Dietary practices of atheists

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The dietary practices of atheists are largely dependent on where they live and where they were raised. A majority of the world's atheists are likely East Asians (see: Asian atheism and Global atheism).

As can be seen below, the dietary practices of atheists are largely dependent on where they live and where they were raised.

The current atheist population mostly resides in East Asia (particularly China) and in secular Europe/Australia primarily among whites.[1] See: Global atheism and Western atheism and race

Razib Khan points out in Discover Magazine, "most secular nations in the world are those of East Asia, in particular what are often termed 'Confucian societies'. It is likely therefore that the majority of the world’s atheists are actually East Asian."[2] See: Asian atheism

Asian atheists diet

See also: Asian atheism and China and atheism

Most atheists in the world are likely East Asians (See: Asian atheism).

China has the world's largest atheist population and practices state atheism.[3][4] China has one of the highest rates of atheism in the world.[5][6]

East Asian/Chinese diet

See: East Asian/Chinese diet

China and obesity

See: China and obesity

A Chinese cook slicing Peking roast duck.

Origin of the Wuhan coronavirus epidemic and the dietary habits of Chinese atheists

See also: Atheism and the Wuhan coronavirus epidemic and Cat slaughtering practices in China and Atheists and dog meat eating and Atheism and rodent eating

Each year thousands of dogs are stolen in China and as many as 20 million dogs are killed in China to satisfy the dog meat industry.[7]

According to ABC News, gruesome techniques are used in Chinese dog slaughterhouses.[8]

China has the world's largest atheist population and it practices state atheism.(see: China and atheism).[9]

Most atheists in the world are East Asian (see: Asian atheism).

As noted above, China has the world's largest atheist population and practices state atheism (see: China and atheism).[10][11]

The Washington Post reported:

China failed to learn one of the most important lessons of the SARS outbreak 17 years ago, that wild animal markets are a potent breeding ground for disease with the possibility of ailments jumping to humans, health experts say.

SARS, or severe acute respiratory syndrome, was thought to have originated in masked palm civets, tree-dwelling mammals native to parts of Asia. The trigger point for the current coronavirus remains unclear, but China has linked the outbreak to the Huanan Seafood Market in Wuhan, which despite its name also appeared to be selling live cats and dogs, wild chickens, snakes and marmots.[12]

CNN reported:

In western markets, shoppers can buy beef, chicken, pork, and, if they're lucky, perhaps some duck or bison.

But the options in China can be a bit more exotic. Vendors in small city markets often sell wild animals including rodents, yak, snakes and even porcupines, and experts say that makes them far more dangerous. The meat could contain deadly pathogens like the coronavirus.

Highlighting those fears, Chinese officials announced on Sunday that the trading of wild animals would be temporarily suspended in hopes that would help contain the outbreak.[13]

Pangolin have large, keratin scales covering their skin. They are the only known mammals who have this feature.

Nature Research indicates:

Researchers in Guangzhou, China, have suggested that pangolins — long-snouted, ant-eating mammals often used in traditional Chinese medicine — are the probable animal source of the coronavirus outbreak that has infected more than 30,000 people and is wreaking havoc worldwide.

Scientists say that the suggestion, based on a genetic analysis, seems plausible — but caution that the researchers’ work is yet to be published in full. “This is an extremely interesting observation. Although we need to see more details, it does make sense as there are now some other data emerging that pangolins carry viruses that are closely related to 2019-nCoV,” says Edward Holmes, an evolutionary virologist at the University of Sydney, Australia...

Pangolins are protected animals, but illegal trafficking is widespread, and some species are critically endangered. They are sold, controversially, for their meat and scales, and for use in traditional Chinese medicine, in which parts of the animal are used to treat ailments such as skin diseases, menstrual disorders and arthritis. Chinese law states that people selling pangolins can be punished by 10 years or more in prison.[14]

Some researchers believe the deadly coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan, China may have originated in snakes like the Chinese cobra pictured above.

Philly Voice reported:

In the case of this 2019 coronavirus outbreak, reports state that most of the first group of patients hospitalized were workers or customers at a local seafood wholesale market which also sold processed meats and live consumable animals including poultry, donkeys, sheep, pigs, camels, foxes, badgers, bamboo rats, hedgehogs and reptiles. However, since no one has ever reported finding a coronavirus infecting aquatic animals, it is plausible that the coronavirus may have originated from other animals sold in that market.

The hypothesis that the 2019-nCoV jumped from an animal at the market is strongly supported by a new publication in the Journal of Medical Virology. The scientists conducted an analysis and compared the genetic sequences of 2019-nCoV and all other known coronaviruses.

The study of the genetic code of 2019-nCoV reveals that the new virus is most closely related to two bat SARS-like coronavirus samples from China, initially suggesting that, like SARS and MERS, the bat might also be the origin of 2019-nCoV. The authors further found that the viral RNA coding sequence of 2019-nCoV spike protein, which forms the “crown” of the virus particle that recognizes the receptor on a host cell, indicates that the bat virus might have mutated before infecting people.

But when the researchers performed a more detailed bioinformatics analysis of the sequence of 2019-nCoV, it suggests that this coronavirus might come from snakes.

The researchers used an analysis of the protein codes favored by the new coronavirus and compared it to the protein codes from coronaviruses found in different animal hosts, like birds, snakes, marmots, hedgehogs, manis, bats and humans. Surprisingly, they found that the protein codes in the 2019-nCoV are most similar to those used in snakes.

Snakes often hunt for bats in wild. Reports indicate that snakes were sold in the local seafood market in Wuhan, raising the possibility that the 2019-nCoV might have jumped from the host species – bats – to snakes and then to humans at the beginning of this coronavirus outbreak. However, how the virus could adapt to both the cold-blooded and warm-blooded hosts remains a mystery.[15]

Chinese atheists in southern China and bat eating

The lesser mouse-eared bat can be found in China.

In East Asia, namely southern China, bats are commonly eaten and can often be seen in markets. However, International agencies encouraged the Chinese government to create legislation forbidding both the hunting of bats and the sale of bat meat following the early 2000s SARS outbreak where hundreds of individuals died, but no such legislation was passed.[16] All wildlife trade in China, including the sales of bat meat, was banned in January 2020 in response to the Wuhan coronavirus outbreak.[17]

Coronavirus developed in a Chinese laboratory theory

One theory that has recently been postulated is that COVID-19 was developed in a lab in Wuhan, China.[18] On the other hand, Francis Collins at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) argues COVID-19 is a naturally created virus.[19]

Asian atheists and dog eating

Dogs being butchered in Guangdong, China.

For more information, please see: Atheists and dog meat eating
Rabbi Levi Welton wrote: "...I've often wondered if the Bible supports animal activism and what exactly God would say if I posed the question, "Do You love dogs?"

Dogs are the only animals in the Torah that receive a reward for their actions. When the Jewish slaves flee Egypt, it states "not one dog barked” (Exodus 11:7). As a reward for that, God said, "…and flesh torn in the field you shall not eat; you shall throw it to the dog[s]" (Exodus 22:30; Mechilta)...

The notable sixteenth century Jewish leader, the Maharsha, says that a dog is a creature of love. Hence, the Hebrew name for a dog is "kelev" which is etymologically derived from the words "kulo lev" or "all heart"...".[20]

For more information, please see: Atheists and dog meat eating and Judaism and dogs

Asian atheists and cat eating

Both China and Vietnam practice state atheism.

Please see:

China and Vietnam practice state atheism.

In 2009, The Star reported: "China's Chengdu Business Daily estimated recently that as many as 10,000 cats are consumed throughout Guangdong everyday."[21]

In the late 1990s so many cats were eaten in Vietnam that rodents took over farms in plague proportions and destroyed the year's crops.[22]

For more information, please see: Cat slaughtering practices in China and Cat meat trade in Vietnam

Asian atheism and rodent eating

See also: Atheism and rodent eating

Rat meat dishe in Yangshuo, Guangxi, China

In 2020, CNN reported concerning China, which has the largest atheist population in the world and has a high percentage of atheists in its population (see: China and atheism): "Vendors in small city markets often sell wild animals including rodents, yak, snakes and even porcupines, and experts say that makes them far more dangerous. The meat could contain deadly pathogens like the coronavirus."[23]

In 2020, amidst a coronavirus epidemic, Chinese officials began cracking down on wildlife markets.[24]

NBC News reported:

Tired of fast food? Well, now you can travel to China and try some "pest food." As the country suffers from a plague of a reported 2 billion rats displaced by a flooded lake, many of the creepy creatures are being trucked from central China to the booming south to end up in fancy restaurant dishes, Chinese media reported.

Rats had been doing a roaring trade thanks to strong supply over the last two weeks, the China News Service quoted vendors as saying.

"Recently there have been a lot of rats... Guangzhou people are rich and like to eat exotic things, so business is very good," it quoted a vendor as saying, referring to the capital of Guangdong province, where people are reputed to eat anything that moves.[25]

Eating of live mice in China

See also: China and atheism and Asian atheism and Eating of live mice in China

The Daily Mail reported:

An Asian man has been filmed dipping a live baby mouse into a bowl of sauce before eating it.

The disgusting footage showed the man picking up a baby mouse with chopsticks before calmly devouring the squeaking rodent that was still moving.

The revolting meal, which was accompanied by a plate of tomatoes, is reportedly considered a delicacy in the Guangdong province of southeast China.

The government banned the dish, but it can still be found in backstreet restaurants.

The practice has been given the gruesome name of 'Three Squeaks' because the mouse squeaks when it gets picked up by a diner, again when it gets dipped into the sauce and finally as it dies...

In November 2015 a shocking video of newborn mice being prepared to be eaten emerged online.

The footage is believed to have been shot at a restaurant in Guangdong, south China, where mice are a specialty.

The video showed the mice next to a pot of broth being dipped into a plate of sauce.

A separate footage of a man actually eating the mice was also posted online.

The man was seen with a plate of the baby rodents in front of him.

After smothering the still-wriggling creatures in a brown sauce, he put one in his mouth and chewed on the mouse.[26]

Western atheists diet

The French are well-known for their culinary achievements.[27] See also: French cuisine

Secular Europe

See also: Secular Europe

From a global perspective, Europe is more secular/atheistic than the rest of the world although it does have a considerable amount of religious immigrants who have higher birth rates (see: Atheist population and Global atheism).

European diet

Secular Europe and obesity

See: Secular Europe and obesity

Australia

See: Irreligion in Australia

Australian diet

Australia, irreligion and obesity

See: Australia, irreligion and obesity

Atheism and obesity

See also: Atheism and obesity

Two of the major risk factors for becoming obese according to the Mayo Clinic are poor dietary choices and inactivity.[28] According to the Gallup Inc., "Very religious Americans are more likely to practice healthy behaviors than those who are moderately religious or nonreligious."[29]

The current atheist population mostly resides in East Asia (particularly China) and in secular Europe/Australia primarily among whites.[30] Most atheists are East Asians (see: Asian atheism). See: Global atheism and Western atheism and race

Secular Europe and communist China have significant problems with obesity (see: Secular Europe and obesity and China and obesity). In addition, Australia has a significant problem with obesity (see: Australia, irreligion and obesity).

In the United States at the present time, the greater the degree of irreligiosity in a generation, the higher their obesity rate is.

According to the Gallup Inc., "Very religious Americans are more likely to practice healthy behaviors than those who are moderately religious or nonreligious."[31]

Gallup declared concerning the study which measured the degree to which religiosity affects health practices: "Generalized linear model analysis was used to estimate marginal scores all five reported metrics after controlling for age (in years), gender, race/ethnicity, marital status, education (number of years), log of income, and region of the country... Results are based on telephone interviews conducted as part of the Gallup-Healthways Well-Being Index survey Jan. 2-July 28, 2010, with a random sample of 554,066 adults, aged 18 and older, living in all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia, selected using random-digit-dial sampling.[32]

Obesity is positively associated with impulsiveness, lower self-discipline and neuroticism.[33] See also: Atheism and hedonism and Atheism and mental illness

The Gallup study gives some insight into the above average health habits of the very religious and not necessarily the health habits of atheists. The reason is that the Gallup organization defines a non-religious as a person where "Religion is not an important part of daily life and church/synagogue/mosque attendance occurs seldom or never. This group constitutes 29.7% of the adult population."[34] While many Western atheists are non-religious, not all non-religious people are atheists.

Gallup further declares:

Very religious Americans make healthier choices than their moderately religious and nonreligious counterparts across all four of the Healthy Behavior Index metrics, including smoking, healthy eating, and regular exercise. Smoking is one area of particular differentiation between the very religious and less religious Americans, with the nonreligious 85% more likely to be smokers than those who are very religious.[35]

A 2010 study reported in the Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion found that for Korean women living in California, religion "may help prevent obesity."[36]

Atheists and pork consumption

See also: Health risks of eating pork

See: Atheists and pork consumption

Most of the world's atheists are likely East Asians (see: Asian atheism).

A very significant portion of atheists eat pork - especially Chinese atheists (see: Atheists and pork consumption).

The Economist recently called China the "Empire of the pig" (see: China: Empire of the pig).

Irreligion and horse meat eating

Although horses are seen as an intelligent animal by many and a useful partner in getting work accomplished in many areas around the world, there are irreligious countries that also see horses as a source of food.[37]

For more information, please see: Atheism and horse meat eating
There are several irreligious countries that engage in horse meat eating.

China produces more horse meat than any other country in the world, creating nearly half of the world’s supply of this animal protein.[38]

The reason why it is considered a dangerous animal protein is that horses are often given a medicine called phenylbutazone [or “bute” for short] that is dangerous to humans.[39]

For more information, please see: Irreligion and the treatment of horses

Dietary/culinary practices of atheists

See also: Atheism and food science and Atheism and culinary science and Atheism, culinary arts, inspiration, innovation and food science

A food science laboratory

Atheism, food science and culinary science

Despite the efforts of food scientists and chefs in irreligious cultures to develop more flavorful food, there have been a significant amount of irreligious cultures with bland food that is not exciting from a culinary point of view (See also: Atheism and food science and Atheism and culinary science).

Soviet Union and bland food

Claude Lewis wrote in The Philadelphia Inquirer about the food is the former Soviet Union which had militant state atheism: "Many people in the Soviet Union have grown tired of institutionalized food in state-run cafeterias found at state-run cafeterias such as Stolovaya No. 22 and Stolovaya No. 23 where the menus seldom change and often lack variety. Most food in the Soviet Union is unimaginative, tasteless and bland."[40]

Irreligious Nordic countries and bland food

Sweden is one of the most atheistic countries in the world.[41]

Nordic food is often depicted as being bland.[42]

Nordic countries have high atheist/agnostic populations within them (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden).

Sweden is one of the most atheistic countries in the world and in secular Europe. The website adherents.com reported that in 2005 46 - 85% of Swedes were agnostics/atheists/non-believers in God.[43] Sweden also has the 3rd highest rate of belief in evolution as far as Western World nations.[44]

Denmark has the highest rate of belief in evolution in the Western World.[45] In addition, in 2005 Denmark was ranked the third most atheistic country in the world and the website adherents.com reported that in 2005 43 - 80% of Danes are agnostics/atheists/non-believers in God.[46]

Finland was ranked the 7th most atheistic country in the world in 2005.[47] Finland has the 17th highest rate of belief in evolution in the Western World.[48]

The Britain born new atheists Christopher Hitchens and Richard Dawkins. The late Christopher Hitchens was known for his heavy drinking.[49]

Iceland is one of the most irreligious countries in the world according to Gallup International.[50] A Gallup International poll conducted in 2012 reported that 57% of Icelanders considered themselves "a religious person", 31% considered themselves "a non religious person", while 10% defined themselves as "a convinced atheist", which places Iceland in the top 10 atheist populations in the world.[51]

Nordic food is often depicted as being bland.[52]

Irreligious Britain and bland food

A Eurobarometer poll in 2010 reported that 37% of UK citizens "believed there is a God", 33% believe there is "some sort of spirit or life force" and 25% answered "I don't believe there is any sort of spirit, God or life force".[53] See also: British atheism

International food authority Andrew Zimmern said of Britain's food: “Twenty years ago the food of the British Isles was universally considered to be among the world’s worst—boring, bland and boiled.”[54]

(In the last 20 years, Britain has seen a large influx of immigrants many of whom eat spicier food. No doubt that is why Zimmern said "twenty years ago".)

See also: Why Does British Food Get Such A Bad Rap? We Examine

Irreligious Germany and bland food

Germany is one of the most atheistic countries in the world and the website adherents.com reported that 41-49% of Germans are agnostics/atheists/non-believers in God.[55]

Germany is one of the most atheistic countries in the world and the website adherents.com reports that 41-49% of Germans are agnostics/atheists/non-believers in God.[56]

Parlour Magazine reported about German food:

From a young age the German palate is adapted to enjoy the simple flavors of salt, wurst (sausage) and breadcrumbs, shunning anything too sweet, too spicy or too complex.

...I do occasionally enjoy a bit of spice and this is the dilemma. I grew up in a West Indian household led by my grandfather who was a chef, to say I was spoiled in terms of flavorful food would be an understatement. The pepper, the curry, the jerk – all flavors that fueled my youth and make me feel at home. How I survive in Germany, the land of bland, is a mystery to most who know me.[57]

Irreligion, Eastern Europe and flavorless food

Eastern Europe was under about 70 years of atheistic, Soviet communist rule (see also: Atheism and communism). For example, Albania was an atheist state from 1967 to 1991.

The Czech Republic, Estonia, and East Germany have some of the lowest levels of religious belief in secular Europe.

In 2005, the Czech Republic placed second in the world in alcohol consumption.[58] See also: Atheism and alcoholism

From a historical perspective, the Czechs have been characterised as "tolerant and even indifferent towards religion".[59] According to the 2011 census, 34.2% of the Czech population declared they had no religion, 10.3% was Roman Catholic and 10.2% followed other forms of religion both denominational and nondenominational. Furthermore, 45.2% of the population did not answer the question about religion.[60] From 1991 to 2001 and further to 2011 the adherence to Roman Catholicism decreased from 39.0% to 26.8% and then subsequently to 10.3%.[61]

Estonia is one of the least religious areas in the world. Merely 14% of the population declared religion an important part of their daily lives.[62]

The Guardian reported in 2012 about Eastern Germany:

A recent study called Beliefs About God Across Time and Countries found that 52.1% of people asked whether they believed in God identified themselves as atheists. This compared with only 10.3% in western Germany. Indeed, the survey was unable to find a single person under the age of 28 in eastern Germany who believed in God.[63]

The Maverick Traveler reports:

Eastern Europe isn’t known for its variety of exquisite dishes. Most of the dishes are a combination of three ingredients: bread, potatoes and meat. While it’s very hearty, it’s also very flavorless. If you’re there on a short trip or in the beginning of a more extended sojourn, you might find the food interesting and even exotic, but I can guarantee that you’ll quickly get tired of it.

Once you get tired of going out and eating bland local food, you’ll have two options: go to restaurants that serve international cuisine or cook your own food. The problem with the first option is that the international restaurant scene is rather limited in Eastern Europe.[64]

Atheism and veganism

See: Atheism and veganism and New Atheism and veganism and Richard Dawkins on veganism

Most atheists are not vegans (see: Atheism and veganism).

The majority of atheists are likely East Asian (see: Asian atheism).[65]

China has the world's largest atheist population (See: China and atheism).[66][67]

An estimated 4 to 5 percent of Chinese are vegetarians.[68]

Atheistic cultures and baby/children eating

See: Atheists and baby eating

For additional information, please see:

Atheistic cultures and children eating

In 2014, The Washington Times reported: "China’s one child policy, baby trafficking, and sex trafficking of North Korean women aren’t the worst human rights violation happening in the country. Aborting innocent and healthy unborn children and eating them to boost one’s stamina and sexual health is.

South Korean customs officials recently seized thousands of pills filled with powdered human baby flesh arriving from China. Since August 2011, South Korean officials have intercepted more than 17000 pills smuggled from China." [69]}}

Please see: Atheists and baby eating and Communist China and baby eating
South Korean officials became aware of a horrific practice of eating aborted fetuses after Seoul Broadcasting System showed a documentary on Chinese doctors who performed abortions and then ate the fetuses. One Chinese doctor on the documentary took out fetuses from his refrigerator.[70]

Atheism and cannibalism

See: Atheism and cannibalism

The serial killer Jeffrey Dahmer engaged in cannibalism. He was an atheist while he committed these acts.[71]

For more information, please see: Atheism and cannibalism

See also

Notes

  1. A surprising map of where the world’s atheists live, By Max Fisher and Caitlin Dewey, Washington Post, May 23, 2013
  2. Most atheists are not white & other non-fairy tales, Discover magazine
  3. Top 50 Countries With Highest Proportion of Atheists / Agnostics (Zuckerman, 2005)
  4. A surprising map of where the world’s atheists live, Washington Post By Max Fisher and Caitlin Dewey May 23, 2013
  5. Top 50 Countries With Highest Proportion of Atheists / Agnostics (Zuckerman, 2005)
  6. A surprising map of where the world’s atheists live, Washington Post By Max Fisher and Caitlin Dewey May 23, 2013
  7. The Chinese Government Must Stop Pet Dogs Being Stolen For Meat by JERRY GADIANO, Unilad website
  8. Chinese Dog Meat Festival | Undercover Cameras Reveal Brutality Chinese Dog Meat Festival | Undercover Cameras Reveal Brutality, ABC News, YouTube
  9. *Top 50 Countries With Highest Proportion of Atheists / Agnostics (Zuckerman, 2005)*A surprising map of where the world’s atheists live, Washington Post By Max Fisher and Caitlin Dewey May 23, 2013
  10. Top 50 Countries With Highest Proportion of Atheists / Agnostics (Zuckerman, 2005)
  11. A surprising map of where the world’s atheists live, Washington Post By Max Fisher and Caitlin Dewey May 23, 2013
  12. Coronavirus outbreak underscores potential health risks in China’s wild animal trade, Washington Post
  13. Chinese officials crack down on wildlife markets as coronavirus outbreak nears 3,000 cases By Alicia Lee, CNN
  14. Did pangolins spread the China coronavirus to people?, Nature Research, 07 FEBRUARY 2020
  15. The new coronavirus outbreak in China may have originated in snakes by HAITAO GUO, UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH; GUANGXIANG “GEORGE” LUO, UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA AT BIRMINGHAM, AND SHOU-JIANG GAO, UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH, Philly Voice
  16. Mildenstein, T.; Tanshi, I.; Racey, P. A. (2016). "Exploitation of Bats for Bushmeat and Medicine". Bats in the Anthropocene: Conservation of Bats in a Changing World. Springer. p. 327. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-25220-9_12. ISBN 978-3-319-25218-6.
  17. China bans wild animal trade until coronavirus epidemic is eliminated (26 January 2020).
  18. Exposing the Chinese communist origin of the Wuhan virus: Interview w/ Epoch Times' Joshua Philipp
  19. Genomic Study Points to Natural Origin of COVID-19 by Francis Collins, March 26, 2020.
  20. Does God Love Dogs? by Rabbi Levi Welton, Jan 4, 2014
  21. Trying to get cat off the menu in China, The Star, 2009
  22. Inside a sickening cat meat market: Photos reveal the horror of barbaric cat trade, Express, 2018
  23. Chinese officials crack down on wildlife markets as coronavirus outbreak nears 3,000 cases
  24. Chinese officials crack down on wildlife markets as coronavirus outbreak nears 3,000 cases
  25. Mmm,rodents. China feasts on rat infestation, NBC News
  26. Disturbing footage shows diner calmly dipping a baby MOUSE in a bowl of sauce before eating it alive as part of banned Chinese delicacy known as 'Three Squeaks'
  27. A Brief Introduction to French Food and Cooking BY Rebecca Franklin
  28. Causes of obesity
  29. Very Religious Americans Lead Healthier Lives, Gallup Poll, 2010
  30. A surprising map of where the world’s atheists live, By Max Fisher and Caitlin Dewey, Washington Post, May 23, 2013
  31. Very Religious Americans Lead Healthier Lives, Gallup Poll, 2010
  32. Very Religious Americans Lead Healthier Lives, Gallup Poll, 2010
  33. Very Religious Americans Lead Healthier Lives, Gallup Poll, 2010
  34. http://www.gallup.com/poll/145379/Religious-Americans-Lead-Healthier-Lives.aspx
  35. Can religion help prevent obesity? Religious messages and the prevalence of being overweight or obese among Korean women in California. J Sci Study Relig. 2010;49(3):536-49. Ayers JW1, Hofstetter CR, Irvin VL, Song Y, Park HR, Paik HY, Hovell MF.
  36. 21 Intriguing Horse Meat Consumption Statistics
  37. 21 Intriguing Horse Meat Consumption Statistics
  38. 21 Intriguing Horse Meat Consumption Statistics
  39. Making A Beef About Soviet Food
  40. Top 50 Countries With Highest Proportion of Atheists / Agnostics(Zuckerman, 2005)
  41. http://www.npr.org/2013/11/13/244600582/new-nordics-cool-but-old-scandinavian-food-holds-its-own
  42. Top 50 Countries With Highest Proportion of Atheists / Agnostics(Zuckerman, 2005)
  43. Photo: Evolution Less Accepted in U.S. Than Other Western Countries, Study Finds
  44. Photo: Evolution Less Accepted in U.S. Than Other Western Countries, Study Finds
  45. Top 50 Countries With Highest Proportion of Atheists / Agnostics(Zuckerman, 2005)
  46. Top 50 Countries With Highest Proportion of Atheists / Agnostics(Zuckerman, 2005)
  47. Top 50 Countries With Highest Proportion of Atheists / Agnostics(Zuckerman, 2005)
  48. Christopher Hitchens: Despite Cancer, I'd Drink & Smoke Again
  49. "Iceland Ranks High on World Atheist List". Iceland Review. Retrieved 2013-10-05.
  50. "GLOBAL INDEX OF RELIGION AND ATHEISM" (PDF).
  51. http://www.npr.org/2013/11/13/244600582/new-nordics-cool-but-old-scandinavian-food-holds-its-own
  52. Special Eurobarometer, biotechnology, p. 204". Fieldwork: Jan-Feb 2010.
  53. Five myths about British food
  54. Top 50 Countries With Highest Proportion of Atheists / Agnostics(Zuckerman, 2005)
  55. Top 50 Countries With Highest Proportion of Atheists / Agnostics(Zuckerman, 2005)
  56. Black in Berlin: Surviving Germany’s Food Culture, Parlour Magazine
  57. Czech alcohol consumption figures highlight rising number of problem drinkers, 23-02-2011 16:29 | Chris Johnstone
  58. Richard Felix Staar, Communist regimes in Eastern Europe, Issue 269, p. 90
  59. Richard Felix Staar, Communist regimes in Eastern Europe, Issue 269, p. 90
  60. Population by denomination and sex: as measured by 1921, 1930, 1950, 1991 and 2001 censuses (Czech and English). Czech Statistical Office. Retrieved on 2010-03-09.
  61. Estonians least religious in the world. EU Observer (11 February 2009). Retrieved on 9 January 2014.
  62. Eastern Germany: the most godless place on Earth
  63. 13 Things They Don’t Tell You About Eastern Europe by James Maverick, Maverick Treveler
  64. Most atheists are not white & other non-fairy tales, Discover magazine
  65. Top 50 Countries With Highest Proportion of Atheists / Agnostics (Zuckerman, 2005)
  66. A surprising map of where the world’s atheists live, Washington Post By Max Fisher and Caitlin Dewey May 23, 2013
  67. Vegetarianism by country
  68. Chinese cannibalism of infant flesh outrages the world, Washington Times, 2014
  69. Chinese cannibalism of infant flesh outrages the world, Washington Times, 2014
  70. Serial Killer Jeffrey Dahmer blames Atheism and Evolution belief for Murders