Donald Trump achievements: Immigration and border security (2019)

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Official presidential photo of President Donald Trump
Main article: Donald Trump achievements: Immigration and border security

This article is a list of achievements by U.S. President Donald Trump, his administration, and Congress related to immigration, illegal immigration, and border security in 2019.

In 2019, the Trump Administration made much progress advancing conservative immigration policies,[1] including securing border wall funding,[2] and the Defense Department played an important role in securing the border.[3] The DHS increased its presence on the southern border even when migrant apprehensions fell somewhat.[4] The Trump Administration also kept its promise to lower refugee admissions[5] and made major reforms to its refugee admissions program.[6] It also worked to speed up immigration court cases for migrant families,[7] and it increased illegal migrant family deportations by 453%.[8] The administration increased its scrutiny of foreign worker petitions and other visa applications,[9] and it took some steps to enforce laws against visa overstays[10] and the illegal hiring of foreigners over U.S. citizens.[11] The USCIS worked to implement President Trump's agenda,[12] and its leader Ken Cuccinelli, a strong conservative appointed in June 2019, actively promoted conservative immigration policies.[13] On November 13, 2019, Cuccinelli was promoted to the DHS's deputy secretary.[14] President Trump also significantly shaped the U.S. immigration courts, expanding its numbers and appointing 43% of its judges by mid-2019.[15] The U.S. Supreme Court also sided with several of President Trump's immigration policies.[16]

Because of the Trump Administration's tough immigration policies, thousands of asylum seekers gave up trying to enter the United States, and illegal immigration levels declined.[17][18] Because of the lower number of illegal migrants in the country, the farm industry was forced to either raise wages, automate its workforce, or hire legal workers.[19] The number of illegal aliens applying for "voluntary departure" significantly increased.[20]

Legislation signed, 2019

  • February 15, 2019—Despite its numerous negative provisions, the border bill President Trump signed[21] still included some positive provisions, including money for border security and border barrier construction, and it did not include some of the more extreme Democrat proposals.[22][23]
  • July 1, 2019—President Trump signed a $4.6 billion humanitarian border spending bill.[24] Democrat House Speaker Nancy Pelosi failed to pass a partisan left-wing bill and caved into passing a bipartisan Senate bill,[25] though the Senate bill also included some problematic liberal provisions.[26]
  • December 20, 2019—Despite having several negative immigration-related provisions and not increasing border wall funding, the spending bill signed by President Trump[27] still included $1.375 billion in additional border wall funding.[28]

Executive actions, 2019

President Trump visits the U.S. southern border in Texas, January 2019
President Trump visits the U.S. southern border in California, April 2019
Another image of President Trump at the border in California, April 2019
President Trump visits newly-constructed border wall in California, September 2019[29]

Legal immigration and asylum

The Trump Administration took several actions related to legal immigration:

  • January 18, 2019—The DHS suspended for one year the H-2A and H-2B programs for the Dominican Republic, Ethiopia, and the Philippines since a large number of migrants with those visas overstayed in the U.S.[30]
  • January 30, 2019—The DHS finalized a rule that would prioritize H-1B visas to immigrants with master's degrees or higher from a U.S. school.[31]
  • February 15, 2019—The USCIS released new rules to scrutinize applications involving child marriage to help prevent men with child brides from entering the country.[32]
  • March 12, 2019—The USCIS announced its intention, in an internal memo, to close all of its international immigration offices in order to save money and consolidate services with the State Department.[33] The USCIS publicly announced this decision on August 9, 2019.[34]
  • April 19, 2019—The USCIS issued policy guidance stating that any immigrant working in the marijuana industry is illegible for citizenship, since marijuana is illegal under federal law, even in states where it is legal.[35]
  • By mid-2019, the Trump Administration had significantly slowed its approvals of semiconductor company requests to hire Chinese citizens for sensitive positions.[36]
  • May 23, 2019—President Trump signed a memorandum directing his administration to enforce a provision found in two laws enacted in 1996 requiring the sponsors of legal immigrants to reimburse the government for any welfare benefits used by those immigrants.[37] In June 2019, USCIS announced it had begun implementing the memo.[38] On August 12, 2019, the Trump Administration issued the finalized rule implementing the policy.[39]
  • May 31, 2019—The State Department adopted rules requiring all visa applicants to provide their social media information.[40]
  • June 18, 2019—Acting USCIS Director Ken Cuccinelli sent a memo ordering asylum officers to stop certain asylum seekers from entering the country.[41]
  • June 26, 2019—Shortly after beginning his tenure, Acting USCIS Director Cuccinelli began working to counter asylum fraud and to end the practice of giving work permits to migrants with pending asylum cases.[42]
  • July 8, 2019—The USCIS released a directive to decrease the amount of time asylum officials must wait before interviewing asylum-seekers from 48 hours to one day.[43]
  • July 19, 2019—The USCIS announced it would revise the U.S. citizenship test required for naturalization applicants.[44]
  • July 23, 2019—The Trump Administration released a final rule reforming the EB-5 investor visa program, increasing the required minimum investment amount among other changes.[45]
  • August 2, 2019—The USCIS announced it would end two categorical parole programs, which allow migrants with family members in the U.S. to enter the country before visas or green cards are available, for Haitians and Filipino World War II veterans.[46]
  • August 19, 2019—The USCIS issued guidance making it harder for immigrants temporarily admitted into the country for "urgent humanitarian reasons or significant public benefit" to obtain work permits.[47]
  • August 28, 2019—The USCIS issued a new policy ending automatic citizenship for certain children of overseas government employees in some instances.[48]
  • August 30, 2019—The USCIS announced that its officers were now allowed to create fake social media accounts to help uncover cases of fraud when vetting potential immigrants to the U.S.[49]
  • September 4, 2019—The DHS proposed a rule requiring immigrants to provide their social media information as part of the process to become a U.S. citizen or access benefits.[50]
  • September 6, 2019—The USCIS proposed a rule to abolish a policy requiring that work permit requests by asylum seekers must be decided in 30 days after being made.[51]
  • September 26, 2019—The State Department announced the Trump Administration planned to reduce the refugee admissions cap to 18,000 for Fiscal Year 2020, a significant decrease from the previous year, an 80% decrease from under the Obama Administration, and the lowest cap since the Refugee Act of 1980 was enacted.[52] The administration's proposal also reduced the United Nations' role in choosing which refugees to admit, and it replaced the geographic-based allocation of the refugee cap with one that was interest-based.[52] On November 1, 2019, President Trump signed a determination making the announced refugee cap official.[53]
  • September 26, 2019—President Trump signed an executive order giving states and local governments the authority to opt-out of the federal refugee resettlement program.[52]
  • October 4, 2019—President Trump signed a proclamation requiring visa applicants to show they can afford health care to obtain visas and enter the U.S.[54]
  • October 25, 2019—The USCIS announced it would narrow the criteria for giving immigrants application fee waivers for immigrants applying for benefits such as green cards, U.S. citizenship, and work permits, as it would no longer consider government benefit receipts in making such a decision.[55]
  • November 8, 2019—The DHS proposed increasing the fee for citizenship applications by over 60% and proposed creating new fees for DACA recipients and asylum seekers.[56]
  • November 13, 2019—The Trump Administration released a proposal to ban most asylum seekers from applying for work permits if they entered the U.S. illegally.[57]
  • December 6, 2019—The DHS announced changes to the application process for H-1B visas, now requiring applicants to preregister online before filling out the full application.[58]

