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Brexit results. Blue-shaded areas stand for council areas that voted "Leave". Orange stands for "Remain".
For the political philosophy in favor of Brexit, see Euroskepticism

Brexit is a repudiation of globalism and the campaign slogan for "Britain's Exit" from the European Union. The British people became the first nation to vote on a referendum whether or not to remain in membership to the EU, on June 23, 2016. The historic vote shocked the world as the Leave campaign won by a 52–48% margin. Prime Minister David Cameron campaigned to remain in the EU and was humiliated by the outcome, whereupon he resigned his position. Former London Mayor Boris Johnson was a leader of the Leave camp, though previously supporting Remain. Regaining self-governance and sovereignty were the top reasons for leaving the EU,[1] and the difficulty in leaving was the result of having surrendered control to the EU in the first place.[2] The vote was one of the most significant events in Europe in the 2010s.[3]

On May 24, 2019, this issue caused the resignation of the prime minister of the United Kingdom, as Theresa May tearfully announced she would step down due to her inability to secure a parliamentary majority for the Brexit deal her government had negotiated with the EU. Boris Johnson, an advocate of a "no-deal Brexit" (i.e., leaving the EU without any agreement), was victorious in replacing Mrs. May.

Polling prior to the referendum indicated a tight race, with 44% preferring to stay (anti-Brexit) and 42% supporting leaving the EU (Brexit), as of April 17, 2016.[4] Two weeks after Barack Obama gave his support to Cameron and chided Britain to stay in the EU, a survey says Brexit gained 3% who want out.[5] Final results showed "Leave" with 52% of the vote to "Remain" with 48%, a margin that was 5 points better than polling. This was despite the fact that the "Remain" side was fined several times for cheating and lack of transparency, and despite the British government sending fliers to every citizen to urge them to vote "Remain."[6] After the election, many British voters felt betrayed by their politicians who undermined, threatened, and delayed Brexit.[7] Some liberal and globalist politicians, including the Speaker of the House of Commons John Bercow, admitted to attempting to stop a clean Brexit.[8]

The British High Court ruled on November 3, 2016, that the British government could not unilaterally begin formal exit negotiations with the EU, but rather that parliamentary approval via an Act of Parliament is needed to permit the British Government to trigger Article 50 and begin the withdrawal process.[9] The British government appealed the decision to the Supreme Court, skipping the Court of Appeal. On the 1st of February 2017, the British House of Commons approved beginning Brexit negotiations.[10] Amendments were later made in the House of Lords, and each amendment was refused by the House of Commons. The bill eventually became law and on the 29th of March, Theresa May triggered Article 50 and began the withdrawal process from the European Union.

Prime Minister Theresa May officially initiated Brexit on March 29, 2017.[11][12] In the Brexit negotiations, the EU parliament has a very powerful role, and has ruled out certain things the British Government was hoping to achieve (such as trade agreements with individual nation-states, rather than the European Union as an entity), thus acting as a bully to Britain.[13] Run by weak establishment and globalist politicians, the UK had serious trouble agreeing to leave the EU as voters demanded.[14][15]

Conservatives pushed back against the establishment attempt to nullify Brexit, with Nigel Farage forming the Brexit Party in April 2019. Generally, Scotland and the Home Counties voted to Remain, while other parts of England and Wales voted to Leave.

Britain officially left the EU on January 31, 2020.[16][17] The UK and EU reached a trade agreement[18] that went into effect on January 1, 2021, the same time as the UK officially exited the European single market and other EU structures.[19][20]

Eligible voters

  • Voters must have been 18 or older
  • British, Commonwealth or Irish citizen who resided in Britain.
  • British nationals who lived overseas for less than 15 years could also vote.

Economic impact

Prior to the referendum, the Left and establishment claimed that approving Brexit would lead to terrible economic ruin for the UK. Pro-Brexiteers labeled this hysteria "Project Fear." Financial giants warned the British of credit downgrades. The British Pound dropped significantly as results started pouring in showing Leave doing better than expected.

Contrary to claims by anti-Brexit activists, the British economy did well, and it even improved after the referendum.[21] In early 2017, the chief economist of the Bank of England admitted that hysteric establishment predictions of economic gloom from a pro-Brexit result were wrong and inaccurate.[22] The British finance ministry admitted the same in January 2018.[23] In 2017, British manufacturing grew at its fastest rate since early 2008.[24] Despite contrary claims by "Remain" campaigners, the British Pound climbed to pre-Brexit vote levels in January 2018.[25] Employment also rose.[26] By 2018, British export levels reached the highest level since 2010.[27] Car manufacturing and investment also increased significantly in 2018.[28] The Office for National Statistics found in February 2019 that the British economy was growing faster than that of the Eurozone.[29] European investment more than doubled in nearly three years after the vote.[30] In July 2019, the British economy increased more than expected.[31] London's status as a capital for finance remained despite contrary claims by anti-Brexiteers.[32] In late 2019, the number of people employed in the UK reached a record high.[33] The UK's economy outperformed the French economy despite predictions to the contrary.[34]

Despite the economic growth, anti-Brexit activists continued to predict "doom-and-gloom" economic scenarios.[35] However, former prime minister David Cameron, who supported the "Remain" campaign, admitted in January 2018 that Brexit "turned out less badly than we first thought" despite continuing to voice displeasure about it.[36]

Anti-Brexit advocates continued promoting Project Fear, or "Project Hysteria," regarding a potential no-deal "Hard Brexit."[37][38]

Crawford Falconer, the UK's main trade negotiator, admitted in July 2019 that Britain had very little influence in international trade policy as an member of the European Union.[39]

Secular leftists, Brexit and mental illness

See also: Secular leftists and psychogenic illness

There is a considerable amount of scientific evidence that suggests that theism is more conducive to mental and physical health than atheism (See:Atheism and health).[40] In addition, atheists have higher suicide rates (see: Atheism and suicide and Atheism and depression).

Politically, most atheists fall on the left side of the political spectrum (see: Atheism and politics and Secular left).

The new atheist Richard Dawkins was against Brexit.[41] Dawkins is a liberal/leftist.[42] Most leftists were against Brexit.

A Eurobarometer poll in 2010 reported that 37% of UK citizens "believed there is a God", 33% believe there is "some sort of spirit or life force" and 25% answered "I don't believe there is any sort of spirit, God or life force".[43] See also: British atheism

The Guardian reported about Brexit:

In shrinks’ offices across the country, just as in homes, pubs and offices, people are trying to come to terms with the surprise and shock of the Brexit result. Strangers gather together to talk of how “the world is falling apart”.

Many people feel transported into a dystopian Britain that they “do not recognise, cannot understand”. Thousands are hatching plans to leave the country. Social media are full of suddenly violent flaming between former friends.

Therapists everywhere are reporting shockingly elevated levels of anxiety and despair, with few patients wishing to talk about anything else. Mental health referrals have already begun to mushroom. Why is the Brexit vote affecting us so personally? And, what does this tell us about the make-up of our psyches?[44]

The columnist Patrick West wrote in his article The Post-Brexit Ugliness of the left:

The liberal-left couldn’t understand why people would vote in the name of abstract principles such as ‘democracy’ or ‘freedom’ or ‘self-determination’, because they view everything in terms of their own money and their own public image.

There was a time when it was Tories who sneered at the poor, who deplored them as stupid and feckless. This was in the loadsamoney era of the 1980s, during which the market ruled and we were beholden to the whims of capitalists and the sainted market. There was even a time, many years ago, when the left spoke of principles, of democracy and liberty. How the roles have been reversed. How strange that it’s mostly conservatives who now talk in abstractions, and it’s the left that obsesses about the markets and worry about the FTSE 100, about their own money.[45]

Process for leaving the EU

Even before the process for leaving the EU began, globalists planned on sabotaging Brexit in the hope that the UK would retain much of its vassalage to the EU or even remain in the EU outright.[46]

Despite British leaders' reluctance for achieving a "no deal" hard Brexit, Professor Patrick Minford of Cardiff University estimated that such an exit would actually cost the EU £507 billion with the UK gaining £641 billion.[47] The British establishment claimed that a "no deal" Brexit would have disastrous consequences for Britain, similar to "Project Fear" prior to the referendum, despite the lack of evidence.[48]

The UK parliament passed a bill implementing the referendum decision, becoming law on June 27, 2018, about a year after being introduced.[49][50] Globalists of the EU[51] and in the UK refused to admit their defeat in the referendum by trying to undermine and even reverse Brexit – thus undermining democracy.[52] By July 2018, Prime Minister Theresa May had hurt her country's chances of securing a real Brexit because of several poor decisions and refusal to stand firm against the EU in negotiations.[53] The UK parliament voted to make a clean Brexit more difficult to achieve, increasing the chance of no Brexit.[54]

On November 14, 2018, May announced the UK had reached an agreement with the EU.[55] The agreement was very poorly received by Brexit supporters.[56] Not only was May a weak negotiator, but she also advocated for a bad deal. For example, she requested that a "backstop" be added to the final Brexit deal that would keep the UK in the customs union with no exit.[57] Despite the major concessions to the EU, European countries were still not satisfied and wanted yet more concessions.[58] While May claimed that her deal was the only possible one that the UK could achieve, pro-Brexit MPs Jacob Rees-Mogg and David Davis released their own Brexit plan that would respect British sovereignty.[59] In December 2018, the British government was forced to release legal advice it had received that stated the agreement would be worse for Britain than the government claimed.[60] After the UK surrendered to additional Spanish demands regarding Gibraltar,[61] the EU approved the agreement.[62]

On January 15, 2019, the UK Parliament rejected the deal by a vote of 202 for and 432 against, making it the largest government defeat since World War I.[63] The British establishment, nonetheless, opposed any meaningful Brexit, if any at all.[64] On March 12, 2019, Parliament again rejected May's Brexit deal.[65] May tried to bully pro-Brexit MPs to vote for her bad deal by claiming that Brexit would not happen if they did not vote her way,[66] and she later announced she would vote against a no-deal Brexit despite originally claiming to prefer no-deal over a bad deal.[67] The following day, Parliament – along with May[67] – voted against a no-deal Brexit.[68] The day after that, Parliament voted to delay Brexit,[69] even though May had repeatedly promised that such a delay would not happen.[70][71] Not content with all this, May chose to have Parliament vote once again on her Brexit deal,[72] and the third vote on March 29, 2019, also failed.[73] Not content, May wanted parliament to vote on her deal a fourth time.[74]

May then began negotiations with the far-left Jeremy Corbyn on a Brexit agreement.[75] Her government also announced the UK would participate in the European Parliament elections,[76][77] something anti-Brexit deep state officials set aside money for in 2018.[78] May even threatened to keep the UK in the EU.[79] This came even though her own government had prepared extensively for a "no deal."[80] In April 2019, the EU and May government agreed to further extend Brexit to October 31 of that year.[81] Anti-Brexit members of May's government then stated that parliament would consider a second referendum,[82] and her government even ended its Brexit "no deal" planning.[83] Despite claiming to oppose a second referendum, May announced on May 21, 2019, that she would offer such a referendum as a condition of approving her exit plan.[84]

Despite voting to leave the EU, the UK's payments to the globalist organization increased by 20% by 2019.[85]

Some Tory MPs opposed achieving Brexit so much that they even supported far-left socialist Jeremy Corbyn becoming prime minister in place of Boris Johnson.[86] Those Tories voted with Labour in early September 2019 to block a "no-deal" Brexit.[87] The EU worried that Brexit would mean closer relations between the UK and U.S.[88]

While the EU attempted to scare the UK about the risks of a "no deal" Brexit and pretend that it would allow it to happen, the European Parliament simultaneously voted to grant the UK yet another extension if thought necessary.[89] The EU and its member-nations worried that the UK would be a competitor to the organization.[90]

Johnson suspended parliament in early September 2019, but the UK Supreme Court ruled against this action on September 24.[91]

Article 50

The Article 50 document was signed by the Prime Minister of the UK, Theresa May, on the 29th March 2017. It was delivered to Donald Tusk (President of The European Council) who commented there was "no reason to pretend this was a happy day" especially as the UK had been integral to the European Union for 44 years.

Following the acceptance of article 50 there will be two years of intense negotiation to finalise agreements over:

  • current UK and EU nationals living in each other's territories
  • financial liabilities and responsibilities to each other
  • trade and legal agreements

If this is not completed within two years then it is likely that World Trade Organization rules would apply to any future trade unless all EU member nations agree to extend the negotiating period by up to one year.

In December 2018, the European Court of Justice, which always rules in favor of the EU's preferred position, stated that a country could unilaterally reverse Article 50.[92]


The main concern of the British government is to ensure access to the single market for its banking and manufacturing sectors - both major income streams for the UK. Along with this the UK business sector are very concerned about the potential loss of EU (especially Eastern European) labour for many agricultural and low paid roles. Negotiations are proceeding very slowly because of the obstructive tactics of the EU negotiators. They are insisting that Britain must agree to an "exit fee" of over £50 billion before they will start trade talks.[93] They also wanted to discuss the "rights" of EU citizens before such talks.

Under Theresa May

In July 2018, Theresa May and her cabinet agreed to a very weak negotiating position that would leave the country under the European Court of Justice, effectively in the single market, and under the jurisdiction of many of the EU's regulations.[94] Anti-Brexit Europhiles applauded the negotiating position.[95] In opposition to such a weak agreement, several of her pro-sovereignty ministers resigned,[96][97] including Brexit Minister David Davis[98] and Foreign Minister Boris Johnson.[99] Several other officials also resigned.[100] Pro-"Remain" officials in May's government consolidated their influence over the exit negotiations.[101][102] The UK government also gave the Europhile European Court of Justice the final say over any Brexit issue in the negotiations.[103]

The House of Commons approved May's negotiating position as official UK policy on July 16, 2018, though it also added four amendments to the bill created by pro-Brexit MPs.[104] The following day, it approved a trade bill while rejecting an anti-Brexit amendment to the bill that would have required the government to enter a customs agreement with the EU if free trade negotiations failed, though parliament also voted to require the government to remain under the EU's medicine regulations.[105]

According to a study published in the Journal of European Public Policy, disagreements among the Tories helped the EU gain the upper hand in the negotiations.[106]

Under Boris Johnson

Immediately upon becoming Prime Minister, Boris Johnson took a tough stance on Brexit, promising to fulfill the 2016 referendum result.[107] His government stated it would not pay any "divorce bill" to the EU in the case of a "no-deal" Brexit,[108] and Johnson stated he would push to adopt an independent trade policy and not nominate an EU commissioner.[109]

Johnson immediately put his cabinet to work preparing for a "no-deal" Brexit,[110] and he stated he would refuse to negotiate with the EU unless it dropped its Irish backstop demand.[111] Very early in Johnson's tenure, his government doubled the amount of money devoted to preparing for a "no-deal" Brexit,[112] and his treasury minister announced a one-year spending review to help the government prepare for a "no-deal" Brexit.[113] The government announced that in the event of a "no-deal" Brexit, it would end its adherence to the EU's "freedom of movement" rules.[114] Johnson voiced confidence and patriotism in his country.[115] However, regarding the Brexit agreement with the EU, Johnson only called for the EU to remove the Northern Ireland backstop in order for him to accept it, angering Brexit supporters.[116] In August 2019, the EU appeared to take a softer stance on renegotiating the Brexit agreement, but this public stance was actually a way to deflect blame in the event of a no-deal Brexit.[117]

In August 2019, Johnson's government announced it would stop sending its officials to most EU meetings.[118]

On August 28, 2019, Johnson announced he would ask the queen to suspend parliament as Brexit Day approached.[119] He threatened to expel any Tory MP who voted to delay or block Brexit.[120] Parliament voted to block a no-deal Brexit and Johnson followed through on his threat.[121] While calling for a new election for two years, the Labor Party suddenly opposed holding a new election after Johnson announced his support for it.[122] Johnson continued voicing support for achieving Brexit,[123] and he refused to request a Brexit extension from the EU.[124] The UK Supreme Court, however, ruled against Johnson's parliamentary suspension on September 24, 2019.[125]

Despite pushing for Brexit, Johnson made the mistake of publicly disavowing and insulting Nigel Farage when he proposed forming an electoral coalition – and incident which illustrated that Johnson was not a political conservative.[126]

Johnson announced a revised Brexit deal proposal on October 2, 2019.[127] On October 17, 2019, Johnson announced he had reached an agreement with the EU.[128] The conservative Northern Irish Democratic Unionist Party announced it would oppose the proposed agreement,[129][130] and Brexit Party leader Nigel Farage also criticized it.[130][131] On October 19, 2019, the House of Commons voted to delay the vote on the agreement and to delay Brexit if the agreement did not pass.[132] Later in the day, Johnson requested a Brexit extension despite promising not to take such an action.[133] On October 22, 2019, Parliament voted in favor of the Brexit deal but voted against Johnson's three-day schedule for giving the final approval of the deal.[134] The EU subsequently granted yet another extension until January 31, 2020.[135]

On October 29, 2019, on its fourth attempt to do so in two months, the UK Parliament voted to hold an election on December 12 in which Boris Johnson won an historic majority and thus making Brexit a reality.[136]

On January 21, 2020 the UK. stated the transition period to leave the European Union, having 1 year to negotiate a trade deal.

See also

External links


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  66. Multiple references:
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  91. Multiple references: See also: Johnson's response after Parliament reconvened:
  92. Multiple references:
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    See also:
  100. Multiple references:
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  104. Multiple references:
  105. Multiple references:
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  110. Multiple references: See also:
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    See also:
  112. Multiple references: See also:
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  122. Multiple references:
  123. Multiple references:
  124. Multiple references: See also:
  125. Multiple references: See also: Johnson's response after Parliament reconvened:
  126. Multiple references: Later comments: See also:
  127. Multiple references:
    • Colchester, Max; Douglas, Jason (October 2, 2019). Boris Johnson Makes Last-Ditch Brexit Bid to EU. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 2, 2019.
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    • Piper, Elizabeth; James, William; MacLellan, Kylie (October 1, 2019). [h PM Johnson makes final Brexit offer, draws guarded welcome from EU]. Reuters. Retrieved October 2, 2019.
    See also:
  128. Multiple references: See also:
  129. Multiple references:
  130. 130.0 130.1 Lane, Oliver JJ; Montgomery, Jack (October 19, 2019). ‘No Surrender’ – Ian Paisley, Nigel Farage Denounce Boris’s Brexit Deal. Breitbart News. Retrieved October 19, 2019.
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  133. Multiple references: See also:
  134. Multiple references:
  135. Multple references: See also:
  136. Multiple references: