Donald Trump achievements: Deregulation and government size

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Official presidential photo of President Donald Trump
Main article: Donald Trump achievements

This article is a non-exhaustive list of achievements by U.S. President Donald Trump, his administration, and Congress related to deregulation and promoting limited government.

For additional deregulation achievements related to energy and the environment, see Donald Trump achievements: Energy and environmental policy. Some achievements related to healthcare and welfare can be found at Donald Trump achievements: Religious liberty, gender issues, and other social policies.

2017

The Trump Administration made much progress in rolling back regulations,[1] described in May 2017 as its "biggest untold success."[2] President Trump and Congress spent much time rolling back regulations, particularly those created by Obama,[3] and the federal agencies under Trump shifted their focus on cutting regulations rather than writing them.[4] The Administration's focused on reducing regulations for the purpose of "furthering individual liberty and property rights" along with economic reasons.[5] According to the Competitive Enterprise Institute in October 2017, the Trump was the "least regulatory president" since Ronald Reagan and was even faster than Reagan in advancing his conservative deregulation agenda.[6]

Legislation signed, 2017

  • President Trump successfully made use of Congressional Review numerous times to roll back Obama-era regulations – even more than expected.[7][8] Prior to Trump's presidency, the Congressional Review Act had been used only once successfully, sixteen years prior.[9] When the window to use the CRA for Obama-era regulations ended, Congress had passed and Trump had signed 14 CRA resolutions repealing Obama regulations[10][11][12] – significantly more than expected.[10][13] These actions were estimated to have saved $3.7 billion in regulatory costs and up to $36.2 billion in compliance costs.[10][14] In November 2017, President Trump and Congress repealed another regulation through the CRA, this time a regulation passed after Trump assumed office.[15] Some examples of CRA legislation signed by President Trump follow (other examples can be found in different sub-articles):
    • February 14, 2017—President Trump signed a bill into law repealing an Obama Era relation requiring energy companies to disclose financial transactions with foreign governments.[16]
    • March 27, 2017—President Trump signed four bills undoing Obama-era regulations.[7][17] Two of those bills rolled back federal education regulations.[18]
    • March 31, 2017—President Trump signed another bill undoing an Obama-era regulation, giving the power back to the states to expand drug testing for unemployment benefit applicants.[19]
    • April 3, 2017—President Trump signed a bill reversing an Obama-era FCC privacy regulation applicable to internet service providers. The FCC had adopted the rule to fill a gap created by a court case which ruled that the FTC did not have jurisdiction to extend its privacy rule over internet service providers because they were regulated by the FCC. The new law repealed the FCC rule and prohibits the FCC from enacting a replacement for 10 years without giving the FTC jurisdiction to regulate internet service providers' privacy practices.[20] Part of yet another series of bills undoing other Obama regulations.[21]
  • May 12, 2017—President Trump signed Public Law 115–33 (S. 496),[22] which repealed a rule by the Department of Transportation that would have taken power away from local governments on infrastructure planning.[23] The bill did not invoke the CRA.[22]

Executive actions, 2017

The Trump Administration focused on removing regulations rather than creating them,[24] and the various departments in the Trump Administration moved to undo numerous regulations.[25] In the first six weeks of Trump's presidency, over 90 regulations were repealed, whether through executive orders, Acts of Congress, or other means[26][27] — clearly keeping his promises.[28] Additionally, by late May 2017, the Trump Administration had approved a record low number of new regulations – $33 million in new regulatory costs by May 23 as opposed to $26 billion in the same period in previous administrations, and releasing 8% the average amount of rules released by the past three administrations during the same period of time.[29] The Trump Administration had a significantly lower regulatory reach in several other aspects compared to the previous administration.[30] By July 2017, the Trump Administration had withdrawn or effectively killed 860 proposed Obama era regulations,[31] including 179 that were on a secret list of proposed regulations by the Obama Administration,[32] and rate of killed regulations was 16 for every new one – well above of the mandated rate of two removed regulations for every new one.[31] It was again reported in September 2017 that the Administration was keeping its promises on deregulation.[33] By December 2017, the Trump Administration was killing regulations at a rate of 22 for every 1 regulation created and had saved about $570 million a year due to its deregulation actions.[34]

