Donald Trump achievements: Immigration and border security (2017)

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Official presidential photo of President Donald Trump
Main article: Donald Trump achievements: Immigration and border security

This article is a list of achievements by U.S. President Donald Trump, his administration, and Congress related to immigration, illegal immigration, and border security in 2017.

There was a large change in the Trump Administration, particularly in the Department of Justice,[1] regarding immigration policy, compared to the Obama Administration.[2] The United States Department of Homeland Security under John F. Kelly, who served during the first six months of Trump's presidency, made numerous accomplishments in advancing President Trump's conservative immigration policies.[3] It was reported early in Trump's presidency that immigration hardliners had become influential in the Trump Administration.[4] Illegal immigration enforcement statistics showed the Trump Administration's commitment to keeping its campaign promises,[5][6] and the administration took steps to reduce immigration levels and crack down on illegal immigration.[7] The Trump Administration also took steps to begin the process of building a wall on the border with Mexico, although Congress did not pass any funding so the administration could build any new sections of wall in 2017.[8]

According to a September 2017 reported by the DHS's Office of Immigration Statistics, illegally entering the U.S. from Mexico was harder than it had ever been in decades, at least, and smuggling costs doubled from the late 2000s.[9] The Trump Administration drastically changed the Obama Administration's refugee policies, reducing refugee admission levels and ending the previous administration's focus on Muslim refugees.[10] It also increased scrutiny of visa applications.[11] The Trump Administration made several actions to help stop illegal child border crossers.[12] The administration's national security strategy took a strong stance on immigration, border security, and national sovereignty, calling for the construction of a border wall and tougher vetting, among other policies.[13]

As a sign of President Trump immigration successes, the mainstream media and the establishment opposed Trump's immigration policies,[14] and the media, particularly outlets connected to left-wing donor George Soros, showed panic in its reporting due to the Trump Administration's enforcement of immigration law.[15] President Trump was winning the battle over immigration policy, as seen by the media's treatment of the topic.[16]

Legislation signed, 2017

  • H.R. 244, which was signed into law by President Trump on May 5, 2017, and funded the government through September 30, 2017, did not include funding for several of President Trump's priorities, such as defunding sanctuary cities and building new sections of the border wall. However, it did include an additional $1.5 billion in border security funding, including money to repair 40 miles of existing border barrier sections and to increase funding for ICE and CBP, among other conservative achievements.[17]

Executive actions, 2017

Legal immigration

The Trump Administration took numerous actions related to legal immigration and visas:

Trump signing his Jan. 27, 2017 order regarding refugees and travel from high-risk countries.
Countries affected by Trump's Jan. 27, 2017 travel ban.
  • January 27, 2017—Trump signed an executive order indefinitely banning the admission of Syrian refugees, suspending the overall refugee program for 120 days, suspending entry and the issuing of visas from seven failed Middle Eastern countries[18] for at least 90 days, and reducing the number of refugees allowed into the nation during the fiscal year from 110,000 to 50,000.[19] Additionally, Trump made clear that he would help Christian refugees, a reversal from the Obama Administration.[20] Despite criticism from leftists and non-conservatives, 49 percent of the American public supported the decision compared to 41 percent opposed, according to the "mainstream" Reuters,[21] and 57% percent of likely American voters supported the ban according to Rasmussen.[22] Additionally, while the leftist establishment European leaders opposed the ban, a strong majority – 55% average – of Europeans supported the ban, according to a poll in 10 European Union nations.[23][24]
  • March 6, 2017—President Trump signed a second executive order regarding the temporary suspension of refugees and others from certain high-risk countries after the first one was blocked by the courts. The second order made some clarifications and minor improvements over the first, such as exempting green card holders from the ban and excluding Iraq from it as it had developed an acceptable vetting process.[25][26] (after being blocked in federal courts,[27] the Supreme Court on June 26, 2017, partially reinstated the ban and allowed key portions of it to continue pending a hearing on the ban's constitutionality in October[28])
  • In late March/early April 2017, the Trump Administration cracked down on H-1B visas in a series of actions, making it much more difficult for entry-level programmers to enter the U.S., combating corruption in the program, and making sure that Americans were not discriminated against.[29] On April 18, 2017, President Trump signed an executive order restricting the H-1B visa to give hiring preference to American workers and enacting stronger enforcement of laws requiring the use of American-made materials in federal projects.[30] Experts on the H-1B visa supported his order.[31]
  • July 10, 2017—The Trump Administration delayed for eight months, reasoning that immigration officials already had much important work to do, an Obama Administration rule that would have made it easier for foreign nationals to enter the country to start a business.[32]
  • July 2017—The Trump Administration changed the focus of Citizenship and Immigration Services from "integration," as it was under the Obama Administration, to "assimilation." This could be seen in the renaming of a grant program started under the Obama Administration from the "Citizenship and Integration Grant Program" to the "Citizenship and Assimilation Grant Program."[33]
  • August 2017—The DHS ended the Central American Minors (CAM) Parole Program, which gave certain minors from El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras the ability to enter the U.S. even if they were previously unable to enter under refugee status.[34] This move took effect on November 9, 2017.[35]
  • It was reported in August 2017 that the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services was denying requests from employers to import cheap foreign labor into the U.S. for high-skilled jobs if the employers could not explain why it wanted to pay a lower wage for "high-skill" job.[36] It was reported in September 2017 that USCIS issued 85,000 challenges to H-1B visa applications through August 31, a 45% increase from the previous year and more than any year during the Obama Administration.[37]
  • September 24, 2017—The Trump Administration established a new travel ban that affected 8 countries – Chad, Iran, Libya, North Korea, Somalia, Syria, Yemen, and certain individuals from Venezuela. According to the U.S. government, these countries fell under the travel ban due to not sharing information about terrorism and the people applying to the U.S.[38] In December 2017, the Supreme Court allowed the Trump Administration to fully enforce the travel ban despite left-wing opposition,[39] and the State Department began fully implementing it a few days later.[40] On April 10, 2018, President Trump signed an order to remove Chad from the list.[41] On June 26, 2018, the Supreme Court issued a final ruling in favor of the travel ban, in a major victory for the administration.[42]
  • September 29, 2017—President Trump signed an order to allow up to only 45,000 refugees into the country in 2018, the lowest cap since the Refugee Act of 1980 was signed and a 59% decrease compared to the cap that President Obama had proposed for 2017.[43]
  • October 23, 2017—The USCIS issued a memo making H-1B visa renewals tougher, with the USCIS vetting foreign workers with the visa as if they were first-time applicants rather than the previous policy which was more lenient.[44]
  • October 24, 2017—President Trump signed an executive order reinstating refugee admissions into the U.S. but with tough vetting rules and with even tougher vetting for refugees from 11 countries.[45] The DHS fully resumed refugee admissions from those 11 countries with the additional vetting on January 2018.[46]
  • December 1, 2017—The State Department ordered refugee resettlement agencies to sharply reduce the number of their offices across the U.S.[47]
  • December 2, 2017—The Trump Administration pulled out of the Global Compact on Migration, a United Nations agreement on migration, due to it infringing on U.S. sovereignty and its immigration policies.[48] U.S. Ambassador Nikki Haley stated that "our decisions on immigration policies must always be made by Americans and Americans alone," and that "the global approach in the New York Declaration is simply not compatible with U.S. sovereignty."[48]
  • December 15, 2017—The Trump Administration added new requirements for countries participating in the U.S. Visa Waiver Program in order to help vet travelers entering the U.S. and to prevent visa overstays in the U.S.[49]
  • According to USCIS data, the number of family visas for immigrants that the agency approved in 2017 declined dramatically, with extended family visa approvals, specifically, falling by 70% compared to the previous year.[50]
  • In 2017, the Trump Administration announced it would end "Temporary Protected Status" for Sudan,[51] Nicaragua,[52] and Haiti.[53] The State Department also reportedly paved the way for the U.S. government to revoke additional TPS protections in 2018.[54]

