Frank Marshall Davis

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Frank Marshall Davis
Frank marshall davis3.jpg

Born December 31, 1905
Arkansas City, Kansas
Died July 26, 1987
Honolulu, Hawaii
Spouse Thelma Boyd,[1]
Helen Canfield

Frank Marshall Davis (December 31, 1905 - July 26, 1987) was an author, liberal activist, Stalinist agent, and self-admitted pedophile.[2] He was a mentor of Barack Obama.[3] It has been suggested that Davis is Obama's biological father.[4]


Davis was born in Arkansas City, Kansas December 31, 1905. Davis reported he had nine years of elementary school, five years of high school, one year at Friends University, Wichita Kansas, three and half years at Kansas State Agricultural College (Now Kansas State University), Manhattan, Kansas, from September 1924 to February 1927, and from September 1929 to June 1930, studying journalism. During his time there, he joined Phi Beta Sigma.[5]

In between his college years of 1927 and 1929, Davis spent time in Chicago where he was a contributor for several publications: the Chicago Evening Bulletin, the Chicago Whip, and the Gary American.[6] After failing to find the success he desired, he returned to his studies.

After college, Davis went to Atlanta, Georgia and became managing editor of the Atlanta Daily World in 1931. Davis became interested in the Communist party in 1931 during the Scottsboro case.[7] In 1934, he again moved to Chicago, where he served as Executive Editor of Claude Barnett's Associated Negro Press from 1935-1947.[8] In 1936 Davis was listed as a contributing editor to the Spokesman, the official organ of the Youth Section of the National Negro Congress, a Communist front organization.[9] Davis was regarded as a primary outlet of CPUSA "for the distribution of news and propaganda which the CPA wishes to get out to the Negro people. As Executive Editor of the Associated Negro Press Davis is in a position to determine what news releases shall be made by the Associated Negro Press to the various numbers of newspapers to whom it supplies news." Davis also was the Executive Editor of the communist publication the Chicago Star.[10]

His poetry and writings became popular during the Harlem Renaissance and during the African American Arts Movement in the 1960s and 1970s.[11] Davis met Langston Hughes, Richard Wright, and other leading black writers while participating in the federal Works Progress Administration(WPA) Writers' Project and other organizations.[12]

In his poetry, Davis has indicated that he found inspiration in Carl Sandburg, more than any other.[13] Sandburg was a Fellow Traveller.[14]

Nazi-Soviet Pact

The Nazi-Soviet Pact of 1939 presented the most troubling dilemma for American Communists. It came on the heels of the bloody anti-Trotskyite Great Purges in which many CPUSA members quit the party with apprehension and fear over what the Party had become. Those who remained during the purges were, for the most part, dedicated anti-fascists. However, with the coming of the Communazi era wherein German Chancellor Adolf Hitler became an ally of the Soviet Union against French and British Imperialism, only the most ardent Stalinists continued in the party who were willing to overlook, and justify, Stalin's murderous excesses. Among them were Frank Marshall Davis, who joined the group American Peace Mobilization.[15] According to the House Un-American Activities Committee, APM was "one of the most notorious and blatantly communist fronts ever organized in this country".[16]

Soviet instructions called for unflinching opposition to the U.S. defense effort.[17] Davis became an articulate opponent of President Franklin Roosevelt's policy of Lend Lease aid to Great Britain. Speaking to an audience of the communist front National Negro Congress in 1940, Davis said,

Negroes and the whole American people are being called upon to 'sacrifice for national defense.' Our country may soon be actively engaged in another war. Facing this crisis, the people are forced to think and to act lest, under the wave of war hysteria, they be bludgeoned into situations against their best interest.[18]

Roosevelt was known among communists at this time as an "imperialist war-monger"[19] and "Franklin Demagogue Roosevelt," but when Hitler turned on his ally and attacked the Soviet Union, American Communists echoed new dictates of the Kremlin by abandoning isolationism overnight and supporting Lend Lease.[20]

Communist activities in Chicago

Vice President Henry Wallace (left) was booted off the ticket by FDR in 1944 when questions about his mental capacity arose; he ran against his replacement, Harry S. Truman with strong CPUSA backing in 1948. Vernon Jarrett (right) had high praise for Barack Obama's communitiy organizing during a 1992 event sponsored by the Chicago Defender.[21] Jarrett's daughter-in-law, Valerie Jarrett, is the Senior Advisor to President Obama for Intergovernmental Affairs. [2]


Davis was involved in Chicago's South Side Community Art Center, "a meeting place for young African American writers and artists during the 1940s".[22] An outgrowth of the New Deal Federal Art Project, the Art Center was a hangout for the "Culture Group,"[23] a circle of Communist Party members and sympathisers including Richard Wright, Margaret Burroughs, Marion Perkins and Arna Bontemps. Another center regular was a young journalist named Vernon Jarrett. Davis and Jarrett worked together on the black run newspaper, the Chicago Defender.[24] Even throughout World War II, when the CPUSA "soft-pedaled" the fight against racism the editorial policies of the Defender were virtually indistinguishable from those of the Daily Worker.[25]


According to Davis he met CPUSA Central Committeeman Harry Bridges in 1945 while on the faculty of the Abraham Lincoln School[26] in Chicago, cited as a subversive organization by U.S. Attorney General Tom Clark[27] and again under Executive Order 10450.[28][29] Davis was associated with several other organizations on the Attorney General's List of Totalitarian, Fascist, Communist, Subversive, and Other Organizations including the American Youth for Democracy, National Federation for Constitutional Liberties, League of American Writers,[30] and the National Negro Congress, according to the Reports of the Commission on Subversive Activities of the Territory of Hawaii.

Davis, like Nathan Gregory Silvermaster, was in the FBI's security index, meaning he could be arrested and detained in the event of a national emergency.


Singer Paul Robeson (left) shortly after the Peekskill riots. [3] Howard Fast stands on the right. Fast presented Robeson with the Stalin Peace Prize in a ceremony in New York after Robeson was denied a passport to travel to Moscow to accept it. [4]

Davis stated singer Paul Robeson, a secret communist, was instrumental in helping Davis move to Hawaii.[31] Robeson and Davis both were active in the Civil Rights Congress[32][33] and other subversive groups.[34] Robeson invoked the Fifth Amendment when asked if he had known Nathan Gregory Silvermaster, Leon Josephson, Louise Bransten or Gregory Kheifits.[35] Greg Silvermaster was the head of an extraordinarily large apparatus[36] of Roosevelt Brain Trusters working for the KGB. Robeson also invoked the Fifth Amendment when asked if he had ever been in the home of Louise Bransten. It was in the home of Bransten that Bransten's lover, West Coast KGB Station Chief Gregory Kheifits, met another unlisted[37] member of the communist party, J. Robert Oppenheimer head of the Manhattan project, who agreed to share information with the KGB.[38]

Communist activities in Hawaii


Upon Davis's assignment to Hawaii he met with ILWU regional director Jack Hall,[39][40][41] convicted under the Smith Act for conspiracy to overthrow the United States Government. The ILWU controlled the Honolulu Record[42][43] and the ILWU Book Club. Among the authors made available through the ILWU Book Club were Saul Alinsky, Howard Fast, Philip S. Foner, Carl Marzani and Victor Perlo.

Marzani, like Ariyoshi, was a KGB agent working in the Office of Strategic Services during World War II. Victor Perlo headed the notorious Perlo group[44] of which the full extent of damage done to American national security may never be known. Perlo's book, American Imperialism,[45] offered through the ILWU Book Club, was used for brainwashing American prisoners of war in North Korean reeducation camps. Perlo always denied being a communist, claiming he had only been "helping in my humble way to carry out the great New Deal program under the leadership of Franklin D. Roosevelt"[46] until 1981 when he was appointed to the CPUSA Politburo and openly criticized CPSU General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev and Russian President Boris Yeltsin for betraying Stalinism.[47][48][49]

Hawaii NAACP charter revoked

The Senate Internal Security Subcommittee (SISS) published a report in 1955 entitled, The Communist Party, USA — What It Is — How It Works.[50] The study intended to differentiate the CPUSA from "bona fide" political parties after the Subversive Activities Control Act proscribed into law the following:

The Congress finds and declares that the Communist Party of the United States, although purportedly a political party, is in fact an instrumentality of a conspiracy to overthrow the Government of the United States...the policies and programs of the Communist Party are secretly prescribed for it by the foreign leaders...members of the Communist Party are recruited for indoctrination with respect to its objectives and methods, and are organized, instructed, and disciplined to carry into action slavishly the assignments given them....Its role as the agency of a hostile foreign power renders its existence a clear present and continuing danger to the security of the United States. It is the means whereby individuals are seduced into the service of the world Communist movement, trained to do its bidding, and directed and controlled in the conspiratorial performance of their revolutionary services.[51]

Without going into detailed analysis of Communist activity in the labor movement, among African-Americans, women, youth, foreign language groups, or in front organizations the SISS report described a fundamental CPUSA strategy of infiltration and subversion using divisiveness:

it thrives upon promoting clashes: Between employer and employee, landlord and tenant, white and Negro, native-born and foreigner, Catholic, Protestant and Jew; between the American people and their Government, and within every non-Communist organization.

Davis discusses his move to Hawaii in late 1948 in his memoir,

I had also talked with Paul Robeson who the previous year had appeared there in a series of concerts sponsored by the International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union (ILWU), the most powerful labor organization in the territory.... I also wrote to Harry Bridges, head of the ILWU, whom I had met at Lincoln School. He suggested I get in touch with Koji Ariyoshi, editor of the Honolulu Record, a newspaper that was generally similar to the Chicago Star."[52]

Robeson, Bridges[53] and Ariyoshi were all Communist party operatives. Davis was given a regular weekly column in the Honolulu Record entitled "Frankly Speaking." When Davis' column first appeared in May 1949, the Record boasted he was a member of the national executive board of the Civil Rights Congress, cited as a Communist subversive organization by Truman Attorney General Tom Clark. Under the sponsorship of the Civil Rights Congress, Davis signed a statement in defense of Gerhart Eisler, the notorious Comintern agent who escaped jail for passport fraud by fleeing to East Germany.

Edward Berman of the local chapter of the NAACP sent a letter in 1949 to the acting National Secretary of the NAACP, Roy Wilkins, stating

I was at one of the election meetings at which one Frank Marshall Davis, formerly of Chicago (and formerly editor of the Chicago Communist paper, the Star) suddenly appeared on the scene to propagandize the membership about our 'racial problems' in Hawaii. He had just sneaked in here on a boat, and presto, was an 'expert' on racial problems in Hawaii. Comrade Davis was supported by others who had recently 'sneaked' into the organization with the avowed intent and purpose of converting it into a front for the Stalinist line….

They create a mythical racial problem here. They agitate with the same fervor that the Communist press does on the mainland. The result is discord and distrust, not unity.

…Already, scores of Negro members were frightened away from these meetings because of the influx of this element. Only by a reorganization with a policy that will check this infiltration, can we hope to get former members back into a local NAACP branch. We are going to have to have that authority over here―otherwise you’ll have a branch exclusively composed of yelping Stalinists and their dupes―characters who are more concerned about the speedy assassination of Tito than they are about the advancement of the colored people of these United States."[54]

The national NAACP acted by revoking the local Hawaiian chapter of the NAACP's charter to prevent Communists from taking over the organization.

Honolulu Record

Honolulu Record editor Koji Ariyoshi with Chinese Communist Party chairman Mao Zedong. According to Prof. R.J. Rummel, 38,702,000 persons were murder victims of Chinese Communist democide.[55]

During April 1951, a national convention of the ILWU was held in Honolulu. This convention was attended by Al Richmond, editor of the Daily People's World and chairman of the press commission of District 13 of the Communist Party USA. Richmond attended meetings of the executive board where the policy of the Honolulu Record, as an agitational outlet of the policy of the Communist Party was discussed. Policy lines were set down by the executive board in regard to the Record policy. The editorial policies of the Record editor, Koji Ariyoshi, came under fire by Richmond in that Richmond criticized Ariyoshi's policies as being deviationist. In particular, Ariyoshi was criticized for not giving the biggest issue of the current Communist line, the so-called "peace line" during the early Cold War, proper emphasis in the Record.

A former official of the Communist Party of Hawaii stated under oath,

It is interesting to note that up until this time the issue of peace was only pushed by Frank Marshall Davis in his regular Record column. Increased emphasis was given the peace line by the Record generally, since.

Davis was an outspoken proponent of the Soviet sponsored Stockholm Peace Petition.[56] The 1957 SISS report noted,

Strong ties between the Honolulu Record and Communist China have become increasingly apparent....the editorial policy of the Record regarding the United States position on the Orient has been simply a paraphrasing of the Moscow and Peiping views on the subject.

Communists infiltrate the Democratic party

In 1950, the Hawaiian Communist Party went underground. Quoting Robert M. Kempa, a communist party informant who agreed to cooperate with government investigators, an FBI memo states,

In 1950 after the Communist Party had conducted a series of control interviews. Dwight James Freeman known to me as a Communist Party Organizer, told me that the Party was being reorganized and was going underground. Freeman explained to me that the Party was being broken down into 'Groups of 3's' and that I was being made chairman of Group #6 and in addition given the assignment of being contact man for my own group and four other groups. Freeman advised me that Chairman of Group #10 was Frank Marshall Davis and I was to contact him ....

Late in the fall of 1950, I started contacting Frank Marshall Davis in connection with Communist Party matters, and relaying to him information received from my superior contact in the Communist Party, either James Freeman or [redacted].

During a portion of 1950, 1951 and part of 1952, I continued contacting Frank Marshall Davis and also transmitted dues for the Communist Party received from him to my contact above. During the period of my contacts with Frank Marshall Davis, he advised me that his wife, Helen was a member of Group #10. I was never advised of the identity of a third of that group, or the fact that there was a third member in the group. During a portion of 1951 [redacted] took over contacts with the Davis group but I resumed contacting Davis in 1952 and continued meeting him on Communist Party matters until I left the Party in June of that year."[57]

A 1950 memo reports that members of the subversive element in Honolulu were

concentrating their efforts on infiltration of the Democratic party through control of Precinct Clubs and organizations. He said they were spending considerable time urging support for their candidates in these Precinct Club elections. In this regard, he noted on April 6, 1950, that subject [Davis] had been elected Assistant Secretary and Delegate to the Territorial Democratic Convention...attendance of Davis at the Territorial Democratic Convention was verified by [informant]. This convention took place on April 30 at Kalakana Intermediate School.[58]

Andrew Walden of the Hawaii Free Press[59] has said the story of Frank Marshall Davis is completely intertwined with the story of the Hawaii Democrats rise to power.[60] Communists controlled the ILWU, the ILWU controlled the Hawaii Democratic Party, and in 1954, union-based election campaigns launched the Hawaii Democrats into control of the legislature. Walden quotes Hawaii's first Democratic Governor Jack Burns,

Every guy in the ILWU was at one time or another a member of the Communist Party of America. This is where they got their organizational information and how to organize, and how to bring groups together and how to create cells and how to make movements that are undetected by the bosses.

In 1959 Hawaii was admitted to the Union.[61] After Burns captured the governor's office in 1962 the Democrats created a single party controled state unbroken for four decades until the election of Republican Governor Linda Lingle in 2002. During those decades in some sessions sat as few as one Republican legislator. In 1976 the Democratic-controlled Hawaii State Legislature passed a resolution honoring Koji Ariyoshi. Herbert Romerstein,[62][63] formerly head of the office to Counter Soviet Disinformation at the United States Information Agency commented, "this was the atmosphere that young Barack Obama grew up in...We honor Soviet spies."[64]

International affairs

In 1963 FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover made a hand written note in the file authorizing a direct approach to Davis who had been under investigation for 19 years[65] and had never been interviewed.[66] During the interview Davis claimed he was motivated by social policy and not interested in international politics[67] yet the record shows otherwise. Davis's column of January 24, 1957 for example says,

I received a copy of the National Guardian on Dec. 31 In it was an article headed 'The Negro Press on Hungary and Egypt--Do hearts bleed for white skins only?' and containing a summary of the opinion formed in assorted Negro newspapers...Because I think the opinions of the press serving 18,000,000 colored Americans are of importance to the people of Hawaii, I am reprinting the Guardian summary:...[68]

This was shortly after the violent and bloody anti-communist Hungarian uprising in 1956. The Guardian was founded by KGB operatives Cedric Belfrage and James Aronson. During the Korean War, Guardian carried false reports on American use of germ warfare which many American leftists still charge America with to this day.[69][70] Documents from Russian Archives prove, more than four decades after the fact, the United States was the victim of a disinformation campaign.[71] The Guardian correspondent who reported the disinformation actually assisted North Korean interrogators in extracting bogus confessions from American prisoners of war.[72]

Shortly after North Korea invaded the South across the 38th parallel on June 25, 1950, Davis wrote

In addition to muffing the moral leadership we have given the colored people of the globe still another count against the U.S. as a nation. The U.S. is considered to be a white man's country. You may be sure that the spectacle of white Americans shooting down Orientals of North Korea will not be ignored by the rest of the Asia and Africa who are struggling to throw off the yoke of what they call 'white imperialism'.

In his column of August 3, 1950 Davis devoted considerable space in quoting from The Situation in Asia by Owen Lattimore in an effort to show that North Koreans supported their government more than the people of South Korea.[73]

In his Honolulu Record columns Davis regularly condemned the Marshall Plan, the Truman Doctrine, the North Atlantic Treaty and routinely sung the praises of Kim Il Sung's North Korea.

The future of the Communist party and Barack Obama

Communist Party

After Khrushchev's Secret Speech another generation of loyal Communists were again confronted with the enormity of Stalin's crimes. As Ann Coulter stated, Sen. Joseph McCarthy "made it a disgrace to be a Communist."[74] Singer Paul Robeson remained a lifelong denier of the Stalinist holocaust. Davis in his 1963 interview with FBI Special Agent Leo Brenneisen appears to offer some second thoughts about his work for the Soviet Union. Davis states he would "consort with the devil to gain his end," and his end was the fight against racial discrimination.


In Barack Obama's Dreams from my Father, the author disguises the identity of an old man named "Frank" whose struggles the author identifies with.[75] In 2007 Prof. Gerald Horne outed the identity of "Frank" at a Communist party gathering and published in an article entitled, Rethinking the History and Future of the Communist Party:

At some point in the future, a teacher will add to her syllabus Barack’s memoir and instruct her students to read it alongside Frank Marshall Davis’ equally affecting memoir...when that day comes...a future student will ...examine critically the Frankenstein monsters that US imperialism created in order to subdue Communist parties..."[76]

In a 1995 video, unearthed in 2015, Obama admits that the "Frank" mentioned in his book is in fact Davis. Obama said:[77]

The passage finally ends with me having a conversation with a close friend of my maternal grandfather, a close friend of gramps, a black man from Kansas named Frank. Actually at the time a fairly well known poet named Frank Marshall Davis who had moved to Hawaii and lived there. And so I have a discussion with him about the kinds of frustrations I'm having and he sort of schools me that I should get used to these frustrations.

In preparation for the 2008 presidential campaign, Obama released an audio book format version of his book Dreams from My Father. But in the audio book version, "Frank" had been scrubbed from the record.[78]

Commitment to Communism

There is no evidence Davis ever abandoned his commitment to what Allen Weinstein described as "a murderous and discredited ideology." In 1999 it was reported 3 million North Koreans starved to death[79] in the Socialist workers' paradise Davis so cherished while others were eating grass to survive.[80] Meanwhile, the people of the Republic of South Korea, created with American assistance, have thrived and prospered. The Khmer Rouge - the Communist government of Cambodia, exterminated three million people[81] after the U.S. backed government of Lon Nol[82] fled the country. When the collapse of the Republic of South Vietnam forced hundreds of thousands to flee the terror of the North Vietnamese communists, an estimated half million drowned in their desperation to escape.[83] In the final years of Davis's life the Soviet Union wanted to bring social change in a new Soviet Socialist Republic of Afghanistan. One million eight hundred thousand Afghani's lost their lives.[84] The United States actively opposed Soviet-Communist subjugation of the Afghan people. This is the record of the "Frankenstein monsters" the U.S. supported and the communist parties they opposed.

Is Davis the president's real father?

What is known of his personal life is that he married Helen Canfield, a white woman, on May 11, 1946 in Chicago; the union produced a daughter, Lynn (born Aug. 15, 1949) and a son, Mark (born Nov. 9, 1950). Both children graduated from Farrington High School, Honolulu, in 1967 and 1968, respectively.

Filmmaker Joel Gilbert had suspicions that Davis was Barack Obama's actual father. In his research he went through poetry written by Davis titled Black Moods, which was divided into thirty-seven sections or "portraits", and named for the first names of women. In the portrait titled "Anne" was written the following:

In the gangling hours
Thin, adolescent hours
Before night runs softly
Away into the west
Anne rises wearily From her tired bed
And sleeps
Sitting in a chair.[85]

Gilbert has since uncovered a series of photographs of Stanley Anne Dunham - Barack Obama's mother - apparently taken inside Davis' home in Hawaii. The photos show Dunham in provocative poses as well as nudity, and Davis was known to have engaged in pornography. The conclusion Gilbert reached is that Davis had an affair with Dunham, and Barack was the result, with photographs not only of Davis but his other children (Lynn and Mark) bearing a striking resemblance to the future president.[86]

Further reading

Books by Frank Marshall Davis

  • Black Man's Verse. Chicago: Black Cat Press, 1935.
  • I Am the American Negro. Chicago: Black Cat Press, 1937.
  • Through Sepia Eyes. Illustrated by William Fleming. Chicago, Black Cat Press, 1938.
  • 47th Street: Poems. Prairie City, IL: Decker Press, 1948.
  • Greene, Bob. [Frank Marshall Davis.] Sex Rebel: Black: Memoirs of a Gash Gourmet. San Diego: Greenleaf Classics, 1968.
  • Awakening, and Other Poems. Chicago: Black Cat Press, 1978.
  • Jazz Interlude: Seven Musical Poems. Ed. Margaret Taylor Burroughs. Chicago: The DuSable Museum Press, 1985.
  • Livin' the Blues: Memoirs of a Black Journalist and Poet. Ed. John Edgar Tidwell. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1992.
  • Black Moods: Collected Poems. Ed. John Edgar Tidwell. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2002.


See also


  1. Writings of Frank Marshall Davis: A Voice of the Black Press
  2. Frank Marshall Davis, alleged Communist, was early influence on Barack Obama, By Toby Harnden,, 22 Aug 2008.
  3. Dreams from My Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance, By Barack Obama, Random House, 2007, pp. 89-91, 96-98, 220.
  4. Kincaid, Cliff, "Obama's Father's Day fraud"
  5. Livin' the Blues: Memoirs of a Black Journalist and Poet
  6. Writings of Frank Marshall Davis: A Voice of the Black Press
  7. FBI file Frank Marshall Davis, v.4, p. 29 & 30 pdf; Report of SAC Leo Brenneisen, 9/9/63, FBI file Frank Marshall Davis, v.2 pps. 55-59 pdf.
  8. The Frank Marshall Davis Collection, 1935-1987
  9. Daily Worker, August 12, 1936, cited in Report prepared from the files of the House Committee on Un-American Activities for Senator William E. Jenner, Chairman of the Senate Subcommittee on Internal Security, October 20, 1953, FBI file Frank Marshall Davis, v.5 pp.9-11 pdf.
  10. Testimony of Walter S. Steele regarding Communist activities in the United States. Hearings before the Committee on Un-American Activities, House of Representatives, Eightieth Congress, first session, on H. R. 1884 and H. R. 2122, bills to curb or outlaw the Communist Party in the United States. Public law 601 (section 121, subsection Q (2) July 21, 1947, page 35).
  11. Frank Marshall Davis Kansas State Historical Society.
  12. Frank Marshall Davis Biography - Victim of Attempted Lynching, Worked for Associated Negro Press, Moved to Hawaii, Selected works
  13. Writings of Frank Marshall Davis: A Voice of the Black Press
  14. The Communist Experience in America: A Political and Social History
  15. A Group of Communist Clergymen
  16. Second Report, Un-American Activities in Washington State, 1948
  17. The Soviet World of American Communism, by Harvey Klehr, John Earl Haynes, and Kyrill M. Anderson, (Yale University Press, 1998, Document 17, pp. 85, 88-91. ISBN 0-300-07150-7;
  18. Illinois Conference of the National Negro Congress, November 9th - 10th, 1940, cited in Communism in Hawaii and the Obama Connection by Cliff Kincaid and Herbert Romerstein, p.15-16, 38, 42.
  19. Report on Civil Rights Congress as a communist front organization. Investigation of un-American activities in the United States, Committee on Un-American Activities, House of Representatives, Eightieth Congress, first session. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off. September 2, 1947. p.3.
  20. The Venona Secrets: Exposing Soviet Espionage and America's Traitors, Herbert Romerstein and Eric Breindel, Washington, DC, Regnery, 2000.
  21. "Project Vote...registered 2,000 during the Chicago Defender's annual Bud Billiken Parade...If Project Vote is to reach its goal of registering 150,000 out of an estimated 400,000 unregistered blacks statewide, "it must average 10,000 rather than 7,000 every week," says Barack Obama, the program's executive director."Jarrett, Vernon. "'Project Vote' brings power to the people", Chicago Sun-Times, August 11, 1992, p. 23. 
  22. "Outspoken," A Newberry Library and Chicago Historical Society Exhibit
  23. FBI file Frank Marshall Davis, v.4 pp.78-81 pdf.
  24. Obama File 38, Trevor Louden, Barack Obama, October 17, 2008.
  25. Popular Fronts: Chicago and American Cultural Politics, 1935-46, African American Review, Spring, 2001 by Barbara Foley.
  26. Frank Marshall Davis, Livin' the Blues, Memoirs of a Black Journalist and Poet, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 1992, p. 311.
  27. Guide to subversive organizations and publications (and appendix) (1951) United States. Congress. House Committee on Un-American Activities. Washington U.S. Govt. Print. Office. "1. Cited as an adjunct of the Communist Party. (Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, released December 4, 1947.) 2. Successor of the Workers School as a "Communist educational medium" in Chicago. (Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, March 29, 1944, V- 82.) 3. Cited as a "Communist institution." (California Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, 1948, pp. 95 and 120.)"
  28. FBI file Frank Marshall Davis, Summary file edited by Cliff Kincaid, p. 11, 14, 16, 17.
  29. Executive Order 10450--Security requirements for Government employment.
  30. The Summer (1938) issue of the The Bulletin listed Frank Marshall Davis as Treasurer of the Chicago Chapter of the League of American Writers. He signed the "Call to the Fourth Congress, June 6–8, 1941, New York City," sponsored by the League. (See New Masses, April 22, 1941, page 25). Cited in Report prepared from the files of the House Committee on Un-American Activities for Senator William E. Jenner, Chairman of the Senate Subcommittee on Internal Security, October 20, 1953, FBI file Frank Marshall Davis, v.5 pp.9-11 pdf.
  31. Frank Marshall Davis: Black Labor Activist and Outsider Journalist: Social Movements in Hawai`i, by: Kathryn Waddell Takara, Ph.D.
  32. Report on Civil Rights Congress as a communist front organization. Investigation of un-American activities in the United States, Committee on Un-American Activities, House of Representatives, Eightieth Congress, first session. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off. September 2, 1947. pp. 1-13, 19, 21-22.
  33. Honolulu Record, May 12 1949, v.1 no.41. p.3.
  34. Both were active in the National Negro Congress; the 1954 Reports of the Commission on Subversive Activities of the Territory of Hawaii, pp.3-4 states, Communist Reactions to 1953 Report. The Communist Honolulu Record devoted an inside-page article to the 1953 Report and its columnist, Frank Marshall Davis, on August 6, 1953 wrote about the commission and the report. In his column Davis was guilty of the usual Communist editorial dishonesty. The following is copied from his column, and purports to be a quotation from the 1953 report : "Nor has Davis confined his inflammatory racial propaganda to the columns of the Honolulu Record alone. His story, Hawaii's Plain People Fight White Supremacy, appeared in the November 1951 issue of Freedom, a tabloid publication emanating from New York City. * * * Chairman of the editorial board of Freedom is Paul Robeson." However, the commission actually reported : "Nor has Davis confined his inflammatory racial propaganda to the columns of the Honolulu Record alone. His story, Hawaii's Plain People Fight White Supremacy, appeared in the November 1951 issue of Freedom, a tabloid publication emanating from New York City, whose treatment of interracial problems strikingly conforms to Communist Party policy. The chairman of the editorial board is Paul Robeson, an identified member of the Communist Party."
  35. Testimony of Paul Robeson, Investigation of the Unauthorized Use of United States Passports- Part 3, Hearings before the Un-American Activities Committee, House of Representatives, Eighty-fourth Congress Second Session, June 12 and 13, 1956, pp. 4495-4497.
  36. The American Communist Party as an Auxiliary to Espionage: From Asset to liability, 2005 Raleigh International Spy Conference, John Earl Haynes, Washington, D.C.
  37. Memorandum Boris Merkulov (USSR People’s Commissar for State Security) to Lavrenty Beria (USSR People’s Commissar for Internal Affairs), 2 October 1944.
  38. Pavel Sudoplatov, Anatoli Sudoplatov, Jerrold L. Schecter, Leona P. Schecter, Special Tasks: The Memoirs of an Unwanted Witness -- A Soviet Spymaster, Little Brown, Boston (1994), pp. 190, 193.
  39. Frank Marshall Davis: Black Labor Activist and Outsider Journalist: Kathryn Waddell Takara, Ph.D.
  40. The Frank Marshall Davis Network, By Andrew Walden, AIM Report, September 1, 2008.
  41. Obituary Jack Wayne Hall, Honolulu Star-Bulletin, September 13, 1999.
  42. What Barack Obama learned from the Communist Party, By Andrew Walden, American Thinker, July 8, 2008.
  43. Scope of Soviet activity in the United States. Hearing before the Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Eighty-fourth Congress, second session - Eighty-fifth Congress, first session. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off. (1956), pp. 2679-2681.
  44. Early Cold War Spies: The Espionage Trials that Shaped American Politics Cambridge Essential Histories, September 2006, pp. 67-71.
  45. Review, Nancy Balfour, International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944-), Vol. 28, No. 1 (Jan., 1952).
  46. Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999), pp. 128-129.
  47. The Economic and Political Crisis in the USSR, Victor Perlo Political Affairs, August 1991.
  48. Lessons from Cuba, then and now, Victor and Ellen Perlo People's Weekly World, 31 January 1998.
  49. War and the US Economy, Vic Perlo Political Affairs (US), July 1999.
  50. The Communist Party, USA — What It Is — How It Works, Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act, United States Senate, 84th Congress 1st Session, December 21, 1955, GPO, Washington D.C., pp. v., 15.
  51. Subversive Activities Control Act of 1950, U.S. Code Title 50 Chapter 23 Subchapter IV Sec. 841.
  52. Frank Marshall Davis, Livin' the Blues, Memoirs of a Black Journalist and Poet, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 1992, p 311.
  53. The Cold War: Cold War espionage and spying, By Lori Lyn Bogle.
  54. House Committee on UnAmerican Activities, Hearings Regarding Communist Activities in the Territory of Hawaii—Part 3, Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1950, p 2067-9.
  55. R.J. Rummel. China's Bloody Century, New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1991, Preface.
  56. Honolulu Record, August 31 1950, v.3 no,4 pp. 8 & 4.
  57. FBI file Frank Marshall Davis, memo November 10, 1953.
  58. FBI file Frank Marshall Davis, Report of SAC W. Knapp, 11/13/50, v.4 p.43 pdf.
  62. The Education and Research Institute, Washington, DC.
  63. Herbert Romerstein, The Literature of Intelligence: A Bibliography of Materials, with Essays, Reviews, and Comments, J. Ransom Clark Emeritus, Muskingum University, New Concord, Ohio. Published in 2007: J. Ransom Clark, Intelligence and National Security: A Reference Handbook (Westport, CT: Praeger Security International Reference, 2007. [1])
  64. The Stealth Candidate, Edited Transcript May 22, 2008, Briefing on Barack Obama's Communist Connections Featuring Cliff Kincaid and Herbert Romerstein. Accuracy in Media.
  65. GAFFNEY:Without America, Frank J. Gaffney Jr. September 23, 2008.
  66. FBI file Frank Marshall Davis v.2 p.49 pdf.
  67. FBI file Frank Marshall Davis v.2 p.58 pdf.
  68. FBI file Frank Marshall Davis v.1 p.50-51 pdf
  69. Cold War Revelations and "Progressive" Holocaust Denial, Jamie Glazov, October 28, 1999.
  70. Rethinking Nogun-ri Massacre on the 50th Anniversary of the Korean War, Sung Yong Park, The International Action Center, New York. The International Action Center was founded by Ramsey Clark.
  71. Bruce B. Auster, Unmasking An Old Lie: A Korean War Charge Is Exposed As a Hoax, U. S. News & World Report (16 November 1998), p. 52.
  72. Nazis, Communists, Klansmen, and Others on the Fringe: Political Extremism in America, John George and Laird Wilcox, Prometheus Books, Buffalo, New York, 1992, Chapter 9, Guardian (NY), pgs. 125-131. (ISBN 0-87975-680-2).
  73. FBI file Frank Marshall Davis, Report of SAC W. Knapp, 11/13/50, v.4 pp. 28-46 pdf.
  74. Coulter, Ann Treason: Liberal Treachery From the Cold War to the War on Terrorism©2003 Crown Forum, New York, New York, pp. 1-2
  75. Dreams from My Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance, By Barack Obama, Random House, 2007, pp. 97, 220.
  76. Rethinking the History and Future of the Communist Party, By Gerald Horne, Political Affairs magazine, March 28, 2007.
  77. Obama Admits Communist "Schooled" him on White Racism
  78. Obama’s Purge: Why Has Frank Marshall Davis Been Quietly Removed From Dreams From My Father?, The Blaze
  79. North Korea 'loses 3 million to famine', BBC, February 17, 1999.
  80. "Starved N Koreans eating grass to survive", CNN, June 21, 2002, 
  81. Human Rights Council
  82. States Ending the Vietnam War: A History of America's Involvement in and Extrication From the Vietnam War, Henry A. Kissinger, Simon & Schuster, 2003.
  83. Vietnamese Refugeees, Southesat Asian Resource Center.

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