Falastin

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Falastin, sometimes transliterated Filastin, (Arabic: فلسطين‎) periodical (1911-1967) was an Arabic-language newspaper. Founded in 1911 in Jaffa, then called Palestine, moved to area under Jordanian control in 1948.

Falastin began as a weekly publication, evolving into one of the most influential dailies in Ottoman and Mandatory Palestine.

Founded by the Arab cousins El-Issa in 1911. (Though the principle two cousins founders two were Arab Christians, yet, it's important to bear in mind, many Arabs were heavily influenced by the surrounding [dominant] Islamic culture. For example, in 1937, Arab-Christians joined the Arab-Muslims in celebrating, Muhammad's birthday by displaying pictures of Hitler & Mussolini.[1] Such was the case with Nazism admirer Michel Aflaq[2] one of the founders of the Ba'ath. In addition, the masses the Falastin catered to were more of the Islamic faith, being Palestine's overall most prominent newspaper moreso in the 1920s. It followed the line by Islamic figure the Mufti al-Husseini and propagated for him).

It was mouthpiece for Mufti al-Husseini. Especially 1920s-1930s.[3][4] And even controlled by him. At least in 1929, this Supreme Muslim Council offered journalist inducements, including women, if he would take the Mufti’s side and color the news according to his personal views and ambitions.[5]

1914: racism

In 1914-15, periodical 'Falastin' was banned for its anti-Jewish racism, hatred by Ottoman authorities.[6][7]

1920s: violence

Overview:[6]

The Grand Mufti of Jerusalem

In 1914, the periodical Falastin – with its extremist Arab nationalist slant - was abolished by the Ottoman authorities because of its racist hate propaganda. The periodical had agitated against the immigration of Jewish refugees from Russia.

In the Twenties, the publication reappeared and led campaigns against Jewish immigration.

As a result of anti-Jewish propaganda and terror, the British government took measures between the Twenties and the Forties to restrict Jewish immigration to Palestine.

In 1921, an extremist, pan-Arab nationalist, Haji Amin al-Huseini, was appointed Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, a religious leader.

Three weeks after his appointment, he led a pogrom in which forty-three Jews were murdered.

From the beginning of the Second World War the Mufti led a rebellion of Iraqis, Syrians and Lebanese with support from Nazi Germany against the Allied Forces.

In April 1921, the British gave permission for the periodical to be reinstrated.[6] It caused great anxiety. It was weeks before the May-1921 riots.

Historian Kedourie:[7]

Two other incidents in April added to Yishuv anxiety. In Jaffa, citrus-owner. Samuel Tolkowsky complained that Government permission for the reappearance of Falastin, which had been closed down by the Turks for incitement to race-hatred in April 1914, could only be a source of discouragement to 'moderate' Arabs and an official invitation to 'extremists'.

Highlighted violent Arab anti-Jewish attacks incited by Haj Amin al-Husseini were 1920-21, and the 1929 Hebron massacre.[8] Most of those victims were non-Zionist ultra-orthodox pious Jews.[9][10]

1930s: fascism & Hitler

On Feb 26, 1930 it spoke of a supposed "the J.... conspiracy against nations."[11]


As early as 1932:[12]

In February 1932 the newspaper Falastin published an extensive article about Adolf Hitler; The thrilled writer enthusiastically and admiringly described the personality of Hitler, whom he called one of the greats of the New World or the "Iron Man of Germany."

In May, 1933, the Falastin ran a vile editorial against the Jews, glorifying Hitler dragging the debunked old "Protocols" into it too.[13]


In March 1934, Arab Palestinian newspapers criticized procession in Tel Aviv. The Falastin especially came out in defense of Hitler who was mocked at the Adloyada procession.[14]


A reader wrote in the July 1, 1934 issue of Falastin: "Hitler was liked by the Arabs, the Orientals, because that is the way of the world: the enemy of my enemies is my friend and ally."[15]


Overview:[16]

In September 1933, al-Difa' called the struggle against the Zionists a jihad (holy war), and warned that anyone who did not take a part in this war was committing a sin. The Arabic press also featured cartoon caricatures of the Jews, in the best tradition of Der Stürmer, the Nazi anti-Semitic weekly.

For instance, in September 1932, Filastin printed a cartoon depicting Zionism as an intimidating crocodile, opening its mouth wide to swallow two Arab peasants, while an armed British soldier stood by calmly.

Mir'at al-Sharq (Mirror of the World) was the only Arab newspaper that dared to go against the trend. In April 1935 it urged Arab-Jewish co-operation, arguing that the Arabs and the Jews were cousins, and Palestine was the only safe haven for them.

The paper was denounced by the rest of the Arabic press, and accused of collaborating with the Jews.


Historian Erlich:[17]

...But Falastin also reflected the overall view of fascism as a national and organizational prescription, for example the writer the physician and communist (and who was close to the 'Husseini' camp) Khalil al-Budeiri in Falastin, January 5, 1936:

It is very easy to explain our youth's sympathy for the fascist idea. All the news passed on to us about this movement illustrates it as a new human revival that promises hope and prosperity. We, too, who are at the beginning of our national revival, should strive to achieve similar goals and communicate with the movements that aspire to them, this and more, adolescence tends to admire power and heroism ...

No comprehensive research has yet been conducted on the mood of the Palestinians, but the journalism of the time (the same study by the historian Dr. Mustafa Kabha) shows a great deal of admiration for the power and solidity of Nazi Germany's achievements. May 14, 1933 The first months of the reign of the German dictator and exclaimed: "Will an Arab Hitler appear among us to awaken, unite and lead us to lead us to fight and defend our rights?"

Al-Difa's newspaper had long published translated excerpts from Hitler's Mein Kampf's book. He kept a regular correspondent in Berlin who persisted in sending sympathetic articles about the achievements of the Nazi regime. The paper's editor, Ibrahim al-Shanti, called on Arab youth (in an article from June 1, 1934) to "learn from Hitler's actions and imitate them in order to achieve similar national achievements." The Jaffa-based Falastin, which criticized Mussolini, supported Hitler, as did almost all the other newspapers ...

The first page of the Jaffa-based Falastin issue dated April 29, 1939. The headline announces "Hitler's historic speech," in which he rejects the Roosevelt letter, the cancellation of the naval agreement with Britain and the cancellation of the nonaggression pact on Poland. In the center of the page, around the image of the brazened face of the Nazi ruler.. the body of the report, the subtitle summarizes other parts of Hitler's speech...

This speech of Hitler was accepted by many in the world as an act of a madman who consciously degenerates humanity into the abyss. In this way, for example, even the leader of the "Young Egypt", Ahmed Hussein, responded to these words, but the Jaffa-based 'Falastin' does not hide its sympathy. The title he chose is a quote from the Fuhrer "I have built in peaceful [ways] what others have destroyed by force."

French magazine in 1938:[18][8]

Arab journals Falastin and Al Difa'a publish every week articles with a racial tendency and frequently reproduce large portraits of various leaders of the Third Reich. They do not even try to conceal the fact that they have become pupils of the Ministry of Propaganda in Berlin.

In 1937, Falastin became openly pro-fascist Italy.[19]

In the 1930s, prominent feature of the newspaper were the cartoons. His headlines were drafted and formatted in flashy language, and sometimes published unconfirmed "news." The cartoons were used for a propaganda campaign against the Jews, Zionism and the British Mandate. The Jews were described in them as having negative qualities and demonized. The English translation was intended for readers of the English language in general and British rule in particular. And was sometimes less blatant because of the cultural context, but also because of a practical fear of reaction and censorship. In 1936, Falastine was closed for six weeks by censorship order, following articles of incitement and cartoons used to slam Jewish society and British government.

The cartoons did convey antisemitic messages to the masses, aimed at revolting and widening the buffer between the two peoples. But through them the messengers found a way to ridicule the British Mandate rule and negative revelations, in their opinion, in the position of the Arabs in the Land of Israel (Palestine).[20]

During some period, it openly carried pro Hitlerism. During other periods, for example to avoid discipline, censorship and or penalties, it, for a while, used sneaky tricky ways, that is, to glorify Nazis by carefully selected "reports" elaborating on Axis advances and 'excite' its readers on Hitler while cherry picking negative or critical of the Allies steps citing sources from Western countries, so the investigators wouldn't act. In addition, often inserting "news" as a subtitle under those articles, as if its source is the same... [21]


The following is an example of its pure anti-Jewish racism without any excuse of "anti Zionism" (1936-1939):

Researcher:[22]

The Spanish Civil War and its reflection in the press

Another issue that received press coverage and attention in the Arab press during the strike was the Spanish Civil War. The newspaper that did much more than any other newspaper was Falastin. It was also the newspaper that took a clear stance of hostility towards the government forces that Russia supported. He justified his attacks on this camp by the fact that [sic] many Jews are fighting alongside it. He knew how to frequently report on the many "crimes" allegedly committed by the fighters of that camp, who murder, loot and rape 'any woman who gets in their way.


If one Communist or two wrote something against Zionism and Fascism at the same time, or the that there were Arab soldiers who were paid[23] by Jews (who were the ones mobilized en masse) to join the Brits - do not change the overwhelming facts. Though Falastin & Ad-Difa changed tunes according to power etc.,[24] yet, enough disastrous was the glorification of Hitler in 1932 and in 1933 to plant the seeds of venom, nor have they become less anti-Jewish while changing ("strategic") tunes.


Noted in Dec, 1945:[25]

the Palestine Arabic newspaper Falastin, for instance, attacked the Nuremberg trials, asserting that the Allies had no right to try nazis and nazism since this was a political ideology just as democracy and socialism are.

Pro evacuation of Arabs from Palestine around 1948 war

Author reminds about the reasons for Arab Palestinian flight in 1948:[26]

the Lebanese newspaper Sada al-Janub has called for flights;

the Jordanian Daily, Felastin, of 17.05.1955 describes how the evacuation of Akko of 17.05.1948 went according to plan;

in the Felastin of 19.02.1949 and in the Cairo Daily people call for an evacuation.

1960s

In the 1960s it published anti-Jewish pieces including libels.[27]


Falastin on September 15, 1960:[28][29]
"In all frankness, we want to eliminate Israel…and care not when Israel protests that we contemplate war and jeopardize her security…because this is exactly our aim.  Non-aggression pacts stand in the way of the realization of this aim."


Falastin on March 3, 1963:[30][31]

“It would appear, on the face of it, that the concentration of the Jews in the Occupied Region (i.e. israel), militates in favor of Zionism.  In our view, however, in the long run it will favor the Arab nation…Why?  Because this will turn Israel into one huge, worldwide grave for this whole Jewish concentration.  And the day draws near for those who await it.”

References

  1. All Arabs Celebrate prophet's Birthday. The New York Times, May 23, 1937.
    Palestine Arabs outdid themselves today in celebrating Mouled el Nebi, the birthday of the Prophet Mohammed. Never before have there been such elaborate festivities, decorations and processions as throughout the country today…

    Several days prior to the festival all buildings in Arab quarters were elaborately decorated, and pictures of Hitler, Mussolini and Fawzi el Kaoukgi, an Iraqian who came to Palestine during the disturbances last Summer to organize an “Arab revolt” were displayed. The government immediately ordered the removal of Fawzi el Kaoukgi’s picture.

    At Jaffa, the swastika was hoisted by Arabs over several building.
  2. Adel Soheil (2018). "The Iraqi Ba'th Regime's Atrocities Against the Faylee Kurds Nation-State Formation Distorted."p. 55.
  3. [1] The Palestine Bulletin⁩⁩, 16 February 1931 "Falastin and the Mufti."
  4. [2] The Palestine Post⁩⁩, 21 April 1935
  5. Jerusalem Grand Mufti Makes Sensational Attack on American Press, JTA, October 17, 1929.

    The Arab newspaper “Felestin,” controlled by the Jerusalem Grand Mufti, made a sensational onslaught on American newspapers yesterday, singling out the “New York Times.” ...

    The Mufti denied interviews with Joseph Levy, “New York Times” correspondent, Ketchum of the “London Daily Express,” and Pierre Van Paassen, representative of the Jewish Telegraphic Agency...

    Mr. Van Paassen stated before his departure that when he called on the Mufti for the interview, the head of the Moslem Supreme Council offered him inducements, including women, if he would take the Mufti’s side and color the news according to his personal views and ambitions.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Janrense Boonstra, "Antisemitism, a History Portrayed", SDU, Anne Frank Foundation,' 1989, p. 101.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Elie Kedourie, Sylvia G. Haim: 'Zionism and Arabism in Palestine and Israel' (RLE Israel and Palestine), Taylor & Francis, 2015. p. 8 [3]
  8. 8.0 8.1 Hitler's war against Jews continues in 'Palestine' Richard Mather, JPost, March 16, 2015. In 1929, Husseini distributed pamphlets saying: “O Arabs, do not forget that the Jew is your worst enemy and has been the enemy of your forefathers.” He also announced that the Jews had “violated the honour of Islam.” This led to a pogrom in Jerusalem and a massacre in Hebron, where 60 Jews were killed and the town ethnically cleansed. The British attributed the attacks to “racial animosity on the part of the Arabs.”
  9. Michael J Cohen: "Britain's Moment in Palestine: Retrospect and Perspectives, 1917-1948", (Routledge, Feb 24, 2014), p. 216. 'In 1929, as in 1920, the historical community of Orthodox, non-Zionist Jews bore the brunt of Arab attacks – this time in the towns of Hebron'.
  10. Ritchie Ovendale: "The Origins of the Arab Israeli Wars" (Routledge, 2015), p. 71. 'In Hebron a community of non-Zionist Jews was wiped out'.
  11. Blum, Sasson. The attitude of the Arabs of the Land of Israel towards the Jewish settlement and its Zionist enterprise between the events of Av 1939 (August 1939) and the outbreak of the events of 1936-1936 (April 1936)‬‎ [Yaḥasam shel ʼArviye Erets-Yiśraʼel el ha-Yishuv ha-Yehudi u-mifʻalo ha-Tsiyoni ben meʼoraʻot Av-5689 (Ogusṭ 1939) le-ven p'rots meʼoraʻot 5696-5699 (April 1939)]. Israel: Universiṭat Tel-Aviv, 1971. [4]
  12. Zmanim. (1998). Israel: Zemorah, Bitan, Modan. p. 2
  13. The Palestine Post, May 22, 1933.
    "Noble Hitler" — Says "Falastin"

    "Falastin" considers the Jews to be quite in the wrong in their criticism of anti-Jewish acts in Germany. Hitler is [sic[ Innocent and Noble, strong and beloved by his people and has succeeded in saving [sic] his country from the vile (sic) Jews."

    The Elders of Zion are also dragged into Falastin's article . They rule the world and do not like Hitler and are doing all they can to overthrow him, writes the Jaffa paper
  14. ⁨⁨ha-Arets⁩ - ⁨הארץ⁩⁩, 8 March 1934.

    "פלשתין" להגנת היטלר.

    'פלשתין' נתקנא כנראה ב"אל אסלמייה" וב"אל ג'אמעה", שפרסמו מאמרים נגד תהלוכת העדלידע בתל־אביב. ופרסם מאמר, שבו הוא מפנה את תשומת " לב הממשלה לתמונות הקריקטוריות שהיו בתהלוכת העדלידע...

    Falastin in Defense of Hitler.

    'Falastin' was apparently jealous of Al-Islamiyah and Al-Jama'ah, which published articles against the Adloyada procession in Tel Aviv. And published an article, in which he draws the government's attention to the cartoonish images that were in the Adloyada procession...
  15. Blum, Sasson. The attitude of the Arabs of the Land of Israel towards the Jewish settlement and its Zionist enterprise between the events of Av 1939 (August 1939) and the outbreak of the events of 1936-1936 (April 1936)‬‎ [Yaḥasam shel ʼArviye Erets-Yiśraʼel el ha-Yishuv ha-Yehudi u-mifʻalo ha-Tsiyoni ben meʼoraʻot Av-5689 (Ogusṭ 1939) le-ven p'rots meʼoraʻot 5696-5699 (April 1939)]. Israel: Universiṭat Tel-Aviv, 1971. [5].
    Haifa based Al-Karmil (al-Karmal, El-carmel الكرمل, El-carmel, Jarīdat al-Karmal) asks in its issue of May 24, 1933:

    "Will there rise among us an Arab Hitler who will awaken the Arabs, gather their dispersed, and lead them so that they will do what is necessary ...?"

    A reader wrote in the July 1, 1934 issue of Falastin: "Hitler was liked by the Arabs, the Orientals, because that is the way of the world: the enemy of my enemies is my friend and ally."

    On the great and growing influence of the Nazi ideology among the Arabs of the land in droves, because they conform to the anti-Jewish mindsets prevalent among them ...

    There were soon growing signs of sympathy in the Arab street for Hitler and Nazism.

    The swastika is seen more and more on Arab houses, on Arab cars, and even shoe polishers near the Jaffa Gate in Jerusalem adorned crates in this painting.
  16. Michael J Cohen, "Britain's Moment in Palestine: Retrospect and Perspectives, 1917-1948," Taylor & Francis,  2014, p. 398
  17. Haggai Erlich, The Middle East Between the World Wars, The Open University Press, Tel Aviv, 2002, p. 81
  18. Excerpts from an article in the (1930-40 noted) French magazine Marianne, 1938. Quoted in Joseph B. Schechtman, The Mufti and the Fuehrer: The Rise and Fall of Haj Amin el-Husseini (New York: Yoseloff, 1965), p. 84; qtd by J. Jacoby of the Boston Globe May 12, 2019
  19. Waschitz, Joseph. The Arab in Erets Israel [Ha-Aravim be-Eretz Yisrael. Israel: hotsa'at ha-ḳibuts ha-artsi ha-Shomer ha-Tsa'ir] (Palestinian Arabs), 1947. pp. 329-330.

    In terms of the external form, the Arab movement approached the glistening world of Fascism... 

    In April 1934, the Husseinis' "Al Jamia Al Arabia" (on the occasion of the opening of the Bari broadcast) wrote that Italy was the only power that had only economic and cultural trends and sought to move closer to the East.

    In the same newspaper (35.4.4) Shakib Arslan wrote that Mussolini is a huge personality. The leader of European policy and that the Arabs should not be moved by the Abyssinian government that persecutes Muslims. During the Abyssinian War, the Husseinist newspapers in Italy and the opposition newspapers supported the Abyssinians.

    (In 1937, "Falastin" also became pro-Italian).

    Along the Italian side, Nazi Germany also began to raise its profile among the Arabs and succeeded in doing so, especially during the days of the events.

    May 22, 1937, a holiday. Large Nazi flags fluttered in Jaffa.  The front of the workers' association's house was adorned with swastikas. In many houses swastikas and pictures of the Fuhrer, the Douce and the leaders of the revolt were seen.  In 1938, one hundred Palestine Arabs visited the Nazi party conference in Nuremberg.  Needless to say, how great was the effect of the German victories, in the first period of the war, on the Arabs of the country, and how difficult was then the impression of their defeat: an Egyptian, who visited the country in the days after the conquest of Berlin wrote: "The people cry in the morning and sob in the evening. And blow to their cheek between morning and evening." [מבחינת הצורה החיצונית התקרבה התנועה הערבית לעולם־המליצות של הפאשיזם...

    באפריל 1934 כתב "אל ג'אמיעה אל-ערביה" של החוסיינים (בהזדמנות פתיחת שידור בארי), שאיטליה היא המעצמה היחידה שיש לה מגמות כלכליות ותרבותיות בלבד והשואפת להתקרב אל המזרח.

    באותו עתון כתב (35.4.4) שכיב ארסלאן, שמוסוליני הוא אישיות עצומה. מנהיג המדיניות האירופית ושאין הערבים צריכים לרגוש מחמת הממשלה החבשית הרודפת את המוסלמים. בימי מלחמת-חבש תמכו עתוני החוסיינים באיטליה, ועתוני האופוזיציה בחבשים.

    (בשנת 1937 הפך גם "פאלשתין" פרו - איטלקי). 

    בצד איטליה התחילה גם גרמניה הנאצית להרים את קרנה בין הערבים והצליחה בכך, ביחוד בימי המאורעות.

    ביום 22 במאי 1937, יום חג. התנפנפו דגלים נאציים גדולים ביפו. חזית הבית של אגודת הפועלים היתה מקושטת צלבי קרס. בבתים רבים נראו צלבי קרס ותמונות הפיהרר, הדוצ'ה ומנהיגי המרד. בשנת 1938 ביקרו מאה ערבים ארצישראליים בוועידת המפלגה הנאצית בנירנברג. אין  צורך לתאר, מה גדולה היתה השפעת הנצחונות הגרמניים, בתקופה הראשונה של המלחמה, על ערביי הארץ, ומה קשה היה אחר כך רושם מפלתם: מצרי, שביקר בארץ בימים שלאחר כיבוש ברלין כתב: "העם בוכה בבוקר ומתייפח בערב. ומכה על לחיו בין בוקר וערב."]

  20. Kesher, no. 46, Spring, 2014, pp. 147-153.

    A prominent feature of the newspaper were the cartoons published in it ... His headlines were drafted and formatted in flashy language ... and he sometimes published unconfirmed news. The cartoons were used for a propaganda campaign against the Jews, Zionism and the British Mandate. The Jews were described in them as having negative qualities ... identified with the figure of the serpent. The Crocodile and the Dog ... The English translation is intended for readers of the English language in general and British rule in particular. And was sometimes less blatant because of the cultural context, but also because of a practical fear of reaction and censorship. In 1936, Falestin was closed for six weeks by censorship order, following articles of incitement and cartoons used to slam Jewish society and British government ...

    The cartoons did convey antisemitic messages to the masses, aimed at revolting and widening the buffer between the two peoples. But through them the messengers found a way to ridicule the British Mandate rule and negative revelations, in their opinion, in the position of the Arabs in the Land of Israel (Palestine).
  21. Studies in the Restoration of Israel: A Collection of the Problems of Zionism, the Yishuv and the State of Israel. 1992 [Iyunim Bitkumat Israel 2, 1992]. pp. 260-267. Moshe Shemesh: The position of the Jaffa (based) newspaper, Falastin, towards the Axis Powers and the democracies. p. 260

    It is not clear whether Falastin received assistance from Nazi Germany or Fascist Italy during the period under review. According to the newspaper's positive attitude towards these two countries, it is likely that it did indeed benefit from both or one of them.

    The Arabs got hooked at Nazi racism and Aryan supremacy and especially by the principle of language as a unifying nationalist factor, such as the Arabic language that unites the Arab world.

    This admiration of the Arab world was expressed, among other things, in political bodies that tried to emulate Nazi or fascist organizations, such as Al-Futuwwah and Al-Najjada in Palestine, the Misr al-Fatah in Egypt, or the Syrian National Party. The Palestinian nationalists, including the Husseinis, showed great sympathy for the Nazis. The Husseinis saw the Nazis as natural allies in their struggle against the Jews. This is also evidenced by the Mufti's personal connections..

    The position of the Falastin newspaper towards the two camps - the dictatorships and the democracies - in the period reviewed until the outbreak of the war, will be examined in two areas: The formal position of the paper, as expressed in the main articles; The position of the newspaper as expressed in the manner in which the information was provided current events in Europe.

    p. 261

    The formal position in the main articles ...

    In general, it can be noted that during the years 1939-1938, there was a constant drift in the position of the newspaper and in the position of the Arab world in general towards democracies. This process stemmed from the aggravation of the global crisis and the prominence of Nazi Germany as the most powerful power, as well as the intensification of the struggle in the country.

    The first half of 1938: During this period the paper tried to be "balanced" between the two camps, but in fact tended more towards the Axis countries. In general, the newspaper raised allegations against the democratic nature of Western regimes and implicitly implied some sympathy for the dictatorial regimes. "There is not a single person who understands the spirit of the time who would agree that Italian fascism or German Hitlerism would take over Europe or the whole world, after the real English democracy had disappeared. But what man is not inclined to sympathize with this fascism or this Hitlerism, if there is in this sympathy to help the hundreds of millions remove from their hearts the bitterness for the sake of saving the world from a war that could lead to the end of human culture?" Following this line and the hidden sympathy for Germany ...

    p. 266

    At the same time, in order not to completely burn the bridges with the English, the editor tried to 'balance' these sharp articles in major articles that also criticized the dictatorial countries, though not on issues directly related to the Arabs but on issues related to Europe and tensions in the international arena. Due to the nature of this review. Its influence on Palestinian public opinion was minimal. The Palestinians were only slightly interested in what was happening in Europe, and most of their attention was focused on what was happening in Palestine and the struggle against the Jewish community and against Britain. This 'balance' did not, therefore, harm the positive image of the Axis powers, which prevailed in Arab public opinion at the time. Moreover, in the publication of the current information on what is happening in Europe, as will be seen later, the clear and sharp tendency to side with Germany stood...

    p. 267

    Censorship and the penalties imposed on the newspaper required its editors to use an elusive technique in publishing the news, which on the one hand would not give a reason to the mandate or censorship authorities to punish it and on the other hand would allow the newspaper to express its views against Britain and the West. This method of publication makes it difficult for the researcher and requires him to decipher it in order to recreate the true position of the newspaper. Understanding the method of publication will undoubtedly help to understand the trends of the newspaper in the period under review. It is possible to summarize in this way the measures taken by Palestine to overcome the obstacles of censorship and the position of the Mandatory authorities when it comes to expressing its positions by providing the information:

    A. The dominant method that stands out in reading the newspaper is a quote from a foreign press including the British, French, German and Italian press. In most cases the paper used to quote a British press. He frequently quoted from it news items, commentaries, and articles that included criticism of the administration and its policies and especially articles of sympathy for the Axis powers and articles that demonstrated tendencies toward conciliation toward them. In this context, the newspaper published commentaries and articles from the German or Italian press which criticized the West or tended to the position of the Arabs.

    B. Falastin contented itself with mentioning the cities of London, Rome, Paris or Berlin as the source of its information and refrained from mentioning the news agency that sent them. In sensitive news, the city of London has often been mentioned as a clear source that such a score was intended to train the news in the eyes of the censor, especially when the news is based on a quote from a British newspaper.

    C. An interesting phenomenon that I encountered a lot in the newspaper: a certain article, which London is excellent as a source, starts with giving details related to the headline, but then the newspaper moves to other news under subheadings unrelated to the headline and still continues to be based on the same source. This gives the impression that London is the source of further knowledge.

    p. 270

    "An important speech that Hitler is about to deliver with very important statements on German foreign policy.'" - He did not do so with Chamberlain's speeches. It should be emphasized that it is not the news itself that is important here, but the proportions in delivering and emphasizing the news from Germany compared to similar news from the evening that were very few.

    p. 271

    About Hitler comparing him to Napoleon. Similarly to his treatment of Mussolini in early 1938, Falastin (March, April and May 1939) published extensively information about Hitler's actions and his character and influence. These reports were the mainstay of the foreign news page of the paper and may even be said to be more central than the reports on Mussolini in early 1938. Although the descriptions were factual, the headlines given to them were positive in tone or so-called neutral and attention-grabbing.

    In presenting Germany's positive stance on the Arab issue, the Islamic-religious element was also overemphasized, in order to highlight Hitler's sympathy for Islam and the Muslim world. Hitler is also interested in following Mussolini and getting the title of Muslim defender.

    Characteristically, Hitler's reference to the Palestinian problem was emphasized in his April 1, 1939, speech. The role of Palestine and the Arabs in the Fuhrer speech; We will not interfere in the affairs of others and we do not want them to interfere in our affairs: we have never asked the British about the affairs of Palestine and what is happening in it and what they want. '

    The shift towards a pro-German orientation was expressed in a broader report on Germany and in the emphasis on Germany's aggressive, rigid and 'bold' position in Europe ...
  22. Kabha, Mustafa. The Palestinian Press as Shaper of Public Opinion 1929-39: Writing Up a Storm. 2004, p. 187.

    The Spanish Civil War and its reflection in the press

    Another issue that received press coverage and attention in the Arab press during the strike was the Spanish Civil War. The newspaper that did much more than any other newspaper was Falastin. It was also the newspaper that took a clear stance of hostility towards the government forces that Russia supported. He justified his attacks on this camp by the fact that [sic] many Jews are fighting alongside it. He knew how to frequently report on the many "crimes" allegedly committed by the fighters of that camp, who murder, loot and rape 'any woman who gets in their way.
  23. Col (Res.) Dr. Raphael G. Bouchnik-chen, "Palestinian Arab Volunteers in the British Army in WWII: A Reality Check", Besa, December 9, 2019.

    Notwithstanding Abbasi’s claim to have based his research on a variety of primary and secondary sources, he seems to have chosen his sources selectively, presumably to service the theory of a significant degree of Palestinian Arab resistance to the Nazis. Neither the quantitative nor the qualitative aspect of this theory is supported by the evidence.

    Gen. Archibald Wavell, commander of the British forces in the Middle East, opposed the formation of a Jewish regiment in the British army. According to historian Marcel Roubicek, the British High Commissioner for Palestine also feared that Jewish enlistment would inflame Arab anger. To solve that problem, he made it a condition that Jews wishing to join up find an equivalent number of Palestinian Arab volunteers to join up as well.

    To accomplish this, the Jews of the Yishuv offered financial compensation to Palestinian Arabs to enlist. They ultimately succeeded in raising enough manpower from both communities to permit the formation of a Jewish regiment.

    The opportunity for Palestinian Arabs to join the ranks of the British Army was thus a direct outcome of the Jewish desire to render its utmost assistance to Britain in every sphere of war activity, a point Abbasi ignores.

    He is similarly fuzzy on Palestinian Arab motivation. He states, “Most of the [Palestinian Arab] volunteers were villagers and of the urban lower class, and…the economic motive played a central role in volunteering,” noting that these “motives…differed from [that of] their Jewish friends, who enlisted in the army mainly because of opposition to Nazi Germany and its racial policy toward their people, besides other motives such as the revival of a Jewish army, and the serious employment situation in the country at the beginning of the war.”

    Compensation as the prevailing motivation for Palestinian Arab enlistment is supported by the evidence, but Abbasi claims their motives were in fact manifold and varied. Some Palestinian Arabs, he states, enlisted for ideological reasons, to express their opposition to Nazi ideology and loyalty to the British and their values. This motive was especially true of the urban elite and the intellectuals, he alleges, who were highly influenced by British education and culture. He does not substantiate this point sufficiently and ignores available evidence documenting contemporary Palestinian contempt for the British Army (see, for example, Prof. Kimberly Katz’s A Young Palestinian’s Diary 1941-1945, The Life of Sami Amr).

    Abbasi laments that “there is hardly any reference to the thousands of Palestinian volunteers, some of whom fell in battle, while others are still listed as missing in action, and no commemoration of the fallen can be found anywhere.” He suggests this “evil” is explained by “what the Palestinian people experienced during the Nakba and its aftermath, the destruction of archives and records in addition to the loss of personal documents, and the fact that no organization was established to commemorate the volunteers and their deeds.” He thus accuses Israel of covering up the Palestinian Arab role in defeating the Nazis.

    It should be noted that Abbasi persistently uses the term “Palestinians” rather than “Palestinian Arabs” in his article, starting with the title. This manipulation services the popular narrative denying any linkage between the Jewish People and Palestine. In her book World War II – The Story of a Jewish Soldier, Jewish Women of Mandatory Palestine Serving in the British Army, Esther Herlitz (later an Israeli diplomat and politician who served as a member of the Knesset) wrote, “As far as the British were concerned, we from the Jewish Yishuv, and some Arabs, were Palestinians.”
  24. Yaakov Shimoni, Arviyei Eretz Yisrael (The Arabs of Palestine), (Tel-Aviv, Palestine: Am Oved), 1947, p. 407.
    "Al Difa" changed its flavor several times: at the time of its founding it was considered the mouthpiece of the Istiqlal circles, who were then extremists and fans of fascism; Stories of direct ties formed then between its editors and Germans.
  25. The Arab League: Tool or Power? Weinryb, Bernard D. Commentary; New York, N. Y. Vol. 1,  (Dec 1, 1945): 50 [6]; Commentary Magazine, March 1946 Foreign Affairs.

    [....] Formed in March 1945, the Arab League—consisting of Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Transjordan, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq and Yemen—made its international debut at the UNO conference in San Francisco soon after, and went on to open offices in London and Washington in October. The object of these offices was officially stated to be to supply information on aspects of modem Arab life, but the Washington office registered with the State Department as a foreign propaganda office, and Mr. Ahmed Shukairy, its head, declared that he was here to counteract Zionist propaganda...

    Perhaps the most important motive for “playing to the gallery” is the widespread social unrest in the Middle East. The ruling groups, absorbed by political strife during the inter-war years, “forgot” the needs of the people and the social structure of Ottoman times remain unchanged. Because of the inflation and other economic developments during this war “the rich got richer while the poor got poorer.” Contrasts between the classes have become sharper, and have led to the demand for social reforms. The League, representing the ruling groups, will need to divert attention from social to political issues. And the techniques to be employed need not be invented.

    As a matter of fact, techniques taken over from Hitler and the Nazis are already in use. We have seen the method of putting up a show, threatening the use of non-existent strength and might, resorting to nonsense for propaganda purposes and repeating this nonsense with such vigorous certainty that it becomes accepted as truth.

    The “unity” ideal, in its “exclusivist” aspect, can be exploited for fascist purposes and the “unity” drive of the Arab League seems to be approaching that pan-Arab trend which Professor H. A. R. Gibb, of Oxford University, a friend of the Arabs, termed a few years ago “an ignorant, intolerant, explosive force; it substitutes wishing for thinking, fiercely resents not only Christian domination but anything that savors of Christian practice and ideas, dreams of driving European and Jew into the ocean and restoring the glorious empire of the caliphate.”

    We have already seen efforts to camouflage the movement’s own weakness by sowing hatred, inciting to murder and pogroms, and assailing as enemies all those who are not on the League’s side. We have seen anti-Jewish riots in Egypt and Libya, the murder of statesmen, student riots against Great Britain and the Egyptian government, the slurring attack of the Arab press in Palestine on President Truman. It is now only a short step to acknowledging Nazi and fascist theories openly: the Palestine Arabic newspaper Falastin, for instance, attacked the Nuremberg trials, asserting that the Allies had no right to try nazis and nazism since this was a political ideology just as democracy and socialism are.
  26. Bertina, B. J. (1970). zaal loopt leeg [The hall is empty]. Netherlands: Stichting IVIO. p.23.

    To cite just one example: In the period from 1920-1940 is missed Hadj Amin el-Husseini... Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, the one who was the instigator of the riots of 1938 and the same who is immortalized in a photo with Hitler. Besides, nothing is said about the entire period from 1920 to 1945, except about the strike.

    And it is precisely this period that is so important in history, because it can tell you a lot about the separation that then occurred between Jews and Arabs.

    The last word has not yet been said about the reasons for the Palestinians' flight: the Lebanese newspaper Sada al-Janub has called for flights; the Jordanian Daily, Felastin, of 17.05.1955 describes how the evacuation of Akko of 17.05.1948 went according to plan; in the Felastin of 19.02.1949 and in the Cairo Daily people call for an evacuation.

    All this while the Jews sometimes asked the Palestinians to stay (see e.g. the placard of the Haifa Worker's Council).

    No, Dr. Wagtendonk, you have been misinformed a bit.

    Also the disaster of Deir-Yassin would not have happened if the Arabs had not started firing after the 'white flag' had been raised. Moreover, the culprits were severely punished. I do not deny that the Palestinians have become victims.. but the history must be well described and then it is noticeable that the problem would not have arisen to the same extent if the Arab governments had not manipulated with the Arab Palestinians and that the vast majority of Arabs would have been absorbed into Israeli society.
  27. "Facts," Vol. 16, 1965. Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith, pp. 337, 343-4
  28. Arab Design for Israel's Annihilation, 1958-1967. United States: Embassy of Israel, 1967. 4.
  29. Under Fire: Israel's 20-year Struggle for Survival. United States: W. W. Norton, 1968. 238.
  30. Arab Design for Israel's Annihilation, 1958-1967. United States: Embassy of Israel, 1967. 5.
  31. Near East Report. United States: n.p., 1967. 9