Drop in refugee admissions, 2017

The number of refugees that entered the U.S. in 2017 fell dramatically compared to previous years, and 2017 was the first year since at least 1982 that the United States admitted fewer refugees than all other countries combined.[55] Between Inauguration Day 2017 and December 31 of that year, 29,022 refugees entered the country, surpassing the previous low set in 2002.[56] By May 2017, the media was already reporting that the number of refugees entering the U.S. had sharply fallen from its peak during the Obama Administration.[57] According to DHS numbers released in June 2017, the number of refugees admitted in the first three months of Trump's presidency was half of that of the last three months of Obama's presidency (even though refugee admissions increased at the end of Obama's presidency).[58]

Although the number of refugees admitted in May increased, the proportion of Muslim refugees declined from 34 to 28 percent compared to April.[59] In the first six months of Trump's presidency, more Christian refugees entered the country than Muslim ones, a departure from the Obama Administration, where more Muslim refugees entered.[60] In October 2017, the proportion of Muslim refugees declined to 23%,[61] and in November 2017, out of 1,859 refugees let in, only 10% were Muslim.[62]

Due to President Trump's travel ban, which the Supreme Court ordered partially reinstated in June 2017, refugee admissions to the U.S. declined dramatically,[63] even after a federal judge ordered the criteria to enter under the partial ban to be expanded.[64] Additionally, on July 19, 2017, the Supreme Court temporarily allowed the Trump Administration to strictly enforce its refugee admissions under the ban until an appeals court ruled on the matter.[65] Refugee arrivals in July were at the lowest rate in ten years,[66] and the rate of arrivals in August 2017 was at its lowest in fifteen years.[67] In October 2017, the first month of Fiscal Year 2018, the U.S. government admitted 1,242 refugees.[61] In both October and November 2017 – after the refugee ban was lifted – 3,108 refugees entered the country, an 83% drop from the year before.[68] In the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2018 – the last three months of 2017 – refugee admissions fell 79% compared to the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2017.[69]

Overall in 2017, refugee admissions fell by 70% under President Trump compared to the previous year, and Christian refugees comprised 53.2% of those admitted into the U.S., versus 32% Muslims, with the numbers flipping from the previous year.[70] By contrast, Trump admitted as many refugees in 2017 as Obama did in his last three months in office.[71]


The Trump Administration took numerous actions related to vetting:

  • Late May 2017—The State Department introduced new and much stricter rules for vetting all people seeking a visa to enter the U.S., with the introduction of social media vetting being among the changes.[72] The Trump Administration moved to make these measures permanent on August 3, 2017.[73]
  • June 21, 2017—President Trump signed an executive order, rescinding a guideline signed by former President Obama to speed up vetting times for people seeking visas, in order to improve vetting standards.[74]
  • August 2017—The Trump Administration continued strengthening the vetting of immigrants, such as requiring some to prove their ability to return to their home countries if necessary, in order to crack down on visa overstays,[75] and requiring some of those seeking green cards to conduct an in-person interview.[76]

Illegal immigration

The Trump Administration took numerous actions related to illegal immigration enforcement:

President Trump visiting CBP officers in Yuma, Arizona, on August 22, 2017.
  • January 25, 2017—Trump signed two executive orders. The first one included ordering the "immediate construction of a physical wall on the southern border," the hiring of 5,000 additional border control agents, and ending "catch-and-release" policies for illegal immigrants. The second order called for hiring an additional 10,000 federal immigration officers, re-establishing the Secure Communities Program and other local partnerships, making the deportation of criminal illegal immigrants a priority, directing the State Department to use leverage to ensure countries-of-origin take back illegal immigrants, and stripping federal grant money from sanctuary cities and states.[77] In February 2017, DHS Secretary Kelly signed two memos that made several immigration enforcement policy changes and rescinded most Obama-era memos.[78]
  • On March 31, 2017, after talking tough against "sanctuary cities" and illegal immigration, Attorney General Jeff Sessions announced a plan to speed up the deportation of imprisoned illegals.[79] On April 11, 2017, Sessions issued a memorandum to U.S. attorneys, instructing them to enforce much stricter guidelines against immigration crimes,[80] and he announced the Justice Department would hire 125 immigration judges in the next two years.[81] As a result of Session's decision, the DOJ resumed the criminal prosecution of first-time illegal border crossers, something which the Obama Administration stopped.[82] In the Tucson border sector, 565 first-time illegal immigrants were prosecuted for entering in June 2017 alone.[83]
  • April 26, 2017—The Department of Homeland Security established the Victims of Immigration Crime Engagement Office (VOICE), created to help support victims of illegal immigrant crime, and it established the DHS-Victim Information and Notification Exchange, which was created to help those victims track the custody status of those criminal illegal immigrants.[84]
  • It was reported that the Trump Administration, due to the president's previous executive orders, had ended Obama's "home free magnet" policy, where illegal immigrants who did not commit a serious crime (other than crossing the border illegally) did not need to fear deportation because ICE needed to gain permission from the Field Office Director before deporting them; and the Trump Administration expanded the use of expedited removal proceedings, which is the deportation of illegals without a hearing unless they request one.[85] Also, the DHS stopped asking for prosecutorial discretion and deferring deportations for illegals.[86] Thus, illegal immigrants "without violent criminal histories" could be arrested and deported.[87]
  • May 5, 2017—ICE established a policy that would give illegal immigrants stays of removal only if the chairs the House and Senate Judiciary Committees or the relevant subcommittees requested them, as opposed to the earlier policy of issuing stays of removal whenever a private bill to legalize illegals was introduced in Congress.[88][89][90] This would allow ICE to deport illegals without having members of Congress obstruct deportations.[89]
  • Early in Trump's presidency, it was clear the U.S. government was cracking down on criminal illegal immigrants and gangs.[91] For example, between March 26 and May 6, 2017, ICE conducted a crackdown on gangs, including MS-13 and other illegal immigrant gangs, that arrested nearly 1,400 people – the largest such operation conducted up to that point.[92] In an operation in late September 2017, ICE arrested nearly 500 illegals in "sanctuary" cities.[93] In an operation in October and November 2017, ICE arrested 214 MS-13 members in the U.S. and 53 in El Salvador.[94] The Trump Administration also cooperated with Central American countries in order to combat MS-13 recruitment in the region.[95] In 2017, ICE arrests of criminal illegals increased 92%, while arrests of MS-13 members increased by 83%.[96] In 2017, 90% of all arrests made by ICE were for criminal aliens.[97]
  • May 2017—In order to avoid misreporting and distortions by the media, ICE established a Spanish media presence.[98][99]
  • By May 2017, the Trump Administration was able to reduce the number of countries "that habitually refuse to take back immigrants whom the U.S. is trying to deport" from 20 to 12.[100] In September 2017, the Trump Administration enacted visa sanctions on four countries that continued to refuse to accept deportees.[101] One of those countries, Cambodia, allowed ICE to deport illegal Cambodian immigrants by December 2017.[102]
  • President Trump worked to eliminate Obama's legacy of giving privileges to illegal immigrants in detention centers.[103] At the same time, the Trump Administration expanded immigration enforcement efforts, such as through building additional detention centers.[104] (The inspector general reported on June 7, 2017, but based on July 2016 inspections, that the facilities used by the DHS to detain illegal families were overall in good shape and met federal standards[105])
  • It was reported in June 2017 that the Trump Administration began repatriating illegal immigrants given "administrative closure" by the Obama Administration, a form of "quasi-amnesty."[106] Due to this change in policy, as it was reported a month later in July 2017, the number of deportation cases in Los Angeles alone rose 60%.[107] The Trump Administration re-opened numerous deportation cases.[108]
  • June 2017—The Department of Homeland Security ended a program where 21 officials cooperated with anti-deportation and pro-amnesty organizations, and reassigned those officials to the new VOICE office which helps victims of illegal immigrant crimes.[109]
  • June 2017—The Trump Administration ended the Family Case Management Program, which allowed certain illegal immigrants seeking asylum to stay out of detention centers.[110]
  • June 15, 2017—The DHS canceled the Deferred Action for Parents of Americans (DAPA) program created by the Obama Administration in November 2014 that would have given amnesty to about 4 million illegal immigrants but was blocked by federal courts before its full implementation.[111]
  • June 23, 2017—The DOJ threw its support behind Texas's sanctuary city ban that was challenged in court.[112]
  • June 30, 2017—It was reported that the Trump Administration, under a memo signed by DHS Secretary John Kelly, began cracking down on illegal immigrant parents who paid to have their children smuggled into the United States.[113]
  • Despite encountering opposition in "sanctuary" cities, ICE agents continued enforcing U.S. immigration law in those cities.[114]
  • The number of 287(g) agreements between ICE and various counties in the U.S., which increase cooperation between the counties and ICE, nearly doubled by late-July 2017 compared to the previous year, and the program increased at a much faster rate than it did during the Obama Administration.[115] In one instance in late-July 2017, ICE announced it had signed 18 such agreements with the same number of counties in Texas.[115] Between January and November 2017, 29 local police departments overall joined the program.[116]
  • It was reported in July 2017 that, in a break with the Obama Administration, that the Justice Department was again using the more accurate legal term "illegal alien" to describe such people, rather than the politically correct terms used by the previous administration.[117]
  • September 5, 2017—The Trump Administration announced it would end the Obama Administration's Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program.[118]
  • September 7, 2017—The DOJ announced that cities that did not have "sanctuary" status would have priority in receiving money for the COPS grant program.[119]
  • October 4, 2017—The DOJ announced that due to sending additional immigration judges to southern border districts, 2,700 additional cases had been completed compared to if the judges were not deployed, according to data by the Executive Office of Immigration Review.[120]
  • December 6, 2017—Attorney General Sessions issued a memo to the Executive Office for Immigration Review calling on it to use any legal means necessary to quickly and efficiently review immigration cases.[121]
  • December 20, 2017—Attorney General Sessions issued a memo giving immigration judges new guidelines to make the trial process for unaccompanied illegal children fairer and less favorable to them.[122]
  • The Trump Administration oversaw a large increase in illegal immigrant arrests and deportations compared to the Obama Administration, showing its commitment to keeping its campaign promises:[5]
    • Despite the large drop in illegal immigrant apprehensions, and likely because of it,[123] the amount of illegal guns and drugs seized by Customs and Border Protection saw large increases in the beginning of Trump's presidency.[123][124] In addition, the number of immigration arrests increased, with a 38% increase in Trump's first 100 days.[125] The DHS had arrested 66,000 illegal immigrants by late June 2017,[126] and it was reported in early July that arrests had doubled from the Obama Administration.[127] In one widely reported incident on June 15, U.S. Border Patrol agents had to obtain a warrant[128] and raided an Arizona desert camp to arrest four illegal immigrants,[129] and in another instance in July 2017, ICE arrested 650 illegals in four days who had already been required to leave the country.[130] The U.S. cracked down on college exam fraud by foreigners.[131]
    • It was reported in early August 2017 that due to reforms and additional hirings of immigration judges, the number of deportation orders increased by nearly 28% compared to the same period of time in 2016, and when including "voluntary departure" orders, the number rose over 30%.[132] The deportation of Europeans increased compared to previous years, indicating the Trump Administration's deportation policy was evenhanded.[133]
    • It was reported in August 2017 that of the 42,000 illegal immigrants in federal prisons, nearly all of them either had deportation orders or were being investigated for possible deportation.[134]
    • It was reported in August 2017 that so far in 2017 the Trump Administration had deported 30% more illegal immigrants enrolled in the DACA program due to crimes and gang violence.[135]
    • It was reported in November 2017 that the Trump Administration was making more of an effort than the Obama Administration to reach quick deportation decisions in immigration courts.[136]
    • In 2017 overall, immigration and deportation arrests increased even though the number of deportations themselves decreased,[137] with arrests reaching a three-year high in 2017.[138] However, ICE also reported that the number of deportations of illegals who were already living in the U.S. increased by 37% in 2017.[139] Despite California's "sanctuary state" law, in the last three months of 2017, San Diego saw the largest number of arrests of illegals who had no criminal activity besides entering the country illegally.[140]

