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Image of a face generated by averaging 16 original faces, which leads to the hypothesis that the process of averaging a variety of different faces produce beauty. Armand Marie Leroi, a developmental biologist at Imperial College, London, even hypothesized that race-mixing can increase the likelihood of physical attractiveness.

Aesthetics is the philosophical study of the nature and experience of art and beauty.

Aesthetics and the Golden Ratio

Leonardo da Vinci's drawings of the human body emphasized its proportion. The ratio of the distances from foot to navel, and navel to head, is the Golden Ratio.

Greek scholars believed that the Golden Ratio (also called divine proportion) is the key to beauty. Artists such as Leonardo da Vinci and Salvador Dali often incorporate the Golden Ratio in their drawings.

Definition of "art"

Art has been defined in the field of aesthetics in various ways. Some adhere to a rigid definition of "art," such as paintings, sculpture and other traditional genres, while others believe that art should not be strictly defined, and thus believe that anything progressive may be labeled as such.


Aesthetics is an important part of architecture. A poll co-sponsored by the American Institute of Architects revealed the following public ranking of "America's Favorite Architecture," with the name of the architect in parentheses:[1]

  1. Empire State Building (Shreve, Lamb & Harmon)
  2. The White House (James Hoban)
  3. Washington National Cathedral (George Bodley and Henry Vaughan)
  4. Jefferson Memorial (John Russell Pope)
  5. Golden Gate Bridge (Irving F. Morrow and Gertrude C. Morrow)
  6. U.S. Capitol (William Thornton, Benjamin Henry Latrobe, Charles Bulfinch, Thomas U. Walter, Montgomery C. Meigs)
  7. Lincoln Memorial (Henry Bacon)
  8. Biltmore Estate/Vanderbilt Mansion (Richard Morris Hunt)
  9. Chrysler Building (William Van Alen)
  10. Vietnam Veterans Memorial (Maya Lin with Cooper-Lecky Partnership)
  11. St. Patrick's Cathedral[2] (James Renwick)

Ravenne, Sant Apollinare in Classe, La nef centrale, VIe siecle.
St. Patrick's Cathedral.

Beauty and the religious/irreligious

See also: Atheists and physical attractiveness and Atheism and obesity

English anthropologist Edward Dutton on beauty among the religious/irreligious

See also: Atheists and physical attractiveness

The English anthropologist Edward Dutton indicates that using right-wing politics as a proxy for religiosity, there is evidence that atheists are less attractive and he pointed out that right-wing politicians are more likely to have symmetrical faces according to a study.[3]

Religious Philippines had the most wins in the big four international beauty pageants in 2017. Irreligion is rare among Filipinos

See also: Religious Philippines winning streak in the major international beauty pageants

The Philippines (a very religious country) have had a winning streak in major international beauty pageants (see: Religious Philippines winning streak in the major international beauty pageants).

Wikipedia, an online encyclopedia founded by an atheist and agnostic, has an article entitled Philippines at major beauty pageants.[4]

Wikipedia's article Irreligion in the Philippines indicated in 2018: "Irreligion in the Philippines is particularly rare among Filipinos..."[5]

See also

Rembrandt, Samson Accusing His Father-in-Law, ca. 1635.
The Tower of Babel by Pieter Bruegel the Elder, 1563.
The Storm, Pierre-Auguste Cot.

External links

Taj Mahal