Refugee admissions

The Trump Administration continued admitting a record low number of refugees in 2019.[59] Because of the administration's policies, the U.S. ended its status as the most common destination for refugees, handing that designation to Canada and the EU.[60] By June 2019, President Trump had reduced the number of Syrian refugee admissions by 62% compared to the last two years of the Obama Administration,[61] and the number of Christian refugees reached 80% of the total number admitted.[62] In October 2019, and running until November 5, 2019, the Trump Administration imposed a moratorium on new refugee admissions, meaning that no refugees entered the U.S. that month.[63]

Illegal immigration

The Trump Administration took several actions related to illegal immigration enforcement:

  • ICE continued cracking down on illegal immigration, and HSI continued uncovering cases of immigration fraud.[64] For example, in January 2019, it arrested 118 illegal aliens in a five-day operation in New York.[65] Also in January, the DHS revealed it had charged eight people for helping foreigners stay in the U.S. illegally, along with several dozens of illegal "students," through a fake university – while starting in 2015, the DHS's efforts on this program "intensified" shortly after President Trump took office.[66] On January 31, 2019, the DOJ announced it had arrested three people and charged nineteen of running "birth tourism" companies that transported Chinese women to the U.S. in time to give birth and give their children U.S. citizenship.[67] This was the first time the federal government charged anyone of this criminal practice.[67] In another notable incident in February 2019, Secretary of State Mike Pompeo announced the U.S. would not allow an Alabama woman who joined the Islamic State to return, stating she was not a U.S. citizen.[68] On March 12, 2019, ICE arrested five Americans who used fake Chinese passports to help foreign students illegally obtain student visas.[69] In April 2019, ICE announced it had arrested over 280 illegal workers in Texas, the largest worksite raid in the country since 2008.[70] Later in April 2019, ICE announced it had arrested 123 criminal aliens in New Jersey.[71] In May 2019, ICE arrested 50 and charged nearly 100 people for participating in a large marriage fraud scheme in Texas that helped individuals enter the U.S. despite immigration laws that otherwise would have prevented their entry.[72] In mid-May 2019, ICE arrested 58 illegals in Newark, Baltimore, and New Orleans,[73] and in a five-day operation that same month, ICE arrested 31 illegals in the New York City area.[74] In a five-day operation in June 2019, ICE arrested 140 illegals in the Midwest.[75] On August 7, 2019, ICE arrested 680 illegal migrant workers in Mississippi, the largest single worksite raid in the country's history.[76] In a five-day operation in September 2019, ICE arrested nearly 1,300 illegals across the U.S., including in "sanctuary" cities.[77][78] In November 2019, ICE announced it had arrested 19 illegals in a four-day operation in Massachusetts.[79] In November 2019, ICE announced it had arrested an additional ninety students at a fake university in Michigan, bringing the total arrested to 250.[80] Also in November 2019, ICE arrested 56 migrants in the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area.[81] In early December 2019, ICE arrested twelve foreign fugitives in a five-day operation.[82] On December 20, 2019, the Suffolk County District Attorney's Office announced the arrest of 96 MS-13 gang members, the result of a two-year investigation that included the federal government.[83]
    • The Trump Administration continued increasing its enforcement of workplace immigration laws.[84] The number of workplace immigration inquiries in the year prior to September 30, 2019, were four times higher than at the end of the Obama Administration.[85] The Trump Administration also increased the number of arrests of illegals without criminal records.[86]
    • The DOJ announced that in Fiscal Year 2019, it prosecuted the highest number of immigration-related crimes in U.S. history, with about 110,500 illegal migrants and illegal migrant smugglers prosecuted that year.[87] ICE and HSI also reported a record high number of criminal arrests in Fiscal Year 2019.[88] The number of ICE deportations increased in 2019, though the Trump Administration's deportation numbers remained lower than during Obama's first term.[89][90]
  • January 25, 2019—The Trump Administration implemented a policy of returning asylum seekers at the San Ysidro port of entry back to Mexico as their asylum claims underwent review, something done to help end the policy of "catch-and-release."[91] On February 13, 2019, the administration began returning migrant family units to Mexico.[92] On March 12, 2019, the DHS expanded the policy to the Calexico port of entry and the Border Patrol's San Diego sector,[93] and it was expanded to El Paso later that month.[94] On April 1, 2019, the DHS announced it would again expand the "Remain in Mexico" policy.[95] By April 26, 2019, the DHS had sent over 1,600 migrants back to Mexico under the policy,[96] and the program continued expanding.[97] On September 23, 2019, the DHS announced it would significantly expand the "Remain in Mexico" policy in an effort to end "catch-and-release" on the Mexican border,[98] and on October 28, 2019, the DHS expanded "Remain in Mexico" to Eagle Pass, Texas.[18][99] On November 22, 2019, the CBP announced it had begun implementing the Remain in Mexico program in Arizona, meaning it had been implemented along the entire southern border.[100]
  • January 31, 2019—The Trump Administration imposed visa sanctions on Ghana because it refused to take back its citizens when the U.S. tried to deport them.[101]
  • February 7, 2019—President Trump signed a proclamation extending a previous order signed in November 2018 that banned migrants illegally entering the U.S. from applying for asylum.[102] On May 8, 2019, President Trump again extended the order through a proclamation.[103]
  • March 15, 2019—President Trump signed an executive order that updated a 2011 order signed by President Obama, strengthening the definition of a "significant transnational criminal organization" so that the Trump Administration could better counter Mexican cartels and other similar organizations.[104]
  • March 30, 2019—The State Department announced the U.S. would end the FY 2017 and FY 2018 foreign assistance programs for El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras because of their failure to reduce illegal immigration levels to the U.S.[105] On June 17, 2019, the State Department announced it would end new foreign aid to the three Central American countries, though it also announced a resumption of some funding.[106] On October 16, 2019, the Trump Administration announced it would reinstate some aid to the Central American countries that made migration agreements with the U.S.[107]
  • April 9, 2019—The Pentagon approved an HHS request to find housing space for 5,000 unaccompanied illegal minors, a sign of growing Defense Department involvement on the U.S. southern border.[108] On May 22, 2019, the Defense Department approved a DHS request to build temporary housing at six locations along the southern border for at least 7,500 illegal migrants.[109] In early June 2019, the federal government announced it would house illegal minors at Fort Sill in Oklahoma.[110]
  • April 11, 2019—ICE announced it had created a "most wanted" list to serve the victims of illegal alien crime.[111]
  • April 16, 2019—Attorney General Bill Barr issued a ruling prohibiting immigration judges from granting bail to certain illegals or releasing them into the U.S. during their immigration proceedings even if they make asylum claims showing "credible fear."[112]
  • April 17, 2019—The Department of Housing and Urban Development proposed a rule to fully implement a 1980 law by prohibiting federal housing assistance for illegal immigrants.[113] It published the proposed rule in the Federal Register on May 10, 2019.[114]
  • April 22, 2019—President Trump signed a memorandum ordering his administration to find ways to reduce visa overstay rates.[115]
  • April 24, 2019—The Border Patrol announced it had begun fingerprinting illegal minors under the age of fourteen.[116]
  • April 29, 2019—President Trump signed a memorandum directing the DOJ and DHS to enact major restrictions on U.S. asylum rules, including requiring migrants to pay a fee to file an asylum application and banning illegals seeking asylum from receiving work permits during the processing of their claims.[117]
  • April 29, 2019—ICE announced it would deploy additional resources to the southern border to combat child smuggling and the practice of migrants making fake family claims to help gain asylum.[118]
  • May 1, 2019—ICE announced it would begin performing DNA tests on illegal migrants on the southern border as a way to catch "fake families."[119]
  • May 2, 2019—Border Patrol opened two new tent cities in Texas to house illegal aliens.[120] In June 2019, the Trump Administration opened another facility in Texas to hold migrants,[121] and it announced the building of a similar facility in Yuma.[122] In July 2019, the DHS announced it would reopen a facility in Tornillo, Texas.[123] In September 2019, ICE announced it would resume family detentions at a facility in Karnes County, Texas.[124] Several facilities existed in Louisiana.[125] ICE announced it would open a new detention facility in Texas in December 2019.[126] The agency awarded detention contracts in California.[127]
  • May 4, 2019—The Trump Administration released new training guidelines for asylum officials that promoted stricter and tougher asylum policies.[128]
  • By May 2019, the Trump Administration revived the policy of sending "no-match" letters to businesses throughout the U.S. when their employees' Social Security Numbers are not valid – a way to crack down on illegal immigration.[129]
  • May 6, 2019—ICE announced the creation of a program allowing local law enforcement agencies to make immigration arrests, detain illegal aliens, and cooperate with ICE even if state and local "sanctuary" laws exist where they operate.[130]
  • May 8, 2019—The Trump Administration moved to implement a program to allow Border Patrol agents to act as asylum officers to help reduce mass migration and speech up asylum claim processing.[131]
  • May 15, 2019—The Trump Administration announced it would deploy several hundred TSA agents to the southern border to help deal with the large numbers of illegal immigration.[132] In the meantime, the Interior Department had doubled the number of its law enforcement officers deployed to the border,[133] and it continued sending its law enforcement officers to the border.[134] On June 25, 2019, the TSA announced it would send another 650 officers to the southern border.[135]
  • May 2019—The DHS worked to find and deploy volunteers from various sections of the agency to the southern border.[136] As part of this effort, Secret Service agents deployed to the border,[137] and the DHS asked its cybersecurity staff to consider deploying to the border.[138]
  • May 30, 2019—President Trump announced that because of the massive numbers of illegal immigration through Mexico and the Mexican government's failure to stop it, he would impose a 5% tariff on the country and raise it by 5% every month until it substantially reduced illegal immigration into the U.S.[139] On June 7, 2019, President Trump announced that his administration had reached a deal with Mexico, with Mexico increasing immigration enforcement to prevent migrants from entering the U.S. in exchange for the U.S. suspending the tariffs.[140] This deal coincided with a significant decrease in "catch-and-release," the number of illegals released into the U.S. interior,[141] and border apprehensions decreased in the months following the agreement.[142] By the end of August 2019, the number of illegal border crossings decreased 56% from its peak in May.[143] Border apprehensions fell again in September 2019, though they remained high compared to previous years.[144] Apprehensions fell again in October 2019, decreasing nearly 75% from the levels in May,[145] and they fell further in November 2019[146] and December 2019.[147]
  • May 31, 2019—The USCIS issues a memo repealing an Obama-era policy that gave illegal unaccompanied minors special protection even after they became adults or reunited with a legal guardian.[148]
  • June 11, 2019—In a letter, HUD announced that DACA recipients were ineligible for FHA loans.[149]
  • June 19, 2019—ICE announced it would soon increase its efforts to deport illegal migrants, including illegal migrant families,[150] with the agency's announcement coming shortly after President Trump made a similar announcement.[151] The ICE raids began on July 14, 2019, though on a small scale.[152]
  • July 2, 2019—Attorney General Barr issued a rule to make it easier for the Attorney General to control immigration court precedent.[153]
  • July 2, 2019—The Trump Administration began efforts to impose fines on illegal aliens who disobeyed deportation orders and remained in the U.S.[154] In December 2019, ICE revived the fines for illegal aliens who disobeyed deportation orders and sought sanctuary.[155]
  • July 15, 2019—The DHS and DOJ announced a new rule requiring migrants illegally entering the U.S. southern border to have first requested asylum in a third country before being allowed to request asylum in the U.S., an action that significantly restricted asylum along the southern border.[156] On September 11, 2019, the U.S. Supreme Court allowed the Trump Administration to fully enforce this rule.[157]
  • July 22, 2019—The Trump Administration announced it would fully enforce a 1996 law by implementing a policy of quickly deporting, without a trial, illegals in the U.S. for less than two years.[158]
  • July 26, 2019—After President Trump threatened Guatemala,[159] the country signed a "safe third country" agreement with the U.S., requiring migrants passing through Guatemala to apply for asylum in that country rather than the U.S.[160] Additionally, the Trump Administration signed an agreement allowing the U.S. to deport illegal Guatemalan migrants back to their home country without any delays on the Guatemalan government's part.[161] The agreement with Guatemala went into effect on November 19, 2019,[162] and the U.S. began sending family units to Guatemala in early December 2019.[163] On December 19, 2019, the U.S. announced that Guatemala had agreed to accept Mexicans seeking asylum as part of the agreement.[164]
  • July 29, 2019—Attorney General Barr overturned an immigration court ruling that had allowed a migrant to claim asylum because a family member was targeted by a cartel – Barr's action limited the ability of migrants to claim asylum based on family connections.[165]
  • August 21, 2019—The Trump Administration announced a rule to replace the Flores Agreement and allow the indefinite detainment of illegal migrant families.[166] On August 30, 2019, the administration formally asked a federal judge to end the agreement.[167]
  • August 23, 2019—In addition to promoting immigration judges with high asylum denial rates,[15] Attorney General Barr announced changes giving the DOJ increased control over the immigration courts and creating an office of policy for those courts.[168]
  • August 27, 2019—It was reported that earlier in the month, the USCIS had ended a policy of automatically suspending the deportation of migrants on life-saving medical care, with the exception of migrant military families, and that it stopped accepting most deportation deferment requests.[169] Also in early August, ICE changed its handling of U visas, giving the agency the discretion to deport illegals waiting for the visa.[170]
  • August 27, 2019—The DHS announced it would take $271 million in funds from other agencies inside the department to use for immigration enforcement.[171]
  • September 2019—The Trump Administration announced it would open "tent courts" to better hear the asylum cases of migrants waiting in Mexico.[172]
  • September 20, 2019—The U.S. signed an "asylum cooperative agreement" with El Salvador requiring illegal migrants passing through the country to seek asylum there rather than in the U.S.[173]
  • September 25, 2019—The U.S. signed an asylum agreement with Honduras requiring migrants who passed through the country on the way to the U.S. to seek asylum in Honduras.[174] On January 9, 2020, the U.S. and Honduras finalized the agreement's implementation.[175]
  • October 2, 2019—The DHS announced it would significantly expand DNA testing of illegal migrants entering the country.[176] On October 21, 2019, the DOJ announced it would begin enforcing a federal law allowing the DHS the collect DNA samples from migrants and asylum-seekers.[177] The Border Patrol began implementing this policy in January 2020.[178]
  • It was reported in October 2019 that the Trump Administration had increased deportations to Cuba.[179]
  • October 24, 2019—It was reported that the Trump Administration was testing a program in Texas to decide asylum claims and deport failed asylum seekers in ten days or less.[180] The administration expanded the program – the Prompt Asylum Claim Review program – in December 2019.[181]
  • October 25, 2019—Attorney General Barr issued a legal directive ruling that multiple DUI convictions show a migrant lacks the "good moral character" to cancel their deportation.[182][183] That same day, Barr released a decision cracking down on state courts that alter immigration criminal convictions.[183][184]
  • November 19, 2019—The Trump Administration published a rule allowing it to send illegal migrants who did not apply for asylum back to their home countries, thus enforcing migration agreements it signed earlier in the year with El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras.[185] That same day, the U.S. began enforcing an asylum agreement with Guatemala that the two countries had signed earlier in the year.[162]
  • December 18, 2019—The Trump Administration proposed a rule expanding the list of crimes for which a migrant can be denied asylum.[186]
  • December 2019—ICE began making efforts to deport certain DACA recipients.[187]
  • December 31, 2019—Acting DHS Secretary Chad Wolf ordered the DHS to conduct a departmentwide study on how state laws allowing illegal immigrants to possess drivers licenses affect the department's law enforcement efforts.[188]
  • December 2019—The DHS began deporting illegal migrants from Tucson, Arizona, to Guadalajara, a city over 1,000 miles away from the U.S. southern border.[189]

Border security

Border wall construction near Calexico, June 2019
Border wall construction near Yuma, Arizona, July 2019
Border wall construction in San Ysidro, August 2019

The Trump Administration continued strengthening and expanding border security on the southern border:

  • January 14, 2019—The Defense Department announced it had extended the deployment of troops to the U.S. southern border through September 2019.[190] On January 29, 2019, the Pentagon announced it would send several thousand more troops to the border,[191] and on February 3, 2019, it announced it would specifically send 3,750 additional troops in that deployment.[192] On February 22, 2019, the administration announced it would send an additional 1,000 troops to the border.[193] On April 29, 2019, the Pentagon announced it would send an additional 320 troops to the border to support Border Patrol officials – these soldiers received expanded role as the Defense Department gave them authority to come into contact with migrants, though they continued not to perform law enforcement roles.[194] The troops deployed at the southern border performed an important role, conducting surveillance for the Border Patrol.[3] National Guard troops remained at the border, and in June 2019, the State of Texas deployed 1,000 additional troops.[195] On July 17, 2019, the Defense Department announced it would send an additional 2,100 troops to the southern border.[196]
  • The Trump Administration continued strengthening the border with Mexico by building physical barriers,[2][197] and by late 2019, the pace of border wall construction had doubled.[198] For example, it moved forward to build a total of 33 miles of border wall in Texas,[199] and in February 2019, the DHS waived several environmental laws to allow it to build several miles of wall in San Diego,[200] and construction began later that month.[201] In April 2019, the CBP began construction of 13 miles of wall in Texas.[202] On April 27, 2019, the DHS waived environmental laws to speed up the building of 53 miles of wall in Arizona and Texas,[203] and on May 14, 2019, it again waived environmental laws to speed up border wall construction in California and Arizona.[204] In May 2019, Customs and Border Protection approved a $42.8 million contract to build three miles of border wall in Starr County, Texas.[205] On June 27, 2019, the federal government announced a contract to build four miles of border wall in Texas.[206] The Trump Administration began strengthening eleven miles of wall in Calexico.[207] In August 2019, the administration began building and replacing sections of border wall in Arizona and New Mexico,[208] including near Yuma, Arizona,[209] in multiple locations.[210] On August 27, 2019, the Defense Department approved the construction of 20 additional miles of border wall,[211] and on September 3, 2019, the department approved redirecting $3.6 billion in funds to build 175 miles of wall.[212] In mid-September 2019, the Pentagon stated it was building about one mile of border wall each day,[213] and it announced it had finalized nearly $2.5 billion in border wall construction contracts.[214] On September 30, 2019, the CBP and Army Corps of Engineers announced contracts to build an additional 65 miles of border wall.[215] In October 2019, the Border Patrol began building several miles of border wall in South Texas, the first new wall built in the state under President Trump.[216]
    • In May 2019, the private organization We Build the Wall began building sections of border wall separately from the Trump Administration.[217] In November 2019, We Build the Wall began constructing another section of wall in Texas.[218]
    • September 18, 2019—The Interior Department transferred 560 acres of public land in California, New Mexico, Arizona to the Defense Department to be used for border wall construction.[219]
  • February 15, 2019—President Trump redirected $8 billion in appropriated funds to pay for wall construction on the southern border – of which about $3 billion was obtained by declaring a national emergency – after Congress failed to appropriate the necessary funds.[220] On March 15, 2019, President Trump vetoed a congressional resolution to overturn the national emergency declaration, the first veto of his presidency,[221] and a veto override attempt by the House on March 26, 2019, failed.[222] On March 25, 2019, the Pentagon authorized $1 billion for border wall construction,[223] and on April 9, 2019, it awarded the $1 billion to two companies in wall construction contracts.[224] On May 10, 2019, the Defense Department approved another $1.5 billion for border wall construction,[225] and on May 15, 2019, it awarded two contracts worth $787 million combined for border wall construction in California and Arizona.[226] On July 26, 2019, the U.S. Supreme Court lifted a lower court injunction, allowing the Trump Administration to use $2.5 billion in Defense Department funds to build the wall.[227] On October 15, 2019, President Trump again vetoed an attempt to overturn his national emergency declaration,[228] and the U.S. Senate failed to override it.[229]