Border security

The Trump Administration took several actions related to border security:

  • May 9, 2017—The Department of Homeland Security reported that it had implemented tougher vetting policies at U.S. border crossings.[141]
  • July 17, 2017—The Trump Administration, in a break with the Obama Administration's refusal to do likewise, gave $2.3 million to the state of Texas so its military patrol could continue patrolling the border with Mexico.[142]
  • October 2017—The Trump Administration completed construction of eight prototypes of the proposed border wall to be used for testing to see which design is most appropriate for the border with Mexico.[143]
  • By October 2017, the Trump Administration had expanded the searching of electronic devices of people entering the country by almost four times.[144] In 2017 overall, the number of devices searched by border officials had increased by 50% compared to the previous year.[145]

Appointments, 2017

DHS Secretary Kelly and Attorney General Sessions in El Paso, Texas, on April 20, 2017.
Attorney General Sessions meeting with U.S. Border Patrol Agents, April 11, 2017.
  • Attorney General Jeff Sessions[146][147] and Secretary of Homeland Security John F. Kelly (with the full support of President Trump[148]) adopted a strong position against illegal immigration.[147][149]
  • January 30, 2017—President Trump appointed Thomas Homan, someone with a reputation for enforcing immigration laws, as acting director of Immigration and Customs Enforcement.[150] As the head of ICE, Homan took a strong stance on illegal immigration enforcement,[151] even though some conservatives criticized him for his role in the Obama Administration and its lax illegal immigration policies.[152] On January 31, President Trump appointed Ronald Vitiello, who was endorsed by the National Border Patrol Council which also endorsed Trump in the 2016 election, to lead U.S. Border Patrol.[153] On April 25, 2017, Vitiello was appointed as Deputy Commissioner of Customs and Border Protection.[154]
  • In late March 2017, President Trump appointed Scott Lloyd, a strong conservative supportive of the president's immigration policies, to lead the HHS's Office of Refugee Resettlement.[155]
  • April 14, 2017—President Trump appointed two conservatives on immigration issues to senior positions in the Department of Homeland Security.[156]

Other achievements, 2017

While the following achievements were not official United States government policy actions by the Trump Administration, they were closely related to the Trump Administration and its policies:

Drop in illegal immigration, 2017

Illegal immigration declined dramatically in the year after Trump took office,[157][158] and the decline helped illustrate the administration's achievements on illegal immigration policy.[5] Illegal border crossings fell to their lowest level in 45 years in 2017.[6] Also in Fiscal Year 2017, the level of illegal child border crossers fell by 20%.[159]

According to data released early in Trump's presidency, illegal border crossings decreased by 40% in the first month of Trump's presidency – a remarkable achievement, considering that illegal immigration usually increases by 10 to 20% in January and February.[160] In March, illegal immigration had fallen by over 60%.[161] By Trump's 100th day in office, levels were reported to have fallen by 73%.[162][163] The declining trend of border apprehensions (an indicator of the level of illegal immigration) continued through May.[164] It was reported in April that illegal immigration levels had fallen to the lowest point in 17 years.[163][165]

It was reported in May that the number of child illegal immigrants entering the nation monthly had fallen below 1,000, the first time in several years, and that total illegal immigration levels had fallen by 76%.[166] In six months, the illegal immigration of Haitians, specifically, into the U.S. declined by 97%.[167] Although not solely due to President Trump, illegal immigration from Cuba dropped dramatically in the beginning of Trump's presidency.[168] Illegal immigration dropped so much that U.S. Customs and Border Protection was able to close one of their temporary holding facilities.[169] As another illustration, a non-profit shelter organization for illegal immigrants, Southwest Key Programs, was forced to lay off nearly 1,000 of its employees due to the drop.[170] The drop in illegal immigration was probably due to the Trump effect[157][171][172] and tougher illegal immigration and deportation policies by the Homeland Security Department.[173][174]

Illegal immigration levels rose in June 2017, but they were still much lower than the previous year and at a six-year low.[175] Even after a 13% increase in July, numbers were still lower than during the Obama Administration.[176] Illegal immigration continued to increase during the rest of 2017.[177]


  • United States Citizenship and Immigration Services reported in April 2017 that the number of H-1B visa applications fell by 16%, the first time it fell in five years.[178] It was reported in August 2017 that the number of H-1B visa applications decreased for the first time in seven years.[179] In addition, American businesses, under pressure from the Trump Administration, focused more on hiring Americans rather than foreign workers.[180] The number of student visas given to students from other countries also fell sharply in 2017, especially from China and India.[181] According to an Institute of International Education survey, the number of foreign students enrolling in American universities declined 7% in fall 2017.[182] The total level of immigration – legal and illegal – fell to 1.45 million in 2017 from 1.75 the previous year.[183]
  • Businesses and farms that relied upon illegal immigrant labor could feel the effects of President Trump's crackdown on illegal immigration, with wages increasing.[184]
  • It was reported in July 2017 that due to President Trump's strong immigration enforcement policies, numerous illegal immigrants chose to self-deport rather than being prosecuted and deported.[185] In addition, many illegal immigrants and other immigrants fearing deportation fled to Canada,[186] a trend that continued after the end of 2017.[187] The number of migrants coming into Canada became so large that the Canadian government sent soldiers to take care of the situation.[188]
  • President Trump gave victims of illegal immigrant crimes a voice in his administration,[189] as could be seen in the DHS's establishment of the VOICE office.[84] In addition, President Trump showed strong support for Border Patrol agents, as he illustrated by his reaction when a Border Patrol agent was killed and his partner injured while on duty in November 2017.[190]
  • The president of the National Border Patrol Council, which made its very first independent presidential endorsement for Trump in the 2016 election,[191] stated in a July 2017 interview that border patrol agents did not have a higher morale in his 20 years of service due to President Trump's policies,[192] and in a separate interview held on the same day he spoke highly of Trump's role in dropping illegal immigration levels in early 2017.[193] Carla Provost, the Border Patrol chief, made similar comments in November 2017.[194]
  • President Trump strongly advocated for conservative immigration reform and reductions,[195] as seen in his August 2017 endorsement of a Senate bill to reduce legal immigration and change the U.S. immigration system to a merit-based system.[196] While only a proposal, it was described as the first serious attempt in many decades to reduce immigration.[197] President Trump also advocated for other pro-American immigration policies, such as ending "chain migration."[198]
  • The DOJ called for a change to the U.S. Census to ask if participants are a citizen.[199]

Setbacks, 2017

The following setbacks to the MAGA agenda were often caused by Congress or officials in the Trump Administration, rather than President Trump himself. Some of them can also be considered partial achievements.

  • February 2017—Despite enacting a crackdown on illegal immigration,[200] the Trump Administration took a softer stance of illegal immigration than many conservatives had hoped and as the Left had expected.[201] Although giving de facto amnesty to less illegal immigrants than Obama did in his last three months in office, the Trump Administration put nearly 55,000 additional illegal immigrants under the Temporary Protected Status program.[202]
  • It was reported in late-May and early-June 2017 that despite government and media statements to the contrary,[200][203] the Trump Administration had not made any real change from the Obama Administration's "catch-and-release" policies when apprehending illegal immigrants.[204] Catch-and-release was reinstated in Texas in November 2017 due to Border Control not having enough beds for the illegals.[205]
  • Due to confirmation delays in the Senate, many leaders of the agencies in charge of border security still had "acting" status well into Trump's presidency, something which prevented agencies from implementing stronger immigration enforcement policies.[206]
  • President Trump was criticized by border patrol agents who had supported him for nominating Kevin McAleenan, an Obama holdover who reportedly played a key role in Obama's lax illegal immigration policy, as the head of Customs and Border Protection.[207] Thomas Homan, the director of ICE, was also criticized for his role in the Obama Administration,[152] such as by helping author Obama's immigration executive orders and policies and by speaking highly of Obama Administration officials.[208] Additionally, it was reported in April 2017 that Obama Administration holdovers in the CBP were engaging in undermining President Trump's agenda of securing the southern border.[209] Obama holdovers in ICE also continued Obama-era policies on immigration enforcement.[210] In addition, the Trump Administration appointed several Bush Administration officials to DHS positions, including Kirstjen Nielsen as DHS Secretary and Elaine Duke as Deputy Secretary.[211]
  • It was reported in early-July 2017 that despite cutting the number of K-1 visas in nearly half and slightly lowered the level of chain migration,[212] the State Department wasted a good opportunity to temporarily stop family chain migration by excluding individuals with a K-1 visa from President Trump's travel ban.[213]
  • As of November 2017, the Trump Administration continued many of the Obama Administration's open borders policies regarding H-1B visas.[214] It also expanded the H-2B visa program.[215] President Trump began retreating from his promise to reduce legal immigration levels.[216]
  • December 20, 2017—President Trump's first prison commutation was to Sholom Rubashkin, who was found illegally employing 389 illegal immigrants at once.[217]
  • The DOJ – despite new leadership under the Trump Administration – did not change its position on a lawsuit by Tennessee that opposed the mandatory resettlement of refugees in the state but continued to take the Obama Administration's stance.[218]


  1. Multiple references:
  2. Multiple references: See also:
  3. Multiple references:
  4. NYT: Immigration Hard-Liners Rising in Trump Administration. Breitbart News. April 24, 2017. Retrieved April 24, 2017.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Dinan, Stephen; Noble, Andrea (August 9, 2017). Illegal immigration statistics show Trump’s resolve to keep campaign promise. The Washington Times. Retrieved August 9, 2017.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Multiple references:
  7. Multiple references: The December 23 NYT article was criticized by Tom Cotton:
  8. Moons, Michelle (December 31, 2017). 2017 Year-End Border Wall Update — ‘Build the Wall’. Breitbart News. Retrieved December 31, 2017.
  9. Multiple references: The Center for Immigration Studies came to the same conclusion after reviewing DHS data: See also:
  10. Dinan, Stephen (September 26, 2017). Trump cuts Obama’s refugee target in half, takes more Christians than Muslims. The Washington Times. Retrieved September 26, 2017.
  11. Meckler, Laura (November 19, 2017). Trump Administration Tightens Scrutiny of Skilled Worker Visa Applicants. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 25, 2018.
    See also:
  12. Rosenberg, Mica (November 3, 2017). New Trump immigration efforts aim to stop child border crossers. Reuters. Retrieved November 4, 2017.
  13. Multiple references:
  14. Binder, John (July 18, 2017). NYT Lets Obama, Bush Alums Grieve Illegal Immigration Crackdown. Breitbart News. Retrieved July 18, 2017.
    See also – The Intercept, a liberal news source, on President Trump and his immigration policies:
  15. Binder, John (July 8, 2017). Soros-Funded Media Panics over Immigration Enforcement. Breitbart News. Retrieved July 8, 2017.
  16. Multiple references:
  17. Multiple references: See also:
  18. Hayward, John (January 30, 2017). Corruption, Terrorism, and Genocide: The 7 Nations Covered by Trump Executive Order. Breitbart News. Retrieved March 30, 2017.
  19. Multiple references: See also:
  20. Hayward, John (January 27, 2017). Trump: Christian Refugees ‘Horribly Treated,’ ‘We Are Going to Help Them’. Breitbart. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
  21. Kahn, Chris (January 31, 2017). Exclusive: Only a third of Americans think Trump's travel ban will make them more safe. Reuters. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
  22. Most Support Temporary Ban on Newcomers from Terrorist Havens. January 2017. Retrieved February 2, 2017.
  23. Shaw, Adam (February 9, 2017). Majority of Europeans in favor of a Trump-style Muslim ban, poll shows. Fox News. Retrieved February 9, 2017.
  24. Jamieson, Alastair (February 8, 2017). Majority in Leading EU Nations Support Trump-Style Travel Ban: Poll. NBC News. Retrieved February 9, 2017.
  25. Munro, Neil (March 6, 2016). Donald Trump Signs Executive Order Banning Travel from Six Terror-Tied Countries. Breitbart. Retrieved March 6, 2017.
  26. Chakraborty, Barnini (March 6, 2017). Trump signs new immigration order, narrows scope of travel ban. Fox News. Retrieved March 6, 2017.
  27. Trump travel ban to go into effect: Timeline of a legal journey. Fox News. June 28, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
  28. Multiple references: Conservatives criticized the fact that it was a partial reinstatement rather than a full reinstatement: The Trump Administration moved to establish a narrow interpretation of the Court's "bona-fide relationship" it mandated when implementing the ban's partial reinstatement: It went into effect on June 29: The Trump Administration made some exceptions to the ban: On October 24, 2017, the Supreme Court dropped the travel ban case, due to it having expired and being moot:
  29. Multiple references:
  30. Multiple references: See also:
  31. Binder, John (April 18, 2017). H-1B Experts on Trump’s Order: ‘This Is What We Elected Him For’. Breitbart News. Retrieved April 18, 2017.
    Predictably, Indian lawmakers opposed the order:
  32. Multiple references:
  33. Leahy, Michael Patrick (July 28, 2017). Trump Administration Changes Focus of USCIS Immigrant Citizenship Training to Assimilation. Breitbart News. Retrieved July 28, 2017.
  34. Multiple references:
  35. Multiple references:
  36. Multiple references:
  37. Multiple references:
  38. Multiple references: See also:
  39. Multiple references:
  40. Multiple references: See also:
  41. Multiple references:
  42. Multiple references: President Trump's reaction:
  43. Multiple references: Some conservatives, however, criticized President Trump for not suspending the refugee program:
  44. Multiple references:
  45. Multiple references:
  46. Multiple references:
  47. Multiple references: See also: Macchi, Victoria (April 27, 2017). Trump's Cuts to US Refugee Program Lead to 300-plus Layoffs. Voice of America. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
  48. 48.0 48.1 Multiple references: For more information on the agreement and its potential impact on U.S. policy, see here: See also: However, the U.S. remained in a similar plan, the "Global Compact on Refugees": The Trump Administration's action inspired other countries to leave the agreement:
  49. Multiple references:
  50. Multiple references:
  51. Multiple references: While ending the protections, the administration announced it would continue the protections for a smaller number of South Sudanese migrants:
  52. Multiple references: Conservatives criticized the Trump Administration for extending protections for tens of thousands of Honduran migrants on the same day:
  53. Multiple references: Criticism, both from leftists and conservatives, of the decision:
  54. Multiple references: See also:
  55. Multiple references: See also:
  56. Gomez, Alan (January 3, 2018). Refugee admissions to U.S. plummet in 2017. USA Today. Retrieved January 17, 2018.
  57. Multiple references: See also:
  58. Multiple references:
  59. Leahy, Michael Patrick (June 2, 2017). Number of Refugees Admitted into U.S. Increased by Nineteen Percent in May, Slightly Fewer Are Muslim. Breitbart News. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
  60. Multiple references:
  61. 61.0 61.1 Leahy, Michael Patrick (November 3, 2017). Refugee Admissions Plummet to 1,242 in First Month of FY 2018. Breitbart News. Retrieved November 4, 2017.
  62. Leahy, Michael Patrick (December 1, 2017). Only Ten Percent of the 1,859 Refugees Admitted into U.S. in November Are Muslim. Breitbart News. Retrieved December 2, 2017.
  63. Leahy, Michael Patrick (July 5, 2017). Refugee Arrivals Plummet in Week After Supreme Court Ruling on Trump Executive Order. Breitbart News. Retrieved July 6, 2017.
  64. Leahy, Michael Patrick (July 19, 2017). Refugee Arrivals Trickle to Virtual Halt After Federal Judge’s Decision Expands ‘Bona Fide Relationship’. Breitbart News. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
    See also:
  65. Multiple references: Very few refugees were settled in the period of this ruling's effect:
  66. Macchi, Victoria (August 1, 2017). Refugee Arrivals to US Plummet to Lowest Level in a Decade. Voice of America. Retrieved September 2, 2017.
  67. Multiple references:
  68. Llorente, Elizabeth (December 5, 2017). Refugee admissions tumble after Trump lifts ban. Fox News. Retrieved December 5, 2017.
    See also:
  69. Multiple references:
  70. Multiple references:
  71. Binder, John (January 2, 2018). Data: Obama Outpaced Trump’s Annual Refugee Admissions in Three Months. Breitbart News. Retrieved January 2, 2018.
  72. Multiple references:
  73. Both sources are taken from Reuters but published in two different sites:
  74. Multiple references:
  75. Multiple references:
  76. Multiple references:
  77. Multiple references: See also:
  78. Multiple references: The White House chose to strengthen the memos Kelly signed: See also:
  79. Multiple references:
  80. Multiple references:
  81. Singman, Brooke (April 11, 2017). AG Sessions vows to confront cartels, gangs on visit to US-Mexico border. Fox News. Retrieved April 11, 2017.
  82. Multiple references:
  83. Multiple references:
  84. 84.0 84.1 Multiple references:
  85. Rappaport, Nolan (May 5, 2017). On illegal immigration, Trump ends Obama's 'home free magnet'. The Hill. Retrieved May 6, 2017.
  86. Binder, John (July 21, 2017). Trump ‘Abolished’ Obama-era Deportation Postponement for Illegal Aliens, Says Report. Breitbart News. Retrieved July 22, 2017.
  87. Multiple references: This could be illustrated in the case of Somali illegals:
  88. Dinan, Stephen (May 8, 2017). DHS speeds high-profile deportations; Democrats call changes ‘mean-spirited’. The Washington Times. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
  89. 89.0 89.1 Mason, Ian (May 8, 2017). ICE Announces Crackdown on Congressional Interference with Deportations. Breitbart News. Retrieved May 8, 2017.
  90. Binder, John (May 11, 2017). ICE: No More Deportation Halts from Amnesty Proposals. Breitbart News. Retrieved May 11, 2017.
  91. For example: Related actions: See also:
  92. Multiple references:
  93. Multiple references:
  94. Multiple references:
  95. Farivar, Masood (June 23, 2017). US Takes MS-13 Gang Fight to Its Root Countries. Voice of America. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
  96. Multiple references:
  97. Multiple references:
  98. Price, Bob (May 16, 2017). ICE Looks to Avoid Media Distortions with Spanish Language Website. Breitbart News. Retrieved May 16, 2017.
  99. ICE expands digital presence with Spanish website, Twitter -- News Releases. U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement. May 15, 2017. Retrieved May 16, 2017.
  100. Multiple references:
  101. Multiple references:
  102. Multiple references: See also:
  103. Price, Bob (April 14, 2017). Trump and Kelly ‘Dismantle’ Obama’s ‘Progress’ for Illegal Immigrants. Breitbart News. Retrieved April 14, 2017.
  104. Trump Administration’s First Immigrant Detention Center Goes Up in Texas. Breitbart News. April 15, 2017. Retrieved April 15, 2017.
  105. Multiple references:
  106. Multiple references:
  107. Hawkins, Awr (July 19, 2017). L.A. Sees 60% Jump in Deportation Cases Under Trump. Breitbart News. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
  108. Under Trump, old deportation orders get new life. Fox News. June 8, 2017. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
  109. Multiple references:
  110. Multiple references:
  111. Multiple references:
  112. Multiple references:
  113. Multiple references:
  114. Lajeunesse, William (July 13, 2017). Immigration agents continue enforcement even in cities hostile to them. Fox News. Retrieved July 13, 2017.
  115. 115.0 115.1 Active 287(g) agreements existed on July 31, 2017, nearly double that in 2016. Only six such agreements were made between 2012 and 2016 during the Obama Administration. Multiple references: See also:
  116. Multiple references: See also:
  117. Multiple references:
  118. Multiple references:
  119. Multiple references:
  120. Multiple references:
  121. Multiple references:
  122. Multiple references:
  123. 123.0 123.1 Bedard, Paul (July 20, 2017). Border war turns from illegals to Mexican cartels — gun, drug seizures up. Washington Examiner. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
  124. Price, Bob (May 14, 2017). Border Patrol Agents Seize Massive Amounts of Drugs After Migrant Crossings Drop. Breitbart News. Retrieved May 14, 2017.
  125. Multiple references: See also:
  126. Munro, Neil (June 29, 2017). DHS John Kelly Slams Congress For Undermining Immigration Law, Touts 66,000 Illegals Arrested. Breitbart News. Retrieved June 30, 2017.
  127. Binder, John (July 4, 2017). Illegal Immigrant Arrests Doubling under Trump. Breitbart News. Retrieved July 4, 2017.
  128. Price, Bob (June 16, 2017). Illegal Alien Support Group Forces Border Patrol to Get Warrants. Breitbart News. Retrieved June 18, 2017.
  129. Multiple references:
  130. Multiple references:
  131. Multiple references:
  132. Multiple references:
  133. Multiple references:
  134. Multiple references:
  135. Multiple references:
  136. Multiple references:
  137. Multiple references:
  138. Multiple references: See also:
  139. Binder, John (December 29, 2017). DHS: Deportations of Illegal Aliens Living Across U.S. Increase 37 Percent Under Trump. Breitbart News. Retrieved December 31, 2017.
  140. Multiple references:
  141. Gibson, Jake (May 9, 2017). 'Additional vetting' already happening, DHS officials say. Fox News. Retrieved May 9, 2017.
  142. Multiple references:
  143. Multiple references: See also: In February 2019, the CBP demolished the prototypes to build a secondary border barrier:
  144. Farivar, Masood (October 28, 2017). At US Border, Dramatic Spike in Searches of Phones, Electronic Devices. Voice of America. Retrieved October 29, 2017.
    See also:
  145. However, in early 2018, the CBP enacted regulations limiting its ability to search electronic devices:
  146. Multiple references:
  147. 147.0 147.1 Kelly, Sessions Pledge Tough Stance on Border Policy in San Diego. Voice of America. April 21, 2017. Retrieved July 26, 2017.
  148. Derespina, Cody (April 18, 2017). Trump: Illegal immigrant criminals are 'getting the hell out'. Fox News. Retrieved April 18, 2017.
  149. DHS' Kelly defends more ICE, border hires; says illegal immigrants must be 'dealt with'. Fox News. April 16, 2017. Retrieved April 17, 2017.
  150. Multiple references:
  151. Multiple references:
  152. 152.0 152.1 Darby, Brandon; Ortiz, Ildefonso (July 1, 2017). Official Who Released Criminal Aliens into U.S. for Obama Now Directing ICE. Breitbart News. Retrieved July 5, 2017.
  153. Multiple references:
  154. Multiple references:
  155. Multiple references:
  156. Binder, John (April 14, 2017). Immigration Hawks Ascend to Senior DHS Positions. Breitbart News. Retrieved April 14, 2017.
  157. 157.0 157.1 Lajeunesse, William; Prabucki, Laura (May 11, 2017). Trump's tough immigration rhetoric slows illegal border crossings: 'We're at a trickle'. Fox News. Retrieved May 11, 2017.
  158. Multiple references:
  159. Giaritelli, Anna (December 5, 2017). Border officials see 20 percent drop in children trying to cross the border under Trump. Washington Examiner. Retrieved December 17, 2017.
    However, see also:
  160. Multiple references:
  161. Multiple references:
  162. Nolan, Lucas (April 29, 2017). Trump: ‘Illegal Immigration Down by Unprecedented 73%’. Breitbart News. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
  163. 163.0 163.1 Valverde, Miriam (April 25, 2017). Is illegal immigration the lowest in 17 years, as Trump said? PolitiFact. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
  164. Multiple references:
  165. Multiple references:
  166. Dinan, Stephen; Noble, Andrea (May 9, 2017). Trump’s immigration enforcement helps slow illegal border crossings by 76%. The Washington Times. Retrieved May 9, 2017.
  167. Dinan, Stephen (April 16, 2017). Haitians get word of Trump crackdown, slow flow to border by 97%. The Washington Times. Retrieved April 20, 2017.
  168. Saavedra, Ryan (May 12, 2017). Cuban Migration Plummets to Zero in April. Breitbart News. Retrieved May 12, 2017.
  169. Price, Bob (February 15, 2017). Drop in Trump Era Border Crossings Shutters Detention Center. Breitbart News. Retrieved March 31, 2017.
  170. Price, Bob (May 22, 2017). Migrant Shelter Lays Off 1,000 after Border Crossings Drop. Breitbart News. Retrieved May 22, 2017.
  171. Sessions: Border crossings down 60 percent due to 'Trump's strong leadership'. Fox News. March 30, 2017. Retrieved March 31, 2017.
  172. Brown, Ben (April 12, 2017). Border Patrol Union President: Illegal Immigration Decline ‘Strictly’ Due to Trump. Fox Business. Retrieved April 20, 2017.
  173. Gibson, Jake (May 9, 2017). Border apprehensions plummet as DHS touts enforcement push. Fox News. May 9, 2017. Retrieved May 9, 2017.
  174. Kasperowicz, Pete (May 23, 2017). DHS: 'Historic shift' in border crossings since Trump's executive order. Washington Examiner. Retrieved June 23, 2017.
  175. Multiple references:
  176. Multiple references:
  177. Multiple references: See also:
  178. Multiple references:
  179. Donnelly, Grace (August 2, 2017). New Data Shows Foreign Interest in American Jobs May Be Declining Under Trump. Fortune. Retrieved August 11, 2017.
  180. Multiple references:
  181. Multiple references:
  182. Multiple references:
  183. Camarota, Steven A.; Zeigler, Karen (November 19, 2019). 1.45 Million Immigrants Arrived in 2017, Down from 1.75 Million in 2016. Center for Immigration Studies. Retrieved November 19, 2019.
  184. Multiple references: See also:
  185. Binder, John (July 11, 2017). Illegal Aliens Self-deporting amid Stricter Enforcement, Says Report. Breitbart News. Retrieved July 11, 2017.
  186. Multiple references: It was reported in October 2017 that "unprecedented numbers" – a rate of five times greater than in 2016 – of refugees were entering Canada from the United States: See also:
  187. Paperny, Anna Mehler (March 19, 2018). Collateral damage: How Trump threw Canada's refugee system into turmoil. Reuters. Retrieved March 19, 2018.
  188. Multiple references:
  189. Multiple references:
  190. Multiple references:
  191. Multiple references:
  192. Multiple references:
  193. Multiple references:
  194. Suarez Sang, Lucia I. (November 14, 2017). First female Border Patrol chief says agents are empowered to 'enforce the laws' under Trump. Fox News. Retrieved November 16, 2017.
  195. Bernal, Rafael (August 4, 2017). Immigration critics find their champion in Trump. The Hill. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
  196. Multiple references:
  197. Mason, Ian (August 2, 2017). RAISE Act Is First Serious Attempt to Reduce Immigration In Generations. Breitbart News. Retrieved August 3, 2017.
    See also:
  198. Binder, John (December 17, 2017). Trump Admin Launches Campaign to End Extended-Family Immigration into U.S.. Breitbart News. Retrieved December 17, 2017.
  199. Multiple references: See also:
  200. 200.0 200.1 Berger, Judson (February 21, 2017). DHS secretary orders immigration agent hiring surge, end to 'catch-and-release'. Fox News. Retrieved February 21, 2017.
  201. Dinan, Stephen (June 18, 2017). Trump’s immigration policies keep advocates on their toes. The Washington Times. Retrieved June 19, 2017.
  202. Binder, John (June 14, 2017). Nearly 55K Illegal Aliens Given ‘Protection’ under Trump, Says Fed Report. Breitbart News. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
  203. Pfeiffer, Alex (April 24, 2017). Data Shows How ‘Catch And Release’ Has Ended Under Trump. The Daily Caller. Retrieved June 11, 2017.
  204. Multiple references: See also:
  205. Dinan, Stephen (November 15, 2017). Catch-and-release of illegals restarted in Texas, border patrol agents say. The Washington Times. Retrieved November 16, 2017.
  206. Kolb, Joseph J. (May 31, 2017). Border agents say ‘acting’ status of agency chiefs has hampered enforcement efforts. Fox News. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
  207. Ortiz, Ildefonso (April 5, 2017). Brandon Darby: Border Patrol Agents Feel Betrayed by the Trump Administration. Breitbart News. Retrieved April 5, 2017.
  208. Darby, Brandon (July 10, 2017). Trump’s ICE Director Helped Author Obama’s Immigration Priorities and Executive Orders, Praised Them. Breitbart News. Retrieved July 10, 2017.
  209. Darby, Brandon; Ortiz, Ildefonso (April 18, 2017). EXCLUSIVE: Officials Defy Trump’s Promises: 40 Miles of Border Ordered Unpatrolled. Breitbart News. Retrieved April 18, 2017.
  210. Multiple references: However, President Trump reached out to ICE employees after hearing of their complaints:
  211. Binder, John (December 6, 2017). Bush Bureaucrats Favored by John Kelly Now Running Homeland Security Under Trump. Breitbart News. Retrieved December 8, 2017.
    See also:
  212. Binder, John (July 6, 2017). Trump Shows Cuts to Chain Migration Visas in Early Months. Breitbart News. Retrieved July 7, 2017.
  213. Multiple references:
  214. North, David (November 3, 2017). USCIS Plays Word Games to Ease Costs for H-1B Employers. Center for Immigration Studies. Retrieved November 3, 2017.
  215. Multiple references: See also:
  216. Munro, Neil (May 12, 2017). Donald Trump Backslides on Campaign Promise To Curb Legal Immigration. Breitbart News. Retrieved November 5, 2019.
  217. Nelson, Steven (December 21, 2017). Immigration hawks protest Trump giving Sholom Rubashkin first prison commutation. Washington Examiner. Retrieved December 21, 2017.
  218. Multiple references: