Federalist No. 63

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James Madison

Federalist No. 63, authored by James Madison under the pen name Publius, is the sixty third of 85 essays. Titled "The Senate Continued", Madison concludes his three-part discussion of the necessity of having a Senate. He notes that historically, "long-lived" republics have had senates which ensure stability.

It was published on March 1, 1788.

Protection from democracy

As a form of government, the Founders had very little faith in democracy with a view of protecting the Liberty of the people. In this paper, Madison compares the American republic with Athens and a view of the reform of Solon; the senate of Carthage; the Senate of Sparta; of Rome, as well as Crete.

He contrasts these ancient representative governments and highlights their true distinction: All of them were elected by the people. The American senate contains the unique and positive difference in that it carries with it a "total exclusion of the people, in their collective capacity", from choosing the senate.

Madison concludes that a senate selected by state legislatures is much less likely to be corrupt than one chosen directly by the people, and can more effectually protect itself as a republic.

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