inmates to serve as future meals – unbeknownst to the escapees' companions themselves.
Cannibalism in the Soviet Union was sometimes a result of an individual or individuals seeking revenge.
Atheism and obesity
See also: Atheism and obesity and Atheism and diabetes and Atheism and health
The current atheist population mostly resides in East Asia (particularly China) and in secular Europe/Australia primarily among whites. See: Global atheism and Western atheism and race
Secular Europe and communist China have significant problems with obesity (see: Secular Europe and obesity and China and obesity). In addition, Australia has a significant problem with obesity (see: Australia, irreligion and obesity).
As noted above, in the United States at the present time, the greater the degree of irreligiosity in a generation, the higher their obesity rate is. According to the Gallup Inc., "Very religious Americans are more likely to practice healthy behaviors than those who are moderately religious or nonreligious."
In addition, a significant number of prominent atheists are overweight (see: Atheism and obesity).
For more information, See: Atheism and obesity
Soviet Union, irreligion, alcoholism and obesity
See also: Soviet Union and alcoholism
Research indicates that heavy drinking may contribute to obesity. For example, a study found that frequent, light drinkers (3 to 7 drinking days per week, 1 drink per drinking day) had lower BMIs than infrequent, but heavier drinkers.
Atheists and atheistic cultures often have significant problems with excess alcohol usage (For more information please see: Atheism and alcoholism).
At least 100 studies suggests religion has a positive effect on preventing alcohol-related problems, researchers Christopher Ellison, Jennifer Barrett and Benjamin Moulton noted in an article in the Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion on “Gender, Marital Status, and Alcohol Behavior: The Neglected Role of Religion.” See: Atheism and alcoholism
Alcoholism was a serious social problem in the former atheistic Soviet Union. Between 1940 and 1980, the Soviet Union had the largest increase of the amount of alcohol usage in the developed world.
A study performed in the former Soviet Union found that over 50% of the work force admitted to drinking alcohol while on the job. See also: Atheism and work ethic
- ↑ http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1883.html
- ↑ Investigating atheism: Marxism. University of Cambridge (2008). Retrieved on July 17, 2014. “The most notable spread of atheism was achieved through the success of the 1917 Russian Revolution, which brought the Marxist-Leninists to power. For the first time in history, atheism thus became the official ideology of a state.”
- ↑ Micro- and meso-level influences on obesity in the former Soviet Union: a multi-level analysis by Watson K1, Roberts B, Chow C, Goryakin Y, Rotman D, Gasparishvili A, Haerpfer C, McKee M., European Journal of Public Health, 2013 Apr;23(2):291-8. doi: 10.1093/eurpub/cks054. Epub 2012 May 29.
- ↑ Soviet Agriculture's Dependence on the West By Karl-Eugen Wädekin, Foreign Affairs, 1982
- ↑ Cannibalism in the Soviet Union' by Kerry Kubulius
- ↑ Causes of obesity
- ↑ https://www.gallup.com/poll/145379/Religious-Americans-Lead-Healthier-Lives.aspx
- ↑ A surprising map of where the world’s atheists live, By Max Fisher and Caitlin Dewey, Washington Post, May 23, 2013
- ↑ Very Religious Americans Lead Healthier Lives, Gallup Poll, 2010
- ↑ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18245818
- ↑ Alcoholism in the Soviet Union
- ↑ Breslow et al. Drinking Patterns and Body Mass Index in Never Smokers: National Health Interview Survey, 1997–2001. Am J Epidemiol 2005;161:368–376.
- ↑ The Doubled-Edged Sword of Religion and Alcoholism
- ↑ Hazardous alcohol drinking in the former Soviet Union: a cross-sectional study of eight countries
- ↑ Alcoholism in the Soviet Union
- ↑ Communism and computer ethics