Hydroxychloroquine

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Hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin (an antibiotic) and zinc has been very effective in treating coronavirus.

Hydroxychloroqine (C18H26ClN3O), also known as hydroxychloroquine sulfate and HCQ, is a drug sold under the name Plaquenil.[1] Prior to COVID-19 it was most commonly used to treat malaria, and also currently to treat lupus. The package insert for Plaquenil describes its mostly minor potential side effects,[2] some of which occur at much higher doses than what is used to treat COVID-19.

It has been used by the physician Dr. Vladimir Zelenko as a part of successful treatment for coronavirus and was recommended for such by President Trump (see: Vladimir Zelenko's coronavirus treatment). Specifically, Dr. Zelenko used hydroxychloroqine, azithromycin (an antibiotic) and zinc as a part of his treatments to his patients.[3]

China, South Korea, and India all use hydroxychloroquine to successful combat the effects of COVID-19.

Never-Trumpers in government and hospitals block early use of this medication, and instead either withhold it from patients entirely or delay it until the end stage of the patient's life when medications are least effective. Other governments (such as Texas), wanting to make sure current patients had a supply for their pre-existing medical needs, permitted it only with a positive COVID-19 diagnosis.

Hydroxychloroquine and coronavirus

See also: Vladimir Zelenko's coronavirus treatment

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) allows hydroxychloroquine to be used as an off-label coronavirus treatment.

According to WebMD.com: "The practice, called 'off-label" prescribing, is entirely legal and very common. More than one in five outpatient prescriptions written in the U.S. are for off-label therapies."[4] In other words, originally approved for use in humans as an anti-malarial drug, it can be prescribed by a treating physician for other uses.

Hydroxychloroquine allows zinc to penetrate the cellular wall to a larger degree.[5] Zinc is an antiviral.[6]

Studies

"Early Hydroxychloroquine Is Associated with an Increase of Survival," reports a study in Spain on May 5, 2020:[7]

Methods: We enrolled all 18-85 years old inpatients from Central Defense Hospital “Gómez Ulla”, Madrid, Spain, who were hospitalised for COVID-19 and had a definitive outcome (dead or discharged). We used a statistical survival analysis to detect treatment differences associated with in-hospital death. Results: We analysed first 220 medical records. 166 patients met the inclusion criteria. 48,8 % of patients not treated with HCQ died, 22% of those treated with hydroxychloroquine (p=0,002). According to clinical picture at admission, hydroxychloroquine increased the mean cumulative survival in all groups from 1,4 to 1,8 times. This difference was statistically significant in the mild group.
Conclusions: in a cohort of 166 patients from 18 to 85 years hospitalised with COVID-19, hydroxychloroquine treatment with 800mg added loading dose increased survival when patients were admitted in early stages of the disease. There was a non-statistically significant trend towards survival in all groups, which will have to be clarified in subsequent studies.

CDC

From the CDC:[8]

  • "Hydroxychloroquine can be prescribed to adults and children of all ages. It can also be safely taken by pregnant women and nursing mothers."
  • "CDC has no limits on the use of hydroxychloroquine for the prevention of malaria. When hydroxychloroquine is used at higher doses for many years, a rare eye condition called retinopathy has occurred. People who take hydroxychloroquine for more than five years should get regular eye exams."

Zinc and coronavirus

According to the website ResearchGate.net: "Several studies have reported that zinc has a broad-spectrum antiviral activity against a variety of viruses. Increased intracellular Zinc concentrations inhibit RNA-dependent RNA polymerases and other proteins essential for the completion of different phases of the virus life cycle. Further, zinc also helps to maintain robust immune responses by producing cytokine and by modulation of immune cell activity."[9]

Reduction in binding effect

Hydroxychlorquine reportedly "directly reduces the binding of antiphospholipid antibody–β2-glycoprotein I complexes to phospholipid bilayers":[10]

[W]e have provided clear evidence that HCQ can dissociate aPL IgG–β2GPI complexes from phospholipid bilayers. Additional studies will be needed to further define the molecular mechanism(s) for this dissociation and its possible role in modifying the APS disease process.

See also

References

External links