Last modified on February 19, 2024, at 04:54

Achievement orientation

Usain Bolt avoids thinking about his weaknesses before a race. Sometimes he thinks about how he will celebrate if he wins.[1] See: Self-talk

Usain Bolt beating Tyson Gay and setting a 100 meter world record at the 2009 World Championships in Athletics in Berlin, Germany.

Achievement orientation is when an individual's inclination and attitide toward the development and validation of one's ability to achieve is high. A person who exhibits achievement orientation is passionate about achieving their goals and their overall success. Having strong motivation is a prerequisite for having an achievement orientation. It often also involves having a strong set of leadership skills rather than following others.[2]

Factors that are conducive an achievement orientation are: a desire to meet or exceed a standard of excellence; meeting key performance indicators; self-control; welcoming the feedback of others; a strong desire to continually improve one's performance; interpersonal skills; teamwork skills; risk management skills, and understanding the context of a given situation relative to factors such as an organization's mission and goals, prioritization, and other important factors.[3][4][5]

Conscientiousness and achievement orientation

See also: Conscientiousness and Neoroplasticity and the ability of individuals to change their personality

Conscientiousness is the personality trait of being thorough, careful, consistent, vigilant and self-disciplined. Conscientiousness is positively correlated to a desire to perform a task well. Conscientious people are highly efficient and organized. They also exhibit: achievement oriented behavior; planning skills; organizational skills; and dependability.

According to Science Direct:

For conscientious persons achievement orientation and goal-directedness color both their thoughts and their emotions around information seeking. Their search experience may appear rational and accompanied by fairly neutral emotions, but they may harbor a strong need to feel competent and successful. Conscientious persons are foremost focused on the goal of their search, and so their feelings are often related to reaching – or not reaching – it. If there are obstacles along the way or it takes a long time to find relevant information, they may feel frustrated. When they have solved their information need or feel they are making progress they feel happy and relieved. Conscientious persons have explained that they enjoy information interaction the most when they proceed towards completion of their search, and ‘finally find what [they] look for’, or ‘come across the perfect source’ (Heinström, forthcoming). The distinct focus of their emotions is hence on the outcome, on finding or not finding relevant information as opposed to experiencing gratification in the ongoing process of searching for it. One rational conscientious student describes her feelings in this way: ‘As long as I make progress, I feel I am making efficient use of my time. I get excited if I find exactly what I need or a perfect search term’ (Todd et al., 2005).[6]

Benefits of developing conscientiousness

The only major personality trait that consistently leads to general success in life is conscientiousness (People who test high in conscientiousness: get better grades in school and college; earn higher salaries; are happier at work; live longer; commit fewer crimes; stay married longer and tend to be more influential).[7][8]

Growth mindset

See also: Growth mindset and Mindset and Change management and Kaizen and Performance goal and Performance goal quotes

According to Western Governors University: "A growth mindset means that you thrive on challenge, and don’t see failure as a way to describe yourself but as a springboard for growth and developing your abilities. Your intelligence and talents are all susceptible to growth. Dr. Carol Dweck of Stanford University first talked about the power of mindset nearly 30 years ago. Carol Dweck and her team became interested in the attitude of students when it comes to failure. After studying the behavior of students and children, the term “growth mindset” came about. Simply put, this mindset means that you believe in your ability to become better through hard work, and help from others."[9]

Having a positive/constructive/winning attitude

See also: Attitude and Optimism and Optimism bias

An attitude is a habitual way of thinking or a mental state.

The Los Angeles Times reported concerning a study: "A five year study of 120 of the nation's top artists, athletes and scholars has concluded that drive and determination—not great natural talent—led to their extraordinary success." [10]

Developing a positive/constructive/winning attitude

Psychology of high achievers

The human brain is the most complex physical entity in the universe.[11][12][13]

See also: Grit (personality trait) and Goal setting and Self-control and Neoroplasticity and the ability of individuals to change their personality

Mindset of high achievers

Work ethic

See also: Work ethic and Building a strong work ethic

The work ethic consists of choosing productive work over unproductive activities, in order to improve the condition of oneself, one's family, and society at large.

Building a strong work ethic

Building a strong work ethic

Self-efficacy

A Venn diagram showing the relationship between self-concept, self-efficacy, and self-esteem.

See also: Self-efficacy and Problem solving and Skill and Self-concept and Core self-evaluations and Mental toughness and Self-control and Motivation and Interpersonal skills and Social intelligence

Self-efficacy refers to an individual's belief in his or her capacity to execute behaviors necessary to produce specific performance attainments (Bandura, 1977, 1986, 1997). Self-efficacy reflects confidence in the ability to exert control over one's own motivation, behavior, and social environment."[14] See also: Interpersonal skills and Social intelligence

Self-efficacy articles and videos

Videos:

Skill development

"Do you see a man skillful in his work? He will stand before kings; he will not stand before obscure men.' - King Solomon (Proverbs 22:29)

Problem solving

Grit

See also: Grit (personality trait) and Self-control and Mental toughness and Goal setting and Growth mindset and Psychological resilience and Essay: Grit, the key to outstanding achievements

Harvard researcher Angela Duckworth isolated two qualities that she thought might be a better predictor of outstanding achievement:

1. The tendency not to abandon tasks from mere changeability. Not seeking something because of novelty. Not “looking for a change.”

2. The tendency not to abandon tasks in the face of obstacles. Perseverance, tenacity, doggedness.

Grit in the field of psychology is a personality and character trait based on an person's passion for a specific long-term goal, coupled with a strong motivation to achieve their objective.

The psychology researcher Angela Duckworth and her colleagues examined grit as a predictor of long-term success. It found that individuals who possess a drive to consistently work through obstacles, failures, and adversity to achieve their goals and are significantly better positioned to reach higher achievements.[15] For Ivy League students, Duckworth found that grit was a stronger predictor of success than a person's commulative GPA.

The clinical psychologist and certified school psychologist Caren Baruch-Feldman, PhD describes grit as "the ability to persist in something you feel passionate about and persevere when you face obstacles".[16]

According to Jocelyn K. Glei's article The Future of Self-Improvement, Part I: Grit Is More Important Than Talent:

Intrigued by what qualities would most accurately predict outstanding achievement, Harvard researcher Angela Duckworth picked up where Walter Mischel left off. ...Duckworth found that self-control is an excellent predictor of your ability to follow through on certain types of difficult tasks — staying on your diet, studying for a test, not checking your email — but it’s not the most important factor when it comes to predicting success at “extremely high-challenge achievement.”

...Duckworth isolated two qualities that she thought might be a better predictor of outstanding achievement:

1. The tendency not to abandon tasks from mere changeability. Not seeking something because of novelty. Not “looking for a change.”

2. The tendency not to abandon tasks in the face of obstacles. Perseverance, tenacity, doggedness.[17]

According to the Character Lab, being gritty means

1. Finishing what you begin.

2. Staying committed to your goals.

3. Working hard even after experiencing failure or when you feel like quitting.

4. Sticking with a project or activity for more than a few weeks.[18]

How to grow grit?

1. Cultivate a growth mindset and optimism.

2. Focus on improving your performance while you are engaging in various endeavors related to your goals.

3. Stay passionate about your purpose.

4. Know when you have achieved your maximum potential in an area and are not quitting due to frustration.[19]

Grit: The Power of Passion and Perseverance by Angela Duckworth - Book summaries

See also: Grit: The Power of Passion and Perseverance

Video summaries:

Self-control

See also: Self-control

Self-control is defined by the Meriam Dictionary as "restraint exercised over one's own impulses, emotions, or desires".[20]

Self-control via good habits

Books of self-control

Key factors for achievement

"Do you see a man skillful in his work? He will stand before kings; he will not stand before obscure men.' - King Solomon (Proverbs 22:29)

See also: Key factors for success

The article 10 Key Factors to Success (And Tips for Measuring Success) indicates these 10 factors for success in life:

1. Having a clear plan. See: Planning

2. Prioritizing your goals. See: Prioritization

3. Acquiring relevant education and skills. See: Skill

4. Cultivating good habits. See: Habit

5. Having a positive attitude. See also: Growth mindset and Optimism

6. Learning from your mistakes. See: How to Learn From Your Mistakes

7. Being open to new things. See: Openness

8. Taking risks. See: Risk management

9. Working hard. See: Work ethic

10. Always being prepared. See: Proactivity

Key factors for success in business

See also: Business and Business ethics and Organizational skills and Planning and Communication skills and Collaboration skills and Teamwork skills

Key factors for success in various business industries/sectors

Key factors for success in sales

See: Sales

Goal setting

SMART goals are Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, and Time-bound.[21]

See also: Goal setting

Goal setting is the process of taking active steps to achieve your desired outcome.[22]

SMART goals

The acronym SMART goals uses a the below set of criteria to ensure that goal objectives are clearly defined and also attainable within a certain time period.[23]

SMART goals are:

  • Specific
  • Measurable
  • Attainable
  • Relevant
  • Time-based

Setting smart goals articles

Social influence and achievement goals/orientation

See also: Social influence and Goal setting

The abstract for the 2024 journal article Achievement Goals: A Social Influence Cycle published in the journal Annual Review of Psychology indicates:

Achievement goals have been defined as the purpose of competence-relevant behavior. In this respect they connect one of the basic human needs, i.e., competence, to one of society's core values, i.e., achievement. We propose to look at achievement goals through the lens of social influence. We review both the influence that cultural, structural, and contextual factors have on achievement goal endorsement and the influence that endorsing achievement goals allows people to have within their social space. The review allows us to propose a circular model of the influence on and of achievement goals: The culture, social structures, and contexts that are typical of a certain society shape the specific environments in which individuals develop their achievement goals, which in turn has an influence on the expression and circulation of these achievement goals into society, in a social influence cycle.[24]

The Achievement Factors: B. Eugene Griessman's research

See also: The Achievement Factors: Candid Interviews With Some of the Most Successful People of Our Time

Benjamin Eugene Griessman, Ph.D., was an internationally known speaker, professor, executive coach, thought leader on high achievement, Lincoln scholar, playwright, actor and television host.[25][26]

High achievers manage their time well.

See: Time management

The 1993 book The Achievement Factors: Candid Interviews With Some of the Most Successful People of Our Time by B. Eugene Griessman is a book that focuses on the characteristics of high achievers. In researching the book, Griessman interviewed 60+ people from numerous fields.

Below is a summarized list of what he discovered summarized by coach Bob Starkey:[27]

1. High achievers discover their vocation and their specialty. They find something they love doing. See: Motivation

2. High achievers develop a competency. See: Skill and Self-efficacy

3. High achievers manage their time well. See: Time management

4. High achievers are persistent. See: Grit and Mental toughness and Psychological resilience

5. They channel their needs and desires into their work. See: Motivation and Work ethic

6. They develop the ability to focus and cut out distractions. (See: Concentration (Psychology) and Concentration (Psychology): Book Summaries)

7. "High Achievers Function Appropriately in Their Situations Virtually all the high achievers say that, and a large number of them use the word luck to explain their accomplishments. They also mention the importance of mentors and discoverers and teachers."

8. High achievers perceive opportunities and practice lifelong learning. They learn from others feedback. See: Growth mindset

9. High achievers seize opportunities. See: Results orientation and Comfort zone and Risk

Internet archive: Free copy of The Achievement Factors: Candid Interviews With Some of the Most Successful People of Our Time by B. Eugene Griessman

Stephen R. Covey’s 7 Habits of Highly Effective People

See also: The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People by Stephen Covey

Stephen Covey (1932-2012) was the author of the best selling The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People and other management and business titles. He earned an MBA at Harvard.

The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People are:[28]

1. Be Proactive. Proactive as defined by Stephen Covey means that you don't just let life happen to you, and don't respond "by instinct" like a dog.[29]

2. Begin With the End in Mind. See: Problem solving and Planning

3. Put First Things First. See: Prioritization

4. Think Win-Win. See: Interpersonal skills and Negotiation

5. Seek First to Understand, Then to Be Understood. See: Empathy

6. Synergize (Creative cooperation. Working with another/others to create something greater than you could do alone)[30] See: Collaboration skills

7. Sharpen the Saw (Sharpen your skills). See: Self-efficacy and Skills

The 7 Habits of Successful People
Habit 1 - Be proactive Private Victory
Habit 2 - Begin with the end in mind
Habit 3 - Put first things first
Habit 4 - Think win-win Public Victory
Habit 5 - Seek first to understand, then to be understood
Habit 6 - Synergize
Habit 7 - Sharpen the saw Renewal

Peak Performance Principles For High Achievers by John R. Noe

And He said to them, 'Because of the littleness of your faith; for truly I say to you, if you have faith the size of a mustard seed, you will say to this mountain, 'Move from here to there,' and it will move; and nothing will be impossible to you." - Jesus, (Matthew 17:20 NASB)

See also: Peak Performance Principles For High Achievers by John R. Noe

John R. Noe is a Christian author who writes on theological matters and he is also a mount climber.

John R. Noe's book Peak Performance Principles For High Achievers provides 6 attitudes for high achievers:[31]

1. High achievers set no small plans.

2. High achievers are willing to do what they fear

3. High achievers are willing to prepare

4. High achievers are willing to risk failure. See: Risk and Comfort zone and Risk management

5. High achievers are teachable. See: Growth mindset

6. High achievers have heart. See: Motivation

John R. Noe's book Peak Performance Principles For High Achievers: 10 questions that will change your life

In his book Peak Performance Principles For High Achievers John R. Noe offers the following 10 questions that will change your life:[32]

1. Do you really want to be a high achiever?

2. Do you have a strong inner desire to reach out?

3. What matters most to you?

4. What are you willing to invest?

5. How much are you willing to endure?

6. What are you willing to give up?

7. How much responsibility are you willing to assume?

8. Are you willing to start where you are?

9. Are you willing to think for yourself

10. Are you willing to settle for nothing less than your full potential?

Mental toughness

“The 3 key components for success are as follows: psychological preparedness, physical conditioning, mental toughness.”- Chuck Norris[33]

See also: Mental toughness and 4 C's of mental toughness

According to the company Mental Toughness Partners:

Mental Toughness is a personality trait that determines your ability to perform consistently under stress and pressure, and is closely related to qualities such as character, resilience, grit and perseverance.

Peter Clough, Professor of Applied Psychology at Manchester Metropolitan University and a pioneer on research into Mental Toughness further describes a mentally tough person as “someone who is comfortable in their own skin, can take whatever comes along in their stride and mostly enjoy the challenge”.[34]

Mental toughness is often referred to relative to sports and work performance and it is a predictor of success in sports, the workplace and education. Mental toughness is estimated to account for up to 25% variation in performance according to research carried out by Professor Peter Clough and his colleagues (See: MTQ mental toughness assessments).[35][36][37] In the workplace, salespeople have high levels of mental toughness compared to other workers.[38]

4C's of mental toughness of the MTQ assessments

See also: 4 C's of mental toughness

The 4 C's of mental toughness of the MTQ assessments and their factors:[39][40]

  • Challenge (Learning from experience - even setbacks are opportunities for growth/learning (See: Growth mindset); Willingness to stretch oneself and take calculated/reasonable risks)
  • Control (Emotional control/emotional intelligence - ability to handle one's emotions and others emotions; Life control - believe you can do what you set out to do)
  • Commitment (Goal orientation; Achievement orientation and results orientation)
  • Confidence (Confidence in one's abilities; interpersonal skills confidence)

Sports psychology and mental toughness

Growing mental toughness

The abstract for 2013 journal article Mental toughness: what is it and how to build it published in the journal Revista da Educação Física/UEM states:

Mental toughness is a term that has been long talked about but often misunderstood. Fortunately, in the past 12 years, researchers have begun to study this phenomenon. Although there are differences among researchers, mental toughness appears to contain four critical attributes including motivation, coping with pressure, concentration, and confidence. In terms of developing mental toughness, one way to approach its development is to consider that it is sometimes taught and sometimes caught. Teaching mental toughness involves a deliberate attempt to train specific mental skills (e.g., goal setting, relaxation, focus) whereas sometimes mental toughness is simply caught due to environmental influences (e.g, having a sibling how was older but pushed you to be more competitive and to continually strive to improve). The paper concludes with some suggestions for future research including focusing on the early development of mental toughness as well as developing interventions to test the effectiveness of mental toughness training.[41]

Growing mental toughness articles and videos

Psychological resilience

See also: Psychological resilience and Mental toughness

Psychological resilience according to the American Psychological Association "is the process and outcome of successfully adapting to difficult or challenging life experiences, especially through mental, emotional, and behavioral flexibility and adjustment to external and internal demands."[42]

Dan Peña's 10 habits of success

Daniel Steven Peña Sr. is a successful businessman and business coach.

Below are Dan Pena's 10 habits of success:

In 1984, Dan Peña purchased Guthrie Castle in Angus, Scotland from which he has operated several businesses.[43][44]

1. Practice Daily Affirmations See also: Self-talk

2. Measure What You Do And Improve

3. Success leaves clues

4. Smell the leather

5. Conventional Wisdom is Almost Always Wrong

6. Get Out of Your Comfort Zone. See: Comfort zone and Risk and Risk management

7. Have Laser Beam Focus. See: Concentration

8. Don't Care About What People Think About You. See: Overcoming a fear of social rejection

9. Surround Yourself with Successful People. See: Social influence

10. Take Action

Dan Peña quote

See also: Optimism bias

“Never underestimate how wrong you can be. Even the most careful planning can be overtaken by external events and circumstances.” - Dan Peña, American businessman and business coach[45]

Journal articles on achievement orientation

Progress through Education by the Filipino Carlos V. Francisco.

Education: Achievement Orientation Model (Siegle & McCoach, 2005)

Key variables to task engagement and achievement:

1. Possesses adequate skills to perform the task

2. Values the task or outcomes (Meaningfulness)

3. Expects to succeed (Environmental perception)

4. Confident in one's ability to perform the task (Self-efficacy)

5. Sets realistic expectations and implements realistic strategies to successfully complete goals (Self-regulation)

6. Home, peers and school are important inputs

Factors which impede achievement

See also: Conscientiousness and Concentration (Psychology) and Growth mindset

"Associate with men of good quality if you esteem your own reputation; for it is better to be alone than in bad company." - George Washington

Factors that hinder achievement include:[46][47][48]

  • Inadequate preparation (lack of study, relying on poor sources of information, etc.). Laziness in upgrading new skills.
  • Not setting short-term, intermediate and long-term goals. Not making goal setting and/or goals a priority. Setting your goals too low or unrealistically high.
  • Perfectionism. Viewing mistakes as failures rather than having a growth mindset
  • Fear of failure.
  • Not anticipating difficulties or difficult times. See: Optimism bias
  • Getting trapped in the past.
  • Being too obedient and unwilling to say "No". Lack of prioritization.
  • Procrastination and waiting until you "feel" ready. See: Proactive
  • Lack of persistence and patience. Wanting it all now. Giving up before you start seeing results. See: Psychological resilience

The power of social influence: Research on how friends, family and society can influence you

See also: Positive social influence

St. Paul defends his preaching (Giovanni Ricco).

The Apostle Paul taught: "Do not be deceived:‘Bad company ruins good morals.’" (1 Corinthians 15:33).

Social networking, business networking and connectors in a social network

See also: Social network

A social network "refers to a group of individuals who voluntarily interact on the basis of the interest which they profess for an idea, a problem, a product, etc. A social network may be defined as having three principal elements: consciousness of kind, rituals and traditions of the community and the moral responsibility of the individuals it comprises."[49]

According to Investopedia, "Networking is the exchange of information and ideas among people with a common profession or special interest, usually in an informal social setting."[50] Business networking is networking for business purposes.

Articles on social networking, business networking and connectors in a social network:

Book on social networking

Relationship building skills

See: Relationship building skills

The power of surrounding yourself with high achievers with good character

See also: Social network

A fictional social network diagram

The power of surrounding yourself with high achievers

The power of surrounding yourself with people with good character

Show me your friends and I will show you your future

Systematic achievement motivation diagram

Systematic achievement motivation diagram

Achievement oriented leadership

See also: Achievement oriented leadership

Achievement oriented leadership is a leadership style where the leader encourages subordinate growth and progress by setting goals that are challenging or at the highest level possible.[51][52]

Achievement oriented leadership articles

Sales and achievement orientation

See also: Sales

Harvard Business Review indicates about success in selling: "Eighty-four percent of the top performers tested scored very high in achievement orientation. They are fixated on achieving goals and continuously measure their performance in comparison to their goals."[53]

Risk management

See also: Risk management

Risk management is "the continuing process to identify, analyze, evaluate, and treat loss exposures and monitor risk control and financial resources to mitigate the adverse effects of loss."[54] It is an organized method of identifying and measuring risk and developing, selecting, and managing options for handling these risks.

Revenue diversification and businesses

Importance of taking risks in life

See also: Risk and Comfort zone and Optimism and Optimism bias

Part of reaching goals, making progress and mental toughness is stretching yourself to reach your goals which involves taking calculated risks.

The article Benefit from taking risks states:

You never really know what you're capable of until you push yourself outside of your comfort zone. When you take risks, you learn more about your strengths and weaknesses. This self-knowledge can be invaluable in both your personal and professional life.

Taking risks can lead to new opportunities.

If you're always playing it safe, you're likely to miss out on new opportunities. Sometimes, the only way to get what you want is to go for it. Even if you don't succeed at first, taking risks can open up doors that you never would have thought possible.[55]

Articles on the importance of taking risks in life

Quote

"If you want to increase your success rate, double your failure rate." - Thomas J. Watson, the former CEO of IBM, who helped grow the company in its glory days.

As can be seen in the above graphic, part of mental toughness is stretching yourself to meet your goals which involves taking calculated risks.

MTQ PLUS, the Mental Toughness Questionnaire, measures an persons's resilience and their ability to deal with pressure and change.[56]

Jonah complex

See also: Jonah complex

The Jonah complex is the: fear of success; fear of change; fear of personal growth, fear of reaching one's potential; fear of achieving one's aspirations and dreams; and fear of meeting one's social and God-given responsibilities (golden rule, etc.).[57][58][59]

The Jonah complex may interfere with an individual's achievement orientation and hinder a person's ability to achieve organizational/societal aims and goals.[60]

Recommended books

  • The Achievement Factors: Candid Interviews With Some of the Most Successful People of Our Time by B. Eugene Griessman, Omni Media; 1st edition (November 1987)
  • On the Journey to Achievement by John Patrick Hickey, Motivational Press, Inc. (January 21, 2015)
  • There Are No Limits: Breaking the Barriers in Personal High Performance by Danny Cox, Career Pr Inc; Authorized edition (January 1, 1998)

Christian authors

  • Peak Performance Principles by John Noe, Frederick Fell Publishers (June 1, 2005)
  • No Limits: Blow the CAP Off Your Capacity by John Maxwell, Center Street; Large type / Large print edition (March 7, 2017)

See also

Essays:

External links

Notes

  1. How the world’s fastest man Usain Bolt mentally prepares for a race CNBC
  2. Achievement orientation
  3. Achievement orientation
  4. Competency Title:Achievement Orientation
  5. Take Smarter Risks with Emotional Intelligence, Key Step Media
  6. Achievement orientation
  7. This Personality Trait Predicts Success, Business Insider, 2014
  8. Our Twitter Profiles, Our Selves: Predicting Personality with Twitter
  9. What is a growth mindset? 8 steps to develop one., Western Governors University
  10. Los Angeles Times, Interviews With 120 Top Artists, Athletes and Scholars : The Key to Success? It's Drive, Not Talent, Study Finds, February 17, 1985
  11. The Human Body: God's Masterpiece
  12. The Enigmatic Human Brain by Wallace G. Smith
  13. The Most Complex Structure, Creation Moments
  14. Self-efficacy
  15. Duckworth, A.L., Peterson, C., Matthews, M.D., & Kelly, D.R. (2007). "Grit: Perseverance and passion for long-term goals". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92 (6), p. 1087.
  16. What is grit, and why is it important? by Caren Baruch-Feldman, PhD
  17. The Future of Self-Improvement, Part I: Grit Is More Important Than Talent by Jocelyn K. Glei[1]
  18. Character Lab - Grit
  19. Character Lab - Grit
  20. Self-Control - Webster-Merriam dictionary
  21. SMART Goals
  22. Goal-Setting
  23. SMART Goals
  24. [ Achievement Goals: A Social Influence Cycle by Fabrizio Butera, Benoît Dompnier, Céline Darnon, Annual Review of Psychology, 2024 Jan 18:75:527-554. doi: 10.1146/annurev-psych-013123-102139. Epub 2023 Sep 27
  25. [https://www.librarything.com/profile/griessman Gene Griessman (B. Eugene Griessman), Library Thing website
  26. Obituary: Benjamin Eugene Griessman. AUGUST 12, 1934 – SEPTEMBER 17, 2022
  27. THE ACHIEVEMENT FACTORS by Bob Starkey
  28. The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People
  29. Broadly what is meant by that is to focus our efforts and attention on the long-term and to think in terms of the long-term consequences of our actions. 7 Habits of Highly Effective People by Stephen Covey
  30. Habit 6: Synergize
  31. Peak Performance Principles For High Achievers by John R. Noe, ‎Frederick Fell Pub; Revised ed. edition (December 1, 1984)
  32. Peak Performance Principles For High Achievers by John R. Noe, ‎Frederick Fell Pub; Revised ed. edition (December 1, 1984), Chapter 3
  33. Chuck Norris quote, Quote Fancy website
  34. What is Mental Toughness?
  35. MENTAL TOUGHNESS AND PEAK PERFORMANCE: IN WORK, LEADERSHIP AND LIFE, IT MATTERS by Jeff Standridge, Arkansas Money and Politics magazine
  36. Why Mental Toughness Is Critically Important?, Mental Toughness Partners
  37. Sports Psychology Tips: Mental Toughness is a Hugely Valuable Trait
  38. Mental Toughness and the effectiveness of Sales People
  39. About MTQ, Mental Toughness Partners website
  40. HOW CAN YOU TELL IF YOUR TEAM IS MENTALLY TOUGH?, Bakja Consulting website
  41. Mental toughness: what is it and how to build it, Revista da Educação Física, UEM 24 (1) • Mar 2013 (Published at Sci Elo Brazil website, Original language, Journal: Revista da Educação Física/UEM, Journal article name: Força mental: o que é e como construí-la, ResearchGate abstract
  42. Resilience
  43. "U.S. oilman is new owner of Guthrie Castle", 23 October 1984. 
  44. Rescued castle to open its doors
  45. Dan Peña's Twitter feed
  46. How to Overcome the 9 Most Common Obstacles That Prevent People From Living Their Dreams, Inc. Magazine
  47. 5 Factors That Hinder Success, STEKOM UNIVERSITY website
  48. 10 Things That Stop You From Achieving Your Goals
  49. Source Title: Handbook of Research on ICTs for Human-Centered Healthcare and Social Care Services. by Miguel Guinalíu (University of Zaragoza, Spain), Javier Marta (Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet, Spain), and José María Subero (Aragón Government, Spain), Chapter 9 (Social Networks as a Tool to Improve the Life Quality of Chronic Patients and Their Relatives), Page 15
  50. Networking: What It Is and How to Do It Successfully, Investopedia
  51. Achievement oriented leadership, CEOpedia
  52. Path-Goal Theory of Leadership | Characteristics, Style & Example, Study.com
  53. Seven Personality Traits of Top Salespeople, Harvard Business Review, 2011
  54. WHAT IS RISK MANAGEMENT?, Marquette University
  55. Benefit from taking risks
  56. About MTQ, Mental Toughness Partners website
  57. Abraham Maslow (October 1993). "The Jonah Complex". The Farther Reaches of Human Nature. ISBN 9780140194708.
  58. Department of Cognitive Science, Chris VerWys. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Personality Psychology, Abraham Maslow
  59. Desacralizing Life and its Mystery: The Jonah Complex Revisited by Pierre-E. Lacocque. Journal of Psychology and Theology, Volume 10, Issue 2, https://doi.org/10.1177/009164718201000202
  60. Abraham Maslow (October 1993). "The Jonah Complex". The Farther Reaches of Human Nature. ISBN 9780140194708.