Brazilla Carroll Reece
|B. Carroll Reece|
|Former U.S. Representative from Tennessee's 1st Congressional District|
From: January 3, 1951 – March 19, 1961
|Predecessor||Dayton E. Phillips|
|Successor||Louise Goff Reece|
|Former Chair of the Republican|
From: April 1, 1946 – June 27, 1948
|Predecessor||Herbert Brownell, Jr.|
|Successor||Hugh D. Scott|
|Former U.S. Representative from Tennessee's 1st Congressional District|
From: March 4, 1933 – January 3, 1947
|Predecessor||Oscar Byrd "O. B." Lovette|
|Successor||Dayton E. Phillips|
|Former U.S. Representative from Tennessee's 1st Congressional District|
From: March 4, 1921 – March 3, 1931
|Predecessor||Samuel Riley "Sam R." Sells|
|Successor||Oscar Byrd "O. B." Lovette|
|Spouse(s)||Louise Despard Goff|
|Service/branch||United States Army|
|Service Years|| 1917–1919|
|Unit||• 166th Infantry Regiment|
• 102nd Infantry Regiment
|Battles/wars|| World War I|
|Awards|| • Distinguished Service Cross|
• Distinguished Service Medal
• Purple Heart
• French Croix de Guerre with Palm
Brazilla Carroll Reece (December 22, 1889 – March 19, 1961), often referred to as B. Carroll Reece or simply Carroll Reece, was a Republican from Tennessee who served as the state's U.S. representative from the 1st congressional district for several decades. The district, located in the eastern portion of the state which is part of the mountainous Appalachia region, has consistently been solidly Republican since the late 1800s.
Reece's political ideology embodied his Appalachia roots: strongly conservative with some populist inclinations. As further detailed below, the poverty prevalent in his constituency ultimately led to his support for certain federal initiatives, although he tended to oppose such liberal measures in general terms. Reece is in addition notable for his anti-Communist crusades.
- 1 Background
- 2 Political career
- 3 Quotes
- 4 Legacy
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Reece was born on a farm in rural Eastern Tennessee on December 22, 1889, one of thirteen children of John Isaac Reece (1854–1918) and the former Sarah Emmaline Maples (1859–1943). Although he was named after General Brazilla Carroll McBride (who served in the War of 1812), Reece throughout his life used the initial "B" rather than "Brazilla."
Reece attended the Southern Baptist-affiliated Carson-Newman College, where he participated in basketball and football in addition to being the valedictorian of the 1914 class. He served in the United States Army during World War I, enlisting with the American Expeditionary Forces. Reece received several decorated awards for his military service, including the Purple Heart.
In late October 1923, Reece married the former Louise Despard Goff, the daughter of Guy D. Goff and granddaughter of Nathan Goff, both U.S. senators from West Virginia. The ceremony was at St. Thomas' Episcopal Church, and described by the Madison, Wisconsin Capital Times, as:
|“||...a brilliant social affair.||”|
Reece, who didn't drive, was often chauffeured by his wife. The couple had a child, Louise, who was named after her mother. Following the younger Louise's birth, the Reece family received a bouquet of flowers from President Calvin Coolidge and First Lady Grace Coolidge. They also inherited half of Guy D. Goff's large wealth upon his death in January 1933.
