Donald Trump achievements: Foreign policy

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Official presidential photo of President Donald Trump
Main article: Donald Trump achievements

This article is a non-exhaustive list of achievements by U.S. President Donald Trump, his administration, and Congress related to his foreign policy.

For foreign policy achievements related to trade policy, see Donald Trump achievements: Trade policy. For foreign policy achievements related to environmental policy, see Donald Trump achievements: Energy and environmental policy.

2017

Legislation signed, 2017

  • August 2, 2017—President Trump signed a bill into law that, despite its flaws, enacted additional sanctions against Russia, Iran, and North Korea.[1]

Executive actions, 2017

President Trump was observed early in his presidency to have adopted a strong[2] and unpredictable[3] foreign policy and was described as having made a "consequential impact" on foreign policy early on.[4] This was as opposed to Barack Obama's foreign policy.[5] As the North Korean vice-foreign minister stated, Trump's foreign policy was "more vicious and more aggressive" than that of Barack Obama.[6] President Trump also shook the global establishment through his foreign policy.[7] President Trump implemented his America First philosophy into his foreign policy,[8][9] and he emphasized the issue of sovereignty.[10][11]

By May 2017, Trump had "hit most, if not all, of the notes he wanted to on a broad range of issues" and was more ambitious than Obama had been at the same point in his presidency.[12] Even the liberal CNN admitted that President Trump's foreign policy achieved several achievements in 2017.[13]

  • The Trump Administration adopted a more critical stance toward the United Nations than the Obama Administration.[14] Here are some of the actions the Trump Administration took related to the UN:
    • March 2017—After the UN Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia authored a destructive and anti-Semitic[15] report against Israel, the report and agency were strongly criticized by the United States and UN Ambassador Nikki Haley, and the executive director of the commission resigned in response.[16]
    • April 4, 2017—The Trump Administration halted U.S. funding of the United Nations Population Fund, which has links to inhumane abortion programs such as China's one-child policy. Instead, the $32.5 million was shifted to the U.S. Agency for International Development.[17]
    • June 2017—Under pressure from the Trump Administration, the UN cut its peacekeeping budget by $570 million, with the U.S. share of the budget reduced by 7.5%.[18]
    • September 19, 2017—President Trump gave a speech[19] at the United Nations General Assembly in which he strongly advocated for conservative policies and ideals. He strongly advocated for his philosophy of America First[9][20] and for national sovereignty in general,[10][20][21][22] stating that "as President of the United States I will always put America first," and that "the nation-state remains the best vehicle for elevating the human condition," among other strong statements.[9] He advocated for keeping refugees in their home countries.[23] He attacked the ideology of socialism.[24] He strongly criticized the Iran nuclear deal, calling it an "embarrassment."[25] To the shock of the mainstream media,[26] he notably criticized North Korea and its leader, calling him "Rocket Man" and threatening to "totally destroy" the Asian country.[27] He criticized the UN for letting governments that commit human rights abuses sit on the U.N. Human Rights Council.[28] Trump stated that he would "stop radical Islamic terrorism," not backing down from using the politically incorrect term.[29] The speech marked a shift toward a realist and pro-national sovereignty foreign policy.[22] The next day, Vice President Mike Pence also spoke at the UN, criticizing the institution for its numerous problems[30] and calling out "radical Islamic terrorism."[31] The same day that Pence spoke, First Lady Melania Trump spoke out for protecting children,[32] stating that it is ultimately the parents' responsibility to do so and to raise their children to be moral and love their country,[33] and she quoted from the Bible.[34]
    • October 12, 2017—The Trump Administration announced the U.S. would withdraw from UNESCO because of its anti-Israel bias.[35]
    • December 2, 2017—The Trump Administration pulled out of the Global Compact on Migration, a United Nations agreement on migration, due to it infringing on U.S. sovereignty and its immigration policies.[36] U.S. Ambassador Nikki Haley stated that "our decisions on immigration policies must always be made by Americans and Americans alone," and that "the global approach in the New York Declaration is simply not compatible with U.S. sovereignty."[36]
    • December 24, 2017—UN Ambassador Nikki Haley announced that the United States would cut its contribution to the UN's 2018–19 budget by $285 million.[37]
  • The Trump Administration took a tougher stance against Iran.[38] Here are some of the actions taken against the country:
    • February 3, 2017—After Iran tested a ballistic missile in apparent violation of a UN Security Council resolution, the Trump Administration instituted unilateral economic sanctions against 13 Iranian individuals and 12 companies.[39][40]
    • May 17, 2017—The Trump Administration imposed additional sanctions on an Iranian national, an Iranian company, a Chinese national, and three Chinese companies (because of Chinese dealings related to Iran's nuclear program).[41]
    • July 18, 2017—Despite recertifying the Iran nuclear deal the day earlier,[42] the Trump Administration imposed sanctions on 18 Iranian individuals and entities for supporting the nation's non-nuclear weapon programs and support for terrorists.[43]
    • September 14, 2017—While extending Iran sanctions relief in accordance with the Iran Deal, the Trump Administration imposed new sanctions on eleven Iranian people and companies suspected of supporting the country's ballistic missile program or being involved in cyber-attacks.[44]
    • October 13, 2017—President Trump, in a strongly-worded speech,[45] announced that he would decertify Iran's compliance with the Iran nuclear deal (known formally as the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, or JCPOA) and would give Congress time, under the threat of leaving the agreement entirely,[46] to revise the agreement to make it tougher against Iran.[47] The Trump Administration announced a new and tougher comprehensive strategy against Iran,[47] and the Treasury Department enacted terrorism-related sanctions on Iran’s Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps.[47][48]
    • December 29–31, 2017—In stark contrast to Obama before him,[49] as well as the UN and European leaders concurrently,[50] President Trump and his administration did not hesitate to show his full support for Iranian citizens protesting the Iranian governmental regime.[51] The protests – as well as President Trump's support – extended into 2018.
  • The Trump Administration took several actions against North Korea. The administration took a tougher stance on North Korea than its predecessors, which was bringing positive results by October 2017.[52] Here are some of the Trump Administration's actions against North Korea:
    • Early in Trump's presidency, he and his administration took a much tougher tone against North Korea than his predecessors.[53] In one instance,[54] President Trump stated that North Korea "will be met with fire, fury and frankly power, the likes of which the world has never seen before" if they did not stop threatening the U.S,[55] and Trump stated the next day that his comment may not have been tough enough.[56] The Trump Administration chose to include a military option among a list of potential strategies in United States policy towards North Korea.[57] North Korea had threatened to attack the U.S. territory of Guam, but after Trump's remarks it backed off from the threat.[58]
    • While the deployment was first announced during the Obama Administration, the Trump Administration confirmed it would continue the plans to – and subsequently did – deploy the THAAD missile defense system to South Korea despite China's strong objections.[59] THAAD was first used on May 14, 2017,[60] and it was successfully tested on July 11, 2017,[61] and July 30, 2017.[62] THAAD was fully deployed on September 7, 2017.[63]
    • August 5, 2017—The United States successfully and unanimously passed a resolution in the UN Security Council that established tough sanctions against North Korea that would cut the country's export revenue by a third.[64]
    • August 22, 2017—The Trump Administration implemented sanctions on 16 Chinese and Russian individuals and entities for doing business with North Korea.[65]
    • September 11, 2017—The United States successfully and unanimously passed another UN Security Council resolution that established new sanctions against North Korea.[66]
    • September 21, 2017—President Trump signed an executive order giving the Treasury Department additional authority to sanction entities doing business and "significant trade" with North Korea, including foreign banks.[67]
    • November 20, 2017—The Trump Administration officially designated North Korea a state sponsor of terror.[68] The next day, the Treasury Department enacted additional sanctions on entities doing business with North Korea, including 13 Chinese and North Korean organizations.[69] These actions increased pressure on North Korea to end its nuclear and missile programs.[70]
  • Despite claims by Democrats and other left-wingers that Trump's presidential campaign "colluded" with Russia, the Trump Administration took several tough actions against Russia, including some that even the Obama Administration avoided.[71] Here are some of the actions taken against the country:
    • February 2017—The U.S. government launched a Russian-language TV network, run by Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty and Voice of America, to counter Russian propaganda.[72]
    • April 21, 2017—The Trump Administration refused to issue waivers to any companies which wanted to do business with Russia, which was under economic sanctions, including ExxonMobil, which had applied for a waiver.[73] The day earlier, the Trump Administration announced, in strong language, it was implementing the Global Magnitsky Human Rights Accountability Act, which blacklisted certain Russian citizens.[74]
    • June 20, 2017—The same day President Trump met with Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko, the U.S. Treasury Department imposed sanctions on 38 Russian individuals and entities involved in the conflict with Ukraine.[75]
    • December 21, 2017—The Trump administration approved the export of lethal small arms to Ukraine, including a multimillion-dollar sniper rifle deal – something the Obama Administration refused to do – ramping up its support for the country in the simmering conflict with Russia-backed separatists.[76]
  • The Trump Administration took actions against Cuba, reversing several – though not all – Obama-era policies by November 2017:[77]
    • June 16, 2017—During a speech attended by opponents of Cuba's Communist regime,[78] President Trump partially reversed Obama's pro-Cuba policies by restricting U.S. travel to Cuba and prohibit financial transactions that benefit the Cuban military.[79] The Trump Administration implemented the restrictions on November 9, 2017.[80] In addition, Trump visibly took a much stronger position on Cuba to repatriate American criminal fugitives than Obama had done.[81]
    • November 1, 2017—The Trump Administration chose to defend the U.S. embargo on Cuba at the United Nations and vote against resolutions condemning the embargo, reversing an Obama Administration policy.[82]
  • The Trump Administration successfully secured the release of several American prisoners held in foreign countries that the Obama Administration did not or could not release.[83] It played a large role in successfully helping prevent CIA officer Sabrina de Sousa from being extradited to Italy, with the decision coming on March 1, 2017.[84] On April 21, 2017, Egypt released an Egyptian-American who had been detained for three years.[85] Additionally, according to the father of Otto Warmbier, who was held hostage in North Korea and then released in June 2017, the Obama Administration did not do enough to secure his release while the Trump Administration did secure his release.[86] In November 2017, China released three UCLA basketball players from custody for alleged shoplifting after President Trump asked the president of China to release them.[87]
  • The Trump Administration enacted numerous sanctions against Venezuela's socialist government in 2017, including on May 18,[88] July 31,[89] August 9,[90] and August 25.[91]
  • On March 18, 2017, the Trump Administration successfully forced the G-20 to remove its opposition to protectionism and temper its support for free trade,[92][93] and any mention of climate change[94][95] from its joint statement. Later, in April 2017, the Trump Administration refused to sign the G7 joint statement because the other nations could not agree to include support for nuclear and fossil fuels without support for the Paris climate agreement. The G7, thus, went without a joint statement.[96][97]
President Trump being briefed on April 6, 2017 concerning a military strike on Syria.
  • April 6, 2017—After the Syrian government used chemical weapons on its people, President Trump ordered a one-time airstrike against a Syrian air base, firing 60 cruise missiles at it.[98] The U.S. destroyed about 20 Syrian jet planes and caused extremely heavy damage on the base.[99] Defense Secretary James Mattis stated the attacks destroyed 20% of Syria's operational aircraft.[100] As even the New York Times reported, Trump's action was a show of U.S. strength, and it was in stark contrast to Obama, as Trump used surprise and speed in the attacks.[101] World leaders supported the strong action.[102] This was the first direct military action the U.S. took against the Assad regime.[103] On April 23, 2017, in response to the chemical attacks, the Trump Administration put sanctions on 271 employees of Syria’s Scientific Studies and Research Center, which supported the nation's chemical weapons program.[104] On June 18, 2017, the United States shot down a Syrian aircraft for the first time,[105] and in response to Russia's warnings, stated that it would do whatever in its national and military interests.[106]
President Trump welcomed in Saudi Arabia, May 2017.
President Trump visits the Western Wall, May 2017.
  • May 2017—President Trump embarked on an ambitious foreign trip, where he, among other accomplishments, visited the heartlands of the three Abrahamic religions, challenging the Muslim world to get serious about defeating Islamic terrorism, challenging the European leaders to contribute more to NATO, and isolating Iran.[12][107][108][109] While in the Middle East, Trump, unlike Obama, took a strong stance against Iran and strengthened the United States's traditional alliances with Israel and the Arab nations,[110] bringing them closer together.[111] His trip was described as one that "flipped traditional U.S. foreign policy upside down."[112] Here are some highlights and additional achievements of the trip:
    • May 20–21, 2017—President Trump visited Saudi Arabia, the first country he visited abroad as U.S. President. His trip to the country was a major event that clearly broke from foreign policy set by Barack Obama.[113] He received a very warm welcome[114] – much warmer than what Obama (under whom relations became estranged[115]) received – with King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud greeting Trump at the tarmac, something Obama did not receive.[116] Unlike Obama, Trump did not bow to the Saudi king,[116][117] and he did not embark on an "apology tour" like Obama.[118] Trump signed a $110 billion arms deal with Saudi Arabia, with another $350 billion of arms for the following 10 years.[119] American and Saudi businesses signed similar agreements on the same day, with billions of dollars to be invested in the U.S.[120] President Trump also gave a major speech[121] to leaders of 50 Islamic world leaders challenging them to fight Islamic terror.[122] Trump gave a blunt speech, stronger than Obama's,[123] and he did not mention democracy or human rights, rather speaking about "good vs. evil," something his Islamic audience was more receptive to.[124] (despite this, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates agreed to donate $100 million to a women entrepreneurs fund proposed by Ivanka Trump[125]). The U.S. and Saudi Arabia strengthened counterterrorism ties by enacting joint sanctions on two "global terrorists,"[126] and Saudi Arabia opened a center to combat Islamic terrorism.[127] (according to President Trump, the commitment to combating Islamic terrorism was already being seen when several Arab nations cut ties with Qatar due to its support of Islamic terrorism and Iran;[128] later, Saudi Arabia changed its royal succession plan, possibly in an attempt to please President Trump[129]).
    • May 22–23, 2017—The second country President Trump visited was Israel, and his trip marked the first time a U.S. president visited the country on their first foreign trip.[130] He visited the country on the 50th anniversary of the Six-Day War and Israel's capture of Jerusalem.[131] His flight from Saudi Arabia to Israel was one of the rare flights taken between the two countries and the first of a U.S. president to fly from the former to the latter.[132] A major suicide bombing occurred in the United Kingdom during the visit, and Trump denied recognition to the attacker[133] and other Islamic terrorists by calling them "losers."[134] Although not moving the U.S. embassy to Jerusalem as hoped,[135] President Trump became the first sitting U.S. President to visit the Western Wall,[136] and the Administration stated that the Trump was in "Jerusalem, Israel."[137] President Trump did not mention anything about a Palestinian state, a two-state solution, or about Israeli settlements.[138] It was also reported that the U.S. increased defense funding for Israel by $75 million.[139]
    • May 25, 2017—At the 2017 NATO summit, President Trump strongly stated his position that the other NATO member states should meet their expected contributions to the organization.[140]
    • May 26–27, 2017—At the 2017 G7 conference, President Trump focused on terrorism rather than climate change, as the other European leaders wished.[141] Much to the consternation of the G7 world leaders,[142] who lobbied for President Trump to accept the Paris climate agreement, Trump stood firm and refused to pledge commitment to the accords[143] so he could still deliberate over whether to stay in it.[144] (Trump ultimately announced, on June 1, 2017, that the U.S. would leave the agreement and cease implementing it[145]). President Trump was also reported as having refused to sign a declaration that stated the benefits as well as "pitfalls" of immigration.[146][147]
    • May 27, 2017—President Trump concluded his trip by speaking to U.S. soldiers,[148] as opposed to holding a press conference.[149]
President Trump giving his speech in Poland, July 2017.
President Trump holding a bilateral meeting with Polish President Andrzej Duda, July 2017.
President Trump meeting with Russian President Vladimir Putin, July 2017.
  • July 5–8, 2017—President Trump made his second foreign trip, this time to Poland and Germany. President Trump promoted his "America First" policies during his trip.[150][151] He and is actions during the trip were also the target of liberal mainstream media bias.[152][153] Here are some highlights and achievements of the trip:
    • July 6, 2017—Ahead of the G-20 conference, President Trump traveled to Poland, the first European nation to receive an official visit from the president.[154] Trump's decision to visit Poland immediately before the G-20 summit was seen as a sign of support for its conservative and Euroskeptic government.[155][156][157] Trump met with Polish President Andrzej Duda and stated that "we’ve never been closer to Poland than we are right now."[158] He attended the Three Seas Initiative, an alliance of 12 nations in Central and Eastern Europe, and promoted the U.S. as an energy exporter.[159]
    • On July 6, 2017, President Trump gave a major policy address[160][161][162] in front of 15,000 supporters[155][163] in front of the famous Warsaw Uprising Monument.[164] He promoted conservative, Christian, America First, and nationalistic values in his speech.[161][162][165][166][167] Trump took a strong stance against terrorism in his speech, stating that "our borders will always be closed to terrorism and extremism of any kind."[168] He strongly stood up for Western values[166][169] and asked "Do we have the confidence in our values to defend them at any cost? Do we have enough respect for our citizens to protect our borders? Do we have the courage to preserve our civilisation in the face of those who would subvert and destroy it?"[170] Reaffirming American NATO duties and military support for Poland, he spoke highly of Poland for meeting its NATO spending pledge.[168][171][172] While taking a reasonable stance regarding Russia,[173] Trump criticized "destabilizing" Russian activities such as supporting hostile regimes.[156][171][174] Trump took a strong stance against government bureaucracy and regulations, warning against "the steady creep of government bureaucracy that drains the vitality and wealth of the people" and stating that "the West became great not because of paperwork and regulations but because people were allowed to chase their dreams and pursue their destinies....we put faith and family, not government and bureaucracy, at the center of our lives."[156][171][175] Trump defended Christian and Roman Catholic faith, stating that "the people of Poland, the people of America, and the people of Europe still cry out ‘We want God’."[176][177] According to numerous conservative commentators, President Trump's speech marked a "clean break" with Obama's foreign policy philosophy, replacing them with his America First doctrine,[178] and he placed "matters of identity, culture, faith and sovereignty over democracy", unlike liberal globalists.[179] He received generally good reviews for the speech,[180] even from some critics.[162] It was reported that the Polish government's dropped its concerns over President Trump's perceived friendly relations with Russia after the speech.[181]
    • July 7–8, 2017—Going into the G-20 summit, President Trump displayed strong support for his America First philosophy and criticized the Paris climate agreement.[182] At the summit,[183] President Trump met numerous world leaders,[184] most notably Russian President Vladimir Putin.[185] After Trump's meeting with Putin, both countries announced a ceasefire in Syria's war.[186] In the final G-20 common statement, the Trump Administration, which was ideologically opposed by the other G-20 nations, successfully received concessions from them in regards to climate policy, with the statement acknowledging the U.S.'s intention to withdraw from the Paris agreement and including language on the nation's intention to promote clean fossil fuels internationally,[151][187] and trade.[151][188] (The Trump Administration stated it achieved many of its goals in the statement[189]). Despite mainstream media bias that the U.S. "abandoned" or "left" its position of leadership,[153] the U.S. actually strengthened its position of leadership by pushing his conservative, America First agenda rather than following the consensus of the other G-20 countries.[190] Although symbolic, President Trump wore an American flag pin, being the only world leader not to wear the G20 pin which had globalist symbolism.[191]
  • July 11, 2017—In an attempt to solve a diplomatic crisis between Qatar and several other Persian Gulf nations, the U.S. and Qatar signed an agreement for Qatar to increase its counterterrorism measures and to end funding for terrorist groups.[192]
  • Despite trying to work with China over North Korea,[193] the Trump Administration took numerous steps to counter and confront the nation.[194] The Trump Administration's national security strategy also took a tough stance on China,[195] and the administration, consistent with the Taiwan Relations Act, approved a $1.4 billion arms sale to Taiwan in mid-2017.[196]
  • It was reported in July 2017 that the Trump Administration had ended a CIA program to arm "moderate" Syrian rebels, an ineffective program that had been criticized by conservatives.[197] As it ended this program, President Trump also approved a plan to arm the Kurdish YPG in order to defeat ISIS, a program that saw real results based on the Syrian Democratic Forces victories against the Islamic terrorist group later that year.[198]
  • August 21, 2017—While many nationalist conservatives noted the how President Trump's plan for conducting the War in Afghanistan went against his America First campaign positions and being similar to Obama's plan,[199] President Trump, unlike Obama, chose to pursue a realist foreign policy, rejecting timetables for the war and choosing to focus on killing terrorists while rejecting "nation building."[200]
  • November 5–14, 2017—President Trump traveled to Japan, South Korea, China, Vietnam, and the Philippines. He emphasized his America First philosophy during and after this trip.[201] Here are some highlights of the trip:
    • November 6, 2017—In Japan, President Trump voiced support for tough, America First trade policies and criticized the previous administration's policy.[202] When meeting Japan's emperor, President Trump did not bow as Obama did in 2009.[203]
    • November 9, 2017—President Trump stated that he did not blame China for understandably taking advantage of the U.S. in helping create America's massive trade deficit with China, as U.S. leaders should not have allowed themselves to have been taken advantage of in the first place.[204]
    • November 10, 2017—In Vietnam, President Trump spoke at the APEC summit being held there. He voiced strong support for tough, America First trade policies as well as for national sovereignty in general, and he criticized unfair trade practices, previous U.S. trade policy, and the World Trade Organization.[205]
  • December 6, 2017—In a historic move that went against the international global establishment,[206] President Trump reversed decades of United States policy by officially recognizing Jerusalem as the capital of Israel and ordering the U.S. State Department to begin the process of moving the U.S. Embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem.[207] While previous presidents refused to declare Jerusalem as Israel's capital despite saying they would during election campaigns, President Trump actually kept his promise.[208] On December 18, 2017, the United States vetoed a UN Security Council resolution condemning the decision, the first time the U.S. made such a veto in six years.[209] The United States officially moved its Israeli embassy to Jerusalem in May 2018.[210]

Other achievements, 2017

While the following achievements were not official United States government policy actions by the Trump Administration, they were closely related to the Trump Administration and its policies:

  • President Trump strongly urged the other NATO members to increase their defense spending in order to meet their spending pledges. In late-June 2017, it was reported that Europe's NATO countries would increase their defense spending at the fastest pace in three years.[211]
  • It was reported in early July 2017 that President Trump had held about 50% more face-to-face meetings with foreign leaders than President Obama did during the same part of his presidency, "not including summits, the UN, or the Palestinian Authority," indicating that despite critics' claims of a more "isolationist" foreign policy, Trump started out his presidency with an active foreign policy in addition to his America First philosophy.[212] In his first six months in office, President Trump had three foreign trips and held 47 bilateral meetings with foreign leaders along with 102 phone calls with foreign heads of state.[213] At the same time, President Trump became the first president since Calvin Coolidge to not host a state dinner in his first year in office,[214] with the administration hosting its first state visit for French President Emmanuel Macron in April 2018.[215]

Failures, 2017

  • March and April, 2017—President Trump and the U.S. Senate approved Montenegro's accession into NATO, over Russia's objections, requiring the U.S. to defend yet another foreign power and undermining the constitutional provision that gives Congress the power to declare war.[216]
  • Obama holdovers remained in key State Department positions well into Trump's presidency, and the administration and the U.S. Senate went at a slow pace at nominating and confirming officials to the department.[217]

2018

By mid-2018, President Trump had made a large impact in the world through his foreign policy.[218] His decisions and approach to foreign policy conflicted with the establishment's favored policies,[219] and his policies on foreign aid reflected his skepticism of "nation-building."[220] The administration continued to defend American sovereignty.[221] Despite this, neither the Trump Administration nor Congress moved to reduce U.S. foreign military presence, although analysts believed the president used that issue as leverage with foreign nations.[222]

Legislation signed, 2018

The 115th United States Congress took an increasingly tough stance toward China compared to previous congresses.[223]

  • March 16, 2018—President Trump signed the Taiwan Travel Act, which promoted formal meetings between high-level U.S. and Taiwan officials.[224]
  • March 23, 2018—President Trump signed into law the Taylor Force Act, attached to a large omnibus spending bill, which ends U.S. aid to the Palestinian Authority if it continues to give payments to convicted terrorists and their families.[225]
  • October 25, 2018—President Trump signed the Hizballah International Financing Prevention Amendments Act, enacting additional sanctions on Hezbollah and expanding the list of people able to be sanctioned for cooperating with the terrorist organization.[226]

Executive actions, 2018

  • The Trump Administration took actions related to the United Nations and similar international organizations:
    • June 19, 2018—The Trump Administration announced it would leave the United Nations Human Rights Council due to its hypocrisy and bias against Israel, making the U.S. the first nation ever to leave the organization.[227]
    • UN Ambassador Nikki Haley effectively pushed for American businesses to receive a larger share of UN contracts.[228]
    • August 23, 2018—President Trump signed a memorandum making it U.S. policy to end international mail discounts created by a UN agency which made it cheaper to send a product to the U.S. from a foreign country than from a location inside the United States.[229] On October 17, 2018, the Trump Administration formally announced it would begin the process of withdrawing from the Universal Postal Union.[230]
    • September 10, 2018—The Trump Administration, through National Security Advisor John Bolton, announced it would take a tough stance toward the International Criminal Court, labeling it "illegitimate" and calling it a threat to "American sovereignty and U.S. national security interests."[221][231][232]
    • September 25, 2018—President Trump spoke at the UN General Assembly.[233] He gave a strongly conservative speech which emphasized national sovereignty, patriotism, and his America First philosophy, and which criticized globalism by name.[234] He also defended his administration's decisions to withdraw the U.S. from the UNHRC, the ICC, the Iran nuclear deal, and the global compact on migration, along with defending his trade policies.[234] He pledged to review U.S. foreign aid and to put America's interests first when giving money to other countries.[234] Among other strong statements, President Trump stated that "we will never surrender American sovereignty to an unelected, unaccountable global bureaucracy. America is governed by Americans," and that "we reject the ideology of globalism, and we embrace the doctrine of patriotism."[234] He also stated that "responsible nations must defend against threats to sovereignty" and that "America will always choose independence and cooperation over global governance, control and domination."[234] President Trump criticized OPEC for raising the price of oil despite relying on the U.S. for defense,[235] and he condemned China for its trade practices.[236] He criticized socialism, using Venezuela to illustrate the system's harmful effects.[237] President Trump reserved some of his strongest criticism for Iran.[238] He called for refugees to remain in their home countries and criticized globalist migration policies.[239] The following day, President Trump chaired a UN Security Council meeting, in which he criticized Iran and accused China of interfering in the upcoming midterm elections.[240]
    • October 3, 2018—After the International Court of Justice ruled that the U.S. could not impose certain sanctions on Iran, the Trump Administration defied the organization, withdrawing from the 1955 Treaty of Amity between the two countries, as well as from an optional protocol of the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations.[241] The administration also announced it would review every international agreement that might compromise U.S. sovereignty to the ICJ.[241]
  • The Trump Administration took several steps to reduce and improve aid to foreign countries, and it took a skeptical stance toward nation-building.[220]
    • January 2018—Not only did the U.S. withhold $255 million in military aid to Pakistan due to its lack of cooperation with U.S. counterterrorism efforts,[242] but it suspended all security assistance with the country which amounted to at least $900 million.[243] The U.S. also placed Pakistan on a watchlist for "severe violations of religious freedom" on January 4.[244] These moves came after President Trump tweeted about the country, accusing it of "lies & deceit."[245] The Pentagon announced on September 1, 2018, that the Trump Administration had permanently canceled $300 million in Coalition Support Funds to Pakistan.[246]
    • January 8, 2018—The USAID announced that it had renegotiated an agreement with the UN which would allow the U.S. to better help persecuted religious and ethnic minorities, including Christians, in Iraq.[247] Vice President Mike Pence ordered the agency to end its bureaucratic delays in June 2018 after it was reported that Iraqi Christians had not received the promised funding,[248] and USAID soon announced it would give over $100 million to Christians and Yazidis in Iraq by the end of Fiscal Year 2018.[249][250]
    • January 16, 2018—The Trump Administration announced it was withholding $65 million of a planned $125 million payment to the U.N. Relief and Works Agency, which provides services to Palestinians.[251] On January 18, the State Department announced that the U.S. would withhold an additional $45 million for Palestinian food aid.[252] On August 31, 2018, the Trump Administration announced it would permanently defund UNRWA, cutting nearly $300 million.[253]
    • On March 30, 2018, it was reported that President Trump had frozen $200 million designated for recovery efforts in Syria,[254] and in August of that year, the administration made its decision permanent.[255] Also, in May 2018, the Trump Administration withdrew additional aid for northeastern Syria.[256] Despite this, the Trump Administration announced on June 14, 2018, that it would resume funding for Syria's "White Helmets" rescue group and gave them $6.6 million.[257]
    • August 24, 2018–The Trump Administration announced it would cut over $200 million in Palestinian aid and spend it elsewhere.[258] On September 8, 2018, the State Department announced it would cut another $25 million in aid to Palestinians because of their unwillingness to engage in peace talks.[259]
Dedication ceremony for the opening of the U.S. Embassy in Jerusalem, May 14, 2018
Plaque in the U.S. Embassy in Jerusalem
  • The Trump Administration took several actions related to Israel. By 2018, relations between President Trump and Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu were clearly and significantly better than Netanyahu's relationship with Obama.[260] Under President Trump, U.S. policy toward Israel had become noticeably more supportive,[261] as illustrated by voicing strong support for "Israel's right to defend itself" against threats such as Hamas[262] and a U.S. Navy ship docking at the Israeli port of Ashdod for the first time in nearly 20 years.[263] The Trump Administration also strongly supported Israel at the United Nations.[264]
    • April 2018—The United States submitted a position paper to a Geneva preparatory committee for a nuclear non-proliferation conference that aligned itself with Israel's position that it should not be required to discuss giving up nuclear weapons without recognition by all Middle Eastern nations of its right to exist.[265]
    • May 14, 2018—The U.S. officially moved its embassy in Israel to Jerusalem, fulfilling an important campaign promise and something done after President Trump officially recognized Jerusalem as Israel's capital in 2017.[210] While not attending in person, President Trump celebrated the move and recorded a video message for the ceremonies.[266]
    • The Trump Administration illustrated its pro-Israel stance by cutting its foreign aid to UNRWA[253] and to the Palestinian Authority.[258]
    • September 10, 2018—The Trump Administration announced it would close the Palestine Liberation Organization's mission in Washington, D.C., because of the Palestinians' unwillingness to engage in peace talks and their efforts to get the International Criminal Court to prosecute Israel.[231][267]
    • October 18, 2018—The Trump Administration announced it would close its Jerusalem consulate dealing with Palestinian issues and merge it into the U.S. Embassy in Jerusalem.[268]
  • The Trump Administration continued taking a tough stance against Iran.[269] Here are some of the actions taken against the country:
    • January 2018—President Trump, along with his administration, continued his strong public support of anti-government protests in Iran that started late in the previous year, and he even criticized Obama for his weak Iran policies.[270]
    • January 4, 2018—The Trump Administration sanctioned five Iranian entities with ties to the country's missile program.[271]
    • February 2, 2018—The Trump Administration enacted sanctions on six people and seven companies connected to Hezbollah.[272]
    • May 8, 2018—President Trump announced the U.S. would leave the Iran nuclear deal due to its serious flaws and signed a memorandum to that effect, keeping a major campaign promise.[273] Two days later, the U.S., acting with the United Arab Emirates, enacted sanctions on nine Iranian individuals and companies giving U.S. dollars to the Islamic Revolutionary Guard's Quds Force.[274]
    • May 15, 2018—The Treasury Department enacted terror sanctions on several people and entities accused of funding Hezbollah, including the governor of Iran’s central bank.[275] The following day, the U.S., in coordination with Gulf states, enacted sanctions on Hezbollah's senior leadership.[276] The U.S. enacted additional sanctions on individuals and entities linked to malign Iranian activities on several other days, including May 17,[277] May 22,[278] and May 30.[279] By May 2018, proposed U.S. sanctions against Iran were already having an effect on shipping to the country.[280]
    • August 6, 2018—President Trump signed an executive order reimposing many of the U.S. sanctions on Iran that existed before the nuclear deal.[281] The sanctions went into effect at midnight between August 6 and 7.[282] On November 2, 2018, the Trump Administration announced it would reimpose all remaining sanctions on Iran,[283] though it granted exemptions to eight countries.[284] The sanctions and waivers went into effect on November 5, 2018.[285]
    • October 3, 2018—After the International Court of Justice ruled that the United States could not impose certain sanctions on Iran because it violated the 1955 Treaty of Amity between the two countries, the Trump Administration withdrew the U.S. from that treaty, as well as from an optional protocol of the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations.[241]
    • October 16, 2018—The Treasury Department imposed sanctions on an Iranian financial network worth billions of dollars for its support for child soldiers.[286]
  • The Trump Administration took several actions against North Korea. Though UN Ambassador Nikki Haley, the Trump Administration implemented a "maximum pressure campaign" against the country prior to a summit in June 2018.[287] Notably, President Trump and Kim Jong-un held a joint summit on June 12, 2018,[288] where both leaders pledged to improve relations and denuclearize the Korean Penninsula.[289]
    • January 24, 2018—The Trump Administration sanctioned sixteen individuals, nine entities, and six North Korean ships for their roles in helping North Korea's nuclear and missile programs.[290]
    • February 23, 2018—The Trump Administration enacted another round of sanctions against North Korea, sanctioning 56 entities, including 27 companies.[291]
    • May 9, 2018—As part of negotiations for a planned meeting between President Trump and North Korean dictator Kim Jong-un, North Korea released three American prisoners.[292]
    • July 2018—North Korea began allowing the U.S. to retrieve the bodies of what were believed to be dead U.S. soldiers who had been killed during the Korean War.[293]
    • August 3, 2018—As an illustration of the Trump Administration continuing to take a tough stance on North Korea while still striving for peace, it enacted sanctions on a Russian bank, two North Korean companies, and one North Korean citizen for violating United Nations sanctions on the country.[294] The Trump Administration announced more sanctions on August 21, 2018, against Russian entities for violating sanctions on North Korea.[295] On September 13, 2018, the Trump Administration sanctioned one Russian and one Chinese tech company for moving money to North Korea in violation of UN sanctions.[296] The administration countered attempts by Russia and China to weaken international sanctions against North Korea.[297]
  • Despite the mainstream media's characterization of him as soft on Russia, President Trump took several tough actions against the country, some being even tougher than Obama ever was.[298] At the same time, President Trump sought to improve U.S.–Russia relations.
    • March 26, 2018—The U.S. expelled 60 Russian diplomats and closed a Russian consulate in Seattle.[299]
    • April 6, 2018—The Trump Administration instituted sanctions on 38 Russian individuals and entities, including oligarchs and high-ranking government officials.[300]
    • July 16, 2018—President Trump met with Russian President Vladimir Putin, seeking to improve relations between the two countries,[301] something strongly condemned by the Left, establishment, and the media.[302]
    • August 8, 2018—The Trump Administration announced it would enact sanctions on Russia because of a nerve-agent attack on a former spy in the UK earlier that year.[303]
    • August 21, 2018—The Treasury Department announced two new rounds of sanctions against Russian individuals and entities, among others, one for violating UN sanctions on North Korea and the other for cyber activities against the U.S.[295]
    • November 8, 2018—The U.S. imposed sanctions on 12 individuals and entities connected to Russia's occupation of Crimea.[304]
  • President Trump took actions related to NATO:
    • The Trump Administration continued pushing for the other NATO members to increase their defense spending,[305] sending strongly-written letters to several countries about the issue.[306]
    • July 2018—President Trump took a tough stance at the annual NATO summit.[307] Before and during the summit, he continued pressuring other NATO member states to increase their defense spending.[308] He also pointed out Germany's hypocrisy in relying on the U.S. for defense but being dependent on Russia – a supposed enemy – for its energy needs,[309] and he said he warned the European countries about their immigration problems.[310] At the end of the summit, President Trump stated that NATO's member states had increased their contribution pledges due to his tough stance.[311]
  • Based on several U.S. strategic documents and other government reports, the Trump Administration was taking a stronger stance against China compared to its predecessors.[312] The U.S. also took a tougher stance specifically in relation to Taiwan.[313] On September 7, 2018, the U.S. recalled three of its ambassadors because the countries they were stationed in had cut ties with Taiwan in favor of China,[314] though one day earlier, the State Department used terminology favored by China to refer to Taiwan.[315]
    • September 20, 2018—The Trump Administration sanctioned China for buying fighter jets and anti-aircraft missiles from Russia.[316]
    • Among the actions the Trump Administration took related to Taiwan, gave U.S. manufacturers permission to share submarine technology with the country so it could build its own submarines,[317] and it opened a new de facto embassy in June 2018 which symbolized its strengthening of relations with the country.[318] On August 19, 2018, Taiwan's president became the first Taiwanese leader to visit a U.S. federal building when she toured NASA's Johnson Space Center.[319] In September 2018, the U.S. approved a $300 million arms sale to Taiwan.[320]
    • The U.S. military challenged China by sailing warships in waters claimed by China, including on September 30, 2018,[321] and October 22, 2018.[322] The United States took a strong stance on maintaining freedom of navigation in the South China Sea.[323]
  • January 19, 2017—The Department of Defense released its National Defense Strategy, which shifted its strategic focus away from the main focus on counterterrorism adopted by previous administrations and toward effectively countering the threats posed by nation states – such as Russia, China, Iran, and North Korea.[324] The strategy took a significantly harder line on China compared to the Obama Administration,[325] and it emphasized the need for U.S. allies to pay a greater share for their defense to reduce the U.S.'s burden.[326]
  • February 2, 2018—The Trump Administration released its Nuclear Posture Review, which took a tougher stance against Russia than the Obama Administration and called for actions to expand U.S. nuclear capabilities in order to counter Russia and, to a lesser extent, China, Iran, and North Korea.[327]
  • April 13, 2018—After the Syrian government reportedly used chemical weapons on its people, President Trump ordered precision missile strikes on certain military installations in the country, in coordination with the French and UK governments.[328] According to the Pentagon the following day, the U.S. and its allies launched 105 missiles that successfully hit all three targets and crippled the Syrian chemical weapons program.[329] The following day, the UN Security Council rejected a Russian proposal to condemn the attacks.[330] While many strong conservatives criticized the airstrikes as a betrayal of the America First agenda that Trump ran on in 2016,[331] the airstrikes were reportedly limited in scope and purpose,[332] intended to stop Syria from using chemical weapons and to send a message to the government's allies,[333] and designed not to inflame tensions in the area or drag the U.S. further into the conflict.[332] The U.S. government also stated it would not launch any more attacks unless the Syrian government used chemical weapons again.[334]
  • April 20, 2018—In the State Department's annual human rights report, in addition to criticizing countries such as China, Russia, Iran, and North Korea for human rights abuses,[335] it removed the phrases "occupied" and "occupation" when referring to Israel's authority over the West Bank,[336][337] and it removed the Obama-era policy of listing abortion as a "human right."[337][338] Despite this, the report was still biased in favor of the homosexual agenda.[339]
  • As in 2017, the Trump Administration remained successful in freeing Americans detained in other countries.[340] For example, three Americans were released from North Korea through the Trump Administration in May 2018,[292] and one American was released from Venezuela later that month.[341]
    • August 1, 2018—The Trump Administration sanctioned high-ranking Turkish officials for refusing to release detained American pastor Andrew Brunson because of charges the administration considered unjust.[342] On August 10, 2018, President Trump announced the U.S. would double its aluminum and steel tariffs against Turkey, an action related to the dispute over Brunson.[343] The Turkish government released Brunson on October 12, 2018.[344]
  • The Trump Administration continued enacting sanctions on Venezuela's socialist government in 2018, including on January 5,[345] March 19,[346] May 7,[347] May 21,[348] and November 1.[349]
  • June 8–9, 2018—At the annual G7 summit, President Trump took strong "America First" stances on trade and other issues,[350] and in addition to going against the global establishment by calling for Russia's reinstatement in the group,[351] he retracted his country's support of the summit's joint statement due to false statements made by Canada's prime minister – the summit's host – against him.[352]
  • July 24–26, 2018—The State Department hosted the first-ever U.S. government summit on religious freedom.[353] At the end of the summit, the State Department released the Potomac Declaration and the Potomac Plan of Action, which emphasized the importance of religious liberty to the U.S. government, called on other countries to protect religious freedom, and outlined specific steps for these countries to follow to protect religious freedom. The Trump Administration also announced the establishment of an International Religious Freedom Fund, as well as the Genocide Recovery and Persecution Response Program to quickly provide aid to persecuted religious minorities.[250][354]
  • August 2018—The State Department's 2018 Trafficking in Persons Report, combating human trafficking around the world, was described as being stronger than in previous years.[355]
  • August 22, 2018—After the State Department released a statement defending South Africa's racist and left-wing land seizures, President Trump announced he ordered the department instead to study the issue as well as the violence against the country's white-skinned farmers.[356]
  • September 6, 2018—The U.S. signed a major agreement with India to increase intelligence and military cooperation.[357]
  • November 1, 2018—In a speech on the Trump Administration's Latin America policy, National Security Advisor Bolton spoke highly of the region's conservative leaders, Colombian president Iván Duque and Brazilian president-elect Jair Bolsonaro; strongly criticized the socialist countries of Cuba, Venezuela, and Nicaragua; and announced President Trump had signed sanctions on Venezuelan gold exports.[349]
  • In October 2018, German Chancellor Angela Merkel agreed to import more natural gas from the U.S.,[358] and in November 2018, Poland announced it had signed a long-term deal to buy American natural gas.[359]

Other achievements, 2018

While the following achievements were not official United States government policy actions by the Trump Administration, they were closely related to the Trump Administration and its policies:

  • February 2018—While not outright opposed to the EU's common military agreement, the Trump Administration voiced skepticism toward it for potentially undermining NATO and creating trade barriers to American-made military technology.[360] Later, in April 2018, President Trump voiced skepticism of the EU, arguing that it was "formed to take advantage of the United States."[361] He criticized the EU on other occasions, usually due to the organization's trade policies.[362] In an interview on July 1, 2018, President Trump stated that the EU "is possibly as bad as China" on trade.[363] On July 15, 2018, President Trump described the EU as a "foe" of the U.S., along with Russia and China.[364]
  • Among numerous other statements promoting an "America First" foreign policy, President Trump stated at a diplomatic press conference in April 2018 that the United States should prioritize its own needs rather than act as the "policeman of the world."[365]
  • While not an official policy action, the Trump Administration took a strong stance against China after its government told airline companies to change how they refer to Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau, criticizing the Chinese government for engaging in "Orwellian nonsense."[366] In June 2018, the Trump Administration released a report strongly criticizing China economic policies as a threat to U.S. national security.[367] President Trump himself indicated that China was a greater threat than Russia.[368] On October 4, 2018, Vice President Mike Pence gave a strong speech on China, speaking out against the country,[369] and he made subsequent statements against China.[370]
  • May 30, 2018—While a symbolic move, the Department of Defense changed the name of the U.S. Pacific Command to the U.S. Indo-Pacific Command in recognition of India's increasing importance in the region.[371]

Appointments, 2018

  • On January 24, 2018, the U.S. Senate narrowly confirmed – with Vice President Mike Pence casting a tie-breaking vote – social conservative Sam Brownback to be the U.S. Ambassador-at-Large for International Religious Freedom.[372]

Failures, 2018

  • April 2018—The Trump Administration endorsed a plan to raise its funding of the World Bank, reversing its previous skeptical position.[373]
  • August 2018—The Trump Administration decided not to unilaterally cut about $3.5 billion in foreign aid funding after considering the action.[374]
  • September 5, 2018—Education Secretary Betsy DeVos signed a joint declaration at a G-20 meeting of education ministers that promoted left-wing and globalist policies.[375]
  • The State Department continued to promote the homosexual agenda as part of U.S. foreign policy.[376]

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  159. Multiple references: Polish President Andrzej Duda announced the summit would be moved to Warsaw, rather than southwestern Poland, due to President Trump's visit:
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  166. 166.0 166.1 Newman, Alex (July 7, 2017). In Poland, Trump Defends Western Civilization and Freedom. The New American. Retrieved July 10, 2017.
  167. The mainstream media, such as The Washington Post, described the speech as "starkly populist and nationalistic":
  168. 168.0 168.1 Ridgwell, Henry (July 6, 2017). In Warsaw Speech, Trump Vows to Fight Terrorism, Back NATO Allies. Voice of America. Retrieved July 6, 2017.
  169. Multiple references:
  170. Deacon, Liam (July 6, 2017). WATCH: Trump Praises Populist Poland, Says West Must ‘Defend Civilization’ and ‘Faith’. Breitbart News. Retrieved July 6, 2017.
  171. 171.0 171.1 171.2 Boyer, Dave (July 6, 2017). Trump commits to NATO defense, slams Russian aggression. The Washington Times. Retrieved July 6, 2017.
  172. Pollak, Joel B. (July 6, 2017). Trump Renews Pledges in Warsaw After Obama’s Broken Promises to Prague. Breitbart News. Retrieved July 6, 2017.
    The Trump Administration announced the sale of Patriot Missiles to Poland and noted shipments of LNG gas to the nation: Poland entered talks with Lockheed Martin for using the HIMARS artillery rocket system:
  173. Multiple references:
  174. Ryun, Ned (July 12, 2017). President Trump Calling out of Russia the Furthest Thing from Appeasement. Breitbart News. Retrieved July 12, 2017.
  175. Multiple references:
  176. Wishon, Jennifer (July 6, 2017). 'We Want God': President Trump Defends Faith, Family, Freedom in Poland Speech. CBN News. Retrieved July 8, 2017.
  177. Williams, Thomas D. (July 8, 2017). President Trump Praises Saint John Paul II as ‘Great Hero’ of Poland. Breitbart News. Retrieved July 8, 2017.
  178. Multiple references:
  179. Kassam, Raheem (July 8, 2017). KASSAM: The Economist Panics As Trump Puts Tradition over Globalist Obsessions. Breitbart News. Retrieved July 8, 2017.
  180. Heinlein, Peter (July 9, 2017). Trump’s G-20 Performance Gets Mixed Reviews. Voice of America. Retrieved July 10, 2017.
  181. Kassam, Raheem (July 11, 2017). EXCLUSIVE–Polish Govt: Trump’s Perceived ‘Friendliness’ With Russia No Concern After Warsaw Speech. Breitbart News. Retrieved July 11, 2017.
  182. Multiple references:
  183. Multiple references:
  184. Manchester, Julia (July 8, 2017). Trump holds whirlwind meetings with world leaders at G20. The Hill. Retrieved July 8, 2017.
    In his meeting with Mexico's president, Trump reaffirmed his stance that Mexico should pay for the wall:
  185. Multiple references: Although scheduled for 30 minutes, the meeting lasted over two hours:
  186. Multiple references: The ceasefire went into effect on July 9:
  187. Multiple references: Angela Merkel, the host of the 2017 G-20 summit, earlier stated her intention to weaken the group's climate statement in order to appease President Trump:
  188. Multiple references:
  189. Boyer, Dave (July 10, 2017). Trump achieved goals in G-20 summit, White House official says. The Washington Times. Retrieved July 11, 2017.
  190. Multiple references:
  191. Multiple references:
  192. Multiple references: Despite the agreement, the diplomatic crisis between Qatar and the other Arab nations continued: Qatar appeared to make additional progress in taking action against terrorism:
  193. Multiple references: On July 5, 2017, President Trump signaled that he was finished working with China:
  194. Multiple references:
  195. Multiple references:
  196. Multiple references:
  197. Multiple references: See also:
  198. Multiple references: See also:
  199. Multiple references: Neoconservatives supported President Trump's plan: See also:
  200. Multiple references:
  201. Multiple references:
  202. Multiple references:
  203. Multiple references:
  204. Multiple references:
  205. Multiple references:
  206. Multiple references: Israel, naturally, supported the decision:
  207. Multiple references: See also:
  208. Multiple references:
  209. Multiple references:
  210. 210.0 210.1 Multiple references: Pictures of the events: See also: Positive reactions to the move: Reactions from American Christians:
  211. Multiple references:
  212. Pollak, Joel B. (July 6, 2017). Trump Has Had 50% More Meetings with Foreign Leaders than Obama. Breitbart News. Retrieved July 7, 2017.
    See also:
  213. Bredemeier, Ken (July 20, 2017). By the Numbers: Six Months into Trump's Presidency. Voice of America. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
  214. Multiple references:
  215. Multiple references:
  216. Multiple references: Montenegro officially joined NATO on June 5, 2017:
  217. Multiple references: See also:
  218. Stanage, Niall (May 15, 2018). The Memo: Trump puts his stamp on the globe. The Hill. Retrieved May 15, 2018.
    See also:
  219. Multiple references: Trump Administration appointees at the International Organization bureau at the State Department were effective in advancing the administration's agenda depite opposition from the deep state: See also:
  220. 220.0 220.1 Muñoz, Carlo (September 5, 2018). Trump rejects Marshall Plan nation-building, opts for 'tough love' foreign policy. The Washington Times. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
  221. 221.0 221.1 Boylan, Dan (September 10, 2018). Bolton bolsters Trump's 'America first' foreign policy with robust defense of U.S. sovereignty. The Washington Times. Retrieved September 11, 2018.
  222. Wolfgang, Ben (August 20, 2018). Trump unleashes troop-level diplomacy. The Washington Times. Retrieved August 21, 2018.
  223. Bishop, Bill (August 31, 2018). New normal: Congress lets Trump unleash on China. Axios. Retrieved August 31, 2018.
    See also:
  224. Multiple references: See also:
  225. Multiple references: See also:
  226. Multiple references:
  227. Multiple references: UN Ambassador Haley criticized for "human rights groups" for contributing to the U.S. decision to withdraw: Further reading: See also:
  228. Shaw, Adam (August 24, 2018). Haley fights to get US companies a bigger piece of the action on lucrative UN contracts. Fox News. Retrieved August 24, 2018.
  229. Multiple references:
  230. Multiple references: See also:
  231. 231.0 231.1 Holland, Steve (September 9, 2018). Trump administration takes aim at International Criminal Court, PLO. Reuters. Retrieved September 11, 2018.
  232. Multiple references: See also:
  233. Multiple references:
  234. 234.0 234.1 234.2 234.3 234.4 Multiple references: The UNGA meeting represented a debate between sovereignty and multilateralism: See also:
  235. Multiple references:
  236. Spiering, Charlie (September 25, 2018). Donald Trump: United States ‘Will No Longer Tolerate’ Cheating from China. Breitbart News. Retrieved September 25, 2018.
  237. Multiple references:
  238. Multiple references: See also:
  239. Spiering, Charlie (September 25, 2018). Donald Trump to U.N.: Refugees Should Return to Their Countries and ‘Make Them Great Again’. Breitbart News. Retrieved September 25, 2018.
  240. Multiple references: More on China's election meddling:
  241. 241.0 241.1 241.2 Multiple references: See also:
  242. Gómez, Serafin; Pappas, Alex (January 1, 2018). Trump withholding $255M in aid to Pakistan, as he accuses country of giving 'safe haven' to terrorists. Fox News. Retrieved January 4, 2018.
  243. Multiple references: See also:
  244. Multiple references:
  245. Multiple references:
  246. Multiple references:
  247. Multiple references: See also:
  248. Multiple references: See also:
  249. Multiple references:
  250. 250.0 250.1 Morello, Carol (July 26, 2018). Help is on the way, at last, for religious minorities in Iraq. The Washington Post. Retrieved July 26, 2018.
  251. Multiple references:
  252. Multiple references:
  253. 253.0 253.1 Multiple references: See also:
  254. Multiple references:
  255. Multiple references:
  256. Multiple references:
  257. Multiple references:
  258. 258.0 258.1 Multiple references: See also:
  259. Multiple references:
  260. Multiple references:
  261. Multiple references: See also:
  262. Multiple references: See also:
  263. Multiple references:
  264. Multiple references: See also:
  265. Multiple references:
  266. Multiple references: President Trump had stated that the cost to move the embassy was significantly less than originally planned: See also:
  267. Multiple references: The U.S. reportedly revoked the PLO envoy's visas and froze PLO bank accounts: See also:
  268. Multiple references:
  269. Stewart, Phil (July 31, 2018). Where is Trump headed with his tougher policy toward Iran? Reuters. Retrieved July 31, 2018.
    Regarding Iran's harassment of U.S. Navy ships: The Trump Administration's tough stance on Iran was criticized by left-wing UN officials: See also:
  270. Multiple references: President Trump's administration also voiced support for the Iranian protesters: See also:
  271. Multiple references:
  272. Multiple references:
  273. Multiple references: The Israeli government reacted positively while European countries opposed the move: President Trump's domestic supporters reacted positively: A more critical conservative reaction: See also: Numerous companies announced they would stop doing business with Iran because of the reimposed U.S. sanctions:
  274. Multiple references:
  275. Multiple references:
  276. Multiple references:
  277. Multiple references:
  278. Multiple references:
  279. Multiple references:
  280. Paris, Costas; Chiu, Joanne (May 29, 2018). U.S. Sanctions Start to Pinch Shipping in Iran. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved May 30, 2018.
  281. Multiple references: See also:
  282. Multiple references:
  283. Multiple references: See also:
  284. Multiple references: See also:
  285. Multiple references: See also:
  286. Multiple references:
  287. Evansky, Ben (June 11, 2018). How Nikki Haley brought Trump's maximum pressure campaign down on North Korea at UN Security Council. Fox News. Retrieved June 11, 2018.
  288. Multiple references:
  289. Multiple references: See also:
  290. Multiple references:
  291. Multiple references: President Trump announced the sanctions that same day during his speech at CPAC: On March 30, 2018, the UN Security Council, acting at the request of the U.S., blacklisted many of the entities that the Trump Administration sanctioned:
  292. 292.0 292.1 Multiple references: President Trump greeted the three Americans as they returned: The reaction of the detainees and their families: See also:
  293. Multiple references: The remains arrived on U.S. soil on August 1, 2018: See also Identifying the remains:
  294. Multiple references: See also:
  295. 295.0 295.1 Multiple references:
  296. Multiple references:
  297. Hayward, John (September 28, 2018). Russia and China Try to Weaken North Korea Sanctions, Pompeo Fights Back. Breitbart News. Retrieved September 28, 2018.
  298. Multiple references: See also:
  299. Multiple references: Russia announced it would retaliate by expelling 60 American diplomats and closing the U.S. consulate in Saint Petersburg: See also:
  300. Multiple references: Shortly after the sanctions were instituted, the Russian officials and entities targeted had already lost up to $16 billion: See also:
  301. Multiple references: See also: President Trump's statements and the topics discussed at the summit: Regarding a reported U.S.–Russia agreement on Syria: However, President Trump later backtracked on some of his statements:
  302. Multiple references: Republicans, however, supported the meeting: Polling found President Trump's approval rating was not hurt by the meeting: See also:
  303. Multiple references: See also:
  304. Multiple references:
  305. Boylan, Dan (September 14, 2018). NATO chief thanks Trump for pushing allies to spend more on defense. The Washington Times. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
  306. Multiple references:
  307. Multiple references: However, some conservatives argued that President Trump did not go far enough with his criticisms of NATO:
  308. Before the summit: President Trump also criticized the EU's trade policies: During the summit: President Trump suggested that the NATO member states double their defense spending targets to 4% of their GDPs:
  309. Multiple references: See also:
  310. Friedman, Victoria (July 12, 2018). Trump at NATO: ‘Immigration Is Taking Over Europe’. Breitbart News. Retrieved July 12, 2018.
  311. Multiple references: Some European countries, such as France, disputed President Trump's statements on higher contribution pledges: President Trump's commitment to NATO: See also:
  312. Bishop, Bill (January 26, 2018). Trump's new China strategy appears more contentious. Axios. Retrieved January 29, 2018.
    See also: The Pentagon continued to have relatively cooperative relations with China:
  313. Wong, Kristina (August 6, 2018). EXCLUSIVE: Trump’s Pentagon Taking More Assertive Stance Against China on Taiwan. Breitbart News. Retrieved August 6, 2018.
    See also:
  314. Multiple references:
  315. Wong, Kristina (September 7, 2018). State Department Tweet Calls Taiwan ‘Chinese Taipei,’ Using China-Approved Term. Breitbart News. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
  316. Multiple references: See also:
  317. Multiple references:
  318. Multiple references:
  319. Multiple references:
  320. Multiple references:
  321. Multiple references:
  322. Multiple references:
  323. Multiple references:
  324. Multiple references: See also:
  325. Wong, Kristina (January 19, 2018). National Defense Strategy: China a ‘Strategic Competitor Using Predatory Economics’. Breitbart News. Retrieved January 19, 2018.
  326. Multiple references:
  327. Multiple references: The Trump Administration's nuclear policy was tougher toward Russia than the Obama Administration's:
  328. Multiple references: President Trump's statement announcing the airstrikes: See also:
  329. Multiple references: Satellite images showed the same conclusion: President Trump's reaction: According to a report a few days later, the Syrian government still had the ability to conduct chemical weapons attacks: See also:
  330. Multiple references:
  331. Multiple references: Some conservatives also defended the airstrikes: See also:
  332. 332.0 332.1 Multiple references:
  333. Bender, Michael C.; Radnofsky, Louise (April 14, 2018). Trump Says Strikes Aimed at Ending Syria’s Use of Chemical Weapons, Sending Message to Russia and Iran. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved April 22, 2018.
  334. Multiple references: See also:
  335. Multiple references: See also:
  336. Multiple references:
  337. 337.0 337.1 Morello, Carol (April 20, 2018). State Department strikes reproductive rights, ‘Occupied Territories’ from human rights report. The Washington Post. Retrieved April 28, 2018.
  338. Multiple references: See also:
  339. Ruse, Austin (April 30, 2018). Killing unborn children not a human right, says State Department. LifeSiteNews (from C-Fam). Retrieved May 2, 2018.
  340. Multiple references:
  341. Multiple references:
  342. Multiple references: The U.S. lifted the sanctions on November 2, 2018, after Brunson was released: See also:
  343. Multiple references: See also:
  344. Multiple references: President Trump met Brunson in the Oval Office after the latter's release: See also:
  345. Multiple references:
  346. Multiple references:
  347. Multiple references:
  348. Multiple references: See also:
  349. 349.0 349.1 Multiple references: See also:
  350. Multiple references: President Trump also made strong statements on trade shortly before leaving for the summit: Specifically regarding abortion: See also:
  351. Multiple references:
  352. Multiple references: See also:
  353. Multiple references: See also:
  354. Multiple references: On the Genocide Recovery and Persecution Response Program: See also:
  355. Nazarian, Adelle (August 10, 2018). Exclusive: State Department Takes Strongest Steps Yet to Combat Human Trafficking Abroad. Breitbart News. Retrieved August 10, 2018.
  356. Multiple references: The State Department took a different stance in a new statement shortly afterward: See also:
  357. Multiple references: See also:
  358. Multiple references:
  359. Multiple references: The natural gas deal came at a time when U.S.–Poland relations were very strong: See also:
  360. Multiple references:
  361. Multiple references:
  362. Multiple references:
  363. Multiple references:
  364. Multiple references:
  365. Samuels, Brett (April 30, 2018). Trump: We don't want to be the policemen of the world. The Hill. Retrieved April 30, 2018.
  366. Multiple references: See also:
  367. Multiple references: See also:
  368. Thomsen, Jacqueline (August 18, 2018). Trump says Russia investigators should be looking at China. The Hill. Retrieved August 18, 2018.
  369. Multiple references: Specifically on Pence's comments about Google and its relationship with China: See also:
  370. Nicholas, Peter; Watts, Jake Maxwell (November 15, 2018). Pence Calls for an Indo-Pacific Region Free of Chinese ‘Aggression’. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved November 15, 2018.
  371. Multiple references:
  372. Multiple references: Brownback was sworn in on February 1, 2018: See also:
  373. Multiple references:
  374. Multiple references:
  375. Multiple references: See also:
  376. Multiple references: