Animal Farm (1946) is an anti-Stalinist "fairy story" by George Orwell. The story is a satirical allegory of the Russian Revolution, particularly directed against Stalin's Russia. It was perhaps inspired in part by Orwell's opposition, which he expressed publicly in 1944, to liberals' promotion of acceptance of abortion.
The story's concept of "animalism" is used by Orwell to portray a generic view of socialism, similar to that first expounded by Karl Marx (Old Major), who Orwell believed was naïve in thinking that his philosophy would actually work. Orwell, although agreeing with the overall concept of equality through socialism, was critical of Marx because Orwell believed that Marx didn't take into account the greed and jealousy which would eventually undermine the entire philosophy. This idea was shown through Napoleon and the other pigs, who, through persuasion and force became the dominant authority on the farm. When Napoleon outlaws the "Beasts of England" anthem, he is demonstrating the ruthlessness of a state in which the initial ideal of socialism as a way to ensure equality among animals has been heavily distorted into a force of oppression. Many of the characters of Animal Farm are representative of real life characters or organizations involved in the Russian Revolution and are listed below.
Boxer: (The proletariat) A very strong horse whose attitude is very simplistic and uncaring, simply determining that, regardless of what leader on the farm say or do, he will make things come out right by working ever harder. He is also very loyal to Napoleon and has his second maxim: "Napoleon is always right."
The sheep: (Another aspect of the proletariat) They unquestioningly accept and parrot the leadership's propaganda and shout down dissenters.
Mollie: (The czarist aristocracy) A female horse who is vain and shallow. Her low intelligence is seen in whatever she does, and she is easily led astray by flattery. However, some analysts of the story have expressed admiration for her as being one of the few non-pigs and non-humans in Animal Farm who takes control of her own life.
Snowball: (Leon Trotsky) A pig who struggled with Napoleon for power. Possibly the most intelligent animal on the farm, he envisioned the windmill and much of the governance structure of the farm. Though he is often seen as a protagonistic "good guy," it is hinted at throughout the story prior to his exile that his motives, though not necessarily malicious, are less than saint-like.
Napoleon: (Joseph Stalin) Another pig whose lust for power will stop at nothing. While taking a stand against Snowball's ideas every time they come up, Napoleon rarely presents any of his own.
Benjamin: (Revolution skeptics) An old, intelligent, and very cynical donkey, he is one of the few non-pig animals on the farm who can read well. He is skeptical of the entire revolution, especially since the pigs take over, and remarks that "Life will go on as it has always done. That is, badly." Boxer the horse is the only animal on the farm whom Benjamin really cares about, and the two are often seen together.
The dogs: (the KGB) The dogs are loyal to Napoleon, who uses them to maintain power. Many of them were taken in from Jessie and Bluebell shortly after birth.
Squealer: (Propaganda newspaper Pravda) A porker who manages to convince, using questionable statistics and outright lies, everyone on the farm to accept whatever Napoleon declares. He'll also scare others into accepting Napoleon's orders without question by saying that Jones will come back if the orders aren't followed.
Farmer Frederick: (German leadership, namely Adolf Hitler) The owner of the neighboring Pinchfield farm. His farm is neat and tidy, but Frederick is said to be a tough and shrewd farmer.
Farmer Pilkington: (British leadership, namely Winston Churchill) The owner of the neighboring Foxwood farm. His farm is neglected and overgrown, but Pilkington is described as an easygoing farmer who enjoys hunting and fishing.
Mr. Whymper: (Outsiders involved in the affairs of the USSR) The 'face' of Animal Farm to the outside world. The pigs successfully convince him that conditions in Animal Farm are much better than they are.
Moses: (Religion in general) Farmer Jones's pet raven, whom the other animals resent because he does no work. He preaches about a wondrous land called Sugarcandy Mountain, where the animals will supposedly go when they die. The pigs try to convince the other animals that Moses is lying, but once they see his usefulness to them, they tolerate him.
Animal Farm in film
The book was made into an animated cartoon in 1954. There are a few differences between this film and the book, namely Old Major dying sooner than expected and Snowball actually being killed by Napoleon's dogs. The biggest difference is the ending: Benjamin the donkey rallies the animals together to stage a second rebellion, this time against Napoleon and the pigs.
In 1999, a live-action film was released, the animals often played by puppets made by the Jim Henson Puppet Shop. In this movie's ending, Animal Farm falls into disrepair due to policies Napoleon instigated, as well as it falling under new human ownership with the implication that things might turn out better.
In 2020, a mobile game app called Orwell's Animal Farm was released. It has different endings compared to the book and films, having Snowball be leader of the farm instead of Napoleon or the farm falling to disrepair. The game is even said to reflect modern times.
- Atlas Shrugged by Ayn Rand
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- Liberal totalitarianism
- We by Yevgeny Zamyatin
- Nineteen Eighty-Four by George Orwell
- Mystery:Did George Orwell Become a Conservative?
- Brave New World by Aldous Huxley
- "the various episodes are taken from the actual history of the Russian Revolution" Preface to the Ukrainian Edition of Animal Farm (written by Orwell)
- Animal Farm: Metaphor Analysis
- "Orwell believed that although socialism is good as an ideal, it can never be successfully adopted due to uncontrollable sins of human nature."
- Animal Farm - Comparison of characters to the Russian Revolution
- "Moses represents Orwell's view of the Church. To Orwell, the Church is just used as a tool by dictatorships to keep the working class of people hopeful and productive." Animal Farm Character Profiles
- Rodden, John. "Appreciating Animal Farm in the New Millennium," Modern Age Volume 45, Number 1; Winter 2003 online edition
- George Orwell and the Politics of Animal Farm - Paul Eissen