Coronavirus studies

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See also: Flawed coronavirus studies, Hydroxychloroquine denial

Numerous coronavirus studies demonstrate the prophylactic and early use effectiveness of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) against COVID-19, which are being ignored or downplayed for political reasons.

Here is a sampling of the growing list of valid studies confirming the effectiveness of zinc, hydroxychloroquine, and other vitamins or medication against COVID-19:


A compilation of more than 100 coronavirus studies demonstrates the effectiveness of early treatment by hydroxychloroquine.[1]


Patients with serum zinc content at admission <50 µg/dl had a mortality of 21%, which was significantly higher than merely 5% mortality in patients having zinc at admission ≥50 µg/dl; p<0·001.

Serum zinc levels lower than 50 mcgg/dl at admission correlated with worse clinical presentation, longer time to reach stability and higher mortality.


HCQ Effective as Preventive Treatment

Five randomized controlled clinical trials enrolling 5,577 patients were included. HCQ was associated with a 24% reduction in COVID-19 infection, hospitalization or death .... No serious adverse cardiac events were reported. The most common side effects were gastrointestinal.
Conclusion--Hydroxychloroquine use in outpatients reduces the incidence of the composite outcome of COVID-19 infection, hospitalization, and death. Serious adverse events were not reported and cardiac arrhythmia was rare.[3]

HCQ and Zinc

In univariate analyses, zinc sulfate increased the frequency of patients being discharged home, and decreased the need for ventilation, admission to the ICU, and mortality or transfer to hospice for patients who were never admitted to the ICU. After adjusting for the time at which zinc sulfate was added to our protocol, an increased frequency of being discharged home (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.12-2.09) reduction in mortality or transfer to hospice remained significant (OR 0.449, 95% CI 0.271-0.744). Conclusion: This study provides the first in vivo evidence that zinc sulfate in combination with hydroxychloroquine may play a role in therapeutic management for COVID-19.[4][5]


Quercetin has a theoretical, but significant, capability to interfere with SARS‐CoV‐2 replication, with the results showing this to be the fifth best compound out of 18 candidates. ... A randomised study performed a decade ago [on a virus other than coronavirus] enrolled 1,002 adult subjects affected by viral infections of the upper respiratory tract; this showed that quercetin administered at very high dosages (1,000 mg/dose) for 12 weeks reduced the days of illness in middle‐aged and elderly subjects (Heinz et al., 2010).[6]

Saudi Arabia

An observational prospective cohort study examined 238 ambulatory fever clinics in Saudi Arabia, based on the Ministry of Health (MOH) COVID-19 treatment guidelines.

The comparison was between 1,817 patients in the HCQ group vs 3,724 in the merely supportive care ("SC") group.

The results were as follows:

Early HCQ-based therapy was associated with a lower hospital admission within 28-days compared to SC alone (9.4% compared to 16.6%, RRR 43%, p-value <0.001). The composite outcome of ICU admission and/or mortality at 28-days was also lower in the HCQ group compared to the SC (1.2% compared to 2.6%, RRR 54%, p-value 0.001). Adjusting for age, gender, and major comorbid conditions, a multivariate logistic regression model showed a decrease in the odds of hospitalisation in patients who received HCQ compared to SC alone (adjusted OR 0.57 [95% CI 0.47-0.69], p-value <0.001). The composite outcome of ICU admission and/or mortality was also lower for the HCQ group compared to the SC group controlling for potential confounders (adjusted OR 0.55 [95% CI 0.34-0.91], p-value 0.019). CONCLUSION: Early intervention with HCQ-based therapy in patients with mild to moderate symptoms at presentation is associated with lower adverse clinical outcomes among COVID-19 patients, including hospital admissions, ICU admission, and/or death.[7]

Greek study suggests why HCQ is effective

A small Greek study indicates that HCQ is effective because it inhibits a hyperinflammatory reaction progression, if given in early stages of the disease.[8]

Minnesota data mining study

The incidence rate and mortality from COVID-19 was found to be lower in patients on chronic hydroxychloroquine therapy, in a large Minnesota healthcare system.

Between April 1, 2019 and March 31, 2020, the database contained 1,271,014 unique patient encounters, including a total of 2945 COVID-19 tests, of which 125 (4.24%) were positive.

Among the tests performed, 124 (4.35%) were positive for COVID-19 while not having taken hydroxychloroquine, while 96 tests were performed in patients with existing hydroxychloroquine prescriptions and only one (1.04%) was positive.

Two COVID-19 patients not on hydroxychloroquine died, while no COVID-19 patients not on hydroxychloroquine died.

Hydroxychloroquine appears to be effective against COVID-19 both as a prophylaxis and as early treatment.[9]

French study

In a study of 3,737 COVID-19 patients, the researchers found that "Treatment with HCQ-AZ was associated with a decreased risk of transfer to ICU or death (Hazard ratio (HR) 0.18 0.11–0.27), decreased risk of hospitalization ≥10 days and shorter duration of viral shedding."[10]