President Trump took some miscellaneous immigration-related actions:

  • July 11, 2019—While caving and abandoning his efforts to reinstate a question on the U.S. Census asking for one's citizenship status, President Trump did sign an executive order directing the federal government to estimate the number of U.S. citizens through existing government records.[230]
  • August 9, 2019—The DOJ petitioned to decertify the National Association of Immigration Judges, a federal government labor union that opposed the administration's conservative immigration policies.[231]
  • December 27, 2019—The DHS announced it would share its citizenship data with the U.S. Census Bureau, implementing a 2019 executive order signed by President Trump.[232]

Other achievements, 2019

While the following achievements were not official United States government policy actions by the Trump Administration, they were closely related to the Trump Administration and its policies:

  • January 8, 2019—President Trump used his first televised Oval Office address to advocate for stronger border security laws.[233]
  • February 5, 2019—In his State of the Union Address, President Trump took a strong stance on border security, advocating for a border wall, describing tolerance of illegal immigration as "cruel," and criticizing anti-border wall elites who have walls surrounding their houses, among other statements,[234] though he also worried conservatives by advocating for higher legal immigration levels both during and in the months following the speech.[235]
  • In 2019, Mexico increased its efforts to combat illegal immigration to the United States. Early in the year, it reportedly took greater action compared to previous years to stop the flow of illegals into the U.S.[236] The Mexican government significantly strengthened its efforts under President Trump's threat of tariffs in late May and early June 2019,[237] something affirmed by Trump Administration officials,[238] and the Mexican government sent thousands of troops to both its southern and northern borders.[239] Additionally, shortly after President Trump's tariff threat, Mexico's pro-illegal immigration migration chief resigned and was replaced by a more hardline individual.[240] The U.S.'s and Mexico's policies meant that many illegals could travel no further than Guatemala.[241] In addition to Mexico, other Latin American countries took some steps to help the Trump Administration reduce illegal migration levels,[242] and the newly-elected president of El Salvador took a more supportive stance for ending mass migration to the U.S.[243] The DHS took a greater focus in the region.[244] Surprisingly, the UN's International Organization for Migration helped the Trump Administration's efforts at reducing asylum claims.[245]
  • President Trump's "Hire American" policy made it harder for businesses to outsource technology jobs.[246]
  • Among other strong statements on immigration made in 2019,[247] President Trump labeled Democrats "border deniers" for their pro-open borders policies.[248] On May 16, 2019, he gave a notable speech advocating for a merit-based immigration system,[249] and on June 26, 2019, President Trump highlighted Australia's strong policies against illegal immigration as an example for the U.S. to follow.[250] President Trump also criticized Democrats for supporting policies such as "free" health care for illegals,[251] and when Democrats and the media criticized alleged conditions inside illegal migrant detention centers, President Trump defended Border Control and pointed out that illegals not wanting to stay in the centers should have not migrated illegally.[252] Notably, President Trump made some strong statements on border security, promoting the effectiveness of the U.S.'s border walls, on a trip to the southern border on September 18, 2019.[29] He also strongly advocated for conservative immigration policies at a Texas rally with Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi.[253] At his speech to the United Nations General Assembly on September 24, 2019, President Trump reaffirmed his administration's strong stance against illegal immigration and nations' right to control their borders, and he strongly condemned the practice of illegal migration as well as "open border activists" who promoted "cruel and evil" policies.[254] President Trump also spoke strongly against drug cartels in Mexico and connected their violence to the need for strong border security policies.[255] Other officials,[78][256] such as Acting ICE Director Mark Morgan[257][258] and Acting USCIS Director Ken Cuccinelli,[258][259] also made strong statements on immigration and border enforcement.
  • President Trump continued shifting the Republican Party's immigration views toward his conservative, pro-American policies.[260]
  • The number of deaths by migrants attempting to illegally cross the border into the U.S. declined in the first two years of Trump's presidency.[261]
  • By 2019, President Trump's 2017 travel ban had ended nearly all immigration from the eight impacted countries.[262]
  • The Trump Administration's strong immigration policies continued causing increased illegal immigration into Canada as illegal migrants chose not to stay in the U.S.[263]
  • The number of foreign student enrollments in the U.S. continued to decline in 2018–2019.[264]
  • Some jurisdictions, including the State of Florida, increase their cooperation with ICE.[265]

Setbacks, 2019

The following setbacks to the MAGA agenda were often caused by Congress or officials in the Trump Administration, rather than President Trump himself. Some of them can also be considered partial achievements.

  • February 15, 2019—President Trump signed a government funding bill into law that contained a compromise between congressional Democrats and Republicans on border security.[21] Among the bill's other negative provisions,[266][267][268] including restrictions on ICE's immigration enforcement duties,[269][23] it banned ICE from deporting illegal aliens who claim to be relatives of unaccompanied alien children.[270][271][272] It also expanded "catch-and-release" by reducing the number of detention beds and expanding "Alternatives to Detention" programs.[271][272][273][274] The bill expanded other protections and benefits for illegals.[275] It likely doubled the number of H-2B visas,[268][272][276] and it renewed the EB-5 visa.[277] The bill only allowed construction of 55 miles of wall in certain portions of the Rio Grande Valley sector, and even there, several restrictions were placed on where to build.[267][271][273] For example, left-wing border county officials were given veto power over wall construction in their respective counties.[272][278] The bill also provided fewer miles of border wall than Democrats originally agreed to,[272][279] and it spent forty times more on foreign aid than on the border wall.[280] President Trump expressed disappointment in the bill despite ultimately signing it.[281]
  • The DHS caved to a federal judge and extended "Temporary Protected Status" for migrants from Sudan, El Salvador, Haiti, and Nicaragua after it originally announced it would end TPS for those countries.[282] The Trump Administration later extended "temporary" deportation protections for Liberian migrants[283] and for Syrians.[284] Additionally, while some "sanctuary" cities changed their policies upon the Trump Administration's threats to withhold law enforcement grants, the administration continued giving money to many such cities without any policy change because of unfavorable court rulings.[285][286] Other open borders policies continued partly because of strong opposition to President Trump, including from Congress.[286] U.S. immigration authorities continued experiencing trouble deporting foreigners,[287] and while the number of deportations under Trump had risen, they still remained lower than under Obama's first term.[90][288] Additionally, the deep state in multiple federal agencies worked against many of President Trump's agenda priorities, including ending DACA and reforming the U.S. visa programs,[289] and the TSA allowed illegals to fly without proper documentation.[290] The Justice Department lost track of hundreds of criminal alien informants,[291] and in the decade before mid-2019, the Border Patrol failed to collect DNA samples from illegals as required by law.[292] While the Defense Department had deployed soldiers to the border with Mexico, they were banned from performing enforcement duties and thus could not directly prevent illegal aliens from entering the country.[293] Additionally, despite ICE raids on businesses suspected of hiring illegal migrants, the DOJ did not prosecute the businesses themselves.[294] By 2019, the Trump Administration did not take several actions it could have taken to collect billions of dollars from illegal migrants.[295] Of all the foreign students who overstayed their visas, extremely few of them were removed by federal immigration authorities.[296] Additionally, the administration awarded nearly $1 million in grants to Casa De Maryland, a left-wing open borders organization.[297] The Trump Administration had trouble acquiring privately owned land to build the border wall.[298]
  • Left-wing federal courts continued their efforts to nullify President Trump's conservative immigration agenda as well as existing federal law.[299] Notably, the Supreme Court also blocked President Trump's pro-American immigration agenda when it – with Chief Justice Roberts acting as the swing vote – refused to immediately allow the administration to add a question to the U.S. Census asking the citizenship status of respondents even when it found that the administration had authority to do so, effectively stopping the administration from adding the question.[300]
  • March 2019—The Trump Administration expanded "catch-and-release" in the Rio Grande Valley, implementing a policy of freeing illegals into the interior without even sending them to temporary detention or putting tracking devices on their ankles.[301] Even before this, "catch-and-release" had been occurring.[302] U.S. Border Patrol was stretched to the limit and had to restart such policies because of massive illegal immigration levels,[303] and the southern border saw a record level of illegal immigration.[304] The Border Patrol also began releasing migrant families in several locations including Arizona,[305] and "catch-and-release" continued growing.[306] After border apprehensions fell – the result of several strong actions by the Trump Administration – the Border Patrol refused to increase the number of agents on border patrol duties as prior to the migrant surge.[307] Despite the decline in illegal border crossings later in 2019 and the Trump Administration's strong policies to combat illegal immigration,[308] border apprehensions in Fiscal Year 2019 doubled from the previous year and reached the highest level in ten years while up to 150,000 additional illegals were estimated to have evaded arrest.[309] ICE arrested fewer people in 2019 because of the shifting of resources to combat the surge in illegal immigration that year.[310][311] A large number of babies were born to tourists in the U.S., among other births where birthright citizenship applied.[312]
  • March 2019—Because of mass levels of illegal immigration, the Border Patrol stopped prosecuting first-time illegal border crossers in West Texas.[313]
  • March 29, 2019—The DHS announced it would increase the 2019 H-2B visa cap by 30,000.[314] On May 6, 2019, the administration issued a rule to move forward with issuing the 30,000 H-2B visas.[315] The federal government handed out thousands of other low-wage visas,[316] and it even created a new visa category.[317] The federal government continued employing H-1B workers despite its "Hire American" pledge.[318]
  • June 7, 2019—The HHS announced it would end the practice of conducting a background check on potential sponsors of illegal minors before releasing those minors into the sponsors' custody.[319]
  • June 25, 2019—President Trump signed a bill giving legal status to over 1,000 migrants in the Northern Mariana Islands, a narrow amnesty but an amnesty nonetheless.[320]
  • July 1, 2019—The border spending bill President Trump signed into law[24] had multiple negative left-wing provisions that undermined the administration's strong border policies.[26]
  • July 11, 2019—While still attempting to determine the number of U.S. citizens, President Trump abandoned his push to re-add the citizenship question to the U.S. Census after federal courts made it more difficult for the administration to do so.[230]
  • October 4, 2019—President Trump announced he would admit Poland into the Visa Waiver Program, despite the program's problems.[321]
  • October 28, 2019—The Trump Administration gave a one-year work permit extension for about 250,000 Salvadorans living in the U.S. under "Temporary Protected Status," though it did so with an agreement with El Salvador to have the latter increase its cooperation combating illegal immigration to the U.S.[322] A few days later, the Trump Administration announced it would extend "Temporary Protected Status" for five other countries in addition to El Salvador.[323]
  • December 20, 2019—The federal government spending bill President Trump signed[27] had several negative immigration-related provisions, including giving amnesty to up to 4,000 Liberian nationals in the U.S.,[324] giving the U.S. President potentially wide-reaching authority to grant amnesty to illegal aliens,[325] and protected a means to amnesty for illegals living with "Unaccompanied Alien Children."[326] However, other extreme and pro-mass migration measures were left out of the spending bill.[327]
  • Despite President Trump strong immigration stances, some conservatives argued he had not sufficiently kept his conservative, America First promises on various immigration issues.[328]


  1. Multiple references: See also:
  2. 2.0 2.1 Multiple references: Many Hispanics supported the border wall:
  3. 3.0 3.1 Multiple references: Other Defense Department involvement in policies related to immigration:
  4. Giaritelli, Anna (July 9, 2019). DHS continues surging personnel to border despite big decline in illegal crossings. Washington Examiner. Retrieved July 9, 2019.
    See also:
  5. Bedard, Paul (March 28, 2019). Trump keeps promise to cut refugees, down 73 percent since Obama, lowest in 4 decades. Washington Examiner. Retrieved March 28, 2019.
    See also:
  6. Rush, Nayla (April 1, 2019). The U.S. Refugee Admissions Program under the Trump Administration. Center for Immigration Studies. Retrieved April 1, 2019.
  7. Taxin, Amy (August 3, 2019). Trump administration pushes to speed up migrant family cases. Associated Press. Retrieved August 3, 2019.
  8. Binder, John (October 9, 2019). Trump Surges Deportations of Illegal Aliens by 453 Percent in Recent Months. Breitbart News. Retrieved October 9, 2019.
  9. Multiple references: See also:
  10. Multiple references: See also:
  11. Multiple references: See also:
  12. Multiple references: See also:
  13. Multiple references: Cuccinelli's appointment on June 10, 2019: See also:
  14. Multiple references:
  15. 15.0 15.1 Taxin, Amy (July 23, 2019). Trump puts his stamp on nation’s immigration courts. Associated Press. Retrieved July 23, 2019.
    See also:
  16. Rodrigo, Chris Mills (September 14, 2019). Supreme Court comes to Trump's aid on immigration. The Hill. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  17. Multiple references: See also:
  18. 18.0 18.1 Multiple references:
  19. Multiple references: See also:
  20. Multiple references: Other examples of the Trump Effect:
  21. 21.0 21.1 Multiple references:
  22. Multiple references:
  23. 23.0 23.1 Lott, Maxim (February 15, 2019). DHS official: Border security bill does not contain ‘amnesty’ poison pills. Fox News. Retrieved February 16, 2019.
  24. 24.0 24.1 Multiple references: See also:
  25. Multiple references: See also:
  26. 26.0 26.1 Multiple references:
  27. 27.0 27.1 Multiple references:
  28. Multiple references: See also:
  29. 29.0 29.1 Multiple references: See also:
  30. Multiple references: Despite this, numerous countries with high overstay rates remained in the visa programs, and the total number of countries in the program remained significantly higher than in 2008:
  31. Multiple references: Critical conservative perspectives of the change:
  32. Multiple references: Shortly afterward, the USCIS strengthened its position against child marriages:
  33. Multiple references: See also:
  34. Multiple references:
  35. Multiple references:
  36. Multiple references:
  37. Multiple references:
  38. Multiple references:
  39. Multiple references: Statements by President Trump and other public officials: See also:
  40. Multiple references: The State Department originally proposed this policy in March 2018: See also:
  41. Multiple references: See also:
  42. Nelson, Steven; Giaritelli, Anna (June 26, 2019). Cuccinelli curtailing work permits for those with pending asylum cases. Washington Examiner. Retrieved June 27, 2019.
  43. Multiple references: See also:
  44. Multiple references:
  45. Multiple references: See also:
  46. Multiple references: See also:
  47. Multiple references:
  48. Multiple references: See also:
  49. Multple references:
  50. Multiple references:
  51. Multiple references:
  52. 52.0 52.1 52.2 Multiple references: Specifically regarding President Trump's executive order on state and local refugee resettlement: See also:
  53. Multiple references: See also:
  54. Multiple references: See also:
  55. Multiple references:
  56. Multiple references: Related actions: See also:
  57. Multiple references: See also:
  58. Multiple references:
  59. Multiple references: See also:
  60. Multiple references: See also:
  61. Binder, John (June 21, 2019). Trump Cuts Obama’s Syrian Refugee Surge by More Than 60 Percent. Breitbart News. Retrieved June 22, 2019.
  62. Bedard, Paul (July 2, 2019). Trump doubles Obama level of Christian refugees welcomed in US, now 80%. Washington Examiner. Retrieved July 2, 2019.
  63. Multiple references:
  64. Munro, Neil (March 22, 2019). HSI Investigators Expose Six Conspiracies for Job, College Theft. Breitbart News. Retrieved March 25, 2019.
    See also:
  65. Multiple references: See also:
  66. Multiple references: ICE continued making arrests and had arrested over 160 "students" at this fake university by March 2019:
  67. 67.0 67.1 Multiple references:
  68. Multiple references: See also:
  69. Multiple references:
  70. Multiple references: See also:
  71. Multiple references:
  72. Multiple references:
  73. Kirkwood, R. Cort (May 21, 2019). ICE Sweep Nets 58 Illegal-alien Criminals; Salvadoran, Filipino Thugs Deported. The New American. Retrieved May 21, 2019.
  74. Multiple references:
  75. Binder, John (June 13, 2019). ICE Arrests 140 Illegal Aliens, 42 with Criminal Records, in Midwest Raid. Breitbart News. Retrieved June 14, 2019.
  76. Multiple references: The following day, however, ICE released nearly half of those arrested because of "catch-and-release": See also: The raids had a positive effect on jobs for American citizens:
  77. Multiple references:
  78. 78.0 78.1 Multiple references:
  79. Multiple references:
  80. Multiple references: See also:
  81. Giaritelli, Anna (December 2, 2019). Pre-Thanksgiving ICE sting nets dozens of DC-area illegal immigrants with criminal histories. Washington Examiner. Retrieved December 2, 2019.
  82. Multiple references:
  83. Multiple references: See also:
  84. Srikrishnan, Maya (February 27, 2019). The Government Has Massively Ramped Up Workplace Immigration Enforcement. Voice of San Diego. Retrieved February 28, 2019.
    See also:
  85. Multiple references:
  86. Gomez, Alan (March 21, 2019). ICE sets record for arrests of undocumented immigrants with no criminal record. USA Today. Retrieved May 21, 2019.
  87. Multiple references: See also:
  88. Allegri, Samuel (December 6, 2019). ICE, HSI Report Record High Criminal Arrests in Fiscal Year 2019. The Epoch Times. Retrieved December 7, 2019.
  89. Multiple references:
  90. 90.0 90.1 Giaritelli, Anna (December 11, 2019). Trump continues to deport fewer illegal immigrants than Obama. Washington Examiner. Retrieved December 11, 2019.
  91. Multiple references: Despite this, Mexico publicly opposed this policy and stated it would not accept returning every asylum seeker: The first migrants were returned to Mexico on January 29, 2019: See also: The policy's impact through March 2019:
  92. Multiple references:
  93. Multiple references: See also:
  94. Multiple references:
  95. Multiple references: This expansion was announced along with a redeployment of agents to deal with the border crisis: See also:
  96. Multiple references:
  97. Multiple references: See also:
  98. Multiple references: See also:
  99. Multiple references:
  100. Multiple references: See also:
  101. Multiple references: See also:
  102. Multiple references:
  103. Multiple references:
  104. Multiple references:
  105. Multiple references: See also:
  106. Multiple references: See also:
  107. Multiple references: See also:
  108. Multiple references:
  109. Multiple references: Earlier articles on the DHS request:
  110. Multiple references: Regarding the mainstream media talking point on the base once being used to intern people of Japanese ethnicity:
  111. Multiple references: See also:
  112. Multiple references: See also:
  113. Multiple references: See also:
  114. Multiple references: See also:
  115. Multiple references:
  116. Multiple references:
  117. Multiple references: See also:
  118. Multiple references: See also:
  119. Multiple references: See also:
  120. Multiple references: See also:
  121. Multiple references: See also:
  122. Multiple references: See also:
  123. Giaritelli, Anna (July 14, 2019). DHS reopening Tornillo holding facility but will turn it into an ICE detention center: Officials. Washington Examiner. Retrieved July 14, 2019.
  124. Multiple references:
  125. Merchant, Nomaan (October 9, 2019). Louisiana becomes new hub in immigrant detention under Trump. Associated Press. Retrieved October 9, 2019.
    See also:
  126. Allegri, Samuel (December 5, 2019). New ICE Facility to Open in Texas. The Epoch Times. Retrieved December 5, 2019.
  127. Multiple references:
  128. Multiple references: See also:
  129. Multiple references: See also:
  130. Multiple references: See also: The related 287(g) program proved very successful:
  131. Multiple references: Earlier articles on this: See also:
  132. Multiple references: See also:
  133. Green, Miranda (May 15, 2019). Interior's border surge puts more officers in unfamiliar role. The Hill. Retrieved May 15, 2019.
  134. Multiple references:
  135. Multiple references:
  136. Sands, Geneva (May 21, 2019). Approximately 200 DHS volunteers have deployed to the border, amid other personnel shifts. CNN. Retrieved May 23, 2019.
  137. Multiple references:
  138. Multiple references:
  139. Multiple references: Statements by President Trump and the White House on this matter: See also:
  140. Multiple references: Left-wing denial of this accomplishment: See also: Statements by President Trump and other officials:
  141. Multiple references: See also:
  142. Multiple references: Acting DHS Secretary McAleenan's statements on the agreement's effect on apprehensions: Articles disputing the agreement's success:
  143. Multiple references: See also:
  144. Multiple references:
  145. Multiple references: See also:
  146. Multiple references: See also:
  147. Multiple references:
  148. Multiple references:
  149. Multiple references:
  150. Multiple references: Challenges such an operation would face: See also:
  151. Multiple references: Subsequent statements by President Trump: See also:
  152. Multiple references: ICE released a report justifying the raids: See also: Results of the operations:
  153. Multiple references:
  154. Multiple references: See also: However, ICE later caved and canceled the fines:
  155. Dinan, Stephen (December 7, 2019). EXCLUSIVE: ICE revives six-figure fines against illegal immigrants living in sanctuary. The Washington Times. Retrieved December 10, 2019.
  156. Multiple references: See also:
  157. Multiple references: The Trump Administration moved to implement the rule after the Court's decision: See also:
  158. Multiple references:
  159. Multiple references:
  160. Multiple references: See also: Information regarding a related H-2A visa agreement between the U.S. and Guatemala:
  161. Munro, Neil (July 26, 2019). DHS Kevin McAleenan Puts Guatemalan Migrants on Fast Track Home. Breitbart News. Retrieved July 26, 2019.
  162. 162.0 162.1 Multiple references: Statements by President Trump: See also:
  163. Multiple references:
  164. Multiple references: Subsequent developments: See also:
  165. Multiple references:
  166. Multiple references: Earlier articles on the policy change: Statements by President Trump and other officials: See also:
  167. Multiple references:
  168. Multiple references:
  169. Multiple references: See also: However, on September 2, 2019, the USCIS caved and restored the previous policy for 1,000 illegals: The administration later reversed this action due to left-wing criticism:
  170. Multiple references:
  171. Multiple references: See also:
  172. Multiple references: Some of the tent courts opened on September 16, 2019: See also:
  173. Multiple references: See also:
  174. Multiple references: See also:
  175. Multiple references: See also:
  176. Multiple references:
  177. Multiple references:
  178. Multiple references:
  179. Multiple references:
  180. Multiple references:
  181. Multiple references:
  182. Multiple references: See also:
  183. 183.0 183.1 Multiple references: See also:
  184. Arthur, Andrew R. (October 30, 2019). AG Issues Guidelines on State Criminal-Sentence Modifications. Center for Immigration Studies. Retrieved October 30, 2019.
    See also:
  185. Multiple references: See also:
  186. Multiple references: See also:
  187. Multiple references: See also:
  188. Multiple references: See also:
  189. Multiple references:
  190. Multiple references: See also:
  191. Multiple references: Surveillance was added to the soldiers' mission: See also:
  192. Multiple references: See also:
  193. Multiple references: See also:
  194. Multiple references: Earlier articles on the news, before the official announcement: Acting Defense Secretary Shanahan later committed to continuing the U.S. military's participation at the border until it would be secured:
  195. Multiple references:
  196. Multiple references: See also:
  197. Multiple references: See also:
  198. Multiple references:
  199. Multiple references:
  200. Multiple references:
  201. Multiple references:
  202. Multiple references:
  203. Multiple references: See also:
  204. Multiple references: See also:
  205. Multiple references:
  206. Multiple references:
  207. Multiple references:
  208. Multiple references: See also:
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  211. Multiple references:
  212. Multiple references: See also:
  213. Multiple references:
  214. Multiple references: See also
  215. Multiple references: See also:
  216. Multiple references: See also:
  217. Multiple references: See also:
  218. Multiple references: Construction on the wall continued despite a court order to stop construction:
  219. Multiple references:
  220. Multiple references: More on the national security law: President Trump honored Angel Moms when he announced the national security declaration: Regarding the existence of a national emergency: Criticism by conservatives for not going far enough: See also:
  221. Multiple references: See also:
  222. Multiple references: See also:
  223. Multiple references: Subsequent actions:
  224. Multiple references: See also:
  225. Multiple references: See also:
  226. Multiple references:
  227. Multiple references: See also:
  228. Multiple references:
  229. Multiple references:
  230. 230.0 230.1 Multiple references: See also: Negative reaction from conservatives:
  231. Multiple references: See also:
  232. Multiple references:
  233. Multiple references: Speech transcript: More on the speech's contents: See also:
  234. Multiple references:
  235. Multiple references: President Trump made similar comments the following day: Later comments: See also:
  236. Multiple references: See also: Polling data in Mexico:
  237. Multiple references: Mexican government claims: Articles stating the opposite: Despite Mexico taking some actions, its president, Andrés Manuel López Obrador, held left-wing immigration views: See also:
  238. Multiple references: See also:
  239. Multiple references: See also:
  240. Multiple references: