Cold War II
Unipolarity vs. multipolarity
With the demise of the Soviet Union, Francis Fukuyama declared the "end of history." The "unipolar moment" had arrived, with the United States being the "only Superpower". The United States spoke of a "rules based order", which it empowered itself to enforce while freely violating those same "rules" that it imposed upon others, in order to benefit itself. With the U.S. dollar as a "global reserve currency" and the SWIFT network monitoring and carrying out international banking transactions, and a free-wheeling Congress willing to print and issue more dollars in circulation globally through deficit spending and debt financing, the United States was able to persuade, coerce, and blackmail nations with promises of aid and loans, or the threat to withhold funding.
After a series of actions that began with the Kosovo war in 1998 and dismemberment of Serbia, the 2003 invasion of Iraq, and the 2014 overthrow of the legitimate democratically elected government of Ukraine - all in violation of United Nations resolutions - many nation states, members of the UN General Assembly (often referred to as "the developing world" and "global South") became fed up with the hypocrisy and double standards.
The United States, as head of the Western alliance, and the West itself, cast off its illusions of "liberal democracy" and came to be dominated by corrupt globalist oligarchs. The transition to a multipolar world began to emerge, rejecting Western attempts at blackmail through economic sanctions. Caving into American demands meant a loss of sovereignty, and these developing nations wished to preserve their traditional values, and follow their own course of social, political, and economic development.
Russian President Vladimir Putin, in a television interview in February 2023 said that the NATO proxy war in Ukraine is part of the New Cold War between the competing forces over the direction of the global systemic transition, which Moscow wants to lead towards multipolarity while Washington wants to retain as much of its fading unipolar hegemony as possible. The outcome of this struggle will literally determine the future of International Relations, which will in turn enhance or erode every country's sovereignty, which is why it's of concern to everyone in the world.
The BRICS challenge
- See also: BRICS
The BRICS group is essentially a group of nations that do not want corporations and multinational banks running their government. BRICS countries want their government running their own government, whatever form of government that exists in their nation, even if it is communist. BRICS leaders are aligned as anti-corporatist and anti-fascist, which simply means they want to make the decisions, and they do not want multinational corporations to become more powerful than the government. The BRICS group are essentially the opposing element to the World Economic Forum.
BRICS is not a free trade bloc, but members do coordinate on trade matters and have established a policy bank, the New Development Bank, (NDB) to coordinate infrastructure loans. That was set up in 2014 in order to provide alternative loan mechanisms from the IMF and World Bank structures, which the members had felt had become too U.S.-centric. The Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) was set up by China at about the same time for largely the same reasons and to offer alternative financing than that provided by the IMF and World Banks, which were felt to impose political reform policies designed to assist the United States in return for providing loans.
- See also: Russian sanctions
Prof. Glenn Diesen of the University of South-Eastern Norway, and an editor at the Russia in Global Affairs journal wrote: "The current international disorder is caused by an interregnum – the world is currently stuck between a unipolar and a multipolar format. The West is pushing for a return to the unipolar era that existed before sanctions on Russia and the economic war against China. However, the two Eurasian giants, Russia and China, have spent the past years adjusting to a multipolar system. The West will insist that on maintaining liberal hegemony due to a commitment and belief in liberal values, among elites (although that is no longer uniform), while Russia and China will reject a value-based system that is instrumental to impose an untenable unipolar order. There is no going back as the world has moved on, although the West is not yet ready to move forward."
On October 19, 2023, The Biden regime conducted a nuclear test in Nevada. A Kremlin statement on October 24, 2023, stated that Russia has successfully tested its ability to launch a massive nuclear retaliation strike by land, sea, and air. This show of power coincided with the Russian State Duma withdrawing its ratification the 1996 Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The United States, while signing the treaty, never ratified it.
Deputy foreign minister Sergey Ryabkov said Russia was not ready to begin nuclear talks with the United States until Washington abandons its hostile stance. The development comes days after Russia was attacked by the long range ATACMs missiles delivered to Ukraine by the United States.
After passing unanimously in the Lower House, the bill to de-ratify the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CBTB) was approved by the Upper House by 156 votes to zero. The approved legislation was sent to Russian President Vladimir Putin for his signature.