U.S. House of Representatives
Reece first successfully ran for the House of Representatives in 1920, challenging incumbent Republican Sam R. Sells. Although supporters of Sells initially dismissed Reece's candidacy as a joke, the political newcomer ran on his military service as Sells campaigned on his personality rather than his congressional voting record. During the campaign, Reece, who went to all counties in the district, promised to serve only up to ten years, a vow he eventually broke. He also attacked the incumbent Sells, a lumber businessman, for alleged conflicts of interest in voting to "exempt excess profit taxes on corporations," furthermore stating:
|“||Why don’t your congressman and mine in explaining how much he made in 1917 and 1918, tell our people how much he made in 1919, and why he voted to exempt these excess profits from taxes?||”|
Reece ultimately defeated Sells in an upset to win the GOP nomination and cruise to victory in the general election. He would later recount his first interaction with his predecessor:
|“||Old Goliath showed that same spirit when he came face to face with David. What his attitude implied was, do you think that you can oppose me for this office? He knew who I was. Well might he have recalled the days when my father and mother lived in a log cabin which sat within the shadow of his mother’s stately mansion, and when I came to the back door of his house peddling butter and eggs. He thought he could break my spirit and that I would sneak away like a whipped cur. ‘You haven’t a chance to win the nomination,’ he said. ‘I’m in better shape than ever financially to fight competition, and when I get ready to retire I am going to name my successor.’ There was just one thing my friend overlooked and that is you can’t disregard the wishes of a great people in things like this.||”|
Once in office, Reece established services to help constituents with problems both large and small, a precedent continued by later elected Republicans from Eastern Tennessee. In his first term, he voted with the political right only 63% of the time, though Reece's conservatism would grow later on.
In his first term, Reece was at one point arrested for engaging in homosexuality in a public bathroom. This incident later impacted him in the 1950s when the Reece Committee conducted hearings in its investigations of tax-exempt foundations.
During his early tenure, his office was looted at one point, with thieves breaking in and stealing $50,000.
1930 defeat, 1932 comeback
Following his first election, Reece was re-elected four consecutive times. He lost in the 1930 midterms to Independent Republican Oscar Lovette following backlash from constituents over the George Norris Muscle Shoals bill (the Senate version, which is considered a forerunner to the Tennessee Valley Authority) being vetoed by President Herbert Hoover as well as having failed to ensure the Cove Creek Dam being built. Many of Reece's constituents turned against him due to his siding with private enterprise in his support of Muscle Shoals development over the government initiative to provide nitrates for farmers, which Lovette emphasized his support for. The incumbent congressman, who President Hoover offered to help in his sinking re-election bid, claimed that the Muscle Shoals bill introduced by Norris which emphasized a larger size and scope of the federal government "originated in Red Russia."
Reece for his old seat in 1932, campaigning in part against the refusal of Lovette to maintain consistent affiliation as a Republican (Lovette ran as an "Independent Republican" in the general election). During this period, although he was out of office during the time, his favorability among President Hoover ensured that patronage and significant influence went through his hands rather than that of Lovette's. Reece narrowly re-emerged successfully and defeated Lovette, who in turn claimed voter fraud. An investigation by a House subcommittee uncovered some "questionable" election procedures practices, though Reece was ultimately seated.
However, the landslide defeats the GOP suffered nationally that year would mark the start of solid Democrat control in the federal government as the Great Depression continued. Reece continued being re-elected consecutively until unsuccessfully running for an open Senate seat in 1948; afterwards he returned to the House yet again and continued serving until his death. According to Tennessee historian Ray Hill, a writer for the The Knoxville Focus:
|Reece never forgot why he had lost to Oscar B. Lovette in 1930; following his return to the House of Representatives, Carroll Reece became a supporter of the Tennessee Valley Authority. Reece frequently voted against the majority of his fellow Republicans, many of whom disliked the very notion of the TVA, to support the Tennessee Valley Authority. When asked why he didn’t go along with his party, Carroll Reece candidly replied no politician in Tennessee could survive politically by opposing the TVA. Reece had fought the bill sponsored by Senator George W. Norris of Nebraska, while Second District Congressman J. Will Taylor had supported it. Reece had lost his seat in Congress because of his opposition while the controversial Taylor had continued to hang on to his seat.|
Conservatism, party leadership
An adamant conservative, Reece opposed the New Deal (with the exception of the TVA, as mentioned above) during the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt and liberal initiatives such as a federal wage and price controls. He was also an isolationist and non-interventionist prior to World War II and voted against the Lend-Lease Act. In the 1939–40 congressional session, Reece's MC-Index[note 1] was 88%.
Allied with Ohio senator Robert Taft, who he joined in opposing President Harry Truman's anti-inflation plan, Reece succeeded Herbert Brownell (later United States Attorney General under president Dwight D. Eisenhower) as the chair of the RNC in early April 1946 and presided over GOP victories in the 1946 midterms. Due to his independent wealth inherited from his father-in-law, Reece did not accept a salary.
In the 1945–46 congressional session, Reece voted with the conservative side 82% of the time.
During his tenure in leading the GOP on the national stage, Reece was a part of the conservative faction opposed by Minnesota liberal Republican Harold Stassen and Vermont Moderate Republican George Aiken. The more liberal wing of the Republican Party considered him to be an "Old Guard reactionary." In February 1948, Reece called for purging communists from the United States, saying:
|“||...the spread of Communist power throughout the world constitutes the greatest menace to our nation.||”|
Reece also opposed President Truman's use of "public funds" for his Western trip, calling it a "pre-nomination campaign tour."
Run for Senate, 1948
Reece ran for Senate in 1948 to succeed retiring Democrat Tom Stewart, facing then U.S. Representative and future vice presidential nominee Carey Estes Kefauver. He lost the general election in a landslide to Kefauver, mainly carrying counties in the eastern portion of the state.
Return to the House
Reece supported the strongly conservative, isolationist Robert A. Taft in the 1952 presidential election, who he predicted the GOP in Southern and border states would support. Indeed, southern "black and tan" delegations, particularly the Arkansas delegation led by Osro Cobb and the Mississippi delegation led by Perry W. Howard, II, voted for the nomination of Taft.
Taft ultimately lost in the Republican primaries to the more moderate Dwight Eisenhower, an internationalist.
Reece was a member of the 1952 Select Committee to Investigate Tax-Exempt Foundations and Comparable Organizations, established by the House in April that year to probe major foundations for subversive activites. It was known during the congressional session as the Cox Committee, named after its chair Eugene "Goober" Cox, a Democrat segregationist from Georgia.
Due to family illnesses, Reece was absent for most of the hearings the Cox Committee conducted. Cox suddenly died in December 1952, and the final report which was soon released cleared the investigated foundations of any wrongdoing. Reece asserted the following, as listed in the Cox Committee report:
|“||As pointed out and stressed in this report, the select committee has had insufficient time for the magnitude of its task. Although I was unable to attend the full hearing I feel compelled to observe that, if a more comprehensive study is desired, the inquiry might be continued by the Eighty-third Congress with profit in view of the importance of the subject, the fact that tax-exempt funds in very large amounts are spent without public accountability or official supervision of any sort, and that, admittedly, considerable question able expenditures have been made.||”|
Among the remaining committee members, only Reece sought a do-over, believing that the scope of the investigations were insufficient. He in addition stated in a long, detailed House speech:
|“|| Some of these activities and some of these institutions support efforts to overthrow our Government and to undermine our American way of life.
These activities urgently require investigation. Here lies the story of how communism and socialism are financed in the United States, where they get their money. It is the story of who pays the bill.
There is evidence to show that there is a diabolical conspiracy back of all this. Its aim is the furtherance of socialism in the United States.
The method by which this is done seems fantastic to reasonable men, for these Communists and Socialists seize control of fortunes left behind by Capitalists when they die, and turn these fortunes around to finance the destruction of Capitalism.
The Cox Committee report recommended a possible investigation of whether major foundations used their privileges for the purpose of tax evasion, as stated in page 12 of the report:
The committee regards questions 11 and 12 as matters for the consideration of the Committee on Ways and Means. It therefore has made no attempt to find the answers to these questions. We feel the questions are of sufficient importance to warrant inquiry.
...We respectfully suggest that the [Committee on Ways and Means] reexamine pertinent tax laws, to the end that they may be so drawn as to encourage the free-enterprise system with its rewards from which private individuals may make gifts to these meritorious institutions.
Reece ignored this aspect and only focused on subversive activities. Texas liberal populist Democrat Wright Patman later took up the report's particular suggestion in the 1960s as chairman of the Select Committee on Small Business, also known as the Patman Committee.
He was the namesake of the Reece Committee, which was the Select Committee to Investigate Tax-Exempt Foundations and Comparable Organizations during the 83rd Congress, when the Republicans gained control of the House. His effort to re-establish the select committee was successful when the new conservative Republican-led Congress in 1953 voted for the enactment resolution. Remaining Cox Committee members Brooks Hays, Angier Goodwin, Richard M. Simpson, and Aime J. Forand voted against it.