It was reported in August 2017 that the Trump Administration's fight against regulations had saved businesses $4 billion per year compared to the Obama Administration.[35] In the first 11 months of Trump's presidency, his administration imposed $5.8 billion in new regulations, as opposed to $24.8 billion in the last 16 days of Obama's presidency.[36] By December 2017, the Trump Administration had already saved American taxpayers $378 million.[37]

In addition to cutting regulations, President Trump had a successful first year in reducing the number of federal government employees. By early August 2017, the Trump Administration had reportedly reduced the number of federal employees by 9,000 even with an increase in Pentagon employees.[38] By the end of September 2017, every cabinet department – with the sole exceptions of the departments of Homeland Security, Veterans Affairs, and the Interior – had fewer permanent staff than they had at the beginning of the year.[39] Overall, the number of federal employees fell by 16,000 during this time, and it was the first time since Bill Clinton's presidency that the number of federal employees fell during a president's first year in office.[39]

The Trump Administration took numerous actions related to reducing government regulations:

  • January 20, 2017—On its first day in office, the Trump Administration ordered a regulatory freeze on all federal governmental agencies.[40]
  • January 30, 2017—Trump signed an executive order that requires two federal regulations must be eliminated for every regulation created.[41]
  • February 3, 2017—President Trump signed a memorandum directing the United States Department of Labor to review a regulation signed by Obama set to go into effect.[42]
  • February 24, 2017—President Trump signed an executive order requiring every federal agency to create a "regulatory reform task force" to find unnecessary, burdensome regulations to repeal.[43] This order was called "the most far reaching effort to pare back U.S. red tape in recent decades."[44]
  • April 25, 2017—President Trump signed an executive order ordering the Department of Agriculture to find and eliminate unnecessary regulations, in an effort to help farmers, particularly in the light of NAFTA and the trade imbalance with Canada.[45]
  • The Trump Administration took actions regarding federal land use:
    • April 26, 2017—President Trump signed an executive order ordering the Interior Department to review designations of national monuments from as far back as 20 years prior, with the intention of reversing federal overreach in land acquisition and returning power to the states.[46]
    • December 4, 2017—President Trump signed two executive orders greatly reducing the land area of two national monuments in Utah – in order to "reverse federal overreach" and preserve states' rights – created by the Clinton and Obama administrations.[47] The orders went into effect on February 2, 2018.[48]
  • September 7, 2017—The Office of Management and Budget issued a memorandum expecting federal agencies to decrease their regulatory costs.[49]
  • December 14, 2017—The Federal Communications Commission voted to repeal Obama-era "Net Neutrality" regulations.[50] The FCC made the repeal official in April 2018,[51] and the repeal took effect on June 11, 2018.[52]

The Trump Administration took numerous actions related to reducing the size of government and reducing waste:

  • On Inauguration Day, 2017, the Trump administration instituted a federal hiring freeze.[53] On January 23, 2017, Trump signed an executive order instituting the hiring freeze, from which the military was exempted.[54] On April 12, 2017, the administration partially lifted the hiring freeze and replaced it with a plan to restructure and shrink the executive branch,[55] and it still planned on not filling numerous governmental positions.[56]
  • February 28, 2017—President Trump announced that he did not plan on filling numerous government positions he considered unnecessary.[57] According to one source, about 2,000 positions were vacant, and most of them were likely included in this list.[58] As of April 4, 2017, President Trump did not make a nomination for nearly 500 positions requiring Senate confirmation.[59]
  • March 13, 2017—President Trump signed an executive order to perform an audit on every executive branch agency in order to reduce spending and waste and improve services.[60]
  • June 19, 2017—The Environmental Protection Agency ended a $1 million program where it gave gym memberships to its employees, ending the program due to an abuse of taxpayer money.[61]
  • The White House 2017 payroll was $5.1 million lower than the Obama Administration's 2015 payroll. Additionally, the Trump White House employed 110 fewer employees than Obama, and it did not employ any policy "czars."[62] In addition, President Trump donated his entire first-quarter 2017 salary to restore the Antietam National Battlefield.[63]
  • It was reported in October 2017 that First Lady Melania Trump had significantly reduced her staff in comparison with her predecessor Michelle Obama. Melania Trump employed four people in 2017 with a combined annual salary of $486,700 compared to Michelle Obama's 16 employees (her press secretary stated in 2009 that she actually employed a record-breaking 24 people) and a combined annual salary of $1.24 million in 2009.[64]
  • December 7, 2017—The Department of Defense announced it would begin its first-ever agency-wide financial audit.[65]
  • In 2017, the Trump Administration saved $774 million by beginning to privatize FEMA flood insurance risk.[66]

Appointments, 2017

  • June 10, 2017—The U.S. Senate confirmed Neomi Rao, who was noted for her position in favor of deregulation, as the administrator of the White House Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA).[67]

Other achievements, 2017

While the following achievements were not official United States government policy actions by the Trump Administration, they were closely related to the Trump Administration and its policies:

  • The national debt decreased after President Trump assumed office, unlike Obama.[68] In Trump's first 100 days in office, the U.S. national debt decreased by $100 billion, as opposed to Obama, where the debt grew by $560 billion by the same point in his presidency.[69] While the national debt increased by over $600 billion and passed the $20 trillion mark during fiscal year 2017, the rate of growth was less than half the average during the Obama Administration, and the Trump Administration made moves to reduce the need to borrow money.[70]
  • It was reported in June 2017 that President Trump's deregulation actions had increased confidence and hiring in the manufacturing sector.[71]

Failures, 2017

2018

The Trump Administration continued reducing regulations in 2018,[73] and it worked to reduce waste in the government.[74] According to a May 2018 report by the American Action Forum, the Trump Administration was on track to double the amount saved and the number of regulation cut compared to its goals,[75] and it reported in September 2018 that it had saved taxpayers $1.3 billion in Fiscal Year 2018.[76] By August 2018, twelve of 22 federal agencies had met or exceeded the savings target set by President Trump in 2017.[77] By May 2018, it had taken numerous steps to reduce banking regulations, both through legislation and through executive actions.[78] In October 2018, the Trump Administration announced it had saved $23 billion in regulatory costs and cut 12 regulations for every new one.[79] The Trump Administration, through Acting Director Mick Mulvaney, took steps to reduce the power of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau.[80]

Through the leadership of the Trump Administration, Congress for the first time in twenty years was able to pass individual department spending bills rather than having to vote on "omnibus" bills.[81]

Legislation signed, 2018

  • March 28, 2018—President Trump signed a bill into law that created a permanent ban on the use of federal funds for official portraits, though it only cut a small amount of federal waste.[82]
  • May 21, 2018—President Trump signed a CRA bill into law repealing a 2013 guidance issued by the CFPB that regulated auto lending.[83]
  • May 24, 2018—President Trump signed a bill into law repealing some financial regulations put into place under the Dodd–Frank law, including reducing the amount of regulation and oversight for banks having under $250 billion in assets.[84] The Act was described as the largest change to U.S. banking regulations since the Dodd–Frank law.[85]

Executive actions, 2018

  • February 27, 2018—The White House announced President Trump had reached an informal deal with Boeing that would save the U.S. government $1.4 billion – with the new price at $3.9 billion – for two new Air Force One planes.[86] Similarly, the Defense Department suspended F-35 Lightning II deliveries due to a dispute with Lockheed Martin over who should pay for a production mistake in the jets.[87]
  • April 9, 2018—Fourteen Trump Administration agencies signed a memorandum to speed up the approval process for infrastructure projects.[88]
  • April 12, 2018—President Trump signed an order creating a task force to review the finances of the United States Postal Service.[89]
  • April 24, 2018—The Treasury Department released a report on its deregulatory actions, revealing that it had eliminated or proposed eliminating over 300 regulations.[90] It was reported at roughly the same time that the Trump Administration was taking steps to reduce financial regulations.[91]
  • May 24, 2018—President Trump signed a directive ordering federal agencies to reduce regulations for private space travel companies.[92]
  • May 25, 2018—President Trump signed three executive orders reforming federal workforce rules, such as making it easier to fire federal employees for misconduct, weakening the power of federal labor unions, and making the workforce more efficient and less costly.[93] Among these changes, federal workers were required to use at least 75% of their work time to actually do the jobs they were hired to do rather than doing union-related work.[93] That same day, Trump signed another executive order exempting tour operators from an Obama-era regulation that required a certain minimum wage for those working for companies contracting with the federal government.[94] On July 5, 2018, the White House's Office of Personnel Management moved to implement the orders,[95] and on November 8, 2018, the Department of Veterans Affairs announced it would end the practice of "official time" for its medical employees.[96]
  • As the White House's staff was significantly smaller than under the Obama Administration – 374 people in 2018 versus 469 in 2010 – the Trump Administration White House was able to cut its payroll by over $5 million compared to the Obama Administration's 2015 payroll and had saved a total of $11 million by 2018.[97] Meanwhile, the EPA's employment level fell to the lowest since the Reagan Administration.[98]
  • June 10, 2018—President Trump signed an executive order making all regulatory judges in the executive branch political appointees, something done in response to the Supreme Court case Lucia v. Securities and Exchange Commission and giving the Trump Administration greater control over the administrative state.[99]
  • August 30, 2018—Because of budgetary problems caused by overspending, President Trump canceled a planned across-the-board 2.1% pay raise for civilian federal employees, saving the government about $25 billion.[100]
  • October 17, 2018—President Trump asked each of his cabinet members to cut spending in their departments by at least 5%.[101]

Other achievements, 2018

While the following achievements were not official United States government policy actions by the Trump Administration, they were closely related to the Trump Administration and its policies:

  • June 21, 2018—The Trump Administration released its proposal for a comprehensive reorganization of the federal government which would advance conservative principles, including merging the Labor and Education Departments into one, privatizing the United States Postal Service, and merging all welfare programs into the HHS, which would be renamed.[102]

Failures, 2018

  • February 9, 2018—While President Trump signed a government funding bill that allowed for increasing military spending by $165 billion over two years,[103] the bill also raised domestic spending by $131 billion and also gave $90 billion for relief for areas recently affected by hurricanes, and it raised the spending limits imposed by the Budget Control Act of 2011.[104]
  • March 23, 2018—President Trump very reluctantly signed a massive $1.3 trillion omnibus spending bill into law despite threatening to veto it.[105] Despite massively raising defense spending, the bill also increased domestic spending by 12%, or $63 billion, despite the Trump Administration's proposal to massively reduce domestic spending, and it funded left-wing domestic priorities sought by the Obama Administration while doing little to advance conservative priorities.[106] In addition to wasteful domestic spending, the bill appropriated wasteful and unnecessary foreign spending[107] The bill also lacked social conservative and Christian priorities such as defunding Planned Parenthood.[108]
  • Despite a Republican-controlled Congress, the U.S. national debt surpassed $21 trillion in March 2018, only six months after reaching $20 trillion.[109] Federal spending grew faster than increased government revenues,[110] and the Treasury Department reported that by October 2018, the federal deficit had reached the highest level since 2012.[111] The Treasury Department announced in October 2018 that it expected that the U.S. government would raise the debt by $1.34 Trillion in 2018, more than double the previous year.[112] All this happened despite the fact that tax revenues reached record levels.[113]
  • June 20, 2018—The U.S. Senate rejected a Trump Administration plan to cancel $15 billion in spending.[114] The Trump Administration originally wanted to cut spending by $60 billion, but Mitch McConnell rejected this, forcing the Administration to propose a more modest cut.[115]
  • By mid-2018, the Trump Administration had come to fully support the Export-Import Bank of Washington, despite its numerous problems.[116] This came after President Trump made statements supporting the bank in 2017 despite opposing it during his 2016 presidential campaign,[117] and after the U.S. Senate rejected the administration's nomination of Scott Garrett, a critic of the bank, to lead it.[118]

References

  1. Multiple references: See also:
  2. Pollak, Joel B. (May 28, 2017). Politico: Trump’s War on Regulations Is His ‘Biggest Untold Success’. Breitbart News. Retrieved May 28, 2017.
  3. Multiple references:
  4. Wheeler, Lydia (June 17, 2017). Under Trump, focus shifts to scrapping regulations. The Hill. Retrieved June 18, 2017.
  5. Multiple references:
  6. Multiple references:
  7. 7.0 7.1 Korte, Gregory (March 27, 2017). Trump signs four bills to roll back Obama-era regulations. USA Today. Retrieved March 28, 2017.
  8. Multiple references:
  9. Adriance, Sam (February 16, 2017). President Trump Signs First Congressional Review Act Disapproval Resolution in 16 Years. The National Law Review. Retrieved March 8, 2017.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Dinan, Stephen (May 15, 2017). GOP rolled back 14 of 15 Obama rules using Congressional Review Act. The Washington Times. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
  11. GOP flips Obama-era regulations, claim a boon to economy. Breitbart News. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
  12. McMorris, Bill (May 18, 2017). Trump KOs State-Run Retirement Accounts for Private Sector Workers. The Washington Free Beacon. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
  13. Shear, Michael D. (May 2, 2017). Trump Discards Obama Legacy, One Rule at a Time. The New York Times. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
  14. Multiple references:
  15. Multiple references:
  16. Multiple references:
  17. President Donald J. Trump Signs H.J.Res. 37, H.J.Res. 44, H.J.Res. 57, and H.J.Res. 58 into Law. whitehouse.gov. March 27, 2017. Retrieved March 28, 2017.
  18. Berry, Susan, Dr. (March 28, 2017). Trump Rolls Back Two Obama-Era Education Regulations. Breitbart News. Retrieved March 28, 2017.
  19. Lovegrove, Jamie (April 1, 2017). Trump signs Cruz-Brady bill to expand drug testing of unemployment benefit applicants. Dallas Morning News. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
  20. Multiple references:
  21. President Donald J. Trump Signs H.J.Res. 69, H.J.Res. 83, H.R. 1228, S.J.Res. 34 into Law. whitehouse.gov. April 3, 2017. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
  22. 22.0 22.1 Multiple references:
  23. Multiple references:
  24. Wheeler, Lydia (July 20, 2017). Trump administration reveals first regulatory agenda. The Hill. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
  25. Wheeler, Lydia (July 5, 2017). Regulators make new push to roll back Obama rules. The Hill. Retrieved July 5, 2017.
    See also:
  26. Farand, Chloe (March 6, 2017). Donald Trump disassembles 90 federal state regulations in just over a month in White House. The Independent. Retrieved March 7, 2017.
  27. Trump-Era Trend: Industries Protest. Regulations Rolled Back. A Dozen Examples. The New York Times (through DocumentCloud). Retrieved March 7, 2017.
  28. President Trump Takes Action to Get Washington Out of the Way. whitehouse.gov. March 27, 2017. Retrieved March 28, 2017.
  29. Multiple references:
  30. Bedard, Paul (August 8, 2017). Regulation revolution: 'Historic' Trump cuts, 1/20th of Obama's deluge, $23B slashed. Washington Examiner. Retrieved August 9, 2017.
  31. 31.0 31.1 Multiple references:
  32. Boyer, Dave (July 20, 2017). Trump axes 860 Obama regulations, 179 from ‘secret’ list. The Washington Times. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
  33. Bedard, Paul (September 19, 2017). Promise kept: Trump killed 2 old regs for every new 1, $645 million saved. Washington Examiner. Retrieved September 19, 2017.
  34. Multiple references: See also: President Trump stated his intention to reduce regulations to pre-1960 levels:
  35. Boyer, Dave (August 8, 2017). Trump slashing Obama’s regulation binge, saves businesses billions: Study. The Washington Times. Retrieved August 8, 2017.
  36. Bedard, Paul (January 5, 2018). Final Obama regulation bill: $24 billion in last 16 days, Trump $5.8 billion over 11 months. Washington Examiner. Retrieved January 5, 2018.
  37. Bedard, Paul (December 1, 2017). Boom: Trump deregulation already saves $378 million, billions next year. Washington Examiner. Retrieved September 18, 2018.
  38. Miller, S.A. (August 10, 2017). Trump takes action: 9,000 federal employees slashed in first six months. The Washington Times. Retrieved August 10, 2017.
  39. 39.0 39.1 Multiple references:
  40. Wheeler, Lydia (January 20, 2017). Trump White House tells agencies to halt regulations. The Hill. Retrieved January 20, 2017.
  41. Multiple references:
  42. Memorandum of February 3, 2017 -- Fiduciary Duty Rule. Federal Register. February 7, 2017. Retrieved May 7, 2017.
  43. Trump orders new task force push to eliminate red tape. Fox News. February 24, 2017. Retrieved February 25, 2017.
  44. Shepardson, David; Holland, Steve (February 24, 2017). In sweeping move, Trump puts regulation monitors in U.S. agencies. Reuters. Retrieved February 25, 2017.
  45. Trump orders Agriculture Dept. to end unnecessary regulations, help farmers. Fox News. April 25, 2017. Retrieved April 25, 2017.
  46. Multiple references:
  47. Multiple references: See also:
  48. Multiple references:
  49. Multiple references:
  50. Multiple references: See also:
  51. Multiple references: Several Democrat-controlled states took steps to create state-level net neutrality regulations:
  52. Multiple references: See also:
  53. Which executive orders did Trump sign on Day One? WCTV (from CBS News). January 20, 2017. Retrieved January 21, 2017.
  54. Donald Trump signs three executive memos. CBS News. January 23, 2017. Retrieved January 23, 2017.
  55. Multiple references: See also:
  56. Many government jobs to remain unfilled despite Trump's lift on hiring freeze. Fox News. April 12, 2017. Retrieved August 10, 2017.
  57. Derespina, Cody (February 28, 2017). Trump: No plans to fill 'unnecessary' appointed positions. Fox News. Retrieved February 28, 2017.
    President Trump stated this again in April: President Trump mentioned this again on August 29, 2017: President Trump reaffirmed this in October 2017:
  58. Kessler, Aaron; Kopan, Tal (February 25, 2017). Trump still has to fill nearly 2,000 vacancies. CNN. Retrieved February 28, 2017.
  59. Tracking how many key positions Trump has filled so far. The Washington Post. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
  60. Multiple references:
  61. Multiple references:
  62. Multiple references:
  63. Multiple references:
  64. Multiple references:
  65. Multiple references: See also:
  66. Street Chriss W. (April 10, 2018). Trump Administration Saved $774M by Privatizing FEMA Flood Risk. Breitbart News. Retrieved April 10, 2018.
  67. Multiple references:
  68. Moran, Sean (February 27, 2017). PolitiFact: Trump Debt Claim ‘Mostly False’ — Even Though His Numbers Are Factual. Breitbart News. Retrieved May 20, 2017.
  69. Hoft, Jim (April 24, 2017). After First Hundred Days Media Ignores Trump Decreased US Debt by $100B Since Inauguration. The Gateway Pundit. Retrieved May 20, 2017.
  70. Kasperowicz, Pete (October 2, 2017). National debt grew more slowly in FY 2017 under Trump. Washington Examiner. Retrieved October 2, 2017.
    However, the national debt rose $103 billion on the first day of FY 2018: See also:
  71. Miller, S.A. (June 15, 2017). Trump deregulations quickly boost confidence and hiring in manufacturing sector. The Washington Times. Retrieved June 16, 2017.
  72. Multiple references:
  73. Multiple references: See also:
  74. Coburn, Tom; Andrzejewski, Adam (October 24, 2018). President Trump’s war on federal waste. The Hill. Retrieved October 24, 2018.
  75. Multiple references:
  76. Miller, S.A. (September 16, 2018). Eliminating 'most problematic' federal regulations saves taxpayers $1.3 billion this year. The Washington Times. Retrieved September 17, 2018.
  77. Multiple references:
  78. Multiple references:
  79. Multiple references:
  80. Multiple references: Specific actions: See also:
  81. Multiple references:
  82. Multiple references:
  83. Multiple references: See also:
  84. Multiple references: Despite the law's changes, it did not go as far as conservatives had wanted in rolling back the Dodd–Frank law: See also:
  85. Multiple references:
  86. Multiple references: See also:
  87. Multiple references:
  88. Multiple references:
  89. Multiple references:
  90. Multiple references: See also:
  91. Lane, Sylvan (April 29, 2018). Banks poised to win Dodd-Frank changes. The Hill. Retrieved May 2, 2018.
  92. Multiple references: See also:
  93. 93.0 93.1 Multiple references: See also:
  94. Multiple references:
  95. Multiple references:
  96. Multiple references:
  97. Multiple references:
  98. Multiple references: See also:
  99. Multiple references:
  100. Multiple references:
  101. Multiple references: The immediate reactions of cabinet agencies: See also:
  102. Multiple references:
  103. Multiple references:
  104. Multiple references: For the bill's provisions: See also:
  105. Multiple references:
  106. Multiple references: Conservatives strongly opposed the bill due to these massive spending increases along with a lack of policy wins for conservatives: See also:
  107. Multiple references:
  108. Multiple references: Some evangelical Christian leaders publically criticized President Trump for not vetoing the bill:
  109. Multiple references: See also:
  110. Multiple references: See also:
  111. Multiple references: See also:
  112. Multiple references: See also:
  113. Multiple references:
  114. Multiple references:
  115. Multiple references:
  116. Multiple references: See also:
  117. Multiple references:
  118. Multiple references: See also: