While Marx laid out a broad theory of revolution more than half a century earlier, Marx left no practical guide or detailed instruction on the everyday problems of governance once the revolution was achieved. Lenin added to Marxist theory with executive actions and decrees to create a non-democratic and anti-democratic bureaucracy, staffed with progressive ideologues, to carry out the "dictatorship of the proletariat".
To enforce compliance for example, three mass graves existed in the Ukrainian town of Vinnitsa containing between 9,000 and 11,000 bodies. One grave site was in the People's Park near the city center and town square. The so-called "secret police" hardly tried to keep secret its crimes as a method of intimidation against dissenters of the Socialist system. It was "secret" only in the sense that survivors had enough sense to never speak about the disappearance of loved ones or question authorities.
- THE GUILLOTINE AT WORK Vol. 1: The Leninist Counter-Revolution, Gregory Petrovich Maximoff, First edition published Chicago, 1940.
- The Tragedy of Vinnytsia: Materials on Stalin's Policy of Extermination in Ukraine During Th Great Purge, 1936-1938. Ihor Kamenetsky. Ukrainian Hist. Association, 1989.