Footprint nebula

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Footprint nebula
Minkowski 92.jpg
Observational Data
Designation Minkowski 92
IRAS 19343+2926
Right ascension 19h 36m 18.830s[1][2]
Declination +29° 32′ 50.86″[1][2]
Constellation Cygnus
Type of object Planetary nebula
Distance from Earth 8,000 ly[3]
Proper motion RA: -11.2 mas/year[1][2]
Dec: -4.1 mas/year[1][2]

The Footprint nebula (Minkowski 92, M1-92, IRAS 19343+2926) is a bipolar planetary nebula in the constellation of Cygnus, the swan.[4] Also known as Minkowski's Footprint, the nebula is composed of two large onion-like structures. There is a star situated at the centre of the nebula. Pulsations on the star's surface are causing it to eject large quantities of material to produce as a strong stellar wind. Electrically charged particles in the ejected material shape the surrounding cloud. The nebula is also a reflection nebula as it reflects the light emmitted by the central star.[3] The clouds of gas and dust are thought to have a mass of 0.9 solar masses.[5] The nebula was observed by the Hubble Space Telescope in the 1990s.


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Footprint nebula. Simbad Astronomical Database. Retrieved on 2019-09-27.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Zacharias, N.; Finch, C. T.; Girard, T. M. et al. (2012). "VizieR Online Data Catalog: UCAC4 Catalogue (Zacharias+, 2012)". VizieR Online Data Catalog: I/322A. Bibcode2012yCat.1322....0Z. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 Rare cosmic footprint. (2011-07-11). Retrieved on 2019-09-27.
  4. Minkowski’s Footprint, a protoplanetary nebula in Cygnus. (2014-07-16). Retrieved on 2019-09-27.
  5. Bujarrabal, V.; Alcolea, J.; Neri, R. (1998). "The Structure and Dynamics of the Proto-Planetary Nebula M1-92". The Astrophysical Journal 504 (2): 915-920. doi:10.1086/306129. Bibcode1998ApJ...504..915B.