From Conservapedia
(Redirected from Argentine)
Jump to: navigation, search
República Argentina
Argentina rel96.jpg
Flag of Argentina.png
Arms of Argentina.png
Flag Coat of Arms
Capital Buenos Aires
Government Federal republic
Language Spanish (official)
President Javier Milei
Vice President Victoria Villarruel
Current Conservative Leader Agustín Laje & Nicolás Márquez
Area 1,073,514 sq mi
Population 45,500,000 (2020)
GDP $415,000,000,000 (2020)
GDP per capita $8,791 (2020)
Currency Argentinian Peso (ARS)
(will change to U.S. Dollar soon)
International dialing code +54
Internet top-level domain

Argentina (official name: Argentine Republic) is a nation on the Atlantic southern most coast of South America. It is the second-largest and the third most populous country in South America (after Brazil) having 45.5 million people and is a multi-party representative and federal democracy. The capital city is Buenos Aires which is also the biggest one of the country. Argentina borders Chile, Bolivia, Paraguay, Brazil and Uruguay.


Tipical dance Mataderos Buenos Aires.jpg

Argentines are a fusion of diverse national and ethnic groups, with descendants of Italian and Spanish immigrants predominant (97%). Waves of immigrants from many European countries arrived in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Syrian, Lebanese, Hebrew and other Middle Eastern immigrants number about 500,000 to 600,000, mainly in urban areas. Argentina's population is overwhelmingly Catholic, but it also has the largest Jewish population in Latin America, estimated at between 280,000 and 300,000. In recent years, there has been a substantial influx of immigrants from neighboring countries, particularly Paraguay, Bolivia, and Peru. The indigenous population, estimated at 700,000, is concentrated in the provinces of the north, northwest, and south. The Argentine population has one of Latin America's lowest growth rates. Eighty percent of the population resides in cities or towns of more than 2,000, and over one-third lives in the greater Buenos Aires area.

Globally, Argentina is well known for its successful national football team, which won the FIFA World Cup in 1978, 1986 and 2022.

Government and Political Conditions

Casa Rosada in Buenos Aires.

Argentina's constitution of 1853, as revised in 1994, mandates a separation of powers into executive, legislative, and judicial branches at the national and provincial level. Each province also has its own constitution, roughly mirroring the structure of the national constitution. The president and vice president are directly elected to 4-year terms. Both are limited to two consecutive terms; they are allowed to stand for a third term or more after an interval of at least one term. The president appoints cabinet ministers, and the constitution grants him considerable power, including authority to enact laws by presidential decree under conditions of "urgency and necessity" and the line-item veto.

Since 2001, senators have been directly elected, with each province and the Federal Capital represented by three senators. Senators serve 6-year terms. One-third of the Senate stands for reelection every 2 years. Members of the Chamber of Deputies are directly elected to 4-year terms. Voters elect half the members of the lower house every 2 years. Both houses are elected via a system of proportional representation. Female representation in Congress—at nearly one-third of total seats—ranks among the world's highest, with representation comparable to European Union (EU) countries such as Austria and Germany. Female senators included Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, who was a nationally known member of the Senate for the Province of Santa Cruz before her husband was elected president, and was reelected on October 23, 2005 as a Senator for the Province of Buenos Aires.

The constitution establishes the judiciary as an independent government entity. The president appoints members of the Supreme Court with the consent of the Senate. The president on the recommendation of a magistrates' council appoints other federal judges. The Supreme Court has the power to declare legislative acts unconstitutional.

Political Parties

Obelisco by night, Buenos Aires.

The two largest political parties are the Justicialist Party (PJ—also called Peronist), founded in 1945 by Juan Domingo Perón, and the Union Civica Radical (UCR), or Radical Civic Union, founded in 1891. Traditionally, the UCR has had more urban middle-class support and the PJ more labor support, but both parties have become more broadly based. The PJ does not currently have a recognized national committee or leader due to internal differences. President Kirchner, a Peronist by origin, nominally is head of his Frente Para la Victoria (FPV) coalition that includes Peronists and non-Peronists aligned with him. Kirchner announced in July 2007 that he would not run for reelection in presidential elections in October 2007, and publicly supported the candidacy of his wife, Senator Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner. Fernandez de Kirchner formally announced her campaign for the presidency in July.

While the national leadership of the UCR remains in opposition to the Kirchner government, many of its governors, mayors, and other representatives have allied with President Kirchner. In the April 2003 presidential elections, the UCR received only 2% of the national vote, the lowest tally in the party's history. The UCR continues to retain significant strength in many parts of the country, and persons identifying with the party govern roughly one-third of the provinces. The UCR is the only opposition political party with a nationwide structure.

Smaller parties, such as the center-right Propuesta Republicana (PRO) and the left-leaning Afirmacion para una Republica Igalitaria (ARI) represent various positions on the political spectrum, and are strongest in Buenos Aires. PRO's candidate for mayor of Buenos Aires city, businessman Mauricio Macri, won a strong majority in elections in June 2007. He defeated Education Minister Daniel Filmus, who was supported by President Kirchner, in a high-visibility second round vote.

Historically, organized labor—largely tied to the Peronist Party—and the armed forces also have played significant roles in national life. However, the Argentine military's public standing suffered as a result of its perpetration of human rights abuses, economic mismanagement, and defeat by the United Kingdom during the period of military rule (1976–83). The Argentine military today is a downsized, volunteer force fully subordinate to civilian authority.

Liberty Advances is a libertarian coalition that supports President Javier Milei. It is a third political outsider force which won seats on the Congress in 2021 and the Presidency in 2023.

Principal Government Officials

President Javier Milei, the first libertarian anarcho-capitalist president of the World.
Vice President Victoria Villarruel.
  • President—Javier Milei
  • Vice President and President of the Senate—Victoria Villarruel
  • Chief of the Cabinet of Ministers—Nicolás Posse
  • Provisional President—Bartolomé Abdala
  • Foreign Relations Minister—Diana Mondino
  • First Majority Leader—Germán Pedro Martínez
  • President of the Chamber of Deputies—Martín Menem
  • First Vice President—Cecilia Moreau
  • Second Vice President—Julio Cobos
  • First Minority Leader—Germán Pedro Martínez
  • Second Minority Leader—Oscar Zago
  • President of the Supreme Court—Horacio Rosatti
  • Ambassador to the United States—Gerardo Werthein

Foreign Relations

Argentina's foreign policy priorities are focused on increasing regional partnerships, including expanding the MERCOSUR regional trade bloc by integrating Venezuela and Bolivia as new full members. Argentina has played a positive role in promoting human rights and democratic institutions in the hemisphere, particularly in Haiti. Argentina currently has nearly 600 peacekeeping troops in Haiti in support of MINUSTAH, reflecting its traditionally strong support of UN peacekeeping operations. As a member of the Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency, Argentina has been a strong voice in support of nuclear non-proliferation issues.

China has a base on the Argentinian Patagonia.

President Javier Milei is a Pro-Israel libertarian,[1] and had announced, his first overseas trips ahead of his inauguration will be to the United States, then Israel.

Argentina's President-elect Javier Milei said his first overseas trips ahead of his inauguration will be to the United States, then Israel, in a radio interview on Monday, following his election victory over the weekend. He added he would also look to privatize state-energy firm YPF. (Reuters). YNet



The president and a civilian minister of defense control the Argentine armed forces. The Interior Ministry controls the paramilitary Gendarmeria (border police), the Federal Police, the Prefectura Naval (coast guard), and the Airport Security Police. The Argentine armed forces maintain close defense cooperation and military supply relationships with the United States. Other countries also have military relationships with the Argentine forces, principally Israel, Germany, France, Spain, Italy, Brazil, Chile, and Venezuela.

A former Minister of Defense has pursued an aggressive restructuring program based on the Argentine 1988 defense law. Priorities include emphasis on joint operations and peacekeeping. There has been minimal recapitalization due to budget constraints experienced over the past 5 years.


Patagonia, Argentina

Argentina is currently on an inflation crisis which President Milei was elected to fix.

Argentina's economy had sustained a robust recovery following the severe 2001/2002 economic crisis, with 4 consecutive years of over 8% growth in real gross domestic product (GDP). Argentine GDP reached U.S. $213 billion in 2006, approximately U.S. $5,460 per capita, with real investment up 18.7%. Economic expansion is creating jobs, with unemployment down from 20.4% in the first quarter of 2003 to 9.8% in the first quarter of 2007. Poverty levels have also dropped dramatically; 26.9% of the population in the 28 largest urban areas remained below the poverty line in the last half of 2006, down from over 50% in the immediate aftermath of the economic crisis.

Argentina benefits from rich natural resources, a highly literate population, an export-oriented agricultural sector, and a diversified industrial base. Its post-crisis move to a flexible exchange rate regime and favorable international commodity and interest rate trends were catalytic factors in supporting renewed growth, allowing the government to accumulate a reserve cushion (over $40 billion as of June 2007) to help insulate the economy from external shocks. A higher tax burden and the recovery's strong impact on revenues allowed the government to record a primary fiscal surplus in 2006 equivalent to 3.5% of GDP. Argentina should continue to perform well in 2007 with GDP growth projected in the 7.5%-8% range. A range of economic experts have identified challenges to sustaining high levels of economic growth in the future, including capacity constraints; the need for substantial new investment in primary infrastructure; potential energy shortages in the face of high growth and energy prices below international market levels; and inflation (9.8% in 2006) and the government's heterodox policies to contain it, including pressure on the private sector to limit price increases.

Argentina's exchange rate policy is based on a managed float that appears to be targeting a nominal exchange rate in the 3 Argentine pesos (ARP) per U.S. dollar range. Market analysts consider the peso's real exchange rate broadly undervalued. This, along with historically high global commodity prices, has helped lift export volumes and value to record levels, resulting in a $12 billion trade surplus in 2006. Foreign trade equaled approximately 38% of GDP in 2006 (up from only 11% in 1990) and plays an increasingly important role in Argentina's economic development. Exports totaled approximately 22% of GDP in 2006 (up from 14% in 2002), and key export markets included MERCOSUR (21% of exports), the EU (18%), and NAFTA countries (13%). Total two-way trade with the U.S. in 2006 totaled almost $9 billion. The production of grains, cattle, and other agricultural goods continues to be the backbone of Argentina's export economy. Energy products, high technology goods, and services are emerging as significant export sectors.

Over 450 U.S. companies are currently operating in Argentina and employ over 150,000 Argentine workers. U.S. investment in Argentina is concentrated in the manufacturing, information, and financial sectors. Other major sources of investment include Spain, Chile, Italy, France, Canada, and Japan. Continuing Argentine arrears to international creditors (including over $20 billion in default claims by international bondholders and over $6 billion owed to official creditors, including the U.S. Government) and a large number of arbitration claims filed by foreign companies are legacies of the 2001/2002 economic crisis that remain to be resolved and adversely impact Argentina's investment climate.

Economic crisis

Javier Milei dressed as Captain Ancap, in 2023 he was elected President to end with decades of inflation.

The 12 Kirchnerist years left Argentina with twin deficits of 17 points of GDP. In turn, of those 17 points of GDP, 15 corresponded to the consolidated deficit between the Treasury and the Central Bank. Therefore, there is no viable solution that avoids attacking the fiscal deficit. At the same time, of those 15 points of the fiscal deficit, 5 correspond to the National Treasury and 10 to the Central Bank. Therefore, the solution implies, on the one hand, a fiscal adjustment in the national public sector of 5 points of GDP, which, unlike in the past, will fall almost entirely on the State and not on the private sector. On the other hand, it is necessary to clean up the Central Bank's interest-bearing liabilities, which are responsible for the 10 points of the Central Bank's deficit.

Issuing 20 points of GDP, as was done by the outgoing government, is not free. We are going to pay for it in inflation. At the same time, the foreign exchange trap, another legacy of this government, not only constitutes a social and productive nightmare, because it implies high interest rates, low activity level, low level of formal employment and miserable real wages that drive the increase of the indigent poor, but also the surplus of money in the economy today is twice as much as it has been in the past. To have an idea of what this implies, let us remember that the Rodrigazo multiplied the inflation rate by 6 times, so a similar event would mean multiplying the inflation rate by 12 times and given that it has been traveling at a rate of 300%, we could go to an annual rate of 3,600. At the same time, given the situation of interest-bearing liabilities of the Central Bank, which is lower than it was before Alfonsín's hyperinflation, in a very short time the amount of money could quadruple and thus bring inflation to levels of 15,000% per year. This is the inheritance they leave us: a planted inflation of 15,000% per year, which we are going to fight tooth and nail to end.

The Alberto Fernández government has left Argentina with hyperinflation and it is our top priority to make every possible effort to avoid such a catastrophe that would lead to poverty above 90% and indigence above 50%. Consequently, there is no alternative solution to adjustment. On the other hand, the inheritance does not end there, since the imbalances in tariffs are comparable to the disaster left by Kirchnerism in 2015. On the exchange rate front, the gap ranges between 150% and 200%, levels also similar to those we had during the Rodrigazo. At the same time, the debt for importers exceeds 30 billion dollars and the profits withheld from foreign companies reach 10 billion dollars. The debt of the Central Bank and YPF amounts to 25 billion dollars and the outstanding Treasury debt amounts to an additional 35 billion dollars. This is the bomb in terms of debt at $100 billion that will have to be added to the nearly $420 billion of already existing debt. Naturally, to these problems must also be added this year's debt maturities, where debt maturities in pesos are equivalent to US$ 90 billion and US$ 25 billion in foreign currencies with multilateral credit organizations. However, with financial markets closed and the IMF agreement collapsed due to the brutal defaults of the outgoing government, the debt rollover is challenging even for the mythical Cyclops. As if all this were not enough, this is taking place in an economy that has not grown since 2011. And in line with the above, formal employment in the private sector remains stagnant at 6 million jobs, reaching the insanity that it has been surpassed by 33% by informal employment. Therefore, it should not surprise anyone that real wages have been destroyed, located around 300 dollars per month, which are not only 6 times lower than those of convertibility, but if the trend of those years had been maintained, or as they used to say, the damned neoliberalism, today they would oscillate between 3,000 and 3,500 dollars per month. They have ruined our lives. They have made the country drop 10 times our salaries. Therefore, we should not be surprised that populism is leaving Argentina 45% poor and 10% indigent. After such a situation, which by all means seems irremovable, it should be clear that there is no possible alternative to adjustment. There is also no room for discussion between shock and gradualism. First, because from the empirical point of view, all gradualist programs ended badly, while all shock programs, except for the 1959 program, were successful. Secondly, because from a theoretical point of view, if a country lacks reputation, as is unfortunately the case of Argentina, businessmen will not invest until they see the fiscal adjustment making it recessionary. Thirdly, and no less important, gradualism requires financing. And unfortunately, I have to tell you again, there is no money.

In social matters, we are receiving a country where half of the population is poor, with a completely broken social fabric. More than 20 million Argentines cannot live a dignified life because they are prisoners of a system that only generates more poverty. As the great Jesús Huerta de Soto says, anti-poverty plans generate more poverty. The only way out of poverty is with more freedom. At the same time, 6 million children will go to bed hungry tonight, walking barefoot in the streets, and others who have fallen into drugs. The same happens in the field of education. To give you an idea of the deterioration we are going through, only 16% of our children are in school on time, only 16%, only 16 out of every 100. That means that 84% of our children do not finish school on time. In turn, 70% of the children who do finish school cannot solve a basic math problem or understand a text. In fact, in the latest PISA evaluations, Argentina is ranked 66th out of 81, and seventh in Latin America. Argentina was the first country in the world to end literacy. If Sarmiento would stand up and see what they did with education. In health care, the system is completely collapsed. Hospitals are destroyed, doctors charge a pittance, and Argentines have no access to basic health care. So much so that during the pandemic, if Argentines had done things like the average country in the world, we would have had 30,000 deaths. But thanks to the state of neglect and inefficiency, 130,000 Argentines lost their lives.

In all spheres, wherever you look, the situation in Argentina is an emergency. If we look at our country's infrastructure, the situation is the same. Only 16% of our roads are paved and only 11% are in good condition. Therefore, it is no coincidence that about 15,000 Argentines die every year in traffic accidents. What I want to illustrate with all this is that the situation in Argentina is critical and emergency.[3]


José de San Martín, one of the founding fathers of Argentina.
Gaucho, 1868.

Europeans arrived in the region with the 1502 voyage of Amerigo Vespucci. Spanish navigator Juan Diaz de Solias visited what is now Argentina in 1516. Spain established a permanent colony on the site of Buenos Aires in 1580, although initial settlement was primarily overland from Peru. The Spanish further integrated Argentina into their empire by establishing the Vice Royalty of Rio de la Plata in 1776, and Buenos Aires became a flourishing port. Buenos Aires formally declared independence from Spain on July 9, 1816. Argentines revere Gen. José de San Martín—who campaigned in Argentina, Chile, and Peru—as the hero of their national independence. Following the defeat of the Spanish, centralist and federalist groups waged a lengthy conflict between themselves to determine the future of the nation. A modern constitution was promulgated in 1853, and a national unity government was established in 1861.

Two forces combined to create the modern Argentine nation in the late 19th century: the introduction of modern agricultural techniques and integration of Argentina into the world economy. Foreign investment and immigration from Europe aided this economic revolution. Investment, primarily from Britain, came in such fields as railroads and ports. As in the United States, the migrants who worked to develop Argentina's resources—especially the western pampas—came from throughout Europe.

From 1880 to 1930, Argentina became one of the world's 10 wealthiest nations based on rapid expansion of agriculture and foreign investment in infrastructure. Conservative forces dominated Argentine politics until 1916, when their traditional rivals, the Radicals, won control of the government. The Radicals, with their emphasis on fair elections and democratic institutions, opened their doors to Argentina's rapidly expanding middle class as well as to groups previously excluded from power.

The Argentine military forced aged Radical President Hipolito Yrigoyen from power in 1930 and ushered in another decade of Conservative rule. Using fraud and force when necessary, the governments of the 1930s attempted to contain the currents of economic and political change that eventually led to the ascendance of Juan Domingo Perón (b. 1897). New social and political forces were seeking political power, including a modern military and labor movements that emerged from the growing urban working class.

The military ousted Argentina's constitutional government in 1943. Perón, then an army colonel, was one of the coup's leaders, and he soon became the government's dominant figure as Minister of Labor. Elections carried him to the presidency in 1946. He created the Partido Unico de la Revolucion, which became more commonly known as the Peronist or Justicialista party (PJ). He aggressively pursued policies aimed at empowering the working class and greatly expanded the number of unionized workers. In 1947, Perón announced the first 5-year plan based on the growth of industries he nationalized. He helped establish the powerful General Confederation of Labor (CGT). Perón's dynamic wife, Eva Duarte de Perón, known as Evita (1919–52), played a key role in developing support for her husband. Perón won reelection in 1952, but the military sent him into exile in 1955. In the 1950s and 1960s, military and civilian administrations traded power, trying, with limited success, to deal with diminished economic growth and continued social and labor demands. When military governments failed to revive the economy and suppress escalating terrorism in the late 1960s and early 1970s, the way was open for Perón's return.

On March 11, 1973, Argentina held general elections for the first time in 10 years. Perón was prevented from running, but voters elected his stand-in, Dr. Hector Campora, as president. Perón's followers also commanded strong majorities in both houses of Congress. Campora resigned in July 1973, paving the way for new elections. Perón won a decisive victory and returned as president in October 1973 with his third wife, Maria Estela Isabel Martinez de Perón, as vice president. During this period, extremists on the left and right carried out violent acts with a frequency that threatened public order. The government resorted to a number of emergency decrees, including the implementation of special executive authority to deal with violence. This allowed the government to imprison persons indefinitely without charge. There are 1,094 victims of terrorism in the seventies who were never recognized by the State and their families doesn't have reparations. These guerrillas were later on killed in combat or the militants committed suicide in prison out of loyalty to their movements

Argentine Soldiers prisoners in the Falklands War.

Perón died on July 1, 1974. His wife succeeded him in office, but a military coup, led by Jorge Rafael Videla, removed her from office on March 24, 1976, and the armed forces formally exercised power through a junta composed of the three service commanders until December 10, 1983. The armed forces applied harsh measures against those they considered extremists and many suspected of being their sympathizers. While they were able to gradually restore basic order, the human costs of what became known as "El Proceso," or the "Dirty War" were high. Leftists counts list between 10,000 and 30,000 persons as "disappeared" during the 1976-83 period, however they weren't 30,000, they were 8,753. Serious economic problems, mounting charges of corruption, public revulsion in the face of human rights abuses and, finally, the country's 1982 defeat by the United Kingdom in an unsuccessful attempt to seize the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) all combined to discredit the Argentine military regime. The junta lifted bans on political parties and gradually restored basic political liberties.

Democracy returned to Argentina in 1983, with Raul Alfonsín of the country's oldest political party, the Radical Civic Union (UCR), winning the presidency in elections that took place on October 30, 1983. He began a 6-year term of office on December 10, 1983. In 1985 and 1987, large turnouts for mid-term elections demonstrated continued public support for a strong and vigorous democratic system. The UCR-led government took steps to resolve some of the nation's most pressing problems, including accounting for those who disappeared during military rule, establishing civilian control of the armed forces, and consolidating democratic institutions. However, failure to resolve endemic economic problems, and an inability to maintain public confidence undermined the effectiveness of the Alfonsin government, which left office 6 months early after Justicialista Party (PJ) candidate Carlos Saul Menem won the 1989 presidential elections.

President Menem imposed peso-dollar parity (convertibility) in 1992 to break the back of hyperinflation and adopted far-reaching market-based policies. Menem's accomplishments included dismantling a web of protectionist trade and business regulations, and reversing a half-century of statism by implementing an ambitious privatization program. These reforms contributed to significant increases in investment and growth with stable prices through most of the 1990s. Unfortunately, widespread corruption in the administrations of President Menem and his successor President Fernando De la Rua, who won election in 1999 at the head of a UCR-led coalition of center and center-left parties known as the "Alianza", shook confidence and weakened the recovery. Also, while convertibility defeated inflation, its permanence undermined Argentina's export competitiveness and created chronic deficits in the current account of the balance of payments, which were financed by massive borrowing. The contagion effect of the Asian financial crisis of 1998 precipitated an outflow of capital that gradually mushroomed into a 4-year depression that culminated in a financial panic in November 2001. In December 2001, amidst bloody riots, President De la Rua resigned.

A legislative assembly on December 23, 2001, elected Adolfo Rodriguez Saa (PJ) to serve as president and called for general elections to choose a new president within 3 months. Rodriguez Saa announced immediately Argentina's default on $88 billion in debt (the largest sovereign debt default in history), but expressed his commitment to maintain the currency board and the peso's 1-to-1 peg to the dollar. Rodriguez Saa, however, was unable to rally support from within his own party for his temporary administration and this, combined with renewed violence in the Federal Capital, led to his resignation on December 30. Yet another legislative assembly elected Eduardo Duhalde (PJ) President on January 1, 2002 to complete the term of former President De la Rua. Duhalde assumed office in the midst of a widespread public rejection of the "political class" in Argentina. Duhalde—differentiating himself from his three predecessors—quickly abandoned the peso's 10-year-old link with the dollar, a move that was followed by a sharp currency depreciation and rising inflation. In the face of increasing poverty and continued social unrest, Duhalde moved to bolster the government's social programs and to contain inflation. He was able to stabilize the social situation, but advanced presidential elections by 6 months in order to pave the way for a president elected with a popular mandate.

Mauricio Macri, President of Argentina (2015-2019).

In the first round of the presidential election on April 27, 2003, former President Carlos Menem (-PJ) won 24.3% of the vote, Santa Cruz Governor Nestor Kirchner (PJ) won 22%, followed by RECREAR candidate Ricardo Lopez Murphy with 16.4% and Affirmation for an Egalitarian Republic (ARI) candidate Elisa Carrio with 14.2%. Menem withdrew from the May 25 runoff election after polls showed overwhelming support for Kirchner in the second round of elections. President Kirchner assumed the presidency on May 25, 2003. He took office following the immense social and economic upheaval stemming from the financial crisis caused by a failed currency convertibility regime. Despite widespread concern, democracy and democratic institutions survived the crisis, and Nestor Kirchner took firm control as president. After taking office, Kirchner focused on consolidating his political strength and alleviating social problems. He pushed for changes in the Supreme Court and military and undertook popular measures, such as raising government salaries, pensions, and the minimum wage. On October 23, 2005, President Kirchner, bolstered by Argentina's rapid economic growth and recovery from its 2001/2002 crisis, won a major victory in the midterm legislative elections, giving him a strengthened mandate and control of a legislative majority in both the Senate and Chamber of Deputies. President Kirchner is considered by many experts to have been the most powerful Argentine president since democracy was restored in 1983. In 2015 Mauricio Macri was elected due to the people wanting a change, he promised to be right-wing but shown to be a social democrat. In 2019 the left won the Presidential election with Alberto Fernández as president and Cristina Fernández de Kirchner as vice president.

Javier Milei Presidency

Main article: President Javier Milei
Flag representing Milei as a lion.

On Nov 19, 2023, ecomonist (of Italian decent), Javier "Milei crushes Argentine left, becomes world's first libertarian head of state."

Trump-like Javier Milei won 56% of the vote, and 20 of 23 Argentine provinces, in decisive win over Economy Minister Sergio Massa.


In 2023, the anti-establishment libertarian and anarcho-capitalist, Javier Milei won the Presidency in a landslide victory having 55.69 % of the votes. His Vice President, Victoria Villarruel is a Traditional Catholic that attends the Society of Saint Pius X.

The first day, Javier Milei reduced the ministries of Argentina from 18 to 9 to reduce public spending, only including Infrastructure, Economy, Justice, Human Capital, Security, Defense, Foreign Relations, Interior, Health. Luis Caputo, former minister from the Macri Administration and Patricia Bullrich were incorporated to the new Libertarian Administration. Bullrich lost to Milei and Massa in the first round of the elections, she gave support to Milei in the second round.

See also

External links

Copyright Details
License: This work is in the Public Domain in the United States because it is a work of the United States Federal Government under the terms of Title 17, Chapter 1, Section 105 of the U.S. Code
Source: File available from the United States Federal Government.

Source = [1]

  1. Pro-Israel libertarian is Argentina's new president. Juan Melamed/JTA, Associated Press YNet. Nov.20, 2023
  2. Argentina's president-elect Javier Milei says first overseas trips to be U.S., Israel, YPF. (Reuters). YNet. Nov.20, 2023
  3. [2]
  4. Javier Milei crushes Argentine left, becomes world's first libertarian head of state. By David Unsworth. Fox News. November 19, 2023