Although undermined by House Minority Leader Sam Rayburn and President Eisenhower, the Reece Committee managed to expose plots by major foundations who sought to subvert American society towards internationalist, left-wing ideologies.
Due to Reece's arrest for homosexuality in the early 1920s, he failed to rule Democrat committee member Wayne L. Hays (no relation to Brooks Hays) out of order in the hearings when the latter exhibited excessively rude behavior, as the Ohio representative could then publicize the past scandal in retaliation.
The Republican establishment opposed the Reece Committee. According to the committee's chief investigator Norman Dodd in an interview many years later, some GOP figures slandered the group's work as supposedly "anti-Semitic." Liberal GOP congressman Jacob Javits of New York, later a U.S. senator, introduced a resolution in July 1954 which would establish a select committee to investigate the Reece Committee.
In the final Norman Dodd report, the following critiques of the Cox Committee were stated:
The Dodd report was agreed to 3–2 along party lines. However, only Reece and fellow conservative colleague Jesse Wolcott of Michigan agreed with the substance, as Rep. Goodwin filed a separate statement where he stated a concurrence with the Cox Committee report.
According to Reece in late February 1955, major foundations were aiding socialism. He stated in July that year that the Ford Foundation bolstered leftists in attacking:
|“||...the whole security system of the United States Government.||”|
Civil rights legislation, death in office
Reece held a pro-civil rights record, voting for anti-lynching legislation from supporting the Dyer bill of 1922 to the 1937 Gavagan-Wagner bill and the 1940 Gavagan-Fish bill. He backed an end to the poll tax, voting for such a measure in 1942. Along with his Republican colleague Howard Baker, Sr. of Tennessee's second congressional district, he did not sign the 1956 Southern Manifesto, which opposed the Supreme Court ruling in Brown v. Board of Education that ordered the desegregation of all U.S. public schools. Reece also voted in favor of the Civil Rights Acts of 1957 and 1960.
Reece died in office on March 19, 1961 at the age of seventy-one. He was succeeded by his wife Louise Goff Reece, who announced her run a week later and won a special election held some two months afterwards. Holding a fiscally conservative tenure like her late husband did, she was a supporter of business interests and opposed excessive government initiatives. Deciding not to run for re-election to a full House term in 1963, she was succeeded by James Henry "Jimmy" Quillen, who was similar to Carroll Reece in the sense of not an orator.
Reece made several prophetic assertions:
|“||We approach closer and closer to socialism.||”|
|“||In the long run, much public opinion is made in the universities; ideas generated there filter down through the teaching profession and the students into the general public.||”|
|“||As the egalitarianism of Marxism is attractive to many, socialism could have attracted many followers in America, anyway. But there is no doubt that it could not possibly have affected us so widely and so deeply as it has, had it not been heavily financed.||”|
|“||In this era in which we live, the old-fashioned virtues grow increasingly unpopular.||”|
|“||Instead of being taught independence, energy, and enterprise, our youth today is taught to look for security.||”|
After his death in 1961, his wife Louise donated his personal materials (including congressional files/reports) in August that year to the East Tennessee State University. The B. Carroll Reece Memorial Museum was formally dedicated in October 1965 as a:
|“||...storehouse of knowledge ... for the use of the university's students and the citizens of the state.||”|
- U.S. "Party-switch" myth
- Roderick R. Butler, early U.S. representative from Tennessee's 1st district
- Leonidas Houk, Republican representative from the neighboring 2nd district in the late 1800s
- John Jennings, Jr., succeeded Taylor in the 2nd district
- Eugene Siler, Republican U.S. representative from Kentucky's 8th district
- Harry Wurzbach, Republican representative from Texas' 14th district
- ↑ Reece. The Political Graveyard. Retrieved August 5, 2021.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Rogers, Michael (October 8, 2017). Brazilla Carroll Reece. Tennessee Encyclopedia. Retrieved April 26, 2021.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 Hill, Ray (March 28, 2021). Carroll Reece: Tennessee’s ‘Mr. Republican’ Pt5. The Knoxville Focus. Retrieved August 10, 2021.
- ↑ Hill, Ray (April 4, 2021). Carroll Reece: Tennessee’s ‘Mr. Republican’ Pt6. The Knoxville Focus. Retrieved August 13, 2021.
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 5.2 Hill, Ray (July 18, 2021). Carroll Reece: Tennessee’s ‘Mr. Republican’ Part 13. The Knoxville Focus. Retrieved August 10, 2021.
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 Hill, Ray (February 14, 2021). Carroll Reece: Tennessee’s ‘Mr. Republican,’ I. The Knoxville Focus. Retrieved August 12, 2021.
- ↑ Hill, Ray (February 21, 2021). Carroll Reece: Tennessee’s ‘Mr. Republican’ II. The Knoxville Focus. Retrieved August 12, 2021.
- ↑ TN District 01 Race - Nov 02, 1920. Our Campaigns. Retrieved May 29, 2021.
- ↑ FascinatingPolitics (January 2021). 67th-conress.pdf. Mad Politics: The Bizarre, Fascinating, and Unknown of American Political History. Retrieved August 24, 2021.
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 10.2 Jasper, William F. (February 6, 2017). Foundations: Cutting Off the Toxic Funding Flow. The New American. Retrieved August 7, 2021.
- ↑ Hill, Ray (March 21, 2021). Carroll Reece: Tennessee’s ‘Mr. Republican’ Pt4. The Knoxville Focus. Retrieved August 12, 2021.
- ↑ TN District 01 Race - Nov 07, 1922. Our Campaigns. Retrieved May 29, 2021.
- ↑ TN District 01 Race - Nov 04, 1924. Our Campaigns. Retrieved May 29, 2021.
- ↑ TN District 01 Race - Nov 02, 1926. Our Campaigns. Retrieved May 29, 2021.
- ↑ TN District 01 Race - Nov 06, 1928. Our Campaigns. Retrieved May 29, 2021.
- ↑ TN District 01 Race - Nov 04, 1930. Our Campaigns. Retrieved May 29, 2021.
- ↑ Hill, Ray (May 9, 2021). Carroll Reece: Tennessee’s ‘Mr. Republican’ Pt9. The Knoxville Focus. Retrieved May 29, 2021.
- ↑ Hill, Ray (June 13, 2021). Carroll Reece: Tennessee’s ‘Mr. Republican’ Part 11. The Knoxville Focus. Retrieved August 13, 2021.
- ↑ 19.0 19.1 Hill, Ray (April 25, 2021). Carroll Reece: Tennessee’s ‘Mr. Republican’ Pt7. The Knoxville Focus. Retrieved August 13, 2021.
- ↑ Hill, Ray (June 6, 2021). Carroll Reece: Tennessee’s ‘Mr. Republican’ Part 10. The Knoxville Focus. Retrieved August 13, 2021.
- ↑ 21.0 21.1 Hill, Ray (June 20, 2021). Carroll Reece: Tennessee’s ‘Mr. Republican’ Pt12. The Knoxville Focus. Retrieved August 13, 2021.
- ↑ TN District 01 Race - Nov 08, 1932. Our Campaigns. Retrieved May 29, 2021.
- ↑ Hill, Ray (July 25, 2021). Carroll Reece: Tennessee’s ‘Mr. Republican’ Part 14. The Knoxville Focus. Retrieved August 13, 2021.
- ↑ 24.0 24.1 24.2 24.3 24.4 24.5 Samson, Steven Alan. Charity For All: B. Carroll Reece and the Tax-Exempt Foundations. Liberty University. Retrieved August 14, 2021.
- ↑ Krock, Arthur (April 3, 1946). Reece Was Non-Interventionist; Opposed the Draft, Lend-Lease and Other Pre-War Moves, but Voted for Larger Navy. The New York Times. Retrieved August 24, 2021.
- ↑ TO PASS H.R. 1776, A BILL TO PROMOTE THE DEFENSE OF THE UNITED STATES (LEND-LEASE BILL).. GovTrack.us. Retrieved August 14, 2021.
- ↑ FascinatingPolitics (March 2020). 1939-40-mc-index-3.pdf. Mad Politics: The Bizarre, Fascinating, and Unknown of American Political History. Retrieved August 24, 2021.
- ↑ Bowen, Michael D. Fight for the Right: The Quest for Republican Identity in the Postwar Period, p. 19. University of Florida Digital Collections. Retrieved August 13, 2021.
- ↑ Knowles, Clayton (November 24, 1947). REECE JOINS TAFT AGAINST TRUMAN; Fights Anti-Inflation Plan in GOP Editorial Entitled 'A Cop in Every Kitchen'. The New York Times. Retrieved August 13, 2021.
- ↑ April 2, 1946. REPUBLICANS ELECT REECE AS CHAIRMAN; STASSEN IS CRITICAL; The Tennessee Representative Wins on Third Ballot Over Danaher and Hanes NEGRO VOTE IS STRESSED Minnesotan Says Selection Does Not 'Constitute a Decision' on Party's Policy ... Dewey Said to Back Danaher Negro Vote Is Stressed REECE IS ELECTED BY REPUBLICANS Liberals" Backed Hanes. The New York Times. Retrieved August 13, 2021.
- ↑ FascinatingPolitics (July 2020). 1945-46-civil-rights-converted.pdf. Mad Politics: The Bizarre, Fascinating, and Unknown of American Political History. Retrieved August 24, 2021.
- ↑ November 27, 1947. AIKEN ASKS REECE TO QUIT GOP HELM; Lays Failure to Win Confidence of Voters to Chairman, Who Is Also Attacked by Tobey. The New York Times. Retrieved August 13, 2021.
- ↑ Krock, Arthur (December 3, 1947). Futility in Aiken's Call; Move to Oust Reece as GOP Chairman Doomed by Senator's Party Irregularity. The New York Times. Retrieved August 13, 2021.
- ↑ February 1, 1948. REECE URGES PURGE OF COMMUNISTS IN U.S.. The New York Times. Retrieved August 13, 2021.
- ↑ June 6, 1948. Reece Hits Using Public Funds For Truman's 'Campaign Tour'; REECE HITS PAYING TRUMAN TOUR COSTS. The New York Times. Retrieved August 13, 2021.
- ↑ TN US Senate Race - Nov 02, 1948. Our Campaigns. Retrieved May 29, 2021.
- ↑ December 17, 1951. G.O.P. IN SOUTH SOLID FOR TAFT, SAYS REECE. The New York Times. Retrieved August 13, 2021.
- ↑ Rothbard, Murray N. (June 21, 2011). Swan Song of the Old Right. Mises Institute. Retrieved October 14, 2021.
- ↑ Apple, Jr., R.W. (August 31, 2004). THE REPUBLICANS: THE CONVENTION IN NEW YORK -- APPLE'S ALMANAC; Father of the Southern Strategy, at 76, Is Here for His 11th Convention. The New York Times. Retrieved October 14, 2021.
- ↑ H RES 561. RESOLUTION CREATING A SELECT COMMITTEE TO CON- DUCT AN INVESTIGATION AND STUDY OF FOUNDATIONS AND OTHER COMPARABLE ORGANIZATIONS.. GovTrack.us. Retrieved September 21, 2021.
- ↑ 41.0 41.1 FascinatingPolitics (December 22, 2019). The Reece Committee on Foundations: Conspiratorial Nonsense or an Expose of a Threat to the Nation?. Mad Politics: The Bizarre, Fascinating, and Unknown of American Political History. Retrieved August 7, 2021.
- ↑ January 1, 1953. Final Report Of The Select Committee To Investigate Foundations And Other Organizations (Pursuant to H. Res. 561, 82d Cong.), p. 1. Retrieved October 6, 2021. Final Report, pp. 14. Retrieved October 4, 2021.
- ↑ Final Report, p. 13. Retrieved October 6, 2021.
- ↑ FascinatingPolitics (July 3, 2021). Texas Legends #7: Wright Patman. Mad Politics: The Bizarre, Fascinating, and Unknown of American Political History. Retrieved September 23, 2021.
- ↑ H RES 217. RESOLUTION CREATING A SPECIAL COMMITTEE TO CON- DUCT A FULL AND COMPLETE INVESTIGATION AND STUDY OF EDUCA- TIONAL AND PHILANTHROPIC FOUNDATIONS AND OTHER COMPARABLE ORGANIZATIONS WHICH ARE EXEMPT FROM FED. INCOME TAXATION.. GovTrack.us. Retrieved September 23, 2021.
- ↑ Gallagher, Kevin (June 12, 2008). Norman Dodd On Tax Exempt Foundations. YouTube. Retrieved October 6, 2021.
- ↑ July 22, 1954. QUESTIONS FOR MR. REECE. The New York Times. Retrieved October 6, 2021.
- ↑ The DODD REPORT to the Reece Committee on Foundations. American Deception. Retrieved September 23, 2021.
- ↑ February 24, 1955. Reece, in Reply to Dr. Hutchins, Says Foundations Aid Socialism; Charges Action of Some Are 'Subversive' --Asserts an 'Intellectual Cartel' Is Influencing Public Opinion. The New York Times. Retrieved August 13, 2021.
- ↑ July 22, 1955. FORD FUND ACCUSED OF AID TO LEFTISTS. The New York Times. Retrieved August 13, 2021.
- ↑ TO PASS H. R. 13.. GovTrack.us. Retrieved August 5, 2021.
- ↑ TO PASS H. R. 1507, AN ANTI-LYNCHING BILL.. GovTrack.us. Retrieved April 26, 2021.
- ↑ TO PASS H.R. 801, A BILL TO MAKE LYNCHING A FEDERAL CRIME.. GovTrack.us. Retrieved August 13, 2021.
- ↑ TO PASS H.R. 1024 WHICH DECLARES ILLEGAL THE REQUIREMENT OF A POLL TAX AS A PREREQUISITE FOR VOTING OR REGISTERING TO VOTE FOR PRESIDENT, VICE-PRESIDENT, OR U.S. REPRESENTATIVE.. GovTrack.us. Retrieved August 13, 2021.
- ↑ GPO-CRECB-1956-pt4-3.pdf. Congressional Record. Retrieved April 27, 2021.
- ↑ HR 6127. CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1957.. GovTrack.us. Retrieved April 26, 2021.
- ↑ HR 8601. CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1960. APPROVAL BY THE HOUSE OF THE SENATE'S AMENDMENTS.. GovTrack.us. Retrieved April 26, 2021.
- ↑ March 25, 1961. Reece's Widow Plans To Seek His House Seat. The New York Times. Retrieved August 13, 2021.
- ↑ TN District 1 - Special Election Race - May 16, 1961. Our Campaigns. Retrieved May 29, 2021.
- ↑ REECE, Louise Goff. US House of Representatives: History, Art & Archives. Retrieved May 29, 2021.
- ↑ B. Carroll Reece quote: We approach closer and closer to socialism. AZ Quotes. Retrieved August 8, 2021.
- ↑ B. Carroll Reece quote: In the long run, much public opinion is made in.... AZ Quotes. Retrieved August 8, 2021.
- ↑ B. Carroll Reece quote: As the egalitarianism of Marxism is attractive to many, socialism.... AZ Quotes. Retrieved August 8, 2021.
- ↑ B. Carroll Reece quote: In this era in which we live, the old-fashioned virtues.... AZ Quotes. Retrieved August 8, 2021.
- ↑ B. Carroll Reece quote: Instead of being taught independence, energy, and enterprise, our youth.... AZ Quotes. Retrieved August 8, 2021.
- ↑ Reece Museum. East Tennessee State University. Retrieved May 29, 2021.
- ↑ FascinatingPolitics utilizes an MC-Index to track the level of conservatism among U.S. senators and representatives based on their voting record, with the scale ranging from 0% (most liberal) to 100% (most conservative).
- Profile at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
- Profile at Archives of Appalachia
- Profile at Find A Grave