Tom Fowdy explains:
|"States are sensitive to their capabilities relative to other countries and, in response to certain threats or developments, naturally seek to create balance against them. Whilst this is most prominently understood on military terms, ‘power’ extends to something much broader in practice, especially in today’s world. We don’t just think in terms of bombs or tanks, but everything which pertains to the strength of a state including technology, the economy, industrial assets, infrastructure, currency and so on. The new competition between the US, its allies and China is different to the original Cold War, in that it is premised on all of those things. This isn’t about who simply has the most nuclear weapons, it’s a ‘Cold War of globalization’ of sorts, where everything contributes to the outcome of who dominates.|
Since the publication in 1999 of Unrestricted Warfare: Two Air Force Senior Colonels on Scenarios for War and the Operational Art in an Era of Globalization, by Qiao Liang and Wang Xiangsui, it has been understood that hard-line elements within the Chinese National Security community have been envisioning and positioning themselves for war with the USA. As the title suggests, this book subverts the strategic thinking and rules of "old-style warfare”, proposes “new types of warfare” and explores military tactics, strategy and organization in the age of globalization. The “unrestricted” part of “unrestricted warfare” avoids direct military confrontation and seeks instead to conquer through non-kinetic means.
The authors argued that the notion that “national defense being the country’s main security goal is somewhat outdated, at least rather inadequate." Under such circumstances, a country, especially a weak one, must go beyond the limits of "traditional war" in order to win when it is faced with an opponent stronger than itself.
"Traditional war" follows certain rules or boundaries, for example, protections for the civilians and civilian facilities, humanitarian treatment to POWs, banning the use of weapons of mass destruction, etc. These principles were formally established in a series of international agreements. "Unrestricted warfare" means going beyond the limit, whether it is material, spiritual, ethical or technical; and whether it is called 'range', ‘restriction’, ‘restraint’, ‘boundary’, ‘rules’, ‘law’, ‘limit’, or ‘taboo’ ". In “unrestricted warfare” there is no distinction between "front and rear", "military and civilian”, country and territory. It is not restrained by moral and ethical limits. Any person and any facility can be considered as a military target. In order to achieve the goal, you can do whatever you want.
Unrestricted warfare tactics are divided into three categories, "military, trans-military and non-military. To operate “unrestricted warfare”, any item in the table of the three categories can be combined with one or more other items as needed to form "combined tactics". The authors specifically pointed out in the note: "The three categories of operations here are real wars, not metaphors or descriptions."
When all the boundaries of “old-style warfare” are broken, there is only one reality left: the entire human society is treated as a battlefield. There is no doubt that the United States is the simulated enemy against whom the unrestricted warfare was formulated. The reasoning goes that the People's Republic of China, being the weaker party compared with the United States in terms of military technology and power justifies tactics described in Unrestricted Warfare, since conventional tactics may not ensure victory against the US.
In 2015, Chinese military scientists discussed how to weaponize SARS coronaviruses to "cause the enemy’s medical system to collapse." In a 263-page document, written by People's Liberation Army scientists and senior Chinese public health officials and obtained by the US State Department during its investigation into the origins of COVID-19, suggests that SARS coronaviruses could herald a "new era of genetic weapons," and noted that they can be "artificially manipulated into an emerging human disease virus, then weaponized and unleashed in a way never seen before."
In January 2020, the Chinese Communist Party regime plainly demonstrated criminal intent by attempting to buy up the world's medical supplies and limiting all exports of their own, while refusing to communicate to the rest of the world the truth about the outbreak of the CCP virus in Wuhan. A DHS report relates, "We further assess the Chinese Government attempted to hide its actions by denying there were export restrictions and obfuscating and delaying provision of its trade data". "In January, according to the report, China increased its imports of surgical facemasks by 278 percent, surgical gowns by 72 percent, and surgical gloves by 32 percent. Meanwhile, it slashed its global exports of a host of medical products: surgical gloves by 48 percent, surgical gowns by 71 percent, face masks by 48 percent, medical ventilators by 45 percent, intubator kits by 56 percent, thermometers by 53 percent, and cotton balls and swabs by 58 percent." China has long since thus squandered the right to be treated as a good-faith actor by openly warring in such a way with the free world.
"The argument about the culpability of China’s autocratic regime gained additional strength with the revelation that eight Chinese doctors who acted as whistleblowers about the virus were summarily discredited by the Chinese government as rumour-mongers. One of the eight doctors, Li Wenliang, unfortunately succumbed to the disease soon after Beijing’s effort to discredit him and his colleagues. The sequence of events makes plain that the Chinese regime is primarily responsible for hiding the outbreak of the coronavirus in Wuhan and delaying publicising it and, consequently, for the great havoc it has caused in the world. No amount of whataboutery can hide this fact." China deliberately infected the world.
There is red-hot anger in the streets of China among the Chinese people and on Chinese social media about the criminal treatment of Dr. Li Wenliang by the Communist police: "The death of a Chinese doctor who tried to warn about the coronavirus outbreak has sparked widespread public anger and grief in China." This anger can be tapped to spark a popular uprising against Communism. The Chinese Communist Party has been called "The-Soviet-Union-on-steroids" and has now given rise to an even more dangerous Chinese Cold War.
The CCP pandemic forced companies to re-evaluate whether China was actually a “cheap” supplier at all. To escape high labor costs, such as the Obamacare employer mandate, American companies were re-locating manufacturing jobs to China, where forced labor in gulags run by the Chinese military are often employed.
President Trump has continued to be extremely tough in calling out China's malpractices. The President has warned Beijing there will be long term consequences and ramifications of its criminal behavior. Trump tweeted: "Some wacko in China just released a statement blaming everybody other than China for the Virus which has now killed hundreds of thousands of people. Please explain to this dope that it was the “incompetence of China”, and nothing else, that did this mass Worldwide killing"
In response to the CCP global pandemic unleashed upon the world, on May 20, 2020, the United States issued a document titled United States Strategic Approach to The People’s Republic of China that describes the threat the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) poses to all humanity. Th document states in excerpt:
The CCP promotes globally a value proposition that challenges the bedrock American belief in the unalienable right of every person to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
Under the current generation of leadership, the CCP has accelerated its efforts to portray its governance system as functioning better than those of what it refers to as “developed, western countries.”
Beijing is clear that it sees itself as engaged in an ideological competition with the West.
The CCP aims to make China a “global leader in terms of comprehensive national power and international influence,” as General Secretary Xi expressed in 2017, by strengthening what it refers to as “the system of socialism with Chinese characteristics.”
This system is rooted in Beijing’s interpretation of Marxist-Leninist ideology and combines a nationalistic, single party dictatorship; a state-directed economy; deployment of science and technology in the service of the state; and the subordination of individual rights to serve CCP ends.
This runs counter to principles shared by the United States and many likeminded countries of representative government, free enterprise, and the inherent dignity and worth of every individual.
One disastrous outgrowth of such an approach to governance is Beijing’s policies in Xinjiang, where since 2017, authorities have detained more than a million Uighurs and members of other ethnic and religious minority groups in indoctrination camps, where many endure forced labor, ideological indoctrination, and physical and psychological abuse.
Outside these camps, the regime has instituted a police state employing emerging technologies such as artificial intelligence and biogenetics to monitor ethnic minorities’ activities to ensure allegiance to the CCP. Widespread religious persecution – of Christians, Tibetan Buddhists, Muslims, and members of Falun Gong – includes the demolition and desecration of places of worship, arrests of peaceful believers, forced renunciations of faith, and prohibitions on raising children in traditions of faith.
The CCP’s campaign to compel ideological conformity does not stop at China’s borders.
In recent years, Beijing has intervened in sovereign nations’ internal affairs to engineer consent for its policies.
PRC authorities have attempted to extend CCP influence over discourse and behavior around the world, with recent examples including companies and sports teams in the United States and the United Kingdom and politicians in Australia and Europe.PRC actors are exporting the tools of the CCP’s techno-authoritarian model to countries around the world, enabling authoritarian states to exert control over their citizens and surveil opposition, training foreign partners in propaganda.
Decoupling refers to restricting and terminating certain trade relationships with the Chinese Communist Party. Decoupling however, is not limited merely to commerce. It will affect student exchange programs as students from China are hand selected by the Chinese Communist Party and expected to serve the party upon graduation without becoming infected with ideas such as democracy, justice, and religion while in the United States. American students studying in China likewise are targeted for compromise, blackmail, and ideological subversion.
The Federal Retirement Thrift Investment Board oversees the Thrift Savings Plan, a retirement fund for federal employees and members of the uniformed military services, with about $600 billion in assets. Money is withheld from federal employees and the military's paychecks to contribute to the fund. Approximately 11% is invested in Chinese companies, some of which produce weapons designed to kill members of the U.S. military. The government of China even prior to the CCP virus outbreak was in violation of U.S. sanctions law and engaged in humanitarian and human rights abuse.
- Bucharest Summit welcomes former Soviet Republics of Ukraine and the Republic of Georgia to eventually join NATO.
- 1 March - United States began organizing the EuroMaidan coup with a Tech Camp for hackers at the U.S. Embassy in Kyiv.
- 28 January - Victoria Nuland and US ambassador to Ukraine, Geoffrey Pyatt discuss details of planned overthrow of the democratically elected government of Ukraine. Nuland makes disparaging remarks about the EU, and thinks the UN will give better cover to make the new US-installed regime appear legitimate.
- 11 March - Nation People's Congress rubber stamps CCP Central Committee decision to repeal term limit on State Council presidency allowing Xi Jinping to become dictator for life.
- 12 December - Bill Priestap: China threatens 'the future of the world’:
|“Make no mistake: The Chinese government is proposing itself as an alternative model for the world, one without a democratic system of government, and it is seeking to undermine the free and open rules-based order we helped establish following World War II,” he said in his prepared testimony. “Our businesses and our government must adapt in order to compete and thrive in this world.”|
- January - Beijing dramatically increased its imports and decreased its exports of medical supplies, and attempted to hide and obfuscate this fact. In no way, even after clearly knowing that the virus has human-to-human transmission, did it help other countries; rather it did its best to harm all.
- 6 February - Chen Qiushi, citizen journalist reporting from inside Wuhan, disappears.
- Dr. Li Wenliang, who tried his best to warn fellow doctors and the world about the coronavirus, was criminally accused of "rumor-mongering" by the Communist regime. He finally succumbed to the virus.
- 1 March - China Tribunal releases full judgement on forced organ harvesting of Chinese prisoners of conscience.
- 11 March - WHO declares global pandemic.
- 17 March - Foreign journalists expelled.
- 2 May - Five Eyes: The CCP deliberately suppressed or destroyed evidence of the coronavirus outbreak in an assault on international transparency that cost tens of thousands of lives.
- 20 May - President Trump tweets: "Spokesman speaks stupidly on behalf of China, trying desperately to deflect the pain and carnage that their country spread throughout the world. Its disinformation and propaganda attack on the United States and Europe is a disgrace It all comes from the top. They could have easily stopped the plague, but they didn’t!"
- 9 May - The Weekend Australian reports Chinese Military Discussed Weaponizing COVID In 2015 'To Cause Enemy's Medical System To Collapse'.
- 17 December - US and NATO rejected, without consideration, two formal draft peace treaty proposals by the Russian Federation to avoid war.
- 20 February - Foreign Ministry of the Peoples Republic of China publishes stinging indictment of the United States in US Hegemony and Its Perils.
- Since becoming the world's most powerful country after the two world wars and the Cold War, the United States has acted more boldly to interfere in the internal affairs of other countries, pursue, maintain and abuse hegemony, advance subversion and infiltration, and willfully wage wars, bringing harm to the international community.
- The United States has developed a hegemonic playbook to stage "color revolutions," instigate regional disputes, and even directly launch wars under the guise of promoting democracy, freedom and human rights. Clinging to the Cold War mentality, the United States has ramped up bloc politics and stoked conflict and confrontation. It has overstretched the concept of national security, abused export controls and forced unilateral sanctions upon others. It has taken a selective approach to international law and rules, utilizing or discarding them as it sees fit, and has sought to impose rules that serve its own interests in the name of upholding a "rules-based international order."
- I. Political Hegemony—Throwing Its Weight Around
- The United States has long been attempting to mold other countries and the world order with its own values and political system in the name of promoting democracy and human rights....
- II. Military Hegemony—Wanton Use of Force
- The history of the United States is characterized by violence and expansion. Since it gained independence in 1776, the United States has constantly sought expansion by force: it slaughtered Indians, invaded Canada, waged a war against Mexico, instigated the American-Spanish War, and annexed Hawaii. After World War II, the wars either provoked or launched by the United States included the Korean War, the Vietnam War, the Gulf War, the Kosovo War, the War in Afghanistan, the Iraq War, the Libyan War and the Syrian War, abusing its military hegemony to pave the way for expansionist objectives. In recent years, the U.S. average annual military budget has exceeded 700 billion U.S. dollars, accounting for 40 percent of the world's total, more than the 15 countries behind it combined. The United States has about 800 overseas military bases, with 173,000 troops deployed in 159 countries...
- U.S. military hegemony has caused humanitarian tragedies. Since 2001, the wars and military operations launched by the United States in the name of fighting terrorism have claimed over 900,000 lives with some 335,000 of them civilians, injured millions and displaced tens of millions. The 2003 Iraq War resulted in some 200,000 to 250,000 civilian deaths, including over 16,000 directly killed by the U.S. military, and left more than a million homeless.
- The United States has created 37 million refugees around the world. Since 2012, the number of Syrian refugees alone has increased tenfold. Between 2016 and 2019, 33,584 civilian deaths were documented in the Syrian fightings, including 3,833 killed by U.S.-led coalition bombings, half of them women and children. The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) reported on 9 November 2018 that the air strikes launched by U.S. forces on Raqqa alone killed 1,600 Syrian civilians.
- The two-decades-long war in Afghanistan devastated the country. A total of 47,000 Afghan civilians and 66,000 to 69,000 Afghan soldiers and police officers unrelated to the September 11 attacks were killed in U.S. military operations, and more than 10 million people were displaced. The war in Afghanistan destroyed the foundation of economic development there and plunged the Afghan people into destitution. After the "Kabul debacle" in 2021, the United States announced that it would freeze some 9.5 billion dollars in assets belonging to the Afghan central bank, a move considered as "pure looting."
- In September 2022, Turkish Interior Minister Suleyman Soylu commented at a rally that the United States has waged a proxy war in Syria, turned Afghanistan into an opium field and heroin factory, thrown Pakistan into turmoil, and left Libya in incessant civil unrest. The United States does whatever it takes to rob and enslave the people of any country with underground resources.
- The United States has also adopted appalling methods in war. During the Korean War, the Vietnam War, the Gulf War, the Kosovo War, the War in Afghanistan and the Iraq War, the United States used massive quantities of chemical and biological weapons as well as cluster bombs, fuel-air bombs, graphite bombs and depleted uranium bombs, causing enormous damage on civilian facilities, countless civilian casualties and lasting environmental pollution.
- III. Economic Hegemony—Looting and Exploitation
- After World War II, the United States led efforts to set up the Bretton Woods System, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, which, together with the Marshall Plan, formed the international monetary system centered around the U.S. dollar. In addition, the United States has also established institutional hegemony in the international economic and financial sector by manipulating the weighted voting systems, rules and arrangements of international organizations including "approval by 85 percent majority," and its domestic trade laws and regulations. By taking advantage of the dollar's status as the major international reserve currency, the United States is basically collecting "seigniorage" from around the world; and using its control over international organizations, it coerces other countries into serving America's political and economic strategy...
- IV. Technological Hegemony—Monopoly and Suppression
- The United States seeks to deter other countries' scientific, technological and economic development by wielding monopoly power, suppression measures and technology restrictions in high-tech fields...
- U.S. surveillance is indiscriminate. All can be targets of its surveillance, be they rivals or allies, even leaders of allied countries such as former German Chancellor Angela Merkel and several French Presidents. Cyber surveillance and attacks launched by the United States such as "Prism," "Dirtbox," "Irritant Horn" and "Telescreen Operation" are all proof that the United States is closely monitoring its allies and partners. Such eavesdropping on allies and partners has already caused worldwide outrage. Julian Assange, the founder of Wikileaks, a website that has exposed U.S. surveillance programs, said that "do not expect a global surveillance superpower to act with honor or respect. There is only one rule: there are no rules."
- V. Cultural Hegemony—Spreading False Narratives
- The global expansion of American culture is an important part of its external strategy. The United States has often used cultural tools to strengthen and maintain its hegemony in the world.
- The United States embeds American values in its products such as movies. American values and lifestyle are a tied product to its movies and TV shows, publications, media content, and programs by the government-funded non-profit cultural institutions. It thus shapes a cultural and public opinion space in which American culture reigns and maintains cultural hegemony...
- There are various vehicles the United States uses to keep its cultural hegemony. American movies are the most used; they now occupy more than 70 percent of the world's market share. The United States skilfully exploits its cultural diversity to appeal to various ethnicities. When Hollywood movies descend on the world, they scream the American values tied to them.
- American cultural hegemony not only shows itself in "direct intervention," but also in "media infiltration" and as "a trumpet for the world." U.S.-dominated Western media has a particularly important role in shaping global public opinion in favor of U.S. meddling in the internal affairs of other countries.
- The U.S. government strictly censors all social media companies and demands their obedience. Twitter CEO Elon Musk admitted on 27 December 2022 that all social media platforms work with the U.S. government to censor content, reported Fox Business Network. Public opinion in the United States is subject to government intervention to restrict all unfavorable remarks. Google often makes pages disappear.
- U.S. Department of Defense manipulates social media. In December 2022, The Intercept, an independent U.S. investigative website, revealed that in July 2017, U.S. Central Command official Nathaniel Kahler instructed Twitter's public policy team to augment the presence of 52 Arabic-language accounts on a list he sent, six of which were to be given priority. One of the six was dedicated to justifying U.S. drone attacks in Yemen, such as by claiming that the attacks were precise and killed only terrorists, not civilians. Following Kahler's directive, Twitter put those Arabic-language accounts on a "white list" to amplify certain messages.
- The United States practices double standards on the freedom of the press. It brutally suppresses and silences media of other countries by various means. The United States and Europe bar mainstream Russian media such as Russia Today and the Sputnik from their countries. Platforms such as Twitter, Facebook and YouTube openly restrict official accounts of Russia. Netflix, Apple and Google have removed Russian channels and applications from their services and app stores. Unprecedented draconian censorship is imposed on Russia-related contents.
- The United States abuses its cultural hegemony to instigate "peaceful evolution" in socialist countries. It sets up news media and cultural outfits targeting socialist countries. It pours staggering amounts of public funds into radio and TV networks to support their ideological infiltration, and these mouthpieces bombard socialist countries in dozens of languages with inflammatory propaganda day and night.
- The United States uses misinformation as a spear to attack other countries, and has built an industrial chain around it: there are groups and individuals making up stories, and peddling them worldwide to mislead public opinion with the support of nearly limitless financial resources.
- While a just cause wins its champion wide support, an unjust one condemns its pursuer to be an outcast. The hegemonic, domineering, and bullying practices of using strength to intimidate the weak, taking from others by force and subterfuge, and playing zero-sum games are exerting grave harm. The historical trends of peace, development, cooperation, and mutual benefit are unstoppable. The United States has been overriding truth with its power and trampling justice to serve self-interest. These unilateral, egoistic and regressive hegemonic practices have drawn growing, intense criticism and opposition from the international community.
- Countries need to respect each other and treat each other as equals. Big countries should behave in a manner befitting their status and take the lead in pursuing a new model of state-to-state relations featuring dialogue and partnership, not confrontation or alliance. China opposes all forms of hegemonism and power politics, and rejects interference in other countries' internal affairs. The United States must conduct serious soul-searching. It must critically examine what it has done, let go of its arrogance and prejudice, and quit its hegemonic, domineering and bullying practices.
- 7 November - Wall Street Journal reports: The United States and its NATO allies served notice Tuesday that they will formally suspend their participation in the 1990 Conventional Forces in Europe treaty limiting conventional forces in Europe, marking the demise of another landmark arms control agreement.
- "No State shall organize, assist, foment, finance, incite or tolerate subversive, terrorist or armed activities directed towards the violent overthrow of the regime of another State, or interfere in civil strife in another State," 2625 (XXV). Declaration on Principles of International Law concerning Friendly Relations and Co-operation among States in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations.
- Putin Made Five Very Important Points During His Latest TV Interview, Andrew Korybko, February 27, 2023.
- Russia Had Every Right To Revoke Ratification Of The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, ANDREW KORYBKO, NOV 4, 2023. korybko.substack.com
- Treaty between The United States of America and the Russian Federation on security guarantees, Ministry of the Russian Federation, 17 December 2021.
- Agreement on measures to ensure the security of The Russian Federation and member States of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Foreign Ministry of the Russian Federation, 17 December 2021.
- US, NATO rule out halt to expansion, reject Russian demands. By MATTHEW LEE and LORNE COOK, Associated Press, January 7, 2022.
- US Hegemony and Its Perils, February 20, 2023. fmprc.gov.ca
- U.S., NATO to Suspend Participation in Landmark Cold War Arms Treaty, Michael R. Gordon, Wall Street Journal, Nov. 7, 2023. www.wsj.com
- THE END OF PAX AMERICANA AND THE RISE OF MULTIPOLARITY. Book Review: Savin, Leonid. Ordo Pluriversalis. Andrew Korybko, MGIMO University, Moscow, Russia.