Last modified on June 21, 2024, at 04:45

Nazism at Arab Palestinians

Nazism at Arab Palestinians

النازة من قبل العرب الفلسطينيين [النازيون والفلسطينيون] נאציות של ערבים פלסטינים (ערבים נאציים, פשיזם בפלסטין [العرب النازيون ، الفاشية في فلسطين])

Introduction

The Holocaust was a European crime. However, this page is about what has happened among the Arabs linked to the land of Eretz Israel—Palestine.

This article addresses the historical relationship between Arab Palestinians and Nazi ideas and practices, admiration (ideology, sentiments), ’common ground’ with Nazis. It is often also accompanied with Holocaust denial,[1][2][3][4][5][6] belittling the Holocaust;[7][8] Holocaust inversion,[9][10] hijacking Holocaust terminology to perpetuate falsities and demonize;[11] fake comparisons - knowingly lying,[12] And even perversion.[13][7][14][15][16]


Note. This is in no way taking away, even tiniest part, from the real perpetrators of the Holocaust: Nazi Germany and their European helpers.

This is not about politically motivated calling someone a "Nazi" in a shallow matter (worse are the insidious ones[17]). But about the real, original, 'authentic,' unique in its historic evil - Nazism.

(It includes Arabs born in other areas but became "Palestinian" icons, Arabs who have or/and prefer democratic Israel's citizenship. Those among the Arabs in Israel, who are haters, by default, also define themselves as "Palestinians," [among many others]. In any case, it is about the Arabs in/from the area, associated with it.
[Though radical Islamic Antisemitism incorporating Nazism, Arab-Islamists cooperating with Nazis, then with Neo Nazis - all that is a larger issue]).

Hitler on the Arabs

Note, Hitler was clear about his disdain for the Arabs, as inferiors.[18][19][20] Hitler loathed Arabs, he once described them as "lacquered half-apes who ought to be whipped."[21][22][23][24][25] And the Grand Mufti al-Husseini himself has actually said 'that after the Jews, the Germans would destroy the Arabs,' "he knew this," says his granddaughter.[26] [Yet, he "cherished" the Nazis' ‘racial’ hatred.[27]]

It's why the Mufti's chasing caused Nazis discomfort at least in the beginning.[28]

Although the Nazis obscured the implications of the wider ideology for their relationship with the Arabs (who would wish for their help against Britain), the chief propagandist of the Hitler regime, Alfred Rosenberg, in his infamous book, warned:[29]
the white races to be on their guard "against the united hatred of colored races and mongrels led in the fanatical spirit of Muhammad."...


Which is why Hitler, the Nazis just had to convince themselves, from 1941 onward, the Mufti is, supposedly "not" pure Arab in blood...[30] And as Hitler came (expressed on July 1, 1942[30]) to dwell on an idea that the mufti is: "a man with more than one Aryan among his ancestors."[31] [The possibility of one or more "Ayans" in the Mufti's ancestors "sufficed," in their ridiculous Aryanism flag waving, those so called three quarters Aryans were not "enough" for Hitler/Nazis (the vierteljude)].


In 1937,[32]
Baldur von Schirach, the leader of the Hitler Youth, visited Damascus, Baghdad and Tehran. In Damascus, von Schirach, was asked by journalists how Nazi propaganda in Arab countries could be reconciled with [its] racial theory, which places Arabs at the …th rank. The Arab press then noted that Von Shirach had evaded and refrained from giving a logical answer to this question.


The Mein Kampf edition placed on sale in Palestine, in 1938, with many distributed free, "carefully purged the passage in which the Arabs are graded fourteenth on the racial scale."[33]


1938: Syrian and Egyptian paper, (which had a wide readership among Arabs in Palestine[34]) realize, Arabs are as an "inferior race" as Africans, per Hitler's view:[35]
The Arabs are "inferior," according to Hitler

The Cairo and Damascus newspapers open their readers' eyes to the true meaning of Nazi doctrine

Damascus, (Palcor). Under the headline "Arabs are of an inferior race - says Hitler" the Damascus newspaper 'Alif-Ba' [Alif bāʼ ال باء] published the scathing article of the Egyptian weekly, "Rose al-Yussef" [روز اليوسف; Rose al-Yousef] on the Arabic translation 'My war' ["Mein Kampf"] by Hitler.

In the introduction, 'Alif-Ba' writes that few are the Arabs, who know that Hitler sees the Arab people as an inferior nation that does not deserve self-government and to stand on the same cultural and social level with the "Aryan" peoples. He places her in his book on a par with the black peoples of Africa.

After that, the newspaper tells, in short, about the noise made in Egypt by the Arabic translation of the book 'My war' ['Mein Kampf'], which omitted, with the intention of misleading the readers, all the passages that speak in condemnation of the Egyptians, and brings the article 'Rose al-Yusuf' in its entirety.


In May 1939, it was noted:

[36]
Hitler’s rating of the Egyptians and other Arabs as 13th on the list of races was, everybody knows by now, conspicuously omitted from the Arab edition of "Mein Kampf." . . . But the omission has since been rectified (and how!) by a new Egyptian publication called, after the name of its founder, Rose-el-Youssef. . . . . . Which has published in full what Hitler really said about the Arabs. . . . . And distributed it in hundreds of thousands of copies to Arabs through out the Near East.


All that, didn't stop those clinging to Nazis at Arab Palestine. And, for instance, Jamal al-Husseini's 1933 ordering[37] of Mein Kampf, was in French (- Arabs as 13th).


An August 1939 warning:[38]

BELGRADE (Palcor). — A warning to the Moslem world in general, and to Arabs of the Near East in particular, has been issued by the Yugoslav Moslem daily Senana, against Nazi and Fascist-propaganda. There are 1,500,000 Moslems in Yugoslavia. The paper states that Dr. Goebbels is spending enormous sums on propaganda in Egypt, Iraq and Palestine in order to incite the local population against the Jews and so distract attention from the real aims of Nazi policy. The hope was expressed that these efforts would be fruitless.

Remember the ruthless conquest of Albania, the merciless treatment of the Arabs in Libya, and the dangers threatening Egypt as a result of Axis policy, the article concludes.


At a 1940 review of a Syrian author's 1939 book, writer said:[39]

The Nazi movement was above all an imperialistic one and the Arabs realised this. Had not the Haifa air raids proved Hitler's intentions?


Even Falastin realized and noted in 1940:[40] "Hitler who invented the theory of race and who made the Arabs fourteenth level."


Yeni Sabah in July 1942 decried:[41]
Don't believe the "Axis" propaganda In connection with the Axis propaganda and its broadcasts to the Arab world, H. Yalçın writes in the Turkish "Yeni Sabah": Will Germany and Italy reveal their true intentions to the Arab world? After all, if they do so, all the Arabs in the world will immediately join the British in the "Axis" uniform. No one believes this propaganda, because it is known that Germany and Italy think Asia and Africa are backward compared to the rest of the world. It is inconceivable that the Axis, which attacked European countries, would not harm the independence and freedom of Egypt, the Land of Israel, Syria, Iraq and Iran.


The Nazis in fact played the Arabs, all the way, despite treating them so badly, as for instance, 10,000 Muslim Arabs were tormented by them. Oct 1942 report in Iraq:[42]

10,000 Moslem Arabs Tormented By Nazis

BAGHDAD, Tuesday (ANA). —

The "Al Alam el-Arabi" newspaper publishes an article under the heading Nazi Cruelty to Arabs, describing the hardships Arabs are suffering in forced work for Hitler.

"All these things are being done," says the and newspaper, "and still the Axis, headed by the Nazis, boasts unceasingly that they sympathize with the Arabs. Hitler has ordered 10,000 Moslem Arabs who fell into the hand of the Nazis to be tormented by the unbearable cruelty of the Nazi nightmare.

They are begging and protesting but nobody hears their cries or pities or helps them, in their suffering. This is another proof that the Axis lies to the Arabs and mocks their self-respect, honour and rights."


Notorious PFLP hijacker and admitted terrorist[43] who has been still promoting violence 2014-16[44] Laila Khaled: "At first, I admired Hitler because I thought he was the enemy of the Jews. Later I found out he classified Arabs as sub-humans, only slightly above the gypsies and the Jews."[45]


Paper research (2017):[46]
In 1941 Hitler set aside racial purity restrictions for the Wehrmacht to form the German-Arab Training Unit. New sources reveal Arab recruitment was self-serving, meant to bolster Nazi propaganda and foment anti-Allied Arab violence. Racism towards Arabs was pervasive throughout the Nazi regime and the Wehrmacht, stemming from Nazi ideology and older colonial attitudes. Consequently, the unit's two-year history from May 1941 to May 1943 was defined by tension between retaining racial segregation and feigning collaboration. The results were command indecision, neglect, reticence to deploy into combat, and reluctant expansion, which together created dysfunction and disorder in the unit.

Strategy

Nazi propaganda went desperately in full gear, first in exchange of letters with Rachid Ali, then in Nov 1942, Nazi spokesman reassured Arabs, that "Antisemitism Confined to Jews."[47]

Naturally:[48]

Goebbels, Rosenberg, Himmler, all in their turn, discovered the im-passes created by the word antisemitism when confronted with alleged Semites, not only in the Middle East, but in the Soviet Union or in Germany... the Mufti of Jerusalem and Rosenberg in Mai 1943 Hans Hage- mayer, the director of the department 'Überstaatliche Mächte‹m' in Rosenberg's ministry recommended in a letter to Werner Koeppen, Rosenberg's man in Hitler's headquarters, that the German Press should avoid  the use of the word antisemitism because the enemy abroad is made to believe that 'we make no distinction between Arabs and the Jews'.


May 1943 meeting Alfred Rosenberg with the Palestinian Mufti and beyond:[49]

A secret Nazi order, dated May 17, 1943, reads as follows: "When the Grand Mufti visited Reichsleiter Rosenberg, the Reichsleiter promised to instruct the press that the word antisemitism was henceforth to be abandoned."


[Not that Hitler himself was "true" to or even "consistent" at his twisted "belief."[50][51][52][53][54][55] White Russians were not included in his "theory"... which neo-fascists in Russia are upset about.[56] But that isn't the point, of course].

[This is not about those who without ideology served the Nazis to survive or to protect their family from death. Or others, per selfishness.]

Nazi era

1933+

Arabs writings of Swastikas and support for Hitler in the 1930s anti-British revolt, anti-Jewish rampage

With barely two months of Hitler rise to power, the Mufti rushed already to forge contact with the Nazi regime, March 31, 1933.[57][58]


During subsequent secret contacts between the Consul-General and the Mufti, Husayni asked for assistance in establishing in Palestine an Arab Nazi party.[59] But the Nazis, at least initially, refused.[60]

In April 1933, Joseph Francis, the Palestine correspondent of al' ahram, wrote on behalf of a group of Palestinian Arabs to Heinrich Wolff, the German consul in Jerusalem (1933–35), asking for his aid in forming a local Arab Nazi party.[60][61][62][63]


June 1933, another attempt to establish an Arab-Nazi Party in Palestine.[64][65]

Indeed, the fact that no Arab Nazi party was ever formed in Palestine was not because there was no local demand.[66]


Nevertheless, there were Arab Nazi organizations, including in April 1934, June 1934, June 1935 as reported at the time, cited further.


In March 1932, ahead of the German elections between Hindenburg and Hitler, the Jamia al Arabia [الجامعة العربية] (was banned in 1930,[67] and cautioned in 1931 with the Al Hayat paper) the organ of the Grand Mufti, declared: 'Palestine Arabs are with Hitler in his enmity to Jews' but want Hindenburg to win because Hitler's win means Jews flocking out of Germany to Palestine as a result of persecution. It apologizes to Hitler for Arabs for putting own interests first.[68] Yet, soon after Hitler's rise to power, the Mufti rushed to forge alliance with him. Enthusiastically.

Historian:[69]
... there was little recognition that the new Germany they admired so much was directly responsible for the dramatic increase in Jewish immigration to Palestine after 1933.

Palestinian Arab leaders lost little time in making known their positive

The Mufti informed Wolff that Muslims in Palestine and elsewhere were enthusiastic about the new regime in Germany and looked forward to the spread of Fascism throughout the region.


Already in July 1932, some greeted the Mufti with "Long Live the Hitler of Palestine."[70] (Encapsulating sentiments for both).


Pierre Van Paassen in June 1933 & about Jamal Husseini ordering 10 copies of Mein Kampf w 5 of the Protocols
Pierre Van Paassen in June 1933 and about Jamal Husseini ordering 10 copies of Mein Kampf:[37]

I saw ten copies of the French translation of Hitler's Mein Kampf being wrapped up with five copies of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion and when I casually glanced at the address which was stuck on the package I felt a shudder pass through me for the name on the label was: Jamal Husseini, Jerusalem.

They are going to quote Hitler against the Jews in Eretz Israel !


(Apparently the venomous racist atmosphere spread among Arabs -- mostly of Palestine, immigrants -- in central America too. As in 1932 report.[71])


Reported in 1932, Cuba:[72]
Tells "La Voz" from Monday that the local Arabs sent a greeting telegram to Hitler, which says that Hitler is a great idealist[sic], and that he is doing a "monumental job" with the fact that he wants to expel the Jews from Germany.

The same newspaper goes on to say that the local Arabs sent money in 1929 to support the pogroms against Jews in Palestine. Now they also collect funds to make new pogroms.

["Lebanese and palestinians emigrated to the island in two waves in 1902–1912 and 1920–1931."[73]]


Already in Apr 1933, "Palestinian" Arab editor in Chile, Jorge Sabaj Zurob glorified Hitler.[74][75]


In the US: Habib Ibrahim Katibeh (1892 - 1951) [كاتبة، حبيب ابراهيم] Syrian born "activist" for Arab Palestine. Habib Ibrahim Katibeh was the author of the lead article on pro-Hitler propaganda monthly published in Boston, Mass., in 1933.[76] Katibeh was the director of the prewar Arab organization in the United States that was associated with the Nazi Bund. Just as the bund was supposed to make German-Americans into Nazis, so the Arab National League, of which this man was director, was supposed to make Americans of near eastern extraction into Nazis. Not long after Pearl Harbor, the leading Arabic newspaper in America, Al-Hoda, openly admitted this Arab-Nazi connection, and urged Arab -Americans no longer to follow the false leadership of the German affiliated agitators.[77] An editor of the monthly Bulletin, and of other publications of the Institute for Arab-American Affairs, Inc., was "one of the original incorporators and most active workers in the notorious Arab National League, founded shortly after Hitler seized the German chancellorship and incorporated at New York in 1938, and used to disseminate totalitarian propaganda among Americans of Near Eastern antecedents." The Arab National League operated in close association with the German-American Bund, then under the leadership of Fritz Kuhn, and its activities were regularly reported in the Nazi newspaper, Deutscher Weckruf und Beobachter, until that publication was sealed up by the FBI after the attack on Pearl Harbor. In addition to Katibah, whose name appears near the top of the institute's letterhead, it is significant that both the original bund-associated body and the present institute were formed under New York corporate charters containing much identical language and written by the same lawyers.[78]


After Hitler's ascent to power, he received praise, as in the following July 1933 letter from Sheikh Rahal Scheiban in Jerusalem:[79][80]

"May God preserve you. Every day I bring my prayers for you to God. The news of Your Highness's patriotism spreads the best fragrances in the whole world," wrote a sheikh from Palestine. "I am ready at any time to serve your regime with 100 soldiers on horseback. I am waiting for Your Highness's signal. [...] May you always remain my Lord."


Reported on Sep 16, 1933, that[81] Eissa Bendak, editor of the radical bi-weekly Sawt Al Shaab [صوت الشعب] published in Bethlehem, has left for Paris where he will receive instructions from a group of Germans and Arabs on "conducting Nazi propaganda" in Palestine. Bendak was instrumental in organizing the Arab Fascist Party at Bethlehem whose object is to harass the Jews.


By this time, pro-German, anti-Jewish pot also bubbled in cafés.[82]


In Oct. 1933, Nazis claimed credit for Palestine Arab rioting. England, ridiculed. Der Angriff, newspaper popularly associated with Dr. Goebbels, Nazi propaganda chief, editorially comments tonight on the so-called Arab revolt and attempts to justify it. Blames, of course, the Jews.[83]


In Nov. 1933, it was reported, a direct contact between the German Nazis and the Palestinian Arabs, Arab Riot Leaders, revealed by Nazis. And that "Eissa el Bendak, newly appointed members of the Arab Executive's administrative bureau, will direct a propaganda in Palestine in the interests of the Nazi party."[84]


By Dec. 1933, Nazism spread by young Arabs, some painted the swastika on a glass and various utensils in Arab cafes in Jaffa. When a young Arab drank a toast for Arab Nazism and Jews protested it, Azmi Nashashibi, the deputy governor of Jaffa, intervened against preventing these acts.[85]


Fascistic anti-Semitism sympathies at the major newspaper - Falastin - at the time, already in 1932: The Canadian Fuhrer [86], Adrien Arcand, in 1932, included Falastin in the list of fascist journals sympathizing with him.[87] (It was of course, after the Goglu "was transformed into a pamphlet branded with red-hot anti-Semitism."[88])



Among highlights in 1934: rise in Nazi propaganda / symbolism while the Falastin rejects anti-Nazi propaganda. Al-Difa'a aggressive with propagating for Hitherists. Mrowa's statement to Ribbebtrop on 'the whole Arab youth.' Also, first reports of Arab-Nazi clubs


Already on Jan 31, 1934, an Arab was arrested for distributing Nazi leaflets in the French language in Haifa, saying it had been given to him by an officer of the S.S. "Smyrna," of the Deutsche Levant Line, which had loaded oranges for Germany. The title of the leaflet was "German Competition in Eastern Countries."[89]


When in Jan 1934, Palestinian paper money was in circulation bearing anti-Nazi inscriptions such as "Boycott German goods" and "Do Not Buy Nazi Goods," the Falastin newspaper demanded government action to prevent this form of "propaganda."[90] On the other hand…

Soon, the swastika is seen more and more on Arab houses, on Arab cars, and even shoe polishers near the Jaffa Gate in Jerusalem adorned crates in this painting.[91]

An Arab exporting firm, wrapped his oranges marked "Saint Elijah, Jaffa," in paper bearing a picture of the Muhammad surrounded by swastikas.[92]

In March 1934, Arab Palestinian newspapers criticized procession in Tel Aviv. The Falastin especially came out in defense of Hitler who was mocked at the procession.[93]

[In 1935, the German consul protested this protesting Purim procession to Jerusalem mayor who didn't hold back in replying. [94]]

Reported in April 1934, with the radical change after Hitler's ascend to power and propaganda infiltration, affecting feelings towards Jews by the Templars, there is also Hitlerite propaganda by the Germans among the Arabs. And there is: 'a Nazi organization among the Arab youth, which is led by the German Hitlerites in the country.'[95]


The corpse of Frick after his execution at Nuremberg, October 1946. Injuries caused from hitting his head on the trap door.

Dr. Wilhelm Frick[96] April 1934, as Nazi Minister of Interior, visit to EY Palestine,[97] turned soon out to be a boost of 'Arab Nazism.' And among other effects in the area "In Palestine several Arabian newspapers have begun an intensive campaign to spread anti-Jewish propaganda and praise for Hitler." [98]


In spring of 1934, extremist Arab nationalists intended to form the Palestinian Nazi Party, which aimed to fight Jews in coordination with the Nazi Party in Germany, in Israel, many swastikas began to appear on Arab homes and their cars.[99] Palestinian Arab students returning from studying in Europe were determined to found the Arab Nazi party in Palestine.[100]

In May 1934, local German Nazis in Haifa organized propaganda meeting with open Hitlerist propaganda. Foreign Germans come as "tourists" join in. The British authorities knows about it, but chooses to ignore.[101]


Colonel Josiah Wedgwood on pro-Nazism in Palestine. May 29, 1934

Colonel Josiah Wedgwood speaking out, on May 29, 1934 in the House of Commons:[102]

We have made the world safe for the English, not by police, not by armies, but by arming the people themselves. The worst thing we have ever done in Palestine, worse even than our emigration distinctions, was when the Jews were being massacred and we, at the request of the Grand Mufti, almost at his orders, lined the Jews all up and disarmed them because they were Jews. That is the sort of thing which people remember. It was not under this Government, it is true, but you cannot expect that anybody in that country will look for justice or hope for better things as long as you have that spirit ruling there. I sometimes think that the feeling has now become pro-Nazi. Hitler's "Mein Kampf" goes to Palestine, and is sold freely. The whole book is a denunciation of the Jew—all lies and abuse. At the same time there is a book published in this country called "The Brown Book of the Hitler Terror." When that got out to Palestine it was banned. It is allowed in this country, but there it is legal to abuse the Jews but not legal to abuse the abusers.

On June 8, 1934, the Mukkattam (Al-Muqattam) [المقطم], Arab daily, reported that a Palestine Arab Nazi youth organization has been formed with a three-point movement hostile to the Jews. The Arab Nazi program calls for the development in Palestine of a movement similar to German Nazism; a determined fight against Zionism and the maintaining of friendly contacts with Germany.[103]

Nazi Anti-Jewish propaganda picked up greater speed in Arab Palestine since 1934 especially in boycotting Jews.[104] At the same time, walls in Jerusalem and Haifa were placarded with the Arabic swastika posters.[105]



From a Sept 1934 report:[106]
The Nazi Party in Germany has decided to launch a propaganda campaign in Arab countries, report Greek papers. Sixty books in Arabic have been printed and distributed in Syria, Palestine, Egypt, Iraq and other lands. The amount of 360,000 marks has been assigned for the purpose.

In September 1934, "glorifying Hitler" with "Nazi Pictures in Arab Papers" notably two Jaffa Moslem dailies: 'Al Jamia Al Islamia' and 'Al Difa'.[107] And again "thinly-disguised propaganda.. More Nazi Pictures In Arab Press. Arab newspapers of Palestine, , continue to publish illustrations obviously supplied through propaganda channels in Germany."[108]



Kamel Mrowa ([كامل مروّه] Kaamel Mruwweh) - "The career of Kamil Muruwwa provides a good example of how veteran pro-Nazis shaped public thinking." With Hitler's rise to power in Germany, Muruwwa, as the editor of the Beirut paper An-Nida, wrote to Von Ribbentrop the German foreign minister in Berlin: "The whole Arab youth is enthused by Adolf Hitler." And in 1934, a year after Hitler came to power, Muruwwa translated Mein Kampf from into Arabic and published it in daily installments in An-Nida. At the Mufti al-Husseini's "recommendation.. the Shiite Muruwwa was posted to Sofia to run a listening post that analyzed Arabic."[109]


An Apr 25, 1935 report tells about Nazi propaganda popping up that began in 1934:[110]

From time to time, anti-Jewish slogans written in Arabic and German, and embellished with the swastika, appear on vacant walls and boardings in different Palestine towns, enjoining a boycott of Jewish goods and enterprises. Their effect has been nil except to leave a great deal of annoyance among young and ardent Jews, who endeavor to trace the perpetrators of such nuisances. According to well-informed local quarters, the origin of these throwaways is in a central Nazi propaganda agent for Pales tine who it is believed, works through Arab Fascists. An attempt at Fascism was started some eigh teen months ago as "the only hope of Arab salvation in the present state of the Arab nationalist cause," as one young leader said. The object was to introduce an ultra-nationalistic spirit among the Arab youth. But it was more closely modelled on the National-Socialist brand of Fascism than the Italian, because the German politics embodied anti-Semitism as the central motive. The majority of the pseudo-Fascists of Palestine is thought to be drawn from C.. Arab youth and their "boss" is Issa Al Bandak, editor of a Bethlehem newspaper, who is credited some two years ago with an article seeking a transfer of the British Mandate for Palestine to Germany because, as he said, this country has shown its alertness to the "Jewish [sic] menace" and could be relied upon to effect similar "justice [sic] against the Jews" in the Holy Land! But he forgot to add that according to the Nazi racial theory, Arabs are just as non-Aryan and Semitic as the Jews..

Arab Fascists ... local observers think that a few of their number are working secretly at anti-Jewish propaganda of a virulent kind, such as is manifested in the swastika- signed exhortations.


"A Non-Aryan Meets With Nazi Ideals" August 1934

From 1934:[111]

A large number of Nazi agitators have been stirring up the Palestinian Arabs much to the discomfort of Great Britain. Recently three German agents were arrested by British authorities in Haifa and deported for anti-Semitic and anti-British propaganda.


Palestine Istiqlal, 1932- Ahmad Shukeiri, 'Ajaj Nuwayhid, Fahmi al-Abboushi, Subhi al-Khadra, Majid al-Qutub, Salim Salamah, Rashid al-Hajj Ibrahim, Muhammad Izzat Darwaza, Akram Zu'aytir


Nazi propaganda in Arabic floods the market in Palestine. Hitler admiration is spread, his Mein Kampf especially draws Arabs' "attention," Ahmad Shukeiri and others' Istiqlal Party (fans of fascism[112]) its newspaper al-Difa'a appearing on scene in 1934, founded by a Muslim a-Shanti (whose family got rich including by business with Jews) competed with ‘’Falastin’’ paper and gained reaction because he was more Islamic, more for pan-Arabism, pan-Islamism and he followed more steadily the Mufti’s fascist-Nazi line,[34] and became in fact a Nazi propaganda pamphlet.[113]



Ibrahim Chanti / al-Shanti, Muslim owner and chief editor of al-Difa',[114] was an active Nazi agent - revealed.[115]

Author: [116]
Eichmann and Hagen also mentioned Ibrahim Chanti (Shanti), the owner of the most prominent Palestinian newspaper in the 1930s. Shanti was an important Nazi agent and Eichmann wanted to help him financially. He even proposed to pay off Shanti’s mortgage. The Nazi Propaganda Ministry supplied printing paper to Shanti. (Shanti is still revered in the Palestinian media.)

Al-Shanti was more active than any other senior journalist in his support of the Arab youth in Palestine. He adopted Nazi and fascist symbols for his enterprise.[114]

Published in 1947:[117]

The Istiqlal Party. The Istiqlal, which had become quiescent after the death of Faisal in 1933, was revived at this time, still under the leadership of Auni Abdul Hadi. His collaborators consisted mostly of professional people and intellectuals , including Izzat Darwazeh, an associate of the Mufti and director of the Moslem Waqfs, Ajaj Nuwaihed, a Druse newspaper man, owner of the Istiqlal's organ, El Arab, and Nabih Bey Admeh, called the "Arab leader of Damascus." An important member, particularly from the point of view of financial support, was Ahmed Hilmi Pasha, a Director of the Arab Bank. The party was the Palestine branch of the Pan-Arab Istiqlal movement and represented a point of view rather than a cohesive organization.

From the outset, the Palestine Istiqlal took the position that Great Britain was the main foe of Arab aspirations, and demanded that the method of resort to violence which had been successful in Iraq and Egypt should be followed in Palestine. From 1933 on, this anti-British outlook began to turn into a pro-Axis orientation, accompanies by a growing anti-Jewish feeling along Occidental anti-Semitic lines.

Ad-Difa, the paper which expressed the Istiqlal view point, was edited by Ibrahim Shanti, who had presided over Arab Student Congresses in Europe and who had admiringly studied Nazi theory and practice. The paper was transparently pro-Nazi; its illustrated section was devoted mainly to the achievements of the new Germany, and was largely composed of material supplied by the German Propaganda Ministry.


Since Istiqlal began to reorganize, it has adopted Nazi ideas - reported Templars' paper: "This party's publication shows a clear sympathy for Nazism and fights fiercely against the Jewish boycott of Germany."[118] The Templars' Die Warte des Tempels wrote March 15, 1935, that many Arabs saw Hitler as the most important man of the 20th century and almost every Arab knew his name. Fascism and National Socialism with its anti-Jewish attitude were accepted positively by many Arabs.[119]


Already in 1933/4, the al-Difa' (Ad-Difaa) الدفاع was dubbed: The Arab-Nazi newspaper.[120][121]

This paper's enthusiastic coverage for Hitler, despite realizing openly, writing in 1934: "[Hitlerism] is an ideology full of disrespect of all peoples."[122]

Islamist "Palestinian" Ibrahim al-Shanti pro Hitler - (Ad Difa) Ad Difa'a June 10, 1934
Islamist "Palestinian" Ibrahim al-Shanti pro Hitler - (Ad Difa) Ad Difa'a July 4, 1934

From Ad Difa'a - glorification of Hitler:

On June 10 1934,[123] posting Nazis' pictures on front page. From text: "Renewed discontent with the dormant leadership, supporters of the opinion of forming a national league - To you, the sleeping Arab conscience in his country, as a wayfarer..." On that date/issue[124] "The Japanese soul is a nation that knows no defeat - I will not walk but the path of honor Important speech by Chancellor Hitler - Translation of the Defense of the German Völkischer Biobachter." Displaying Hitler and Nazi officials on July 4, 1934,[125] and that "Had it not been for Hitler's assertiveness, Hindenburg's patriotism, and Gering's loyalty, thanks to these, Germany would have escaped a civil war." And more on July 10[126]

Ad Difa'a had published portions of Mein Kampf.[127][128]

An Arab assessment from 1945 claimed that Al-Difa'a was founded with Nazi funds.[129]

Reported in June 1934:[130]

A story of a letter from Hitler to the Arab youth...

Mr. Ibrahim Shanti, the editor of 'A-Difaa', is a writer with a rich imagination and a polished style, and many of his readers are among the Arab youth. Some time ago he started publishing a series of mock letters ... addressed to the Arab youth... So far, three such letters have been published: one from Hitler in Germany... The "letters" encourage the youth to do great things for their country, to be proud and to avoid submission. Several Hebrew newspapers translated from 'A-Difaa' the letter of 'Hitler' as if it had really been sent by the Nazi leader to the Arab newspaper. In connection with this, the authorities apparently turned to the 'A-Difaa' editorial board in Jaffa and asked it for clarifications. On Monday, 'A-Difaa' published an explanation. Under the name 'A letter from the editorial board and not from Chancellor Hitler,' the Arab newspaper explains to its readers how this imaginary letter became a real letter in the eyes of other Hebrew newspapers, and how this caused misunderstanding and debates in the British House of Commons and an investigation by the government of Eretz-Israel [Palestine]. 'A-Difaa' concludes: "May these revelations be enough for the authorities who contacted us in this matter and put an end to the investigation!"

'A-Difaa' is known as an Arab newspaper that treats the 'Nazis' very fondly, praises Hitler and his aides, prints pictures from Germany to show the scale of the 'Nazis' actions. The fact that 'A-Difaa' relies on 'Hitler' and his stories and his spirit to inspire the Arab youth is a good indication of the true face of this Arab newspaper.
In July 1934, Ad Difa'a published Nazi party regulations:
[131]The regulations of the Nazi party in Germany, containing 25 sections, with the emphasis of the clauses, which the newspaper wants the Arabs in [Palestine] Eretz-Israel to act according to, were published in 'Al Difa’a'. The newspaper comments on this: "The Arab youth should read and act according to a new national plan."


In 1935 ad-Difa’e [Al Difa] got so bad that the British had to ban it for a month.[132]


Author, published in 1947:[133]
In the last years before the war, the Nazis began also to become active in being interested in causing unrest in the Land of Israel. Calling out and supporting anti-Jewish movements all over the world. They could not ignore the possibilities that the Arab hatred against the Jewish aspirations in the Land of Israel gives them. Arab students were therefore recruited to Germany, where they were imbued with an Asian version of Nazism, cunningly adapted to their fierce sensitivity, and the Arabic newspapers in E. Israel printed diligently collected excerpts from Hitler's "Mein Kampf", especially the parts that deal with the Jewish question.


Overview:[113]
All parties were dragged along by the extremists of the Istiqlal, whose newspaper al-Difa'a became a Nazi propaganda pamphlet.

They made efforts to attract the masses with national recommendations, strong hatred of Jews and extreme demands from the authorities. The fascist regimes in Germany and Italy were a source of inspiration and imitation to the national Arab movement. As early as 1932, the newspaper Al-Carmel wrote: "The Nazi movement is a symbol, it is a source of hope - Arab nationalism must adopt the methods of its leaders in their pursuit of independence and freedom."

The Mufti's bulletin al-Jamaa al-Arabiya's continued to incite the public against the government, expressing its support for fascist Italy, which the newspaper said had adopted sympathetic treatment of Arabs and the Muslim world "and supported their national aspirations."


[At least by 1929, Falastin was controlled by the Mufti. (He offered the NYT women if it will propagate for his favor).[134]]


Among highlights in 1935: Futuwwa modeled on HitlerYouth, Haifa swastika train, the Templars' bulletin reports on massive pro fascism and pro Nazism with anti-Jewish attitudes


In Jan 1935:[135]

The Germans in the country in Hitler's chariot

Germans and Arabs welcome "Heil Hitler"

The Arab newspapers report that in German circles in the country, joy was felt yesterday about the results of the referendum in the Saar district [Saarland]. The German churches in Jaffa rang the bells. The Wagner factory in Jaffa closed on Tuesday, as a holiday, and the workers received their wages. Arabs who met German friends greeted each other with the greeting "Heil Hitler."

"When will the dear Palestine return to the lap of the 'Arab nation'? - Al-Farouqi asks to know in a main article, regarding the results of the referendum in the Saar, in al-Islamiyya [الاسلامية] :

The Arab expresses joy at the results of the referendum, as "the German people were oppressed and oppressed. Now we must rejoice that the oppressor has passed."
Sheikh al-Taji

[Related:

Regarding this Islamist, Sheikh Suleiman al-Taji al-Faruqi [سليمان التاجي] (1882 - 1958), (called by some "the Maari of Palestine" [معري فلسطين]) was a member of the Ottoman Patriotic Party in Jaffa, had contributed to the written exchange with the Jews over land he owned in the area of Tel Aviv.

At the end of August 1913, al-Taji addressed an open letter to the mutasarrif and the prosecutor general in Jerusalem, which was published in Filastin under the banner "Freedom or Slavery: Justice or Tyranny?" He warned that the Jews had almost "conquered" Palestine, and that Jewish settlers near Zarnuqa despised the village and had waited for an opportunity to destroy it, which, in the event, was provided by nothing more than a dispute over a bunch of grapes on the vineyard.

In October 1913, Taji addressed another open letter to the mutasarrif that was distributed in the form of a leaflet, and in November he published a vile poem, entitled "the Zionist danger" in Filastin. In his poem, he combined Islamic motifs from the Qur'an and hadith to support his nationalist view, as well as tapping into classic European anti-Semitic tropes.[136][137][138][139][140] It is such racist pieces that caused the Ottoman authorities to ban the paper. In 1914-15, periodical 'Falastin' was banned for its anti-Jewish racism, hatred by Ottoman authorities.[141][142]]


In March 1935 the Husseinis formed a party, called the Palestinian Arab Party. It was, as its president Jamal Husseini freely boasted, inspired by German Nazism.[143] It included a 'youth troop', modelled on the Hitler Youth[144] and for a while actually called, the 'Nazi Scouts'.[143] The young people swore that "Palestine is my homeland, and there is no place for anyone who is not an Arab." Jamal Husseini quoted Hitler: "I started with six, then we were 600 and then 60 million."[145]


Reported in March 1935: Nazis handbills openly spread in Jerusalem.[146]


In July 1935 the following was sent to the Third Reich from Jerusalem:[147]
"The Arab youth of Palestine respectfully ask the only Führer of Germany to prevent the sale of the German Schneller School and its land to the Jews, so that this sale does not contribute to the Jewification of the Holy Land."


From a review of a book on the Templars:[148]

THE TEMPLERS got on well with both Arabs and Jews until Buchhalter formed a branch of the Nazi Party in Jerusalem in 1934. This was followed by the outbreak of the three-year armed Arab revolt against the British Mandate in 1936 and Jerusalem Arabs happily saluted Templer architect and builder Hermann Imberger when he took his Sunday stroll wearing a swastika armband.

Heinrich Fast flew a huge swastika banner from his Fast Hotel next to the Old City wall. One can imagine what a shock this was to the thousands of German-Jewish refugees who arrived in the city. Despite their patriotism, the majority of the Templers were not Nazis and declined to join the Nazi Party or the boycott of Jews (who in turn boycotted the Nazis). Buchhalter was furious when he learned that the Colony's cinema (now the Smadar) was rented to a Jewish operator and in a letter reproduced by Kroyanker threatened a report to Berlin. Buchhalter had previously helped put the Templer owner out of business when he refused to screen Nazi propaganda films.

The cinema went through many names. The new Jewish operator called it the Efrat. The Templer school in the Nazi period was firmly anti-Jewish, and its scouts and girl guides became members of the Hitler Youth and the League of German Girls. On occasion, they threw stones at Jews. Yet in 1935, Philip Vorst, head of the Templer Association, banned the Nazi salute in the school.

At this time, Nazi propaganda was printed in the huge Schneller complex by Ernst Schneller, grandson of the founder of the "Syrian Orphanage." Buchhalter was in favor of selling the Schneller Compound together with the Bikur Holim Hospital because they were "surrounded by Jews." Quoting British police files, Kroyanker reveals that the Schnellers planned to import arms with which to train Arab groups.

Author (including on documented Arab policemen admiration):[149]


From the events of 1936-1939, aggressive foreign policy of Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy encouraged the Arabs in general, and the Arabs of E. Israel in particular, to see the German settlers as potential allies in the struggle against the Jewish settlement and the British government. In the spring of 1936, the Arab revolt against the British broke out, followed by a six-month strike. The German settlers were granted special status.

The German Ministry of Information and Propaganda encouraged Arab students to join the unified German school, in order to create a future cadre of pro-German Arab leadership that will rule in the future in an independent Palestinian state. In accordance with this policy, it was agreed that the quota of Arab students to be increased. An architect and contractor Herman Imber was: "Walking every Sunday on the main street of the German colony in Jerusalem, with the swastika ribbon on his arm. British and Arab policemen sat in front of his house, the former greeted him as usual with friendly indifference, and the latter saluted him with admiration."


Indeed, until the rise of the Nazi party in Germany, the Templars had good ties with their Jewish neighbors. Then things changed drastically since 1933. They then spread anti-Semitic propaganda and planned to import weapons from Germany for use by Arabs against the Jews. Yet, not all Templars were pro Nazi. The opponents were pressured. As a German with a swastika band around his arm, the Arabs he passed "saluted him with admiration."[150] On Feb 5, 1936:[151]

A delegation of eighty Nazis who live in Palestine returned today from a visit to Germany bringing with them three large swastika flags. They said they had received the emblems from Reichsfuehrer Hitler himself.

The swastikas will be unfurled by Nazi units at Jerusalem, Haifa and Darona.

Admiration of Nazism among the Arabs, expressed its urge also through groups, the Najjadah, like the Futuwwa and other groups, trying to emulate Nazism or fascism.[152]


Historian:[153]

... the Husseinis in March 1935 formed the Palestinian Arab Party, whose platform for resistance to the establishment of a Jewish National Home. It set up its own youth corps. al-Futuwwa (the name of an association of Arab knights during the Middle Ages). which resembled Germany’s Hitler Youth and was officially designated the “Nazi Scouts.”

At the founding meeting on February 11, 1936, Jamal al- Husseini, a principal aide of Hajj Amin, declared that Hitler had stalled out with only six followers and now had sixty million. The first seventy al-Futuwwa recruits took the following oath: “Life — my right: independence — my aspiration: Arabism — my principle: Palestine — my country, and there is no room in it for any but Arabs. In this I believe and Allah is my witness.” The Husseini-Nazi connection… through the 1930s and early 1940s. Indeed, as early as March 31, 1933, two months after Hitler's assumption of power, Amin alHusseini told the German consul in Jerusalem that "the Muslims inside and outside Palestine welcome the new German regime and hope for the extension of the fascist anti-democratic, governmental system to other countries." In the name of the Arabs, Husseini expressed a desire to join in the Nazis' anti-Jewish boycott.


Noted:[65]

Relations between the Arab National Movement and the Nazi regime in Germany began to take shape as early as 1933. In the various Arab countries, local parties and organizations began to emulate the Nazi party's methods of operation and to adopt its principles. In the summer of 1933, an attempt was made to establish an Arab Nazi movement in Palestine as well, and the Nazi propaganda ministry provided financial assistance to the Arab national press of a zealous anti-Zionist nature in Israel. However, if until the outbreak of World War II the Nazi regime was still careful to support the Arab national movement, then after the world war began, ties between Nazi Germany and the leaders of the Arab national movement, especially with the Jerusalem Mufti Haj Amin al-Husseini, became stronger.


News article on Jan 1, 1935:[154]

Nazi Arabs ... The Nazi idea is spreading among the Arabs in the Land of Israel.

A member of the Executive Committee of the Arab organization from Haifa said at the last Executive Committee meeting that the Arab national youth in Haifa likes the Nazi principles, and believed that the best way to save the Land of Israel from the Jews was to follow these principles.


In April 1935, around the time of Emir Shakib Arslan's pro Fascist Italy propaganda among the Arabs, Rumors close to the truth tell of Nazi cells existing among the Arabs, which are currently working to expand the anti-Jewish and even anti-English action, and perhaps also against the interests of other powers.[155]

About Shakib Arslan [شكيب أرسلان‎]:[156]
At that time, the Arab movement leaned towards the fascist forces in Europe, which became very strong when the Nazis seized power in Germany. The main fascist-Nazi Arab agent was the Druze emir Shakib Arslan, who left his narrow religious sect and joined the pan-Arab Syrian "Istiqlal" movement in 1919/20, and since then his close relations with Arab leaders in the Land of Israel and especially with the Husseinis have persisted.

He was one of the key figures of Arab nationalist thought and pan-Arab and -Muslim activism in the interwar period. [157]

Arabic Mein Kampf

Involved in the Arabic translation of Mein Kampf in 1938.[158][159]

He was basically "the chief Islamist in Europe was previously held by Shakib Arslan, the kaiser's and the Nazis' most consistent Arab ally who up to 1945 had been subsidized by Hitler's regime."[160]

After heading a Syrian nationalist propaganda service in Geneva for a few years, and after refusing at first, finally in October 1939, it was reported that Hitler granted Arslan a so-called "honorary aryan" status.[161]

This pan-Islamist Shakib Arslan was a contributor to the Nazi Arabic Barid al-Sharq, an Arabic-Nazi propaganda newspaper published in Berlin.[162]


May 10, 1935 Arab "Palestinian" conference - Haifa
Arab Palestine delegates coming from Haifa youth conference - swastika and Nazi inscription on train - (May 1935)
NYT, May 13, 1935

In May 1935, as delegates returned from an Arab youth conference in Haifa, their train to Afula bore a swastika chalked on one of the coaches with an Arabic inscription beneath it reading "Germany over All."[163][164]


In 1935, the Federation of Arab Youth in Palestine petitioned Hitler to help them prevent the Jews from obtaining additional land in Palestine.[165]


In summer of 1935, Arabs in Haifa founded Nazi club, The Red Moon. (Red Crescent) [ريد مون ، نادي النازي]. Well financed.[165] They wore 'brown shirts' too.[166] By then, groups of brown-clad Arab youths were organized in the larger cities.[165]


In June 1935, Palestine Arabs asked Hitler for a ban of land sales to Jews.[167]


'Swastika, with the inscription "Long live [sic] Hitler" on the Jerusalem Gate. Jerusalem, July 17. - A swastika sign, with the inscription "Viva Hitler!" [sic], appeared today on the cemetery, opposite the tombs of the Jewish kings. Apparently, the Arabs painted the Hitlerite swastika there.' (July 18, 1935 report)
Seen on July 17, 1935[168] in Jerusalem:[169]

Swastika, with the inscription "Long live (sic) Hitler" on the Jerusalem Gate

Jerusalem, July 17. - A swastika sign, with the inscription "Viva Hitler!" [sic], appeared today on the cemetery, opposite the tombs of the Jewish kings. Apparently, the Arabs painted the Hitlerite swastika there.


On June 25, 1935, Al Difa'a reported that "uniformed and Nazified" Arab youth troops are being formed in Palestine.[170]


Sep 1935 – 'Nuremberg Laws’ & on


When Hitler proclaimed the Nuremberg Race Laws in September 1935, a number of Palestinian Arabs sent telegrams congratulating him.[58][171]

From the Palestine Arabs, were more than from other Arabs.[172]


Author with original documentations: [173]

Signs of sympathy for Hitler and Nazism grew on the Arab street. The swastika flag was also hoisted over Arab homes, Arab cars, and even Arab shoe polishers adorned their crates with the Nazi emblem. Dr. Franz Reichert, a writer for the German News Agency (DNB) in Jerusalem, provided free money to the Arab press, propaganda and photographs about the life of the renewed Germany, and these would devote entire pages to this material. The British saw Dr. Reichert as the main puller In the Nazi spy network in the country, but no action was taken against him. In May 1935, the Palestine-Israeli police learned that extremist Arab nationalists were preparing to form the "Palestinian Nazi Party" in order to fight the Jews in coordination with the sister party in the Reich.

The great momentum of Nazi propaganda in the Middle East occurred in September 1935. When the "Nuremberg Laws" against the Jews were discovered and published, Hitler received greetings from all Arab countries and Islam. The largest number came from Palestine, where Nazi propaganda was strongest.



1936-39:

From a film collection, Paramount Diary of January 1, 1936: The alleys of the Old City of Jerusalem :[174]
1936.
The Old City of Jerusalem… passersby looking at a graffiti of a swastika and the inscription Hitler in English on a stone wall, the alleys of the Old City, policemen patrolling the place.

(In their 1936 drawing, the Arabs misspelled Hitler - Hiteler.[175])


Writing on Mar 1, 1936, the German consul in Jaffa, Timotheus Wurst, that the Arab "Palestinians" were: "deeply impressed by fascist particularly National Socialist, teachings and views. National Socialism, with its anti-Jewish notions, has struck a chord among the Arabs of Palestine... Among the Arab, fascism and National Socialism have in many cases become the standards against which all other political systems and teachings are measured, and, in the eyes of many Arabs, Adolf Hitler is without a doubt simply the most important man of the 20th century..."[176]


Al-Husseini's Arab Revolt of 1936 took place against the background of the swastika: Arab leaflets and posters prominently displayed the Nazi symbol; the youth organization of the Mufti's political party paraded as "Nazi-scouts," and Arab children greeted each other with the Nazi salute.[177]

(In April 1936:[178]Large-scale riots broke out on April 19, when crowds of Arabs attacked Jews who were stranded on the streets of Jaffa. Most of the attackers were temporary workers from Hauran and Transjordan, incited by false rumors.)


The Arab organized April-1936 strike - timing planned for Hitler's birthday.

Author:[179]
The Germans celebrated the eve of Adolf Hitler's birthday. Arab friends were also present in the houses of the community leaders. Various signs testified that those who organized the riot against the Jews that day targeted the timing for Hitler's birthday; Not much time passed and the compensation that the Arab nationalists received from the Third Reich for their struggle was revealed...


Hitler enjoying great popularity was evident by an episode in April 1936, immediately after the Arab uprising. Newly appointed Walter Döhle, who had already been greeted by an Arab with the cry 'Hoch Deutschland', reported to Germany:[180]
When I stopped on the road to mount a highly visible swastika flag on the radiator of my car, in addition to the official flag attached to the flag stand, a car with Arabs came from the direction of Nablus. I spoke to the Arabs. They agreed to assist me during the passage through Jenin. The transit through Jenin went slowly, with stops about every five metres. My car was constantly surrounded by an excited crowd equipped with sticks and sabres (old German weapons). Five to six Arabs stood on the footboard of my car in a permanent parley, in which I only intervened with the Arabic words 'Konsul Almani' and the German greeting 'Heil Hitler'. The response from the Arab side followed likewise with 'Heil Hitler' and applause so that the trip bore comparison to a triumphal procession. Among the Arabs, the German greeting 'Heil Hitler', symbolic of the Führer's and the Reich Chancellor's popularity, had the strongest impact on this frenzied mob.


From an account of April 1936:[181]
Unhindered, the Arab press beat a loud tattoo for murder and revolt. Gramophone records made their appearance in the shops, calling on the Arabs to annihilate the Jews. Nazi flags and pictures of Hitler were prominently displayed in store windows. Booklets explaining Nazi methods of forcing Jews from the Reich were distributed freely...
And:[182]
In April 1936, the hand of the Nazi reached into Palestine itself. The Mufti of Jerusalem, Hitler's friend, instigated riots, telling his followers that Jewish immigration would bring in people who would destroy the Arab population . The riots started in Jaffa.

The Arabs cried, "The government is with us," thinking that the British restrictions on Jewish immigration meant they favored the Arabs. Nazi-inspired slogans were shouted in the streets: "Heil Hitler" and "The J... are a gang of swindlers, a menace to all mankind."

Pictures of Hitler were placed in the windows of Arab shops, and phonographs blared "Kill the Jews!"
And March / April:[183]
Arab terrorist organizations paraded; brown-clad "storm troopers" marched, shouting "Heil Hitler!" Late in March there was a meeting of influential Arabs in Safed to plan the uprising. Fifteen days before this openly ignited bomb burst, the Revisionist leader Jabotinsky tried to warn the High Commissioner, who treated his warning contemptuously...


Reported in 1936:[184] "It has been charged that German Nazi agitators with their anti-Semitic propaganda have been at work among the Arabs."


On April 21, 1936, 'a man in western attire managed to spare himself a beating (or worse) at the hands of an Arab mob in Tulkarm only by shouting "Heil Hitler" and giving the Nazi salute.'[185][186]


Maj.Thomas Gregory Tulloch on Apr 29, 1936:[187]
The Nazis penetrated the ranks of the Arab scouts. Many of the young Arabs study and get educated in Germany free of charge, and when they return to Israel they spread the Nazi ideology among the Arabs. The Arab press is full of hate speech against the Jews, and the censorship is not strict with them.


Anti-Nazi activists published in October 1936:[188]
The hand of fascism from abroad in events.

The distinct fascist elements in the Arab national movement became close, housemates with German world fascism. Hitler's book "Mein Kampf" has long since become obsolete as the 'guide' for the Arab intelligentsia and the youth. An excessive affection is known among them for German fascism, which is very close to them in its opposition to the Jews. Hitler's rise to power was received in the Arab press with cheers of sympathy despite the fear that Hitler's anti-Semitism would increase the immigration of German Jews to the Land of Israel. In other words, they agree with Hitler to beat the Jews, and how much better it would be if everyone beat his own Jews. Arab fascism's sympathy for Germans and mutual friendly relations stood out this month in recent events. Very close to the events, during the first attack by Tulkarm, April 15, when Hazan and Danenberg were murdered, the attackers released one of the passengers and returned his money, when he declared his Germanness. And in the case of a German who passed through the Arab city of Jenin (on the road from Haifa to Afula to Tel Aviv) and was attacked by the crowd, as soon as he raised his hand in the "Heil Hitler" greeting, they returned the greeting and let him continue his journey. This was in the first week of the events (April 19-26). Some time later, a group of passengers passed through the same road, among them the French, Italian and German consuls, each in his own car. They were accompanied by a military guard, who received an order not to shoot. The truck, which drove first, was attacked. The injured drivers moved to the other cars, the truck was burned and the convoy returned to Nablus. There the military guard got on the phone with the authorities in Jerusalem and received a vigorous order to take the passengers to Haifa. The German and Italian consuls did not wait and passed Jenin safely without any guard. Only the French consul did not feel that he was so inoculated... - In Acre, leaflets were distributed in Arabic with the signature of the "Nazi Party" (Al Khizb a Nazi [الحزب النازي]). The operation of the Nazis in Israel was forged in the German colonies in Israel in Sharona, Wilhelma and the German colony in Haifa. Sharona's Germans immediately joined Hitler when he came to power. There was a case where a Jew was beaten there... Italy tried years ago to expand its network in Israel. It is a mistake to think that in this case only the Abyssinian issue fulfilled its role. A few years ago, Italy tried more than one attempt to acquire economic and political influence in Israel. Italy built buildings, brought its insurance companies into the country, founded cultural clubs there to teach the Italian language and literature, paid for Italian teachers for the high schools. At the expense of the Italian government, textbooks and notebooks are given to students for free. The newspapers published news about the participation of the Italian fascists in the recent events. On June 7th, the newspaper of the Egyptian government party 'Rose al Yusuf' in Cairo published an article in which it demanded from the 'Arab Higher Committee' in Jerusalem to deny the news, carried in Egyptian newspapers, that he was receiving support from a foreign source. The newspaper adds that the news is based on serious facts and demanded a clear answer from the committee. The denial did not come. Although there are rumors that the police discovered the names of the Arab leaders, who received 2000 pounds from Italy and 5000 from Germany. The few facts, which certainly do not exhaust the material, clearly prove that the German and Italian fascists had a hand in the events of E.Y. [Palestine], intending to win them the friendship of Arab fascism in Israel.

It goes without saying that it is an exaggeration to think that it was "foreign intervention" that caused the outbreak of events. It only served as a kind of their "helpmate".


The PCP (in E.Y/Mandatory-Palestine) since 1934 was overtaken by Arabs, (what was called Arabization), headed since then, by al-Helou ("Musa").[189] In the 1936-9 Arab revolt it sided with Arab fascists and incited against Jews via libels.[188]


In Nov 1936, the AP reported that ‘Arabs read Hitler.’ Arabs joining Nazi Germany, read the "Mein Kampf," and it is 'a best seller in Palestine,' as it became a "best seller among the Anti-Semitics."[190] And reported by the NYT on Apr 4, 1937:[191][192] "Hitler's Mein Kampf once banned in Palestine is now reported to be a Best seller among the Arabs who have joined with Nazi Germany in antagonism to the Jews."

Hitler's “Mein Kampf” once banned in Palestine is now reported to be a Best seller among the Arabs who have joined with Nazi Germany in antagonism to the Jews. - NYT, Apr 4, 1937


Professor, Author:[100]

…The shrill calls to take up extremist politics invoked a symbolism that glorified youth, violence, and death. By 1936 Al Difaa, the paper of the Istiqlal movement and the most widely read paper in the Arab community, proclaimed, in clearly fascist tones, that "youth must go out to the field of battle as soldiers of the Fatherland." Others argued that the "Land is in need of a youth, healthy in body and soul like Nazi youth in Germany and the fascist youth in Italy which stands ready for the orders of its leaders and ready to sacrifice its life for the honor of its people and freedom of its fatherland." …Nationalist rhetoric accompanied major efforts to build fascist-style youth organizations by recruiting young men to serve as the strike force of the nationalist movement. Throughout the 1930s the children of wealthy Palestinians returned home from European universities having witnessed the emergence of fascist paramilitary forces. Palestinian students educated in Germany returned to Palestine determined to found the Arab Nazi Party. The Husseinis used the Palestinian Arab Party to establish the al-Futuwwa youth corps, which was named after an association of Arab Nazi Scouts. By 1936 the Palestinian Arab Party was sponsoring the developments of storm troops patterned on the German model. These storm troops, all children and youth, were to be outfitted in black trousers and red shirts… The young recruits took the following oath: "Life — my right; independence — my aspiration; Arabism — my country, and there is no room in it for any but Arabs. In this I believe and Allah is my witness." […]

The al-Futuwwa youth groups connected Palestinian youth to fascist youth movements elsewhere in the Middle East. While the Mufti was establishing youth groups in Palestine, al-Futuwwa groups were established in Iraq...

By the time the Palestinian uprising began in 1936, the Nazi hatred of the Jew had been incorporated into the existing Muslim narrative.[193] There was an overall relentless, unrestrained anti-Jewish incitement.[194]


In an example of increased inciting hatred, the Arabic Radio Station in Jerusalem on Sep 20, 1936 (between 7:45-8pm) had broadcasted a venomous antisemitic lecture, an added interpretation twist and "explanation" onto an Arab legend.[195]


Historian:[196]
During the 1936-1939 Palestinian revolt, the swastika was used as a mark of identity: Arabic leaflets and graffiti were liberally decorated with it, Arab children welcomed each other with the Hitler salute and vast numbers of German flags and pictures of Hitler were displayed even at celebrations of Mohammed's birthday.

The pro Nazi identification was so strong, that those obliged to travel through areas involved in the Palestinian revolt soon learned, that it was prudent to attach a swastika to their vehicle to gain immunity from Arab snipers.[197]


The commander of the Arab-Palestinian "volunteers", Fawzi al-Qawuqji (Arabic: فوزي القاوقجي;‎ 19 January 1890 – 5 June 1977), in a Wehrmacht-style uniform that includes the Iron Cross decoration.

In 1936, months after Hitler's Nuremberg Laws stripped Jews in Nazi domains of citizenship rights, and branded them as genetic undesirables, Fawzi al-Qawuqji was not squeamish about baiting Jews.[198] This pro-Nazi,[199] had been in charge of broadcasting Nazi propaganda in the Arab world during Second World War.[200] In their Arab propaganda broadcasts from Berlin and Rome, Husseini, Kawkaji and Khilani adopted Nazi terms, frequently using antisemitic profanity.[201][202]


Arabs in Nazi Germany boycott Jews (June 1936)
While in Germany, the Arabs (many of then from Mandatory Palestine) 'did' their part:[203]

Assembly of Arabs in Germany

Berlin. 16, at the assembly of Arabs and Orientals in Berlin, a resolution was passed against Jewish immigration to the Land of Israel [Palestine]. Those gathered decided to deny the reports published in the Jewish press that Italy and Germany were helping the [Arab] national movement in Palestine. They also decided to boycott the shops of the Jews, not to live with Jewish families and not to come into contact with them.


The Mufti cultivated in open imitation of his hero, Adolf Hitler.[204]


Already:[205]
In April of 1936, he asked the Italians for help in poisoning the drinking water of Tel Aviv. In the same year he received assistance from the German government in organizing anti-Jewish riots in Jaffa and Jerusalem.


Decried in 1936:[206]

the government permitted the Mufti's journal, "A Liva", to create the impression that all elements friendly to Zionism in England were in the pay of Jews. "The old Empire bows its head before Jews, because Jews [sic] have [sic] money," or further the Mandate is only apparently in English hands because Jews have purchased it long ago."

Another Arab paper "Falastin" agitated openly for an alliance between the nationalist movement and Sir Oswald Mosley.

The government seemed incapable of understanding that though it might be possible to treat fascist agitation humorously in London, amusement was out of place in Jaffa. The entire German population of Palestine numbers barely three thousand. Assuming that every one of them is a Nazi, they are still unable to publish a daily newspaper without assistance. The fact that a Nazi paper began to appear in Jerusalem, was in itself evidence enough that well-financed Hitler agents were in the country striving to establish contact with the Arab population. The government saw fit to ignore this.

Now it need not be surprised that the words "Heil Hitler" should be a magic pass-word, protecting the speaker from Arab attack.


The most prominent Falastin in 1937 sided openly with Fascist Italy.[207]


When, in the beginning of 1937, Britain and Italy reached an agreenent, Al Difa'a hailed Germany's system:[208]

Arab Disapproval Over New Alliance. Istiklalist Newspaper Reaction.

The Arab newspapers in this country do not conceal their disappointment over the completion of the Anglo-Italian agreement. A few months ago they were continually exhorting their readers to exploit England's perplexity to the full.

Foremost among those who counted on the Anglo-Italian quarrel over Ethiopia to provide an opportunity for driving the Jews and the British into the sea was the Istiklalist organ "A Difaa." Now the paper laments the new agreement, and writes that British policy is solely guided by Imperial interest and J.. influence[sic].

According to A Difaa, the ease with which Great Britain and Italy patched up their quarrel after all the threatening speeches and articles of the past year, shows that the European Powers consider only their interests and have no use for sentiment in politics.

Reference is also made by the paper to the military regime in Germany, where no man may leave the country or export his capital without the consent of the authorities. Germany, the writer states, is guarding her national independence and the Arabs too, must learn to do the same. Let them follow the example of nationalist and concentrate on Germany a policy of national blockade, the paper concludes.


In Jan 1937, noted Muslim Awni Abd al-Hadi [Auni Bey Abdel Hadi] [عوني عبد الهادي] (leader of the Arab Independence Party and member of the Arab High Committee in Palestine) stated: ‘Arabs Like Nazis.’[209]

Arabs Like Nazis, Says Moslem

Berlin, Feb. 23 (WNS) — The Arab national movement has much in common with Nazism, the Voelkische Beobachter reports Auni Bey Hadi , leader of the Arab Independence Party and member of the Arab High Committee in Palestine, as having told its correspondent. The Nazi paper says that the Arab leader made a thorough study of Hitler's Mein Kampf while he was in a... camp in Palestine. He is also quoted as advising Germany to study the Arab market in Palestine because the Arabs are boycotting all goods made or sold by Jews.
Months later, on July 18, 1937, his political instigation led to bloody violence in Baghdad, 30 Jews were injured, shops looted.[210] And: [211]
In the interview, he admitted proudly that while he was interned by the British he had thoroughly worked through the English translation of Mein Kampf.


A March 1937 report, Arab apprentices Admire Hitler.[212]


A March 1937 report:[213]

The agent of the well-known German company "Knoll" has been staying in Jerusalem for two weeks. While visiting an Arab pharmacy, an Arab patient came in with a prescription and asked for medicine. The owner of the pharmacy sent the wholesaler to fetch the medicine, the agent saw the packaging and found out that the medicine was made in Israel, approached the 'patient' and began preaching Nazi-style morals about buying "Jewish products from Tel Aviv." By the way, he took the prescription from him and saw that the doctor was also a Jew, he could not resist and told the Arab "Not only are you as an Arab should be ashamed to buy the Zionist products, you also go to a Jewish doctor and this is a danger for you, the Jewish doctor and the Jewish factory [sic] can poison you." This was said in the presence of an agent of a well-known English factory, who considered him an Englishman.

It is worth noting that this Nazi agent arranges large orders among the Jews.
Swastikas Fly as Arabs Mark Mohammed's Birthday (May/1937)

By May 1937, "All Arabs" celebrated Muhammad's birthday "Hitler and Duce Cheered." - NY Times.[214] Described at the time in JTA[215] May, 1937: "Swastikas Fly As Arabs Mark Mohammed’s Birthday."

Arab children thronged the teeming section’s narrow, winding streets, shouting: “Death to the High Commissioner (Sir Arthur Grenfell Wauchope)! Death to the Jews!” Booklets explaining Nazi methods of forcing Jews from the Reich are being distributed freely. Arabs in Haifa and Jaffa prepared for the birthday celebrations, scheduled for today and tomorrow, by proclaiming a work stoppage and organizing demonstrations.

The Government Education Department issued orders prohibiting Arab pupils to participate in the demonstrations. Arabs newspapers, however, are urging the pupils to disobey.


As the "Mohammedan world celebrates the anniversary of Muhammad's birth", "Arab merchants in Palestine decorate their windows with pictures of Hitler and Mussolini." And "Reuter correspondent reports, pictures of Hitler and Mussolini can be seen everywhere in the boarded-up shop windows."[216]

"Requests to the Italian consulate for Italian flags and pictures of Mussolini exceeded supply. In Haifa market, these were to be found alongside images of Hitler and King Ghazi of Iraq."[217]

The Italian press reported Arab admiration for "the head of fascism for his humane comprehension of Islam, and his courage for having dared to rise before anybody else against the myth of British might."[218]


By 1937, the fascist government maintained:[219] "at Bari, in the boot of Italy, a broadcasting station from which for many months a constant stream of anti-British propaganda has been issued in Arabic."



Reported in 1937, "purely nationalist contention, based not on present realities,"[220]

It is used mainly by the leaders of the Arab youth who seem to be more extreme in their nationalism than the older generation. Educated in schools which are, in spite of government ownership, hotbeds of chauvinism and anti-Jewish propaganda, these youths are also greatly influenced by fascist and anti- Semitic tendencies in present-day Europe. Hitler is for many of them the glorious hero and teacher.

There is no doubt that Arab opposition to Jewish colonization is being strongly encouraged and in many cases organized by outside interests ...

A still more active part in the recent disturbances in Palestine was taken by the Italians who, according to reliable information even helped to organize the last campaign of sabotage and actual rebellion. Not only was anti-Zionist propaganda broadcast in Arabic speeches from the powerful Italian radio station at Bari, but there are reliable reports that considerable sums of money spent by Arab leaders to finance their recent political strike mostly came from Italian sources.


Confirmed in 1941: Fritz Grobba with Mufti behind Arab riots 1936-9:[221]

FORMER NAZI ENVOY CHARGED WITH STIRRING PALESTINE RIOTS. London, Aug. 5 (JPS)—Statements made in 1936 by Zionist leaders that German and Italian agents were responsible for the outbreak of Arab attacks on Jews were finally vindicated by the London Daily Mail which says it has evidence that the former German Ambassador at Baghdad, Arthur Groba, was the moving spirit behind the riots which began on April 17, 1936.

Groba, now active in Persia, is charged with having worked hand in hand with Haj Amin el Husseini former Mufti of Jerusalem.


Nazi Minister of Propaganda Joseph Goebbels praised the Arabs' "national .. conscience," noting that "Nazi flags fly in Palestine and they adorn their houses with Swastikas and portraits of Hitler.[222] All Arab newspapers devoted almost all their pages for that day. Falastin particularly emphasizes the participation of Christians in the Muslim holiday. The newspaper states that two Nazi flags were hoisted on Bustros Street and the swastika was painted on the entrance gates of the Arab Workers' Association. Many Arabs painted the swastika on the blank part of the Arab flag. Pictures of Mussolini, Hitler and Kaukji were hung in various places and in the store entrances.[223]

These special Hitler / Mussolini decorations were seen already days before, ahead and in preparation of the Muslim holiday.[224]

The Times of London reported on 22 May 1937 that an Arab café in the Old City of Jerusalem was prominently displaying a picture of Hitler, alongside images of King Ghazi and Mussolini. The article related, "The Arabs explain that they naturally acclaim ... Herr Hitler because he dislikes the Jews."[185]


In 1937, a Nazi official wrote a letter from Palestine to Berlin which said that Palestinian Arabs showed "a great sympathy for new Germany and its Fuhrer…based on a purely ideological foundation."[225][226]


Revealed:[225]
German documents photographed and sent to Whitehall by an American spy revealed that in 1937, German officials had calculated that "Palestine under Arab rule would… become one of the few countries where we could count on a strong sympathy for the new Germany."


Reported on Oct 21, 1938:[227]
In the years of Arab terror in Palestine in which Arabs of other countries took great interest, the Arab leaders hoped war would break out between England and Germany and then they would be able to dispose of the Jews and England, their protector.


On July 15, 1937, the Mufti met with Walter Döhle German consul in Jerusalem, and offered to send an Arab delegate to Berlin.[228][229] Döhle reported back to Germany that the plan would be that Germany will put out anti-Jewish declarations but not being pro-Arab.[228] The Mufti was disappointed and tried in November 1937 sending another delegate to Berlin. [230] Walter Doehle, wrote:[231]:

"Palestinian Arabs in all social strata have great sympathies for the new Germany and its Führer … If a person identified himself as a German when faced with threats from an Arab crowd, this alone generally allowed him to pass freely. But when some identified themselves by making the ‘Heil Hitler’ salute, in most cases the Arabs’ attitude became expressions of open enthusiasm, and the German gave ovations, to which the Arabs responded loudly."
Unveiled documents:[225][180]
‘Arabs admire our Fuhrer’ - "The Palestinian Arabs show on all levels a great sympathy for the new Germany and its Fuhrer, a sympathy whose value is particularly high as it is based on a purely ideological foundation," a Nazi official in Palestine wrote in a letter to Berlin in 1937. He added: "Most important for the sympathies which Arabs now feel towards Germany is their admiration for our Fuhrer, especially during the unrests, I often had an opportunity to see how far these sympathies extend. When faced with a dangerous behaviour of an Arab mass, when one said that one was German, this was already generally a free pass."


Since around 1936-7, Fracois Genoud and the Mufti met several times. Nazi Genoud was later to be infamous as 'financier of fascism', and helper of Nazis escape. The Mufti "would consider [Genoud] a confidant until his death in 1974."[232]


Said Fattah al-Imam, founder of the al-Nadi al-Arabi (The Arab Club), later to be vehicle for advancing Nazi goals in Syria, educated in Berlin, in 1936, Imam travelled twice to Germany, once even meeting personally with Hitler to try to talk him in to shipping arms to the Palestinians and Syrians so they could use them to fight off the British and the French.[233]


After failing first in getting a statement from Hitler, the mufti did not give up, and had sent Imam in December 1937, who brought a letter to the Goebbels Propaganda Office a recommendation by the mufti, which ended with the words "Heil Hitler!".[234][235][236]


In 1937, Adolf Eichmann and two SS officers carried out a mission to the Middle East accompanied by the head of the Hitler Youth, Baldur von Schirach who later funded an "Arab Club" in Damascus where German Nazis trained recruits for the mufti's growing army of insurgents.[193] He was quickly expelled by the British.[237] "Eichmann reported from his visit to Israel: The creation of a Jewish State must be prevented."[238]


Heinrich[239] Himmler, in 1937 gave to the Haifa branch at the request of Eichmann (through his superiors), as a token of gratitude to the Haifa Nazis - his anti Jewish twisted book, whereby he evoked, aligned himself with Hamman[240] of the book of Esther.
Himmler does not specify what the proposed solution was. But the Bible itself teaches that the solution will be through the destruction of peoples, the physical extermination of the Jews throughout the empire. The mighty Persian, from India to Kush: "And books were sent by the hand of the runners into all the king's lands, To destroy, kill and lose all the Jews, from youth to old age, children and women, in one day ... and loot despise."... the wording of this book proves that the seed of extermination lay in the very essence of the Nazi racist conception, and that this was its consistent conclusion, the conception designers did not even think of it in the first place, in full consciousness. Anti-Semitic racism was at the heart of the Nazi worldview. And the extermination of the Jews was the core of the antisemitic conception.


Eichmann's 1937 trip project included a friendly[197] visit with the mufti in Egypt.[238] It was after this visit, in fact, that Haj Amin went on the Nazi payroll as an agent and propagandist.[197]


[NOTE RE THE MUFTI: Worth mentioning: Among the collaborators with Hitler was the Mufti, a small fish. The Norwegians had Vidkun Quisling, the Belgians had Leon Degrelle, the Dutch the Waffen-SS unit, the largest outside Germany, the Ukrainians Stepan Bandera, the Russians General Andrey Andreyevich Vlasov and Azov Battalion, and more and more (or Vichy France). Each of these names was a much more "respectable" collaborator with the Third Reich and its plans than the Mufti.[241][242]]


[Example of the far reaching Mufti's influence: inspiring overseas:

Sufi Abdul Hamid, called the 'Black Hitler',[243][244] called so by both the black and white press[245][246] who incited the blacks in NY to drive out Italians and Jews in the 1930s,[243] was inspired by the Mufti.[247][248]]


The Arab rebels often displayed the swastika.[249]


1. Nazi backing Arab violent riots against the Brits and Jews. 2'. More Arab pro-Nazi.


Suspicion of Nazi involvement was already at the beginning, in 1936, with Germans arrested and German made rifles at Arab rioters.[250] Arabs were captured with smuggled Nazi Arms.[251]


Nazi Envoy Greeted By 2 Arab Editors (Dec 1937)


In Dec 1937, Nazi Envoy was greeted by 2 Arab editors.[252]

Franz von Berk, aide to Reich Propaganda Minister Goebbels, arrived here last week and was met by the editors of two Palestine Arab papers, Falastin and Adifaa. Dr. Goebbels is scheduled to visit Cairo next month.

It was after Falastin was "informed that the Editor of Der Angriff has expressed a desire to meet colleagues from this country," In this "connection it is pointed out that the Editors of Falastin and Ad Difaa recently left for Egypt by air."[253]

The obvious change at ad-Difaa after the Dec 1937 meeting, from an article published in 1938:[254]

Nazis in the Near East Their Filthy Propaganda (and guns) are Flooding Egypt, Arabia and Palestine By Dr. Elieser Ibn Eddin. ... The scurrilous Arab sheet Ad-Difa, formerly an obscure little journal , blossomed out, after the visit of a Nazi agent, as a large-size newspaper, filled with expensive rotary press artwork.

The visit to Egypt of Baldur Von Shirach, Nazi youth leader and of the editor of Der Angriff, met with a certain success.


As "accompanied by 15 Nazi agents, von Schirach conferred with Nazi representatives in the Near East," boycott of Arab merchants buying Zionists' goods; intensification of Nazi propaganda in the there and closer contact with Arab youths:[255]

Damascus , Dec. 7 (JTA)—The armed extremist Arab National Youth Organization this week threatened a boycott of Arab merchants who bought "Zionist goods from Palestine" following the visit here of Baldur von Schirach, head of the Hitler youth organization Germany.

Accompanied by 15 Nazi agents, von Schirach conferred with Nazi representatives in the Near East and decided to establish closer contact with Arab youth groups. It was also decided to increase propaganda in existing German schools in the Near East and to establish others.


In 1937, French paper Marianne exposed Nazi armament of Arab Terrorists.[256]


More evidence seen on the ground in 1938.[257]


In Sep 1938, as Arabs murder 10 in a day of terror, the Forward quotes from the New York Times reporter Joseph Levy:[258] Hitler and Mussolini Send More Money to Terrorists... The Arab terror on Palestine is financed by Hitler and Mussolini.


Indeed, Nazis 'shipped arms to Palestinians,' British National Archives unveiled presence of Nazi S.S. agents in Mandatory Palestine, working closely with Palestinian leaders, at least since 1937.[225][226]

Widely known:[259] The role of foreigners in .. riots is known, that in the days of the events of 1936-39 the help of German and Italian guides to the Arab gangs was widespread, and only thanks to it was it possible for the Arab gangs to last for a long time...


On July 24, 1938, the NYT reported that 'Anti-Jewish' campaign stirs neighboring lands, moderate Arabs swayed, more terrorism expected.[260]

[In February 1938, Oswald Mosley, British fascist fuehrer, is extending his "domain" from Hyde Park to Jerusalem. His latest utterance is an exhortation to Arabs to "Unite, and you will reach your goal!" Sir Oswald gives it as his opinion in an interview published in Adiffa [As-Difa' (Al Difa'a)], Arab daily; that "Britain cannot hand Palestine to an alien people," promising to set things right about five years from now, when he takes over the helm of British affairs.[261]].


In the US, Ramallah born Fuad Isa Shatara [فؤاد عيسى شطارة] (1894 - Jan 8, 1942), since 1936, he headed the Arab National League, NAL, prior to the attack on Pearl Harbor, it cooperated closely with the Nazi German-American Bund. Shatara scurried around, speaking before pro-Nazi organizations in the U. S.[262] Described in 1948: "Shatara associated with the slimy creatures, bigoted, traitorous or semi-psychotic, who filled the letter-boxes of the public and their own reptilian news sheets, with corrosive Fascistic un-American propaganda."[263] The most globally wide spread Nazi propaganda in the 1930s, Welt-Dienst - "The World Service of March, 1938, published in Erfurt, Germany, by the official German Propaganda Office, recommended to our people that we help save America from the folly of other nations by having them subscribe and contribute to the support of certain organizations, included in which are the Japanese Chamber Of Commerce and the Arab National League."[263] Immediately after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the agents of the FBI being hot on his heels, he commited suicide.[263][264][265]


Arab Club in Berlin

,,Arabischer Klub“ / Ständigen "Verteidigungskomitees für Palästina in Europa" – Hauptsitz in Berlin.

In Berlin an "Arab Club"[266][267]
was founded, which became a center of propaganda for Palestine and against the Jews, and later a center for the Arab and Muslim broadcasts under the Nazi regime during the entire extent of the war.

The "Palestinian" Darwish al-Miqdadi served as its president in 1938.[268]


As noted by Frederick Elwyn Jones: Typical of the methods now used to influence the Arabs and undermine British prestige in the Near East is the founding of a club called "el Nadi el Arrabi" (the Arab Club) which is the nucleus of an elaborate Pan-Arab organisation with members in all parts of Europe and the Near East. This organisation gives practical assistance to terrorists in Palestine. Its European head-quarters are in a third floor office on the Kurfuerstendamm in Berlin. It carries on its work: "under cover of the Arab Club, ostensibly a 'cultural society' for the benefit of Arab students in Germany. The printed notepaper used bears the inscription in Arabic and German: 'Permanent Defence Committee for Palestine in Europe–Berlin headquarters'. "Like all similar organisations in Germany, the 'Permanent Defence Committee' is obliged to possess an official Government permit for its activities." This permit has not yet been received , but M. Abdul Mottalib, an Arab citizen from Bagdad, who is secretary of the Arab Club, informed me (the Daily Telegraph Correspondent) that he had little doubt that permission would be granted without difficulty, 'as we conduct the Committee as part of our club.'[269]

It promoted and acted as a pan-Arab organisation, with members spread throughout Europe and the Near East, 'assisting the Arabs in Palestine and endeavouring to obtain European support for for a project for an All-Arab State embracing Palestine, Iraq and Syria.'[270]

The 1938 Arab-Nazi Palestine ball at the Berlin Arab club. Reported in Aug 1938:[271]
Arab-Nazi ball in Berlin. London (Palcor.) The Berlin writer of the "Daily Telegraph" announces that a Palestine ball was held at the Arab club in Berlin, in which, in addition to the Arab activists, who are now staying in Berlin, some of the leaders of the Nazi party also participated. In their speeches at the ball, they spoke of the solidarity between the Germans and the Arabs, directed against the Jews and against England.


This was weeks before Hitler mentioned the Arabs of Palestine in his speech.


Hitler's Sep-1938 speech


Arabs Jubilant At Hitler Talk. AP Sep.13.1938[272]


Following Hitler's Sep 12, 1938 speech in Nuremberg, in which he said Arabs in Palestine were "defenseless and left in the lurch," Arabs in the Holy Land hailed it. And: An Arab spokesman greeted Hitler's statement with this declaration: "Now we are not without friends in Europe; our ultimate success as a nation lies in the hands of Hitler and Mussolini and not Britain and France." [273][274]

And: 'Arabs Hail Hitler As Liberator… Arabs Look to Hitler.’[275]


Falastin "defines" dictatorship - Sep 13, 1938

Commenting (Sep. 1938) on Hitler's speech (mentioning Palestine's Arabs), while casting doubts on Hitler's sincere "concern" for them, it still, without being convinced Hitler would be of benefit, boasted Nazi anti-Semitism in the same breath defined what is a dictatorship, Falastin: a dictatorship was really a State which had freed [sic] itself of Jewish [sic] influence[sic], while democracies were countries which still bore that onus.[276][277]


In Sep 1938, a hundred Palestine Arabs visited the Nazi party conference in Nuremberg.[278][207] How the Time reported it:[279]
Announced as Adolf Hitler's "honor guests" this week in Nürnberg were 100 certified Jew-baiting Arabs brought especially from Palestine and Africa...

Fawzi al-Qawuqji, receved the Arab mission.[280]


Arif Abd al-Raziq [عارف عبد الرازق], Nazi Stuermer wording in his circular letter Sep/1938, proved again Nazi hands in the "rebellion" Arab- terror.[281] That circular letter, coupled with Hitler's Nuremberg reference to "defenceless Arabs in Palestine" has convinced British circles here of Germany's intention to keep up the Arab terrorism in Palestine and weaken Britain In Europe by forcing her to send troops in the Holy Land.


Inside Asia's John Gunther in 1939:[282]
Hitler is tremendously popular with the Arabs. The reason is not far to seek — he is the enemy of the Jews, whom the Arabs consider their enemy in Palestine, and of Great Britain. Hitler pointedly invited Arabs to Germany as honored guests, and in the Nuremberg speech in 1938 he talked about the "defenseless Arabs in Palestine, left in the lurch." An Arab spokesman in Jerusalem replied promptly, "Now we are not without friends in Europe; our ultimate success as a nation lies in the hands of Hitler and Mussolini." The greatest contemporary Arab hero is — Adolf Hitler.


Shop windows displayed Hitler's photo in Jenin (Palestine) in 1938.[283]


In Oct 1938,[284] The Scotsman in a leading article on the Palestine question, stated: "No British Government can impose a scheme which would ultimately make it possible for the Arabs to massacre the Jews. Such a solution breathes the spirit of Hitler, not of England."


In Sep 1938, ‘’a hundred Palestine Arabs visited the Nazi party conference in Nuremberg.’’[285][207]

How the Time reported it:[286]
Announced as Adolf Hitler's "honor guests" this week in Nürnberg were 100 certified Jew-baiting Arabs brought especially from Palestine and Africa...


At Mohamed Ali Eltaher's Shabab paper, in the Oct.26.1938 issue, it states "الله ولي أهل فلسطين الذين لا هتلر لهم ولا أمّة لهم. Allah is the guardian of the people of Palestine who have neither Hitler nor a nation for them."

Mohamed Ali Eltaher (Aboul-Hassan, born in 1896 in Nablus, died 1974 in Lebanon) had published (Aschoura and) "Al-Shabab" [The Youth] paper. In the Oct.26.1938 issue, it states "Allah is the guardian of the people of Palestine who have neither Hitler nor a nation for them."[287] Earlier, in 1937, he had published the hate pamphlet, by the Mufti, inciting Muslims against Jews, distributed in Bludan conference.[288]


Published in 1939:[289]

The disturbances in Palestine, too, were exploited by Nazi propagandists, not only with the object of creating difficulties for Great Britain, but also to stir up anti-Jewish feeling in all the Arab countries.

A suspiciously large number of Nazi leaders took their holidays in Arab countries. The German Press was full of articles expressing sympathy with the Arab cause and fiercely attacking both the British and the Jews. The Nazi short-wave broadcasts adopted the same attitude. A Berlin club was used as Arab headquarters. Ostensibly the club was merely a cultural society for the benefit of Arab students in Germany, but, as the Daily Telegraph revealed, the printed notepaper used by this club bears the inscription in Arabic and German: "Permanent Defence Committee for Palestine in Europe - Berlin headquarters."

A hundred Arabs, their fares paid by the Nazis, attended the Nazi Party Congress in Nuremberg in 1938.


At the time, Ahmad Shukeiri said, he was invited by the Germans to attend the Nuremberg Rally.[290]


On Nov 10, 1938, in Baghdad, Arabs, "protesting" for Palestine-Arabs, "as they passed by the demonstrators in the main streets of Baghdad attacked the Jews and beat them." It occurred around the same time[291] of the horrible Kristallnacht.[292] (It was already months after the Mufti escaped the Brits in Palestine and he, his partners/minions, also contributed to agitation outside).


In March 1939, the Time, reported,[293] that there have been "respectable sales among Palestine Arabs" of Hitler's 'Mein Kampf.'


Abu Durra posing with his rifle, 1936

Yusuf Sa'id Abu Durra (يوسف سعيد أبو درة, 1900 – 30 September 1939), also known as Abu Abed: In Sep 1938 his gang called for Jihad and Nazi backing was already seen.[257] In a letter dated Dec 23, 1938,[294]

appealed directly to Adolf Hitler as the 'great leader of Germany, who created everlasting honour and glory for his nation', to inform him of the 'atrocities and cruelties' of the British military government. In a letter to Hitler dated 23 December 1938, he added: 'This unjust government perpetrated every barbarity and committed every cruelty. It blew up numerous villages, arrested thousands of peaceful residents and seriously abused them. It hanged men, robbed possessions, destroyed their houses and dwellings; it also tried to question their honour. Shame on this government and shame on their alleged justice and civilization!' Then Abu Durra wrote about the Jews: We will tell them what you, the leader of Germany, said about the Jews during a conflict: he, who in the midst of bullets and shells, takes the cigarette from his brother does not deserve to enjoy it at a time of peace. The Jew, who was stingy towards you with cigarettes during the war, can in no way be useful to Germany. I would not like to make you, great German leader, acquainted with the Jews. You know them and their history, and knew them even before we met them. Abu Durra ended by expressing the following wish: 'That you, who with one word makes Europe tremble, bring our cause to all of Europe.'


[In Latin America, Palestine born Jorge Sabaj Zurob, published a piece lumping debunked myth of "the Protocols" with his admiration of Hitler, justifying Hitler's argument, in an all out 'salad word' tirade.[295]]


From (noted[296]) author:[297]

The Mufti of Jerusalem, encouraged by Axis successes in Abyssinia and Central Europe, had seized power among the Palestine Arabs... Passing an Arab shop one might hear a record chanting in Arabic, "Slaughter the Jews!" Photographs of Hitler began to spring up in Arab barber shops and cafés, side by side with those of the Mufti. Youngsters in Arab villages marched about waving small swastika flags.


Author in 1947:[207]

Needless to say, how great was the effect of the German victories, in the first period of the war, on the Arabs of the country, and how difficult was then the impression of their defeat: an Egyptian, who visited the country in the days after the conquest of Berlin wrote: "The people cry in the morning and sob in the evening. And blow to their cheek between morning and evening."

At (بيرزيت) Bir Zeit most of the students wrote ‘A. Hitler,’ in answer to 'a great man,' when explained as 'a man who influences the spirits of his contemporaries.'[298]

Abu Sarari recalls: "There were 50-100 people praying in the mosque. I remember the imam delivering sermons and praying for the victory of Abu-Ali. Abu Ali is Hitler. So that the British who ruled the country at the time, and who were Hitler's rivals, would not understand who he was talking about, the Arabs called Hitler: Abu-Ali. The Arabs were very afraid that they would be heard speaking adoringly of Hitler, in mosques and cafes, and accused of collaborating with the Germans. And indeed that is what happened to our imam. Shortly after his sermon in favor of Hitler, the British arrested him."

An Arab activist, in telling the story of his childhood, ca 1936-7: "There were 50-100 people praying in the mosque. I remember the imam delivering sermons and praying for the victory of Abu-Ali. Abu Ali is Hitler. So that the British who ruled the country at the time, and who were Hitler's rivals, would not understand who he was talking about, the Arabs called Hitler: Abu-Ali. The Arabs were very afraid that they would be heard speaking adoringly of Hitler, in mosques and cafes, and accused of collaborating with the Germans. And indeed that is what happened to our imam. Shortly after his sermon in favor of Hitler, the British arrested him."[299]

Oct 1938 report from Jerusalem:[33]

Arabic translation of Adolf Hitler's "Mein Kampf" was put on sale here today at the modest price of three piastres (about 21 cents). Many copies are being distributed among the Arabs free of charge. It was noted that the edition placed on sale here carefully purged the passage in which the Arabs are graded fourteenth on the racial scale.


In 1938 alone, Germany has spent 60,000 pounds on propaganda amongst the Arabs in the land. It was estimated that the mufti's cousin Daud al-Husseini, in 1939 was the link between him and the Nazis at the time.[300]


File:Axis money to Mufti and gangs - £5 for an Arab to kill a Jew.jpg

Commander Mr Oliver Locker-Lampson (1880-1954) on Apr 12, 1938 mentions the Time report the pay out for Arabs to kill a Jew that the money, obviously, comes from the Axis:[301]

We should never have taken our marching orders from Signor Mussolini. We should have countered the proposals and the propaganda which Italy and Germany poured in to make the Arabs not anti-Jew but anti-British. The "Times" has informed us that for five pounds an Arab can be got to kill a Jew. I wonder where the money comes from?


Frederick Elwyn Jones wrote in the summer of 1939 (before the outbreak of the war):[269] reports "it has been decided to "convert" 25,000 Nazis to Mohammedanism. They will be organised in a newly-formed Moslem association, Jamait-e-Muslimin, which already has an understanding with the Mufti, a leader of the Palestinian Arabs."

It states:
As was reported in the House of Commons in February 16, 1938, in Palestine, "Italian women were disguised as charity workers and nuns and they supplied Arabs with faked pictures of Jewish atrocities and told the Arabs that their poverty was due to British mis-management. Travelling cinema vans showed the Arabs faked pictures of Jews killing Arabs . . . The Italian broadcast from Bari was picked up in Palestine and interspersed in an attractive programme was a series of slogans like ‘Palestine belongs to the Arabs’, ‘Kill the Jews' 'Let Palestine Arabs re-arm'."


Author, in 1938:[181]

If one may judge from the tone of the Arab press, the lot of the Jew under the coming 'National Government' will be anything but pleasant. El Jamiyah Arabiyah snarls that "the English can stand the pride and impudence of the Jews, but the Arabs know what kind of vermin[sic] the J.. are and will know how to silence them." Another ready example is the editorial in Islamia on October 4, 1936, appealing to foreign Arabs not to confine themselves to mere boycott of Jews but to drink their blood. It may be seen again in the inflammatory circulars systematically scattered in Jerusalem, reading: "Kill the J..s until not one of them remains. Gird yourselves and satiate your souls that thirst for blood, souls that cannot be sated but with the blood of the . . . alien and loathsome J.."

Farago found that "Arab agitators visit the peasants and promise them that at the end of the struggle the land and wives of the Jews will be distributed amongst them. With this expectation the peasant digs up his money and buys rifles and ammunition from wandering gunrunners."

Like many other informed men, Duff gave blunt warning that "as soon as the Palestinian leaders understood that Great Britain had really left them to their own devices... a general massacre of the Jews and the destruction of their colonies would occur." It need occasion no surprise that the words 'Heil Hitler' proved a magic pass- word during the recent rebellion, protecting Europeans against attack... All over Palestine groups of brown-clad storm troops were marching, shouting 'Heil Hitler.' At Nablus, boldly operating in the open, was a military training school for the Arab Scouts, prime leaders in the disturbances. Late in March a meeting of influential Arabs, practically all of them Government employees, was held at Safed to plan the uprising...
On April 17, 1936 the funeral of a murdered Jew was made the occasion of a protest demonstration. In an ugly mood, the police fired into the crowd, wounding thirty persons. Immediately after, steelhelmeted officers invaded Tel Aviv, dragging out householders on suspicion of having been connected with the protest. Bearers of black-bordered Zionist flags of mourning were beaten into unconsciousness. Sullen, angry apprehension once more made the air of the Holy Land a tinder box. It was in the midst of this charged condition that the explosion was touched off. The actual lighting of the fuse took place on the nineteenth of April when a blood-curdling tale was circulated in Jaffa that four Arab men and women had been beheaded by Jews in Tel Aviv. Instead of counteracting these wild rumors, the Government added fuel to the fire by dispatching enlarged police units to Tel Aviv, obviously to protect Arabs from Jewish attack. The outbreaks were swiftly and shrewdly plotted. On the scheduled day not a single Arab was to be seen in Tel Aviv though they generally offer their vegetables for sale as early as five in the morning. Jews visiting Jaffa were irritably told by the Chief Officer there that he "really did not understand why they had come . . . since everybody had already known yesterday that anti-Jewish attacks were to take place." Not a finger was lifted by the Authorities. On the entire road from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem only one policeman was posted though the roads were almost bursting with armed and threatening men. Jaffa burst into flames with the familiar cry "the Government is with us" urging the demented horde on. By midday the streets were running with Jewish blood. Many were slaughtered and mutilated past identification, right under the eyes of the police who made no effort to interfere. The contagion spread to all parts of the country like wildfire. Little boys of six carried automatics, shooting them off on the streets of Jerusalem as if they were toy pistols.
Unhindered, the Arab press beat a loud tattoo for murder and revolt. Gramophone records made their appearance in the shops, calling on the Arabs to annihilate the Jews. Nazi flags and pictures of Hitler were prominently displayed in store windows. Booklets explaining Nazi methods of forcing Jews from the Reich were distributed freely... Far more potent than any interference by Italian or Papist has been the German intervention, which the English studiously ignore. It has been shown that agitators now active in the Near East have been trained in a special school in the Brown House in Munich; that pamphlets in Arabic are printed in Berlin and Hamburg for distribution in Palestine. On October 22, 1933, it was announced that Eissael Bendek, member of the Arab Executive's Administrative Bureau, would direct a propaganda campaign in the interests of the Nazi Party. On June 8, 1934 the Jerusalem Arab daily, Mukkattam, reported the formation of an Arab Nazi Youth Organization. The French Weekly, Marianne, reported in 1937 that a great part of the arms employed in the rebellion were supplied by the Suhl and Erfurter Gewehrfabrik of Germany, which sent, in particular, many rifles and machine-guns.

The Arab journals Falastin and Al Difa[h] published regularly articles of a racial nature, together with large portraits of the various leaders of the Third Reich. They did not even attempt to conceal the fact that they had become tools of the Ministry of Propaganda in Berlin. The shout of 'Heil Hitler' became a catchword which rang insolently over all Palestine.


Asides from espousing a fanatic Pan-Arabism, the Iraqi Futuwwa[302] (which was coincided with the Mufti's Futuwwa in Palestine[100]) adopted a frankly totalitarian ideology, and, as though in recognition of kinship, in 1938 sent a delegation to a Hitler Youth rally in Berlin,[302] to the Nuremberg rally, and soon afterwards hosted the leader of the Hitler Youth[303] Baldur von Schirach in Baghdad.[304]



Issa Nakhleh (who would be busy for years denying the Holocaust, working with neo Nazis 1960s-1980s) in July 1939 he defended, justified the "Arab propaganda centre in Berlin," Nazi Germany.[305]


Reported in March 1939, journalist who "made an intensive study of Nazi penetration in the Near East and his disclosures of espionage activities by German agents shed light on current developments in central and southeastern Europe and cast an ominous shadow of events to come..."[306]
The German influence over the press, and particularly the Arabic press, throughout the Levant, is notable development of past months. It has been achieved largely by Nazi "co-ordination" of the advertising German commercial interests.…

The dealings with the press are a fair sample of the thorough systematization of German interests serve Nazi aims. Every German in the Levant is given his place, and registered at the Hamburg office for control of Germans abroad… This is a very popular device. It serves the double purpose of avoiding a drain on Germany's slender international exchange resources and making it impossible to trace cash remittances. That is one reason why it is very difficult to trace actual German financing of, for instance, terrorists in Palestine. Strengthening of the Nazi grip on the Arab nationalist movement is promoted by bringing Arab politicians to Germany. Hamburg now competes with Mecca as a goal for Arab pilgrimage. One of the recent visitors to the propaganda capital was Jamal Husseini, nephew and right-hand-man of Haj Amin el Husseini, former Mufti of Jerusalem, leader of the Arab revolt in Palestine, now self-exiled in the Lebanon. Jamal Effendi visited Hamburg for ten days and returned Beirut eminently satisfied with the results of his trip. VYING with Beirut and Damascus a centre of Nazi propaganda is Baghdad, 600 miles across the desert, capital of the independent Arab kingdom of Iraq. From the Baghdad headquarters of the Committee for Defense of the Palestine Arabs, Arab speakers are dispatched through the length and breadth of Arabia, reciting propaganda, manufactured in Hamburg, about British oppression and atrocities" in Palestine and Jewish designs against Arab holy places. From here, too, a flood of literature in Arabic is distributed. There is no room even for pretense that the expense of this campaign and the big cash contributions sent to the ex- Mufti, are raised among the populace Iraq. The country, about the size Italy, is largely desert, with a scattered population of 3,500,00 consisting almost entirely of peasants and nomad Bedouin so poor they are barely able to keep themselves alive of times. Yet this waste land has suddenly blossomed with gold for the Palestine revolt. The truth was half- revealed through the maladroitness the Baghdad headquarters in issuing two announcements, one of the amount raised in Iraq, a few score dollars, and the other of the amount forwarded to the Mufti, several thousand. By an unfortunate juxtaposition, these two items appeared simultaneously in different columns on the same page of an Arabic newspaper. German propagandists hi Iraq have been more successful in getting next to the Government than in Hamburg.. German propagandists in Iraq have been more successful in getting next to the Government than in Syria. In the French-mandated country, the Government is officially opposed to the Nazi-sponsored policies, and the German agents work principally, though not entirely, with the powerful and lively opposition. But King Ghazi's administration has on occasion condoned and even espoused Nazi efforts. A striking example is the broadcasting by the powerful Baghdad Government radio of the "news" of the official German News Agency (Deutches Nazhrichten Euro). The Baghdad station was built with British money. Yet night after night it fills the ether over all Arabia with blood-curdling tales about British atrocities in Palestine that make George Creel's World War propaganda pamphlets read like bedtime stories for children. A by-product of this Nazi achievement is that the 90,000 Jews in Iraq are in an extremely unhappy position, have already begun to feel the hand of persecution and. if events continue along their present course, the guarantees of minority rights in the Anglo-Iraq treaty recognizing the country's independence may be expected to go the way of similar pledges in Europe, and the 2,000-year-old Jewish community will be in imminent peril of a pogrom...

For the Nazi plans, Palestine is pivotal point, and the German organization, after long and careful preparation, is now operating sensationally there.


Tawfiq Canaan (Kana'an Tawfik) (توفيق كنعان 1882-1964). The physician, author, his wife, and his sister were arrested in September 1939, accused of 'propaganda for Hitler‘s Germany.'[307][308]



The first Arabic-language edition of portions of Mein Kampf was published in Egypt in 1939 by Nassiri Nasser, the brother of Gamal Abdul Nasser who admired Hitler as "the strongest man in Europe."[309][310]

On Jan 26, 1939, a large shipment of Hitler’s "Mein Kampf" in Arab translation arrived in Palestine from Egypt.[311]

In early 1939, London newspapers have often reported on the increased activities of the German and Italian fascists in the Near and Middle East, and in (Mandatory) Palestine in particular. The newspapers relied on 'facts.'[312]


In March 1939, the Al Jihad newspaper [الجهاد] "fanning the flames," have used a (Nazi) Germany's newspaper "showing" so -called J. "influence."[313]


Since WWII broke out, the British authorities pushed the Arab press: "compromising and conciliatory views towards Britain and its allies":[314]
Those who refused to compromise felt the wrath of the British censor: the authorities often used newsprint quotas and restrictions of other technical services in order to punish newspapers voicing criticism and to reward more compromising news-papers. During the Second World War eighteen new newspapers appeared, of them three dailies, six weeklies, six monthlies and three that appeared erratically. Two of the most prominent, al-Muntada, 'Discussion Forum', and Huna al-Quds, 'Here is Jerusalem', were published by British authorities, with the aim of influencing Palestinian public opinion in favour of Britain and its allies. These two newspapers were virtually the only available sources of information on the fighting on the different fronts, even for other newspapers, although the news they presented was probably censored and edited at the discretion of the authorities. Two other newspapers, al-Ittihad and al-Ghad, 'The Tomorrow', were leftist-oriented and expressed the increasing influence of popular elements and labour unions which began to assemble at the time, challenging the senior political leadership, many of whose members were absent...


Barid al-Sharq
Mufti Amin al-Husseini in the Berlin Mosque - from Barid al Sharq 1943

Barid Al Sharq (Bareed al-Shark [بريد الشرق]: Orient Post) was an Arabic Nazi propaganda publication published Bi-weekly[315] in Berlin, in the period 1939–1944. It was distributed in the Arab countries and Mandatory Palestine. "Articles in Barid al-Sharq, dominated by the usual anti-British, anti-Communist, and anti-Jewish agitation, also drew on religious themes... Contributors included the Lebanese pan-Islamist Shakib Arslan and Abdurreshid Ibrahim, who, after his service for Germany during the First World War, had now become imam of the Tokyo Mosque, giving the paper a further pan-Islamic tinge." The journal also published several speeches by members of the Nazi elite, by al-Husayni (including his calls for Jihad).

Arslan, one of the key figures of Arab nationalist thought and pan-Arab and - Muslim activism in the interwar period,[157] very tight with the Arab leadership in Mandatory Palestine, especially with the Husseinis, as he, Arab movements in general, clung to fascism.[156]

Yunus Bahri of the (Nazi propaganda in Arabic on the) radio Here is berlin (greeting to the Arabs) also contributed to the journal.[63]

Johann Von Leers also published articles in Barid al-Sharq.[316]

Its editors also published an Arabic- language brochure with the title Islam and the Jews (al-Islam wa-l-Yahud), based on a series of articles that the journal had run earlier under the same title. Numerous copies were distributed in Tunis. In spring 1942, the German consulate in Tangier reported the "confiscation" of several boxes of the brochure by Spanish officials. Files stored in the archives of the Foreign Office in Berlin indicate that the distribution of Barid al-Sharq in the Tangier zone repeatedly caused friction between German officials and the local Spanish administration during the North African campaign. [162] Nazi propagandist on the Radio, Yunus Bahri, also contributed, edited there.[63]

Al-Jaheer [وبالمقابل] (Bass) was a monthly magazine published by the Arabic section of Radio Berlin. It was addressed to the same readers of the "Barid al-Sharq" who had to be persuaded to be hostile to the Anglo-Saxons, the Communists and the Jews. The magazine sought to bring the sympathy of these readers towards Germany, which is to be shown as a great power advocating Islam and Muslims.[317]



Nazism at Arabs: Ideology too, not just "practical" allies.

Historian:[28]

Arab admiration for Nazism in the 1930s, after Hitler came to power, should be seen against the backdrop of such an identity of values. The explanation usually given for such admiration, namely, that a common antipathy toward France and Britain pushed the Arabs into Hitler's arms, is only a partial explanation. Furthermore, as a fundamental explanation, it is overly simplistic to the point of being a perversion of history.

While Hitler's violation of the Versailles Treaty was a crude slap in the face of Britain and France, it came much later in 1936, with German rearmament, and in 1938, with the Anschluss of Austria. From 1933 at least until the German attack on Poland in September 1939, there were no grounds for assuming that Hitler, an Anglophile who based his long-term strategy, as outlined in Mein Kampf, on Anglo-German cooperation, would be the one to save the Arabs from British colonialism. As the Middle East was mostly under the British sphere of influence, Hitler viewed it at the time of his accession largely as secondary to his overall plans; German attitudes then could be summed up by Bismarck's aphorism, "The entire Eastern question is not worth the bones of a single Pomeranian grandier."

Furthermore, while Jews were the victims of Mazi Anti-Semitism, that anti-Semitism included all Semites, at least at the "anthropological" level. Nazi contempt for Arabs is amply reflected in expressions of racist revulsion toward them, and of the embarrassment engendered among the Nazi leadership by the courtship toward them by Haj Amin al-Husseini, at least prior to the outbreak of the Second World War.

Immediately upon Hitler's accession to power, parties emulating National Socialism were formed throughout the Arab world. One such party, established in Syria by Anton Sa'ada, adopted all the outer forms of Nazism with alacrity. Sa'ada, who presented himself to the world as "Fuehrer of the Syrian Nation", included in his party's platform the claim that "Syrians are a 'master race' by their very nature".

Hitler himself was Islamized, acquiring the new appellation of "Abu Ali" (and in Egypt, for some reason, "Mohamed Heidar").

Similar parties were also established in Iraq, Tunisia, and Morocco. However , the one party on the Nazi model in the Arab world whose impact transcended the period of the 1930s and which , to a considerable extent, fashioned the regime in the principal Arab land subsequent to the Second World War, was the Green-Shirted Young Egypt, which specifically copied the forms of the Hitler Youth and the Brown Shirts of the SA. The party was founded by Ahmed Hussein in October 1933 on the German model, replete with raised-armed greetings, a general staff, storm troopers, torch - light parades, and Nazi slogans (including a literal translation into Arabic of "One Nation, One Party, One Leader", and "Egypt über alles"). Gang of strong-arms to deal with opponents, and, needless to say , the status of "Fuehrer" for Ahmed Hussein. Nazi anti-Semitism was also incorporated into Young Egypt, including a boycott of Jewish businesses , physical harassment , and incitement to violence. As Dafna Alon has stated, "Nazi anti-Semitism – theory, practice, and policy – fitted the needs of Arab nationalism [in the 1930s] like a glove."

During the war, Young Egyptians supplied Rommel with intelligence...


Author:[318]
the relations between the Arab and Nazi leaders were based on something more than a quid pro quo, i.e., Arab help in the Nazi war effort in exchange for Nazi help in the struggle against the Jews and British. They also shared certain values, if bloodthirstiness and all-consuming Jew-hatred can be called "values."

On May 24, 1933, an elaborated piece appeared about 'Arab Antisemitism', as seen by the three daily Arab newspapers in Palestine, which reflect the opinions of Arab leaders and the active political class: 'Falastin' - فلسطين, 'Al-Jami'a al-Arabiyya' - الجامعة العربية and 'Al-jamā'ah al-islāmīyah' - الجماعة الإسلامية.

How they backed Hitlerist propaganda and condemned the Jews.[319]
The crown of Arab anti-Semitism in the events of Germany goes without a doubt to the Mufti newspaper: 'Al-Jami'a al-Arabiyya.' This newspaper supported Hitlerism in the past, because fascist nationalism is its ideal. It always repeated the slogan: we support Hitler and only one thing will violate our joy. With his victory, his rule will increase the flow of Jewish immigration to Israel. And here Hitler came to power, terrible persecutions took place against the Jews of Germany, and 'Al-Jami'a' immediately sided with the Nazis to protect them from the "false [sic] Jewish" propaganda...And the editor of 'Islamiya' writes simply (on May 22): "When Hitlerism appeared, the Arabs cheered and rejoiced, saying: A blow from heaven in the hands of others."

It goes on about Falastin backing Nazis too and concludes:

there is only one and only conclusion regarding Eretz Yisrael: the Arab leaders are already Hitlerites in idea, and woe and woe to the Jewish community in Israel if they are given power.



The Falastin (Filastin) since 1932/3 was ‘excited’ about Nazi Germany.[320]

Falastin (Filastin) praises Hitler 1933/04/04

It glorified Hitler, comparing him to their ideal leaders.[321] Hitler glorification included his war against the Jews, calling him "noble" for that.[322]

During some period of time, it openly carried pro Hitlerism. During other periods, for example to avoid discipline, censorship and or penalties, it, for a while, used sneaky tricky ways, that is, to glorify Nazis by carefully selected "reports" elaborating on Axis advances and 'excite' its readers on Hitler while cherry picking negative or critical of the Allies steps citing sources from Western countries, so the investigators wouldn't act. In addition, often inserting "news" as a subtitle under those articles, as if its source is the same... [152][91] In all, Falastin, as well as almost all other Arab newspapers in Palestine cheered for Hitler[323]


Overview:[324]

In September 1933, al-Difa' called the struggle against the Zionists a jihad (holy war), and warned that anyone who did not take a part in this war was committing a sin. The Arabic press also featured cartoon caricatures of the Jews, in the best tradition of Der Stürmer, the Nazi anti-Semitic weekly.

For instance, in September 1932, Filastin printed a cartoon depicting Zionism as an intimidating crocodile, opening its mouth wide to swallow two Arab peasants, while an armed British soldier stood by calmly.

Mir'at al-Sharq (Mirror of the World) was the only Arab newspaper that dared to go against the trend. In April 1935 it urged Arab-Jewish co-operation, arguing that the Arabs and the Jews were cousins, and Palestine was the only safe haven for them.

The paper was denounced by the rest of the Arabic press, and accused of collaborating with the Jews.


(In running from the Brits, in 1937, the Mufti also used such tricks as "escaped into the Temple Area,"[325], in the mosque of Omar - built on the site of King Solomon's temple.[326])


André Palert, the Marianne French (active 1930-40 noted) magazine's special correspondent in Jerusalem, reported at least since 1937 how Mussolini woos the Arabs and about the Mufti's extremism. And that:[327]
The Mufti has also become one of the most eminent personages of the Moslem world, a leader whose moral prestige as defender of the Arabs was so well established that he was in a position to arbitrate in the war between Saudi Arabia and the Yemen, and ultimately to bring about peace between the two Arab States.

He interviewed the Mufti at the Haram al-Sharif and was informed that Italian arms and funds were reaching the Holy Land.[328]


Weeks after the Mufti and other Arab terror leaders have escaped into neighbouring areas, it was reported on Nov 6, 1937, "Arabs demand money and arms from Hitler and Mussolini," they chose delegates who will travel to Rome and Berlin, with the aim of gaining support from Mussolini and Hitler in their fight against the Brits and the Zionists, seeking money as well as weapons.[329]


In 1938, Marianne:[330][331]

Arab journals Falastin and Al Difa'a publish every week articles with a racial tendency and frequently reproduce large portraits of various leaders of the Third Reich. They do not even try to conceal the fact that they have become pupils of the Ministry of Propaganda in Berlin.


Publicized in 1938, the editor of the extremist Arab daily "Ad-Difaa" visited Cairo to meet a "prominent German personage" and returned suddenly to expand its pages and greatly extend its news and pictorial services. The swastika has appeared in Arab leaflets and German rifles have been captured more than once from Arab terrorists.[332]


Documented at the time and quoted in a May 22, 1939, session:[333]

Already in 1935—I am quoting the editor of the "Quarterly Review,"— 50 German agents were sent to Africa and the Near East. Their destinations, among others, were Haifa and Jaffa.

They were given instructions to carry on the most intensive propaganda efforts among the natives. In 1936 — I am quoting the "Daily Telegraph" —the Jerusalem police intercepted documents proving that the Arab raiders received £ 50,000 from Germany and £ 20,000 from Italy for the purpose of strengthening their resistance.

We know that British officers in Palestine talk freely of the German and Italian arms and money that the terrorists have received. We know that the land mines by which British soldiers have been murdered could not be made and could not be operated by the Arabs. We know that on one occasion the bloodhounds followed the trail from a land mine to a blacksmith's shop in the German colony of Waldenheim. We know that Dr. Goebbels has established a propaganda school for Arabs in Berlin.


Reported by the Time, in July 1939:[334]
In Germany hand-picked Arabs are invited as honor guests to the Nazi Party's annual Congress at Nürnberg, where they usually hear Nazi orators bait the Jews. Both Nazi and Fascist newspapers, moreover, rarely miss a chance to fight the battle of the Arab in Palestine and Syria.


In Sep 1939:[335]

Hitler's speech was repeatedly broadcast in Arabic from Berlin on Friday and yesterday. The Berlin Station also broadcast attacks in Arabic on Great Britain for alleged ill treatment of Arabs in Palestine and elsewhere.


Haj Amin al-Husseini, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem[336] (who chose to "believe" the old bloodlibel canard of ritual murder, since his youth,[337][338][339] (his secretary, Mar'uf al-Dawilibi still reiterated it in 1984, at the UN.[340]); admitting himself a "believer" in the "Protocols" forgery,[341] and was directly involved in organizing the 1920 violence[342] and the 1929 riots that destroyed the 3,000-year-old Jewish community of Hebron[197] - brutal 1929 Hebron massacre[343][344]) He "was recognized as the sole leader of the Arabs of the country after the role he played in the events of August 1929."[186]


His Nazi style hatred was manifested already in 1937. As a venomous brochure, dubbed the Arab Nein Kampf[345] was distributed at the Bludan conference, attended by over 400 Arabs in Sep. 1937, entitled "Islam and Jewry." It has been described as history's "first text that propagated sheer Jew-hatred in an Islamic context by mixing selected anti-Jewish episodes of Mohammed’s life with the so-called wickedness [sic] of Jews in the 20th century."[288] Ahmad Shukeiri also helped spread his message which he described as a European Crusade against Islam, and declared that the Arab people would rise and fight world Jewry...[346] At that conference the Mufti was elected pan Arab president. The speech has been translated into German in 1938,[347] The brochure was also translated into Croatian during World War II and distributed to the Bosnian Muslim SS soldiers - the SS Division. The 13th mountain "Handschar".[345] Ahead of the Bludan Conference, the Arab Higher Committee published a 'warning' to Lebanon and any Arab nation that will open its doors to the Jews. The AHC called this, a "danger."[348]


A highlight of the 1936-9 Arab riots’ atrocities is the Tiberias 1938 massacre.[349][350]

Report at the time: The Jewish neighborhood never had issues with its Arab neighbors. In-between their atrocious acts, the Arab attackers sat down and ate calmly at a house they invaded. Their "heroic" acts was aimed at defenseless. Brother and sister were found held together. People were burned, some while alive. Witnesses said orders were given over in a European language and an Arab official translated into Arabic to the large gang. There were screams to kill the Jews in Arabic and 'Allah Akbar.'[351] Author:[352]

Arabs stormed a Jewish neighborhood in Tiberias, killing 19 people, including 11 children.

The truck driver Alex Morrison arrived in town shortly after the attackers left. "They left behind one of the most horrible sights I have ever seen in my life," he later wrote: the place was littered with corpses, men, women and children. "The women's naked bodies testified that the assailants made the most horrific use of their knives," Morrison wrote.

In one building, probably a baby house, the scorched bodies of children were still burning; It was obvious that fuel had been poured on them before they were set on fire.

(There is a version that there was some Nazi link to the Arab gang as well.[353][354])


April 24, 1939 Falastin issue publishes Hitler's speech and calls him 'the leader.'


Islamischer Kulturbund - Berlin. From a Dec 1939 report:[355]

Headquarters of the Union of Islamic and Christian Arabs, the organization said to be behind much of the terrorism in North Africa, have been shifted to Berlin, and the name has been changed to Islamischer Kulturbund . . . That the so-called escape of the Grand Mufti from Jerusalem was not an escape at all, but due to the deliberate laxity of the British authorities, who wanted him out of the country . . .

The story is that with the Mufti outside of Palestine the British could legally get control of the funds of the Moslem religious bodies, of which the Mufti was the boss . . . With these funds, it is said, he financed the campaign of terrorism . . .


Istaqlal's nationalist Awni Abd Al-Hadi, who mentored, employed Ahmad Shukeiri,[356] as Istiqlal's president, he visited Germany in 1939, meeting Nazi officials.[357]


On June 8, 1939, King Ibn Saud's adviser, Khalid al-Hud al-Qarqani, met with German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop, and then with Hitler himself on June 17.[358] According to [bragging of] the Mufti in his 1954 book:[359] Hitler cited the Jihad of the Arabs of Palestine as an example at an official reception held in 1938 for Khaled al-Qarqani, the adviser of.. the King Abd al-Aziz to the House of Saud, Hitler said, that he was full of admiration for the struggle of the Palestinian Arabs and their heroism...

Palestine Jews mobilize for national service these are seen reporting at a recruiting office in the Jewish city of Tel Aviv, Israel on Nov. 2, 1939. (AP Photo)
Front page of the October 19, 1944 issue of 'Lahayal,' the daily newspaper for Jewish soldiers in Europe published in Italy. Top headlines are about the progress of the Allies in Europe.(Courtesy of the National Library of Israel) There is a trove of publications by WWII Jewish soldiers from Palestine, newspapers, journals, and other periodicals produced by Jewish units from Palestine in British Army reveal rich intellectual and emotional lives of soldiers fighting in Europe.[360]

(Jews paid Arabs to join British army,[361] a large portion of Arabs that did fight in Palestine came from across the Jordan, Syria and Lebanon, to the recruitment bureaus in Palestine, and many of them enlisted with the intention of acquiring weapons for themselves.[362] Worth mentioning, Major Lyall Wilkes of the House of Commons quoted the British officer who led the Arab Legion of Transjordan, General Glubb Pasha, as writing in 1944 that all the Arabs trained by the British deserted during World War II. Wilkes stated, the British recognized during the war that the Haganah was the only force the allies could rely on.[363] Author Yoni Rainey, in [364] his books - "Closed Case" and "The Hidden Side of Nazism and the Holocaust" - he claims that about 9,000 Palestinian and Jordanian Arabs did enlist to the British Army during the war (in comparison with about 27,000 Jews). But, from the moment it became evident the Germans may pass through Egypt and reach Palestine in spring 1942, Palestinian Arabs switched sides. About 78% of the Arab volunteers deserted the British army, often times stealing weapons for the purpose of helping the Germans fight the Jews when the time came. Additionally, a survey conducted in 1941 shows that 88% of Palestinian Arabs supported Nazi Germany, while only 9% backed the British mandate. And then there is that Shukairy's testimony[365] in his book about almost no one agreeing in 1940 to help in British war efforts.

Excerpt from a Sep. 1944 article by a Canadian Rev. Eric D. Errey:[366]

"The Forgotten Ally." ...The world has never been adequately informed about the many Jews who fought with the British 8th Army from Alamein and on. When the great offensive was planned to begin at El Alamein, General Montgomery felt that it would a useful strategy to deploy a group of commandos behind the enemy lines at Bardia, So 85 commandos were chosen for this arduous task, and every one of them Jew! These 85 Jewish commandos were taken by British warships to the chosen spot, set ashore, and within a short time, and coinciding with the attack of the 8th Army, these 85 Jews captured Bardia with 9,000 prisoners! Holding on long enough to hand over the great booty - the to the victorious 8th Army as it raced through. Time does not permit tell of all the other exploits of Jewish soldiers and guerillas, of the capture, for example, of Fort Courand in French Syria by a handful Jewish civilians armed with rifles and other ...small arms, thus opening the way to Australians in their offensive against Vichy Syria. All the world over the Jewish people have suffered at the hands of Hitler and all other people everywhere who are moved like Hitler by racial intolerance and sometimes very hatred. And all the world over, no people have been more ready to fight against Hitlerism than the Jews. And yet, these people continue to be misunderstood and misused by those who ought to be their friends, which the Jewish people of the world seek. First, they seek a Homeland... It was promised to them after the last war. On the basis of that promise some half a million Jews went into Palestine following the last war. They made Haifa into the third largest harbor in the Mediterranean. They built Tel Aviv into a city of 200,000 where thirty years before nothing but sand dunes lay. They transformed the agriculture of the country and reclaimed the desert. Surely a stirring story of two decades of hard work to turn the desert into a garden. But those were the decades, too, especially towards the end of the period, when appeasement was going strong. And the final act of appeasement was done in May 1939, when the British government issued its White Paper, to appease the Pro-Nazi elements among the Arabs, led by the Mufti of Jerusalem, who even now is, cavorting somewhere in Germany with his other Nazi friends.


Palestine's Arabs admire Hitler - Pathfinder, 1940

In March 1940, in a popular magazine, it was simply explained, that "Palestine's Arabs admire Hitler for his Jew-baiting."[367] (In an article discussing the war and the Near East).


The February 1941 poll[368] showed Palestine Arabs overwhelmingly supported the Nazis.


In 1940, the Mufti attempted to open up communication with Hitler through contacting Franz Von Papen, Nazi representative in Ankara. His letter via N. Shawkat, was given to von Papen on July 5, 1940,[369] on this day, congratulating the Germans for their victory over France and soliciting further German support for the Arab cause.[370]


From captured German archives:[371]
One "top secret" document revealed that in 1940 an agreement on Palestine was formulated. In it "Germany and Italy

recognize the right of the Arab countries to solve the question of the Jewish elements in Palestine and the other Arab countries in a manner that conforms to the national and ethnic interests of the Arabs, and to the solution of the Jewish question in the countries of Germany and Italy." On Aug. 6, 1940, Franz von Papen, German Ambassador in Turkey, cabled Berlin of his meeting with the Grand Mufti. The cable made known that the pro-Nazi Arab clique that included the present Saudi Arabian Secretary of State wished to cooperate with Hitler by organizing a revolt in Palestine. Von Papen reported that an understanding was reached with Saudi Arabia on the removal of pro-British King Abdullah of Transjordan and the annexation of that territory to Palestine.

The Grand Mufti wrote Hitler on June 21, 1940, that Arab Palestine which had been "fighting the democracies and international Jewry, is ready at any time to assume an active role" in collusion with Germany.


A Nov. 1940 report from Cairo on Axis’ efforts to incite Arabs against Britain and Jews, while Egypt under Britain tried to counter it.[372] A Nov 1 report:[373]

Broadcasts Appeal To Arabs

In a new effort to arouse the Arabs against Britain, the Zeesen radio broadcast on its Arabic program an official German declaration pledging complete German sympathy in the Arab struggle for independence. The Fascist radio, in a highly colored version of the London Zionist conference asserted that it proved the alliance between Britain and the Jews is working satisfactorily against the Palestine Arabs. Replying to the German declaration, the Egyptian radio broadcast a statement to the Arab world reminding Arabs that Hitler had called them a savage people living in the dark ages.

The statement pointed out that while Hitler promised the Arabs independence, his Italian ally had stolen the rights and freedom of the Arabs of Tripoli and the independence of Islamic Albania.
There were efforts also from the US, in 1942, to counter Nazi propaganda:[374][375]
To counteract Axis propaganda to the Arabs, with accent on the legend that Hitler is a Moslem and a direct descendant of Mohammed, short-wave station WRUL in Boston has begun a regular program directed at Arab sources. WRUL has also undertaken to short-wave a weekly Hebrew period, intended for listeners in Palestine and elsewhere.


Reported in June 1942:[376]

Nazi embassy in Turkey Fosters revolt among Palestine Arabs.


Through their led massacre on Iraqi Jews in 1941, al-Kailani and al-Husseini wanted to signal, there in a 2,500-year-old community, how Arabia’s Jews should be treated.[377]


During the days of the 1941 uprising in Iraq, preparations were made in Palestine for the resumption of the uprising. Posters with a swastika on their heads were distributed among the Arabs and called for an alliance with the Germans.[378]


Explained:[379]

From the way of nature came the struggle for the Land of Israel and instilled a great deal of venom and power in all those elements of Islam that were hostile to Jews and Judaism. Although it is quite clear that these foundations intensified in the Middle East for many years before the establishment of the State of Israel. The status of the Jewish minorities in the Arab world, as well as the status of Christians and non-Arab groups, became increasingly intolerable (and unrelated to Zionism) in the face of pan-Arabism, unique nationalism, overt anti-Semitism, and the resurgence of Muslim fanaticism.

All these trends, which have omitted the ground beneath the feet of the old Jewish communities in Arab countries, drew their power out of a common disgrace to the West and its emancipatory heritage. For it was not Islam but the hated colonialists who granted equal rights to the Jewish and Christian minorities in the Middle East. Against this background it is easy to understand why there was Nazism (and especially its anti-Jewish elements) to arouse such enthusiasm and admiration among the Arabs in the 1930s and 1940s. The words written by Haj Amin al-Husseini, the Mufti of Jerusalem and the leader of the Arabs of Israel, to Adolf Hitler on January 20, 1941, did not in any way contradict the general tone of the Arab nationalism of the period. "Arab nationalism owes Your Excellency a debt of gratitude and of recognition for having repeatedly [again and again] brought up in ringing speeches the 'question of Palestine.'"

In fact, the "question of Palestine" was intended only a marginal place in Hitler's policy and German policy until the outbreak of the war, although the Mufti did not err in seeing Hitler and German leaders as 'anti-Zionists', as opposed to the Stalinist, Trotskyist and leftist fabrications.


Taha Pasha al Hashimi and the Mufti

Noted in 1946:[380]

Iraqi Palestine Defense Society. This Society has been responsible for making the Mufti's propaganda in 'Iraq, they issued their own paper, and wrote articles and fabricated news items for other newspapers, and prepared Arabic broadcasts for the German Minisrer to cable to Germany for broadcasting in the Berlin Arabic broadcasts.

This work threw Taha Pasha into close touch with the German Legation staff who naturally were highly desirous of making contacts with this anti-British body.

This was not Taha Pasha's only contact with the Germans and Palestinians and perhaps his most important contact was his close friendship for Dr. Amin Ruwaiha - Germany's No. 1 Arab agent.

Dr. Amin's wife's sister became Taha Pasha's mistress and a close friendship was established between these two. Amin Ruwaiha had been closely connected with Fawzi al Qaoukji and had assisted him to get arms and to gang to Palestine in the summer of 1936.

Noted in 1947:[381]
A key person in the Mufti's organization was Taha Pasha al-Hashimi, who had become Iraqi Defense Minister in 1938. Before that, he had been president of the Iraqi Palestine Defense Society in charge of the Mufti's propaganda and responsible for the preparation of the for the Nazi program broadcasts... Taha Pasha was in close contact with Germany's "number one" Arab agent, Dr. Amin Ruwaiha, and through him, with the German Legation.


From British Record:[382]

Taha was the co-founder of the Pan Arab Nazi Club Al-Muthanna in Baghdad in 1935. He was co-founder and President of the Iraqi Society for the Society for the Defense of Palestine which prepared Arabic broadcasts for the Berlin radio. This work brought Taha in close This work brought Taha in close touch with the German Embassy and the Nazi agent , Dr. Amin Rawaiha. The latter was interned in Rhodesia by the British, together with Jamal Husseini. Taha also was close to the Golden Square, a pro-Fascist group of army officers who were the chief backers of the Rashid Ali revolt. As Minister of Defense, Taha made every effort to prevent Iraq from breaking off relations with Nazi Germany if war broke out.

He put active pro-Nazis in key positions and played a very significant role in the interference in political affairs of Iraqi army officers.


Muhammad 'Izzat Darwazeh / Darwaza محمد عزة دروزة) 1888–1984) of Nablus, one of the Arab nationalist leaders, of the founders of the Istiqlal, many times as a messenger and spokesman for the Mufti[383] during WW2 Darwaza engaged in prp-Nazi activities, helping Hitler's war machine,[384][385][386] especially in Turkey,[387] (in his 1950-2 book series he showed he still delved in conspiracy theories and rationalized Nazi persecution of the Jews.[388])


A secret British intelligence report mentions "Ajaj Nuwayhid, the adviser of Haj Amin al-Husseini, and Hussein Hamada, Sheikh Rashid Hamadeh's son, who was known as an agent of the Italian propaganda ministry. These men were identifīed as supporters of the Axis states during the war."[389] (This Ajaj Nuwayhid would, later on, promote/publish the infamous forgery Protocols,[390] hailed by "Palestinian" official media as a so-called "important" work.[391]).


Nazi views on Palestine had their roots in Hitler's pathological "fear" of 'International Jewry' [sic] in his mein kampf and his "belief" that the Zionists are not sincere and that the Jews do not really aim to establish a State in Palestine. Claiming: "They have no thought of building up a Jewish state in Palestine." He Only referenced to Palestine issue that once in his "book."[392] As Hitler, so did the other infamous, Alfred Rosenberg, as publicized by the Nazis from his Jan 15, 1938 speech.[393]


(And when some Zionists,[394][395][396] controversially, were involved in ad hoc Haavara[397] transfer to save Jews, whom Nazi Germany did not want to have at all,[398][238] Zionist Haavara saved some 80,000 Jewish lives from the hands of the Nazis.[399][400] Moreover, the Nazis saw emigrating Jews as a propaganda tool to be used against Jews.[401] Yet, by late 1937 an anti-Nazi German official involved in administering the agreement suggested that fear in Nazi circles that it might lead to a Jewish state, to which Hitler was implacably opposed, was leading to suggestions "it should be terminated."[398]

Despite Nazis' distaste for the Arabs, their attitude toward Zionism was hateful and hostile. They claimed to be believing that only “Aryans” were entitled to and/or capable of political sovereignty.[402]

Wilhelm Frick later ordered Jewish owned ships to fly the Swastika.[403] and already in 1934[404] Zionists explained they had no choice till reaching Haifa shores, then removing it and putting up Blue and white flag.

It ended in 1939 / outbreak of WW2. Later on, Eichmann became the appointee on Jews.)


Thomas Williams (Tom Williams, Baron Williams of Barnburgh) in the House of Commons on May 22, 1939:[405]
The only persons that the Arabs need fear—the Arabs for whom I have any thought—are the Arab terrorists encouraged by the ex-Mufti, who have been responsible for killing about 3,000 of them during the last year or two. It is ridiculous to talk about the fear of Jewish domination, with Arabs States all around Palestine where not only could they come to the aid of their fellow Arabs, but where no body of Jews would dare to dispose of the safeguards that have been provided for them. This fear argument is a mere excuse. It is another victory for Hitler and Mussolini and those who think as they think, and those who have been guiding the terrorists activities during the past three years.


Massacres of Jews began systematically in 1941. And the Jan 29, 1942 Wannsee Conference on the "Final Solution" intensified the plan of total extermination.[406])


With Syria's Shukri al-Quwatli [6 May 1891 – 30 June 1967] and (Syrian born Saudi Arabian official) Sheikh Yusuf Yasin [Yousuf Yassin, 1888−19 April 1962]


German documents recalled in 1957:[407]

Saudi Arabian King Saud's Secretary of State has been revealed by captured German archives to have been a leader of a pro-Nazi Arab collaboration committee. He is Sheikh Yusuf Yasin who this year obtained renewed agreement of Washington to the barring of American personnel of Jewish faith from the U. S. Air Force base at Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.

A search of previously secret German documents captured by the U. S. Army in Berlin reveals a memorandum on Arab collaboration with Hitler. It was submitted to the German Foreign Ministry on August 27, 1940, by Nazi Minister Fritz Grobba. The memorandum pertains to negotiations with Hitler's leading Arab supporter, the so-called Grand Mufti, Haj Amin el Husseini.

Not only does the document expose the membership of the present Saudi Arabian official on the Arab committee for pro-Nazi collaboration but it shows that the current President of Syria was also a member. He is Shukri Kuwatli.

DISCUSSED ARMS

According to the German records, the Grand Mufti, Sheikh Yusuf, Kuwatli, and others worked with the Nazis against the Allies.

They backed the pro-Hitler revolt of Rashid Ali al-Gailani in Iraq. A general uprising in Palestine was envisaged. Arrangements were discussed for provision of munitions through Axis channels for use against the British forces and Jewish inhabitants.

At the time, he represented Saudi Arabia on the pro-German Committee of Collaboration under the chairmanship of the Grand Mufti, Sheikh Yusuf was private secretary to the present King Saud's father. Today Sheikh Yusuf continues his interest in the Jewish problem by seeking to persuade Secretary of State Dulles to keep Israeli shipping out of the Gulf of Akaba. Although the world-wide Nazi movement was thought to have collapsed with the fall of Germany in 1945, Arabs organized by the Hitler apparatus are still striving to complete the Nazi blueprint against world Jewry. Syrian President Kuwatli is today collaborating with another totalitarianism—Communism.

The German records raise serious questions about the reliability of the Arabs as friends of the West An August 20, 1940 directive from the German Foreign Ministry to its ambassadors abroad reported that leading Arab personalities have in recent times repeatedly approached our foreign missions to advance collaboration and collusion. Berlin recommended that the Arabs be assured of "Germany's full sympathy in their people's fight for liberation." German propagandists were instructed to champion the "liberation of the Arab world from imperialism."

VITAL AREA

Today the Soviet Union is operating under almost precisely the same strategy in its campaign of collusion with Arab extremists The Soviet goal is the same as Hitler's.

Domination of the Middle East is seen by Khrushchev as strategically vital.

One top secret document revealed that in 1940 an agreement on Palestine was formulated. In it Germany and Italy recognize the right of the Arab countries to solve the question of the Jewish elements in Palestine and the other Arab countries in a manner that conforms to the national and ethnic interests of the Arabs, and to the solution of the Jewish question in the countries of Germany and Italy.

On August 6, 1940, Franz von Papen, German Ambassador in Turkey, cabled Berlin of his meeting with the Grand Mufti. The cable made known that the pro-Nazi Arab clique that included the present Saudi Arabian Secretary of State wished to cooperate with Hitler by organizing a revolt in Palestine.

Von Papen reported that an understanding was reached with Saudi Arabia on the removal of pro-British King Abdullah of Transjordan and the annexation of that territory to Palestine. The Grand Mufti wrote Hitler on June 21, 1940, that Arab Palestine which had been "fighting the democracies and international Jewry, is ready at any time to assume an active role."


Historian:[408]

In Iraq, its rulers extended open aid to the Arabs of Israel [Palestine] by supporting the Germans.

In Jaffa, Nablus and Tulkarm there were many attending gatherings with Arab and Italian agents, who organized the young people to shout cheers: 'Viva Italia! Viva Duce! And Heil Hitler!’

In a proclamation distributed, signed by Hitler, they called on their audience to fight the English.

In Acre, courses for instructors were organized in military cells. An Arab was apprehended by the Jordan Guard on May 19, 1940, with a letter and a considerable sum of money in his hand intended to act as the commander of the Arab Revolt in the Near East, who was required to begin terrorist acts. Hitler was called by the conspiratorial name - Abu Ali. In Baghdad, Arab leaders gathered and discussed the question of disturbances against the Jews of Israel [Palestine], according to the instructions of German agents. In return, Germany promised the Arabs, the deportation of the Jews ... The Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin al-Husseini, who moved to Syria, demanded immediate terrorist attacks. Subhi Zivan and his brother Rostor Zivan from Tira were appointed to manage the Arab gang operations in the Haifa district. Abu Ali, head of the Arab al-Wahab tribe, located between Rosh Pina and Yesod HaMaala, was given the role of managing the fifth column in Israel [Palestine].

Said Shakid, one of the gang leaders, returned to Israel. In a proclamation distributed in Ramallah he warned the British that he would fight alongside Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini (he was caught after a shootout in Beitunia). Most of the gang members who fled to Iraq, after the events of 1936-1939, returned to Syria to prepare for riots in Israel.


In May 1941, in neighboring Syria, Arabs talked of 'Mohammed Hitler.'[409]


In May 1941, The NYT ran the following:[410]

HITLER'S JIHAD

Within five days after the fall of Athens, war has begun in a still older cradle of civilization. The first shots in this war were fired yesterday when Iraqi artillery in the historic valley of the Euphrates opened fire on a British air base. The government that took this action is a pro-Axis government which seized power less than a month ago by a coup d'etat.


News report of June 1, 1941: Nazis run guns to the Arabs in Palestine. In addition, Nazi war planes taking off from Iraq dropped leaflets inciting the Arabs for a 'holy war' against the British and the Jews. The intensive anti-Jewish propaganda campaign conducted by the Nazis is becoming increasingly effective among certain sections of the Arab population.[411]


"the extent of fascination and admiration for Hitler and his armies."
Arab author explains:[412]
At all, the speed of the German advance was in their view a kind of miracle, for example the pioneers of a cafe in Nazareth were listening to the news from Cairo radio, and during the short pause one of those present shouted that the broadcaster had gone to the window in the studio to see if Hitler had entered Cairo or not. This indicates the extent of fascination and admiration for Hitler and his armies. Ahmad Al-Shukairi mentions that the Arabs of Palestine were: "Their sympathies and calls were directed to the Axis, headed by Hitler leading them from victory to victory," in 1941.. Posters were hung on the walls of Hebron, anti-British and supportive of Hitler.



June 1941, four Nazi Arabs visited the prototype for future death camps:[413]

In May, Himmler ordered the killing of 250 Jews in the camp as a test run. The system worked flawlessly. And so, in June 1941, four special Arab guests visited the prototype for future death camps. Their interest had a very practical purpose.

One day, they planned to create their own Station Z's in the Middle East near Tunis, Baghdad, and Jericho to eliminate all the Jews in the region. That goal had been set in a January 1941 letter that Amin al-Husaini, the Palestine Arab political and religious leader, sent German Chancellor Adolf Hitler. Al-Husaini asked Hitler to help Arabs solve the Jewish question in their lands the way it was being done in Germany. To succeed they must learn the Nazis' techniques and obtain their technology. This was why four officials from Germany's Arab allies were at Sachsenhausen in June 1942, preparing for the day they would return home behind Hitler's army.


We Arabs Supported Hitler during WWII because he hated the Jews, recalled in a 2019 interview, former Jordanian health minister Dr. Zaid Hamzeh: That he had supported Adolf Hitler during World War II like other Arabs, and that in fourth grade his school had participated in demonstrations and chanted "Long live Abu Ali." He was exactly nine years old. Saying: "We took to the streets to support him when the Rashid Ali Al-Gailani revolution broke out in Iraq. We supported the revolution, and, of course, [we supported] Hitler, because he hated the Jews, and we have been mad at the Jews ever since those days."[414][415]


Arab-Nazi pogrom: Farhud

Farhoud - 1941 Arab-Nazi pogrom

Perpetrators: Futuwwa[416] organized Kata’ib al-Shabab, whose members 'imbibed Nazism from the Palestinians and the Syrians,'[417] mob, and some Arab soldiers and policemen.[418]


The Mufti's led instigation, Futuwah Arab Hitler-youth gang's agitation, prelude to the brutal Farhud (al-Farhoud) massacre in June-1941 Baghdad,[419][420] the particularly gruesome attack,[421][422][423] where as many as 1,000 Jews could have died.[424][421] Four days before the Farhud, the infamous [Younis] Yunus Bahri, recruited by Grobba, incited via his broadcast.[425]


It was: the emissaries of the Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin al-Husseini, and Grobba, the political attaché of Nazi Germany in Baghdad, who provoked incitement against Iraqi Jews.[426]


Leading up to the pogrom:[427]
Iraqi and Palestinian nationalists increased their pro-Nazi activities, forming the quasi-military organization Al-Futuwwa and the nationalist Al-Muthanna Club that incited violence against Jews...

Jewish teachers from Palestine were expelled.  Palestinian leaders were given hospitality, support, and the freedom of political activity in Iraq. They included the Mufti of Jerusalem, Hajj Amin al-Husayni, who had been expelled from Jerusalem by the British; Jamal al-Husayni, head of the Arab Party; Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, a Nazi supporter who studied in Germany;

Musa al-'Alami (1897–1984)...; and the Palestinian nationalist activist and poet Buhan al Din Al-Abbushi, who called for the people and the government of Iraq to expel or massacre the Iraq's Jews. The activities of these Palestinian nationalists and of Dr. Fritz Grobba, Germany's consul in Baghdad, led to the establishment of the pro-Nazi government headed by Rashid 'Aali al-Gilani in April, 1941.


Some 400 Mufti's linked Palestine-Arabs assisted in incitement and 4 days before the attack, Younus Bakhri viciously railed against the Jews.[428]


Younis al-Sabawi plotted an even greater massacre

Standing out in contributing beforehand, were also two other Palestine Arabs agitators, teacher Darwish al-Miqdadi [درويش المقدادي] (1891-1961) and Nablus born Akram Zuaiter [أكرم زعيتر אכרם זועיתר] (1909-1996), the 'Farhud' pogrom was carried out with extraordinary brutality of throwing babies into the water in front of parents, mass rape in front of the men before torturing and murdering, etc. Yunis al-Sabawi played a major role in the Farhoud pogrom and planned an even greater massacre. Yunis A. Sabawi invited the head of the Jewish community in Baghdad to him and demanded that he tell the Jews not to leave their homes for the three days: Saturday, Sunday and Monday, which are the two days of Shavuot. That morning, Yunis sent a call to the masses through the broadcasting service, to carry out a massacre of the Jews; However, this call was delayed by the head of the security committee, who was able to ban Sabawi]and transport him across the border.[429]


About the Palestine Arab there Darwish Miqdadi.[430]
…Darwish Miqdadi, born in Tul-Karem. In 1929 he was expelled to Iraq after taking part in the disturbances of that year. After a spell he returned to Palestine and was re-arrested during the Arab Rebellion. When released, he fled once more to Iraq. In Iraq he did not abandon his nationalist activity; while working as a teacher and education inspector, he published his ideas. He participated in a delegation to Nazi Germany and collaborated with Rashid Ali. He was allowed to return to Palestine in October 1945, and in the summer of 1946 he succeeded Ahmad Shuaqyri as the Director of the Arab Office in Jerusalem.


Author writes:[431]

[In the 1930s and 40s], resident Gestapo agents such as Fritz Grobba . . . employed such tactics as dispensing [large amounts] of cash among [Iraqi] politicians and deploying seductive German women among ranking members of the army. From 1933, Radio Berlin began broadcasting hate messages in Arabic, including fallacious reports about non-existent Jewish outrages in Palestine. Grobba cultivated many Iraqis as Nazi surrogates. Iraqi Arab Hitler-style youth marched in Nuremberg torch-light parades hosted by their Berlin counterparts. German was taught in Iraqi schools. When World War II broke out in 1939, Nazism became a fervent cause among many Iraqis. In May 1941, Iraqi fascists backed by popular support tried to overthrow the pro-Western monarchy and seize British oil fields in Iraq to facilitate the oil-dependent German [plan to invade] Russia. That failed. The Iraqi coup plotters in Baghdad decided to do the next best thing: exterminate its Jews in a single blow. Jews were ordered to stay in their homes, and their doors were marked with a red hamsa.

At the last minute, the extermination plot fell apart. But as the coup leaders fled, in that momentarily power vacuum on June 1-2, 1941, dejected swarms of soldiers, in concert with police, common criminals, and nondescript mobs rampaged through Baghdad hunting for Jews. They were easily found. Hundreds of Jews were cut down by sword and rifle, some decapitated. Babies were sliced in half and thrown into the Tigris. Girls were raped in front of their parents. Parents were mercilessly killed in front of their children. Hundreds of Jewish homes and businesses were looted, then burned. . . .


A secret Arab Nazi party was founded in Iraq by the Palestinian wartime Mufti.[432]

There was a direct link between Nazi influences and the crimes of the Farhud and the influence by the Mufti's dominant figure in Iraq:[433]

For two days.. Jews were murdered by Arabs in severe riots. Thousands of Jews were beaten, women were raped and hundreds of children were orphaned by fathers who were murdered or disappeared on their way to police investigations. Homes and shops of 50,000 Jews were looted in the capital, Baghdad. The riots that took place in Iraq were called the Farhud - the robbery or looting in Hebrew. They were carried out against an anti-Semitic background encouraged by the pro-Nazi Iraqi regime... During the British Mandate in Iraq, the situation of the Jews was very good. They were businessmen and economists who were very successful personally and brought Iraq to economic prosperity. After the Arab uprising in Israel, the flourishing of Arab nationalism in Iraq and the rise of Nazism in Iraq, the status of the Jews began to deteriorate and they suffered harassment. The German ambassador to Iraq, Fritz Grobba, has been launching poisonous propaganda against Iraqi Jews since 1933. "He bought the local al-'Alam al-'Arabi ("The Arab World") newspaper, and through it began brainwashing the Jews, publishing Hitler's book Mein Kampf translated into Arabic," says Dr. Nissim Kazzaz, an Orientalist, historian and expert on Iraq in modern times. "Nazi propaganda penetrated various sections of the Iraqi population including educators and military personnel. He convinced the Iraqis that the Jews were driving the British regime and therefore should be killed. "A pro-Nazi was appointed on the recommendation of Ambassador Grobba."

In 1939, Haj Amin al-Husseini, who was in contact with Adolf Hitler, arrived in Iraq. He became a dominant figure in Iraq and managed to establish a secret society headed by him. The association included two former Iraqi prime ministers, a Mein Kampf translator, and senior pro-Nazi officers. This association revolutionized in April 1941, with German support and assistance. That same year a war broke out between the Iraqi army and the British army. Baghdad Radio reported victories at the front, the people took to the streets of Baghdad and shots were fired in the air as a sign of joy. The Iraqi broadcasting station turned to the Iraqis and made it clear to them that after the victory over the British, the internal enemy - that is, the Jews - would be next in line. Rashid Ali, an Iraqi leader backed by the Nazis and Mufti Haj Amin al-Husseini, ruled the capital for two months, but the coup eventually failed. After the Iraqi army failed against the British army senior government officials fled Iraq. Yunis al-Sab'awi, translator of the book Mein Kampf declared himself governor and distributed 400 rifles to the youth organizations that obeyed his order. His intention was to massacre Jews, but his plan was thwarted by an internal security committee set up in Baghdad. However, his men took part in operations against the Jews in Farhud.

Hard evidence At the Farhud riots, Orientalist Dr. Kazzaz was an 11-year-old boy. The day the riots opened was also the last day he saw his father. The first thing they did was start attacking the Jews. They caught Jews in the streets and accused them of signaling to British planes where to shell. Jews were murdered or beaten in the streets, others were taken for police interrogation on false pretenses, some disappeared and did not return to their families and the others were released by the Jewish community by paying bribes to police officers. As the harassment escalated, my father ordered us to shut ourselves in the house like many Jews in Baghdad. For a month we were in houses and did not go out anywhere that was not necessary. "The announcement on official Iraqi radio that the fighting was over was a calming siren for the Jews, who left their homes and hurried to visit their relatives and get back to normal. My father sold silk and gold threads and also bought trained horses for competitions. And his brother to the horse stables that was in an Arab neighborhood. Towards dark we wanted to go home. We got on an eight-passenger minibus and started driving. After a few minutes we saw a crowd of people. The driver stopped and the crowd noticed us.

"My father's partner who was sitting in the front seat and was dressed in holiday clothes, was identified as a Jew and marked as a target. The mob attacked him, pulled him out of the vehicle and started beating him to death. My father who saw the situation got out of the car and apparently went to call for help. "He resumed the trip and Dad disappeared. We did not sit well with Dad because we were sure he found shelter. Charlatans who asked for money testified that they saw him in rural areas of Bedouin tribes demanding ransom for him. Others claimed to have seen him in northern Iraq and that also turned out to be false." [...]

For two days, Iraqis, who were full of Nazi hatred, beat Iraqi Jews. "We went back to fortifying the houses and heard the screams from the nearby houses. Families who tried to identify their dead loved ones were unsuccessful because their faces were mutilated. Some of the Jews were buried in a mass grave."

Inspired by the ghettos in Europe during the Holocaust in 1941, fascist Rashid Ali set up a Nazi-like ghetto for over 600 Jews in the small city of Diwaniya: Forced labor, starvation and beatings.[434][420][435]

The hotbed of Nazi intrigue[436] pan-Arabism Al-Muthanna Club's Yunis al-Sabawi planned even a much larger slaughter of Jews but it was avoided due to him being deported.[437][438]

Needs to be mentioned: The Jews were an enduring presence in the Middle East and North Africa before the advent of Islam and Arabian conquests.[439]


Cables to Hitler & Mussolini on behalf of Arab institutions in Chile - June 1941 (2).PNG

In June 1941, (not long after the Farhud pogrom) Palestine born Jorge Sabaj Zurob of La Reforma [al-Islah], sends cables to Hitler and Moussolini, on behalf of the Arab institutions in Chile, authorized by various institutions of the Arab community and numerous compatriots.[440]


Interesting analysis at the time (1941):[441]

Nazi Campaign on Russ Same as Jewish Attack

PHILADELPHIA (JPS)—The Nazi attack upon Russia was a scheme , aimed at dividing the Christian world, which had been planned as coolly by the Nazis as their earlier campaign in which Jews were the principal pawns, according to Demaree Bess, chief foreign correspondent of the Saturday Evening Post.

Mr. Bess, writing under the title of Hitler Bids for Christian Allies, expresses the view that Hitler’s drive against Russia was calculated to divide and bewilder Catholic countries in Europe, France, Spain, Portugal, Hungary, Italy, Ireland and Catholic communities in South America, Canada and the United States.

In the course of his article Mr. Bess said: It took outsiders a long time to discover all the objectives aimed at by the Nazi anti-Jewish movement. It wasn’t appreciated at first that Hitler was using the Jews, in part, to persuade the Moslem world that he was the defender of the Arabs against the Jews, to maneuver the British Empire into the appearance of championing the Jews against the Arabs.

And now in this latest psychological campaign Hitler plotted to use Red Russians as similar pawns. He assumed the post of defender of Christian Europe against Atheist Russia, seeking thus to paralyze opposition to his imperialist schemes in large sections of the Christian world by maneuvering the British Empire and the United States into the role of accomplices of Bolshevism.
Free Arabian Legion
Freies Arabien in Nazi salute

"Free Arabia." Deutsch-Arabische Lehrabteilung' (DAL)

"The Nazis began recruiting Arabs to the Wehrmacht as early as the summer of 1941 when the starting point was the coup in Iraq, after the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem was exiled to Iraq from Beirut and tried to establish pro - Nazi rule with Iraq's former prime minister, Rashid al-Khilani," explains Dr. Stefan Patka, a doctoral student and researcher at the Berlin University of Technology, who discovered rare documentation showing North African Muslim soldiers trained during World War II. and fought in the service of the Wehrmacht.[442] "Palestinian" Arabs also served in the Mufti's "Free Arabia."[443][444]

1941 Operation Barbarossa & on

Operation Barbarossa marked the beginning of wholesale massacres on Jews. Einsatzgruppen squads began to carry out mass shootings during the last week of June 1941.[445]

Yad Vashem Prof.:[446]
After the invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941 the SS Einsatzgruppen began the mass murders of the 1.5 million Jews in Lithuania, Russia, and the Ukraine.

Hitler was obsessed against the Jews at least since 1920. He didn’t need any "help" from the Mufti in his annihilation plan which was ‘understood’ among his Nazi top hierarchy as the scheme already in 1939.[446]

On his arrival in Rome on October 11, the Mufti presented himself to his hosts, the Italian Military Intelligence, as the "head of the the secret organization, 'The Arab Nation,'" which, he claimed, had branches in every Arab country.

Two days later, on October 13, he presented a kind of working paper in which he detailed his plans and future ambitions. "The organization" that he led would be willing to cooperate with the Axis powers in their war against the common enemy, Britain, "on the sole condition that they recognize in principle the unity, independence and sovereignty of an Arab state of a Fascist nature, including Iraq, Syria, Palestine and Transjordan."

The Mufti's proposal was submitted to the Department for European and Mediterranean Affairs at the Foreign Ministry, which, on November 22, prepared a memorandum for the Prime Minister with the recommendation that the Mufti be given a positive response, that he be granted an initial sum of money and that he be escorted in his travels by a liaison officer.

Mussolini read the memorandum, agreed with its contents and, on the basis of his agreement in principle, a meeting was arranged between the two men.[447]


From Mussolini, the Mufti went on to Berlin, first meeting with Ribbentrop, then on November 28, with Hitler himself.


”Palestinian" pan-Arab pan-Islamic leader, Grand Mufti, with Hitler Nov.28.41

Mufti Husseini met Hitler[448] on 28 Nov, 1941 whereby the Nazi leader also made clear his extermination plan.[377][449]


In addition, Hitler told Mr. Husseini that the Afrika Corps and German troops deployed from the Caucasus region would liberate Arabs in the Middle East and that "Germany’s only objective there would be the destruction of the Jews."[450]

In addition to meeting Hitler, the Mufti also secretly corresponded with Hitler.[451]


Full Mufti’s conversation with Hitler has been published.[452]



Weeks prior to the meeting, the NYT already reported that in Berlin: "Nazis receive 'Great Man' [sic] with 'warmth.'[453]


Youngstown Vindicator, Dec 12, 1941 - Hitler with Mufti: "Hitler Tells Mufti of of Jerusalem to Get Tough."

In the US press at the time (Dec. 1941):[454]

Hitler Tells Mufti of of Jerusalem to Get Tough. Official German picture radioed from Berlin shows Adolf Hitler receiving Haj Amin Al-Husseini, Moslem leader, Grand Mufti of Jerusalem and British-hater. Mufti received conversations "important to Arabian nations."


Among documents detailing Husseini’s petitions and meeting with Hitler found in the mufti’s villa in Germany in 1945 was his diary, with his handwritten entry after meeting Hitler. And:[455]
in one of the French-language drafts, annotated in Arabic in the mufti’s handwriting, he urged inclusion of the following statement: "Germany and Italy recognize the illegality of the ‘Jewish Home in Palestine.’

"They accord to Palestine and to other Arab countries the right to solve the problem of the Jewish elements in Palestine and other Arab countries, in accordance with the interest of the Arabs and, by the same method, that the question is now being settled in the Axis countries. “Under this agreement, no Jewish immigration into the Arab countries should be permitted.” 'Fighting The Jews Without Respite'

At that time, the extermination of the Jews was already in full swing in the conquered Soviet territories, so there is little doubt what the mufti meant by solving the Jewish problem "by the same methods" employed by the Axis...


This religious unholy Mufti was surrounded by various "Aryan" women. His greed infamous.[456]


Al-Husseini received a rifle from Hitler, with a swastika on it.[457]

Shukairy cooperated with the Palestinian Communist Party, led by Moscow ahead of the Second World War. However, after Hitler attacked Russia and communists around the world changed positions, the fierce and unpredictable Shukairy aligned himself with Hitler for his anti-Jewish programs

Ahmad Shukeiri and the Mufti's gang, who worked first with the Communists against the Allies, yet, since Russia joined the Allies in 1941, Shukairy and gang went to Hitler's side all the way, to help him in his programs against the Jews.[458][459]


Shukairy and Mufti's gang went for Hitler all the way


"Shukeiri is a former Nazi"

Before the "Palestinian" Islamists propagandists tried to refute (by quoting from Shukeiri's book about it) his call to throw 'the Jews into the sea' - without washing away Shukeiri's Nazism, it quotes[460] the argument - well-known at the time:

Al-Shugairi is a former Nazi.. He cooperated with Haj Amin Al-Husseini, who is known for his links with Hitler.. He represents no one but the extremist Arab elements that want to throw the Jews into the sea.. "

(Nevertheless, Shukeiri's genocidal 'assertion' ahead of the 1967 Six-Day War - that 'none of them wil survive,' is not disputed.[461][462] [463][464][465])


"Through his radio broadcasts and other work during World War II.. instilled Nazi images of the Jew,"[466] and called to kill the Jews wherever they are. He had at least six stations - Berlin, Zeissen, Bari, Rome, Tokyo and Athens.[467] During his "Holy War," he encouraged his followers to display the swastika on their posters and fliers, vehicles flying the swastika flag were ensured protection when driving through neighborhoods that the grand mufti's followers controlled, they taught children mobilized to back the revolt to give the stiff-armed Nazi salute in greeting.[468]

A particularly vile broadcast was also recorded at the time, in Jan 1942, orchestrated by the Mufti. He evoked the 1840 Damascus blood libel, though it was debunked even at the time, but the Mufti claimed it as if some "fact." Adding, that those Arabs who are willing to work with the Jews are supposedly "descendants" of those (falsely) accused in that blood libel. And the verbatim: "Moslem converts who aim to enslave the Arab people."[338]


On Mar. 19, 1942, the Mufti spoke to the Arab world by Rome radio and said:[469]
If, God forbid, America and her allies are victorious in this war . . . then the world will become hell, God forbid. But Allah is too just and merciful to grant such murderous violators any victory."


Hitler presented confiscated Jewish villa in Berlin to the Ex-mufti "for the duration of the war," the Voelkischer Beobechter states. A number of Arabs residing in Germany have been assigned by the Nazi Ministry of Propaganda to act as staff members to the ex-Mufti in his pro-Nazi propaganda broadcasts over the German radio to Arab countries.[470]


The Mufti was paid "an absolute fortune" of 50,000 marks a month (when a German field marshal was making 25,000 marks a year).[450] He was promised that he would be installed as the leader of Palestine after German troops drove out the British and exterminated more than 350,000 Jews there.[450]


In Eretz-Israel Palestine:


Author (on the situation in Mandatory Palestine):[471] There was great sympathy among the Arabs for the 'Axis' powers... There was a lot of sympathetic listening to the radio broadcasts of the 'Axis' and in particular to the speeches of Hajj Amin al-Husseini and his assistants from among the Arab businessmen living in Germany... At the beginning of the war, there were also certain sabotage attempts, and according to the enemy's broadcasts, it was evident that the news service from the country for the espionage service and the propaganda of the 'Axis' were working correctly.


An Arab activist of Jaffa, in telling the story of his childhood, during the war: "most of the Arabs in Israel were in favor of Nazi Germany."[299] [Referring to Arabs in the land of Israel - Mandatory Palestine].


Historian on the Arabs in the land, referring on the WW2 period - atmosphere:[472]
anticipation of the results of the war and wishes of the majority of Arabs that Britain would emerge defeated in it.


Description (written in 1976):[473]
The Arab street, which had been trained for decades to hate the British and harass the Jews, now found in Hitler, after his first victories, with the beginning of the war, the one who fulfills his wishes...

The relationship between Hitler and Haj Amin determines the mood in the Arab street.

Worst of all were the news about what was happening on Arab Street. The land of Israel was indeed a home front country and lived in relative peace, but the Arab street did not hide its admiration for Hitler and the Third Reich. Hitler was portrayed in the minds of the Arabs as the greatest friend of the Arab nation. They admired him for his hatred of the Jews and for the fact that he despised them and decided to exterminate them from the face of the earth. Hitler symbolized bravery and wisdom, leadership ability and certain victory. That's why the Arabs openly mocked British soldiers, happily analyzed the difficult situation of the empire, worshiped Hajj Amin al-Hussaini who lived a life of luxury and comfort in Germany surrounded by young German hostesses, receiving 10,000 marks every month from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and a similar amount from the Hess. S. The Palestinian Arabs were sure that Hitler and Mussolini would be willing to grant them independence and abolish the Jewish National Home.

In the beautiful villas of the distinguished Arab families in Jerusalem, Jaffa and Haifa, the parties that the heads of the Arab public used to throw for military and police officers and British officials were reduced to a minimum. Arab spy networks were active in Israel with all their might and it was difficult for the police to lay hands on them.

Rommel became a legend in the Arab street after he defeated the generals Sir Archibald Wavell and Sir Richard O'Connor who penetrated to a depth of 500 miles into Italian Libya, subdued four Italian armies (ten divisions), which contained hundreds of thousands of soldiers and took a spoil of 400 tanks and 1,300 guns , while the British forces numbered no more than three divisions, and this victory cost them a total of 500 dead, 1,373 wounded and 55 missing. Rommel's glory was, therefore, that he managed to repel the proud British. up to the gates of El Alamein and deprive them of the fruits of their warning victory over the Italians. Tons of leaflets and propaganda material in Arabic were smuggled to all Arab countries as well as to the Land of Israel from the center in Berlin, headed by Haj Amin Al Husseini.

About 30% of the Arab recruits for the British army deserted from the service or surrendered to German captivity during the battles in the Western Desert; Many of these prisoners asked to be included in the 'Arab Legion' established by the mufti as part of the "Axis' armies. In the Land of Israel, some of these Arab defectors organized themselves into robber gangs that were scattered over the land and engaged in looting military equipment in order to prepare an Arab force that would emerge from hiding when Rommel's army entered the Land of Israel.

The mufti acted in Germany on the basis of a promise given to him by Hitler back in November 1941, that one of the goals of his war was a campaign against the Jews and the Jewish National Home in the Land of Israel, while finding a solution to the "Jewish problem". Hitler promised Haj Amin to completely uproot the Bolshevik [sic] Jewish [sic] rule, reach the South Caucasus, publish a proclamation on the liberation of the Arabs and prove that Germany has no ambitions in the Middle East other than the destruction of Jewish power. He also declared that the mufti would be the master of the entire Arab world and the man who would guide the Arab power.

Italy also committed to the Mufti in a letter from Foreign Minister Count Ciano ― to provide the Arab countries with all assistance in their war of liberation, to recognize their sovereignty and independence, to agree to a federation, if the interested parties so desire, and to abolish the Jewish National Home.


Hitler - Arabs' 'strong man' 1942
As Rommel was pushing into Egypt, noted[474] journalist Paul Manning, wrote for the Newspaper Enterprise Agency (NEA), in July 1942, that the British admit fifth column in Egypt is a serious Near East 'Rearguard' threat.:[475]

Arabs like blood and thunder. In Cairo, their reasons take a different, turn. Although the city is a boom town, due to the millions which British interests and troops have poured into the place since war began, the Egyptian man-in-the-street takes a malicious delight in watching the British take a few on the chin. Yet, like the Irish of Dublin, who feel the same way, they actually do want England to win this war. In Syria and Palestine, where Hitler may one day move, sympathy for the axis among the Arabs is due to another reason. Their centuries-old heritage is an understanding of the "strong man" who maintains power by blood and the sword. King Ibn Saud, a despot having life and death power over millions, is largely respected and loved by his Arab subjects.

They sense in Hitler a similarity, as they listen to broadcasts in Arabic from Zeesen, Germany.


In 1942, around the 200 days of dread, the Arabs roamed the Jewish neighborhoods that year, dividing the houses of the Jews they were murderers into, and which of them would get their wives raped and then murdered in cold or hot blood.[476]


May 7, 1942 letter from Manya Shochat (1880–1961) [Some 12 years after she and others founded the League for Arab-Jewish Friendship and some 19 years after she joined Brit Shalom, a Jewish group that advocated a bi-national state in Palestine.[477]] to Rose Gell Jacobs (1888-1975):[478]
...I consulted with all my Jewish friends who have been in contact with Arabs for many years, and with all my Arab friends. The rest of the letter summarizes what I have to say on the subject after I re-examined the situation after returning to Palestine.

The vast majority of Arabs in Palestine and throughout the Middle East believe that Hitler will conquer the whole world. The current Arab leaders, who all support Hitler, believe he will win because they want him to win. The Arab masses also believe that Hitler is the most powerful force in the entire world, and therefore he is obliged to come out with the upper hand.

However, there are a number of Arab intellectuals, merchants, workers, and farmers who are not sure of Hitler's victory, and therefore try to imagine what the situation of Palestine and the Arabs would be in the event of a British victory. Under the existing conditions, it is not possible to reach an understanding with the Arab leaders before the defeat of Hitler...


The relations of Hitler and Haj Amin determined the trends on Arab Street. Worst of all were the news about what was happening on Arab Street who did not hide its admiration for Hitler and the Third Reich. Hitler was portrayed in the minds of the Arabs as the greatest friend of the Arab nation. They admired him for his hatred of the Jews and for the fact that he despised them and decided to exterminate them from the face of the earth. They "analyzed gloating the difficult situation of the empire, worshiped Haj Amin al-Husseini who lived a life of luxury and comfort in Germany surrounded by young German hostesses, receiving 10,000 marks every month from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and a similar amount from the S. S." Arab spy networks were operating in the Land of Israel with full vigor. And Rommel became a legend in the Arab street.[479]


In June 1942, after axis capture of Tobruk, Arabs rejoiced.[480] And:[481]

Since it became known from the 'Axis' broadcasts about the capture of the fortress by the Germans, the Arab street "felt festive": the cafes were filled with guests; In the markets, in the bazaars and in front of the shops, Arabs congregate loudly discussing the meaning of the victory of the revered "Abu Ali".


Peasants were being told by their Mukhtars and Muezzins: "Now go and sell your land to the Jews and be quick about it, for in a month Hitler will be in Jerusalem and you will not only have your land back. Hitler will be in Jerusalem and you will not only have your land back, but everything the Jews possess! Let the knives be sharpened ! The great day is about to dawn!"[482][483]


In July 1942, the Mufti congratulates (on behalf of the Arab nation) Hitler, in a telegram, on victory in Africa, vows, they will to stay on his side against the "common enemy", to which Hitler replied with thanks.[484][485]


In 1942, several swastikas were found at the Jehoshaphat Cave in the Kidron Valley.[486]


1942, from research file:[487]
... [Walter] Schellenberg also reported on the influence of German radio propaganda: "The Arabs believe with all their heart that Germany will win. Although only a few listen to the German radio station on short waves, what is said on it - with oriental exaggerations and so many embellishments that the original text is unrecognizable - spreads quickly among the Arabs." Evidence of the fervor of the spirits in the summer of 1942 as part of the expectation of the Germans can be found in the report of the liaison officer who reported that, despite the dire military situation, parts of the British Ninth Brigade remained in the Land of Israel to protect the Jewish population from the attacks of the Arabs. It seems that these defense measures were indeed urgently needed at that time, since during the German advance thousands of Arab soldiers defected from the British army. No less than 8,000 Arabs, 7,000 of them from the Land of Israel, fled on their weapons until 1943 and went underground to join Rommel's army after his invasion of the region.


In a Dec 21, 1942 letter, representatives of the Reich and the NSDAP in Palestine described the Arabs' hope for a great Arab state:[488][119]

Arabs in Palestine were waiting for Hitler to come to Palestine and expel all the Jews. They hoped for a German intervention to solve their conflict with consideration of their needs. Rommel was their legendary hero. Many Arabs truly believed in the Germans' victory. Some of them even listened to the short-wave German broadcast, the Kurzwellensender.


"Allah in heaven; on earth, Hitler!" - was WWII-era Arabic saying.[467]

From the chapter 'Hitler's (Palestinian) Arabs':[205]

Hitler's (Palestinian) Arabs... Haj Amin el-Husseini, the universally recognized leader ("Grand Mufti," as he called himself) of Palestinian Arabs and, in the eyes of of Hitler, who called him "the Moslem Pope," of the whole Muslim world, was negotiating amiably with the Nazi leadership.

He offered, with typical bravado, to destroy the 30,000—40,000 British soldiers stationed in Palestine. In return, he wanted Hitler's commitment to "solve" the problem of Jewish minorities in all Arab countries by applying the same racial ideology and methods being used to "solve" the problem in the territories controlled by the Nazis...


Islamisches Zentral-Institut's invitation for event on its opening, on Friday, Dec 18, 1942


Arab Legion

(The Deutsch-Arabische Lehrabteilung [German Arab Training Detachment], in Arabic was referred to as al-Mafraza al-'arabiya sl-Hurra.[489])

Arab soldiers in Palestinian units were integrated into the Axis forces (Deutsch - Arabische Lehrabteilung) and a Nazi Arab legion.[490]

The Nazi DAL - German Arab Legion, had: Syrians, Palestinian, Iraqis and North African Arabs.[491]

Author, scholar:[492]

As noted already, the Mufti had first raised the idea of mobilizing an Arab legion at his meeting with Mussolini and Ciano in Rome, in October 1941. Hitler agreed to the idea in December. In fact, the nucleus of an Arab military unit already existed prior to the Mufti's arrival in Berlin. It comprised Arab students resident in Germany who had volunteered for service in the Wehrmacht at the time of the Iraqi rebellion in May 1941...

The DAL attracted not only Arab students already in Europe but Arab prisoners-of-war – mainly Palestinians, from the battles of Greece and Crete – as well as refugees from Iraq and Syria. One prominent recruit was Fawzi el-Kaukji, a Syrian-born Arab who in 1936 had commanded a 200-man guerilla band against the British in Palestine. Kaukji had risen to the rank of major in the Iraqi army but he spent most of the war in Berlin, where he married a German woman and enjoyed a life of indolent luxury.


Yunis Bahri (far left), Rashid Ali al-Gaylani (speaking) and Amin al-Husseini (center), at the 2nd anniversary of the pro-Nazi 1941 Iraqi coup d'état in Berlin.


At Concentration Camp/s

”Palestinian" pan-Arab pan-Islamic leader, Grand Mufti, ‘touring’ concentration camp[493] in 1943
The image[493]
displayed Grand Mufti Haj Amin al-Husseini, Iraq's former prime minister Ali al-Kailani, Mile Budak from Croatia and India's leader Subhas Chandra Bose, with officials in Germany's Trebbin camp, some 30km south of Berlin.


In his book, on one hand, the Mufti lied about facts, such as denying his knowledge about the Holocaust at it happened as well as in his 1961 ‘press conference,’[494] or/and visiting concentration camps as photos showed him wrong,[377] or his statements in his book he quoted as "facts" what Himmler told him. Yet, he couldn’t hide his hatred, writing, “Hitler hated the Jews ... Hitler is now avenging this accursed [sic] race …”[27] And his resounding statement:[495][496][494] "The answer I got [from Hitler] was: 'The Jews are yours!'"


It was:[497]

Upon request, the Reich Central Office for Security hosted members of the entourage of al-Husayni and al-Kailani for an elaborate, but insubstantial tour of the Oranienburg concentration camp in early July 1942. The commandant lectured the Arabs on the "educational" value of the camp experience for the prisoners; the visitors inspected household appliances and equipment made by the prisoners. While there, the Arabs expressed interest in Jewish prisoners.


In addition (to the 2017 publicized[498] photos of showing the Mufti and others at the Trebbin concentration camp), the Mufti also visited Monowitz, also known as Auschwitz III.[499][500][116][501]


Page 126 of al-Husaini 1999 Damascus memoirs reveals Himmler’s remarks of having up to now liquidated about three million Jews


In 1943, Himmler told the Mufti, they have murdered 3 million Jews.[502][503] Author:[504]

The Mufti met Himmler on July 4, 1943 at his field quarters. They spent a day with SS men, all known Jew-hunters. Two years prior, the local Jews had been killed by SS-commandos. Hitler tasked Himmler to steer the shooting of Jewish civilians "as partisans" in occupied Eastern Europe and to round others up for labor and death camps. Al-Husaini praised his meeting with Himmler thereafter as a solid base of mutual trust.

On that summer day, Himmler told the Mufti of having so far killed three million Jews. He confided to him other top secrets. The German nuclear research advanced: In three years, Berlin will have an atomic weapon that would secure the "final victory." The same word on a "final victory" was in Himmler’s cable modified by "certain," perhaps betraying some uncertainty.

Of course, in 1945, the total fatalities via different method were summed at: 6 Million victims, as also Eichmann stated.[505]


Mufti with Himmler
Himmler's letter of praise to Mufti (1943)
Himmler's letter of praise to Mufti (1943)

In 1943, SS Chief Heinrich Himmler sent warm wishes to Mufti Haj Amin al-Husseini. It includes a promise by Heinrich Himmler – one of the architects of the “final solution” – that “Nazi Germany will stand by the Arab people in Palestine in their struggle against the ‘miserable’ Balfour Declaration. Another document that attests to a connection between Nazi Germany and Mufti Hajj Amin al-Husseini.[506][507][508]


The telegram is said to have been sent on 2 November, 1943.[509][510][511] Historian on the rediscovery of the original telegram:[512]

It confirms that there was a partnership between Nazi-Germany, the Arabs of Palestine and the Arab World. This alliance was based on their mutual support for the destruction of “world Jewry,” which both sides openly declared to be a shared interest and the basis of their friendship. The purpose of this telegram was to reaffirm publicly the existence of this partnership and the transaction it represented.


Islamisches Zentral-Institut about Mufti's event, commemorating Balfour declarations, on 2.11.1943, at 4PM

Written in 1942:

[513]
Out of a population of a Million and a half, over five hundred thousands are Jews, chiefly of European origin and wholeheartedly dedicated to the democratic cause. The notorious Mufti Haj Amin el-Husseini, was in exile and the power of his terrorists followers had been broken. Arch conspirator, now an honorary member of the Nazi party, still has his network of agents and associates -- a dangerous Fifth Column -- who eagerly await his messages from abroad and secretly hope and work for "the day" when they may join hands openly with the Axis powers and be reunited with their own fuehrer-in-exile.

Palestinian-Arab scholar Edward Said, has conceded that Husseini "represented the Palestinian Arab national consensus." He had "the backing of political parties that functioned in Palestine," and was "recognised in some form by Arab governments as the voice of the Palestinian people."[514][515][58][516]

Despite the Mufti's destructive help and causing thousands of deaths, the Nazi-Arab units per se failed because of Nazi racism and its treatment of Arabs.[46]


Aforementioned Mufti’s then[517][518] henchman Ahmad Shukeiri [Al-Shukairy, Shukairy, shuqayri] helped Hitler,[458] (who even rationalized the Holocaust in 1946;[519] had for some time a friendship with former Wehrmacht guy Hans Rechenberg;[520] had spread vile Nazi type of propaganda at the UN[521] and had promoted neo-Nazi stormtroop gang,[522][523][524][525][526] who guarded monsters: Adolf Eichmann, 'Dr. Death' - J. Mengele,[527] he promoted them after the world was shocked to hear these Nazis tortured, carved on a Jewish girl swastika as revenge for killing Eichmann), as well as other Arab icons[171] including: Nimr el-Hattab, Amin el-Khouri, Subhi el-Hadra,[528] Rasem Khalidi,[529] Emil Ghouri, Wasef Kamal,[530][531] Arif Abd al-Raziq,[532][533] helped Hitler at least from 1941 on.

Exiled initially by the Brits, Arab Palestinians from the mufti's camp, who were working actively for the Germans against the British -- asides from Jamal Husseini his principle aide[153] (continuing to act under his direction in 1946[534][535]) -- included: Akram Zuaiter,[536] Fawzi al-Qawuqji,[202][537] Amin Tamimi,[538][513][539] Mu'in al-Madi, 'Abd al-Qader al-Husseini,[540][541] Al-Aboushi [العبوشي‎‎], the poet, wrote 'religiously' against selling land to Jews, admired Hitler,[542] and escaped with the Mufti to Iraq and participated in Rashid Ali al-Gaylani 1941 pro Nazi coup,[543] Hassan Abou Seoud [حسن أبو السعود] Mufti of Shafi and aide to Haj Amin el Husseini,[544] a leader in the 1939 Arab revolt and the 1941 Iraqi uprising and spent the war in Berlin,[545] [Younis] Yunus Bahri (Arabic Voice of Hitler),[546][63][547] known for his virulent anti-Semitism, Bahri stated proudly in a memoir he wrote after the war, "I was the first Arab to collaborate with the Nazis."[425]


The Arabic Voice of Hitler During WWII, Younis Bahri


Author recalls:[548]
By the mid-1990s, the only survivor of the hothouse world of Arab wartime Berlin society still alive was eighty-seven-year-old Wassef Kamal, who had been a supporter of Haj Amin in Baghdad and had made his own way to Nazi Germany via Vichy Syria, Turkey and Bulgaria in 1941: "Most of the Palestinians and Arabs in Germany gathered round Haj Amin and Rashid al-Gaylani, who had also reached Berlin," he recalled for me in 1994..."
Mufti, Mohammed Amin al-Husseini [محمد أمين الحسيني] and Rashid Ali al-Gaylani [رشيد عالي الگيلاني] in 1941, Iraq Arab-Nazi coup. (Younis Bahri first from the left)

Arabs from other areas assisting the Mufti Nazi campaign, asides from Iraqis, include: - Tunisian born Hussein Triki.[549][550]

- Moroccan al-Hilali used to review speeches and proofread them linguistically.[551] In 1942, the Mufti sent him to Morocco to organize covert operations.[552]


Awni Abdul Hadi, during the years of the War II, his sympathies were with the Axis Powers and was looking forward to Hitler's victory. In the days leading up to the Battle of El Alamein, like most of the Arab leaders in the country, Bey was in anticipation of the invasion of Rommel's armies into the Nile Valley and the occupation of Israel by the Germans."[553]


In 1942, many Arabs in Palestine reacted with 'open joy' upon hearing Jews' fate in Europe.[554]


CIA Report Aug 1942:[555][556]

majority of the Arabs in Palestine Palestinian Arabs are fiercely 'anti-Jewish'… the radicals, who form a majority, see in the approach of Rommel an ideal opportunity to murder all Jews their seize their property.


Professor, historian:[365]

Shuqayri was expressing the attitudes and feelings of his countrymen... He describes the great excitement with which they used to listen to German and Italian broadcasts, how he would follow during the night the military communiqués, marking on a map the places being occupied by the victorious Germans and meet his friends the following morning to discuss triumphs exceeding those of the previous day: Our sympathies were with the Axis powers being led by Hitler from victory to victory, and with our sympathies went our prayers for the victory of Germany and her allies, and defeat for Britain... When the British government announced the formation of a Palestine force to help the war effort, our young men received the directive: do not join the Palestine force, and the response was quasi-unanimous.


The Mufti had an entire group of "Palestinian" Arabs working for the Nazis. A number of Arab doctors, who were members of a Palestinian and Syrian nationalists group, even served in the Nazi army, at least one of them in an extermination camp.[557]


Dr. Mufid Abdul Hadi - [Abd al-Hadi] [مفيد أمين أحمد عبد الهادي] )Son of Amin Ahmad Abdul Hadi Bey, cousin of Abdul Awni Abdul Hadi):[557]

was sent to study medicine at the American University in Beirut. At the end of his studies, Moufid went to London and then to Germany, where he stayed between 1937-1943, during the Nazi regime. In Germany he joined hundreds of members of the Palestinian noble families, who worked with the Nazis under the auspices of the connections of the Jerusalem Mufti. Moufid was in regular contact with the Mufti and visited him frequently at his residence in Berlin. During his stay in Berlin, a group of Syrian and Palestinian nationalists was organized there, who sided with Greater Syria. The symbol of the group was an inverted swastika. A number of Arab doctors, who were members of the group, even served in the Nazi army, at least one of them in an extermination camp.


After the end of the war in Europe, there was still a sizable amount of Palestine Arabs in Berlin, which is why, "several Arab personalities and organizations have contacted Allied authorities for information concerning Palestine Arabs in Berlin." Calling them as the now "vanquished," meaning, they were on the side of the Nazis. (Reported days after the war, in May 1945).[558]


On November 2, 1942 , in a broadcast from Berlin, the Mufti praised the Germans for "knowing how to get rid of the Jews and eventually solving the Jewish problem."[559]


Famed historian J. Herf in 2022:[560]

With the benefit of access to previously closed archives, the scholarship of the past three decades has confirmed the arguments of Zionists and liberals in the late 1940s. Haj Amin el-Husseini’s collaboration with the Nazi regime and its anti-Jewish policies was deep and consequential. Though Husseini was not a key decision-maker during the Holocaust, he was an enthusiastic collaborator, shared Nazi hatreds, did what he could to prevent Jewish emigration from Europe to Palestine during the Holocaust, and fanned the flames of Jew-hatred both in Europe and on the radio in the Middle East. Recent scholarship has also confirmed that the ideas which emerged in the fusion of Nazism and Islamism in the Nazi years persisted in elements of Arab and Palestinian nationalism and in the core of the Islamist movements after 1945.


Not necessarily related to the Mufti, some 60 Arabs from Palestine stayed during the war. One of the Nashashibi family, who studied medicine in Vienna, served as a doctor in death camps. Mostly in Mauthausen and no doubt murdered hundreds of people. Another Arab young man from Jaffa, who also studied medicine in Austria, was engaged in "medical experiments" in a labor camp for Jewish women in Silesia.[561]

(Arab or Arabs serving in Nazi extermination camp in Europe is apart from nazi camps in Arab lands,[562] where THE torturers of Jews were Arab, [563] or the special cruelty of an Arab gang torturers and killers under a fascist policeman in Vichy France[564]).


Among the many various Arab pro-Nazi, fascist groups - listed after the war:[565][566][567][568]

-The Iron Shirts (led by Fakhri al-Barudi of the National Bloc). -The League for National Action (headed by Abdu al-Huda al-Yab, Dr. Zaki al-Jabi and others). -The An-Nadi al-Arabi Club of Damascus (headed by Dr. Said Abd Al-Fattah al-Imam). -The Councils for the Defense of Arab Palestine (head by well known pro-Nazi leaders, such as Nabi al-Azmah, Adil Arslan and others) -The Syrian People's Party. -The Istiqlal. -The Muthanna Club. -Moslem Guidance Society. -The Palestine Defense Society. -The Tajaddad Club. -The Arab Rover Society. -Arab High Committee (Haj Amin el Husseini’s). -Najjada [Najjadah] in Lebanon (pan-Islamic, pan-Arab). -The Futuwwah in Iraq (Hitler-youth type). -The Blue Shirts and Green Shirts in Egypt. -League of National Action. -The Lion Cubs of Arabism. -The Syrian Social Nationalist Party (led by Antun Sa’ada with Nazi imitated symbols and hymm of ‘Syria, Syria Uber alles). -The Arab Club. -The Steel Shirts. -The early Ba’ath movement. -The White Shirts (in Lebanon).


Mufti - preventing children escaping the Holocaust


The far reaching destruction by the Mufti includes: interference against thousands of Jewish children who were about to escape deaths.[569][570] He had intervened several times to prevent the emigration of Jewish children, especially from Bulgaria, Romania and Hungary, countries that were under German influence.[571]

Historian:[572]
The Mufti only ever criticized Nazi policy when he feared that Jews might escape the Holocaust. He was on friendly terms with Heinrich Himmler, whom he admired. Their friendship was, however, strained when in 1943 Himmler wanted (as a propaganda stunt and in return for the release of 20,000 German prisoners) to permit 5,000 Jewish children to emigrate - and therefore survive. The Mufti , who , according to a German government official, "would prefer all of them (the Jews) to be killed," fought tirelessly against this plan with success! The children were dispatched to the gas chambers. The mufti showed special interest in reacting to decisions by the governments of Bulgaria, Romania and Hungary to allow some thousands of Jewish children accompanied by responsible adults to leave for Palestine. It would be “appropriate and more expedient” he wrote promptly to the Bulgarian Foreign Minister, “to prevent the Jews from emigrating from your country and send them somewhere where they will be under strict control, for example to Poland." Another success! Already issued emigration permits were withdrawn and the salvation of the Jewish children prevented.

There is no doubt that the Mufti, with his close contact with highest ranking Nazis, knew exactly what awaited the children.[573] That was certain even prior to the 2017 well publicized photos of Mufti touring concentration camp.


Intervening against rescuing Hungarian Jews


June 28, 1943-the Mufti asks Hungary to send Jews to Poland

June 28, 1943: the Mufti asks Hungary to send Jews to Poland.[574]

July 25, 1944: Hungary promises to end Jewish problem.[575]


July 25, 1944: the Mufti Communicates Anger to Ribbentrop for the Germans' release of Egyptian Jews


July 25, 1944: The Mufti Communicates Anger to Ribbentrop for the Germans' release of Egyptian Jews.[576]


Inciting Arab immigrants to the U.S. to sabotage the American war effor in America


On March 19, 1943, on the traditional date for celebrating Mohammed's birthday, the Mufti broadcast over the Rome wireless, not only that Jews had continuing designs on the Al Aqsa Mosque, but that Arab immigrants to the U.S. should try to sabotage the American war effort.[577] Excerpts:[578]

The Arabs and Moslems will not be deceived by Britain once again because not only have they known its true intentions but they have also known those of Britain’s allies—America—and I want to draw the attention of the Arab emigrants in America to this fact, reminding them of their glorious past when they supported the National movement. I would also like to remind them that their efforts will be wasted if, God forbid[sic], America and her Allies may be victorious in this War because at such a time the Arabs will never rise again. I therefore know that those Arab emigrants in America will refrain from helping Roosevelt or taking part in a war which he brought on to his country.

If those Allies win this war the Jewish influence will be the arbiter in the world resources and one can thus imagine the future of the Arabs and Moslems, and the dangers which they are exposed to in their fatherlands and beliefs if the Jews and their Allies dominate them and spread the latent hatred on to them.

Then the world will become Hell—God forbid:

But Allah is too just and merciful to grant such murderous violators any victory. We are sure that victory will be ours and that of our friends. We have not the slightest doubt about that, we shall not slacken our struggle nor will we be deterred or quietened. Do not be deceived by the allegations of your enemies, because you know full well about their intrigues, and be sure that the nation which fights, sacrifices and awaits will be the victorious one in the end.


Mufti's SS Muslim division

The Mufti is also responsible for thousands of deaths through his linked Muslim SS troops, (where Imams played a major role in morale of the soldiers),[579] the Handschar. He organized the killing of 12,600 Bosnian Jews by Muslims whom he recruited.[231] The organizing of Muslim SS-units in the Balkan, was also helped by Fawzi Kaukji and Wasef Kamal.[580] Condition for formation of Islamic units at Waffen-SS were placed in Feb 1943 and the Mufti flew to Croatia and Bosnia on an official visit late Mar 1943.[581]


The dead Muslim SS were marked as "shehids" ("shahids" - Muslim so-called "martyrs").[582]

Author:[582]
Muslim leaders were initially quite sceptical about the Ustasa until the intervention of the grand mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin el-Husseini, who persuaded many of them to support the Third Reich.


At a November 1943 rally in Berlin, the Mufti Husseini said admiringly: "The Germans know how to get rid of the Jews."[583][584]


For months, the Mufti had repeatedly urged the Nazis to bomb Tel Aviv and Jerusalem. Between Nov 2, 1943 and April 1, 1944.[585][586][587]


Imam Institute


The Mufti opened two schools as the 'Imam Institute' - for training imams to serve both SS and regular Muslim units. The Guben imam school opened on April 21, 1944,[588] at a SS hotel.[589]

Sheikh Hassan Abu al-Saud a close Mufti associate,[590] worked as an advisor to the Mufti in Iraq in 1939; was a member of the Arab Nation organization in 1942, and had worked as director of the Islamic Center in Nazi Germany in Berlin in 1943. He was involved on the 'Imams Institute.'[588]


Worth mentioning Mufti's failed plan of establishing crematoria in the Dothan Valley.[591][456][592][593][594][595]


Dec 1943, the Mufti brags that he was assured by Ribbentrop that Palestine Will be "Judenrein."[596]
BERNE (JPS) . —The Nazis have assured their Arab pet-Quislings that they will continue to support their struggle for independence and will make Palestine Judenrein, according to a broadcast heard here. This assurance was given in a message by Juoachim Von Ribbentrop, German Foreign Minister, to a celebration in Berlin of the Moslem holiday... The celebration was addressed by the Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin el Husseini.


A revealing excerpt from the Mufti’s memoirs: In 1944, "Germany agreed to supply us with arms for the approaching tasks, and to this end created a large store with light arms suitable for guerrilla action… In addition, the authorities put at our disposal four light, four-engine airplanes for the transportation of war materiel to Palestine, to be stored in secret shelters, for the training of Palestinian fighters and for their preparation for the battles to follow." The material included 'tens of thousands of rifles, machine guns and light weapons and great quantities of equipment and ammunition.' "[597]


And there was his Operation Atlas in 1944, where according to some versions it included a plan to poison a quarter of a Million Jews in Tel Aviv - failed.[27] Captured,[497] the commandos claimed under interrogation that al-Husayni had briefed each one of them personally before departure, had compared Islam with National Socialism, and had promised them that the Arab struggle in Palestine would help Nazi Germany.


Around 1942, there was a secret Nazi squad, headed by a kind of German "Lawrence of Arabia." The entire formation battalion contained Arabs across the Jordan, Syria and Palestine [Israel] - all of whom had lived in Germany for a long time. The squad had to follow in the footsteps of von Kleist's army to the Caucasus Mountains and after the defeat of the Russians would move to Persia as a political and military nucleus of the attack against the British. (Source doesn't name the Mufti being connected to this particular squad).[598]


In 1944, Nazi propaganda material authored by the mufti was snuggled into Mandatory-Palestine in underground ways. Throughout the land, his supporters received his words with enthusiasm and a phenomenon that was evident during the years of the revolt repeated itself: the Arabs argued about the distribution of Jewish property after the victory of the Nazis; In Jerusalem and Jaffa, in Tiberias and Safed, they decided what would happen to the Jewish girls: for each one they decided their future rapist.[599]


In Feb 1944, in the village of Sarafand (Arabic: الصرفند‎), an Arab named Suleiman Abdullah was shot dead for espionage. He was arrested a month earlier while handing over plans to one of the enemy agents.[600]


Nazis' planned 'extermination of the Jews in Palestine,'[449] stopped with El Alamein defeat, relied on help that they awaited from many local Arabs ready to serve as willing accomplices of the Germans in the Middle East.[601]


Nor was the Mufti really "for" his people, and his anti-black racism is less known. As per facts:[602]
Indeed, el-Husseini was so enamored of Hitler and his program for the "Final Solution" that he was, on occasion, willing to sacrifice the cause of Arab independence in order to keep the Arabs loyal to the Nazis. At the same time (1943-44) that he was calling for North African Arab soldiers to defect from the Allied armies, he obscured the fact that the Allies openly had guaranteed future Arab independence, while the Germans kept silent on the matter. Instead, he kept telling his fellow Arabs that the Allies planned to turn North Africa into "a second Jewish Homeland" to which they would bring not only the remainder of European Jewry, but also "some of the Jews and Negroes from America."


Mufti influence & Mohamed El-Maadi (El Madi) in Algeria


Mohammed El Maadi, the head of the fascist leaning La Cagoule for French Algeria, began the anti-Semitic newspaper Er Rachid.[603]

One of the main instigators of the Aug 1934 Constantine Pogrom -- scene of utter desolation and horror, of Jewish girls with their breasts cut off, of little children with numerous knife wounds and of whole families locked in their homes and burned to death,[604] men, women and children, butchered and tortured to death, in horrible fashion,[605] -- per author J. Cole was: Mohamed El Maadi (1902-1954), who became an enthusiastic supporter of fascistic France’s Vichy regime in World War II, and finished his career in the Nazi SS.[606] Though one should add the wider context of pan-Islamic and pan-Arab nationalism.[607]

El-Maadi organised the North-African Brigade, nicknamed SS-Mohammed.[608]

From Jews in Arab Countries: The Great Uprooting:[609]

Despite some discordant notes, the first German detachments sent to Tunisia following the Allied landings were greeted with enthusiasm, and the convoys of British prisoners were jeered.

A press favorable to Germany deliberately created a stream of false news reports in order to throw fuel on the fire. The press depicted the “slavery” of the Muslim population, and the iniquity of “the Jews.” Er-Rachid reproduces a call by the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem in favor of Lebanese independence: “Why has North Africa not been liberated from the cruel oppression of the British, Americans, Gaullists and the Jews?”

In July 1944, a month after the D-Day invasion, the brigade was dissolved, and El Maadi fled east to Berlin, where he became a part of the .. circle around .. Hajj Amin al-Husayni, the former mufti of Jerusalem... By that time, the French state that Mohamed El Maadi served had deported 75,721 Jews to concentration camps...[610][611]


July 1944


The Nazi-German government convened conferences that dealt with so-called "solutions" to what they chose to term the "Jewish question."[612] The second international anti-Semitic conference was to be held in Krakow in "July 1944, and was organized by Alfred Rosenberg. The participants included many in the hierarchy of the Third Reich, among them Heinrich Himmler, Joseph Goebbels, Hans Frank, Martin Bormann, and Ernst Kaltenbrunner. Also .. the exiled pro-Nazi Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Hajj Amin al-Husseini.[612][613] According to author, the Mufti was one of the organizers.[614] Ribbentrop, had been one of the initial organizers and was to be appointed honorary member of the International Anti-Jewish Congress.[615]


The Mufti once said to Heinrich Himmler: "I hope that after Germany's victory, you will lend me Mr. Adolf Eichmann, who would be of great help to us in bringing the Final Solution to the Jews of Palestine also."[616][483]


Headline from ('Palestine Post" before becoming Israeli) newspaper featuring an historical event - Nazis admit murdering six million Jews, 16 Dec 1945


The Mufti's knowledge in real time ? of the 6 Million Jews exterminated - noted

Before WW2, the Germans published record on world Jewish population to be of 17 Million. Such as Nazi German book in 1938,[617] and Nazi Germany's book in 1939.[618]

By September 1944 -- after 6 Million were exterminated by the German Nazis and their European helpers -- the Mufti, incited the Arab world against the remaining 11 million.[619][620][621][622][623][624]

The 7,000-8,000 moderates, the Mufti had eliminated

Explained:[625]

He was fascist in nature and feudal in his social composition. He never cared about the broad strata of the people not being represented in the leadership and became the franchise of the rich and aggressive.

Arab nationalism in Palestine was for the Arabs what Hitler was for the German people. While Nazism destroyed the socialists, liberals, communists, democrats, who had an independent opinion within his Reich, Haj Amin al-Husseini waged a brutal campaign of extermination against any opposition among his people.

Since he was unable to set up ... where his opponents would be tortured, he simply ordered their elimination. During the three years of the uprising under his leadership, between 7,000 and 8,000 Palestinian Arabs were killed by his mercenaries: party leaders, clerics, police and officers, teachers, journalists, mayors and city councilors, intelligence chiefs, and muhtar of villages. Many were exterminated along with their families. Arab nationalism "borrowed" from the dictatorial regimes the most horrific method of taking over the psyche of the people: terrorism.

Safe to conclude the Mufti's victims’ stand, had their lives been spared.

Asides from the moderate clan - the Nashashibi,[540][541] Gilbert MacKereth, threatened by the Mufti's gang,[626], citing the murder (within a three-month period) of seven Palestinian village chiefs who had dared express moderate attitudes towards possible co- existence with the Jews,[627] there were even Arabs like Young (29) Acre Dr. Anwar Shukeiri, murdered by Mufti's gang on May 8, 1939,[628][629][630] with help of his own brother Ahmad Shukeiri, for being, according to the gangs, not only Nashashibi but also a friend of the Jews.[517]


Recalled in 1946:[631] Fortified by money from Hitler and from Mussolini, the Arabs, led by the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, started a campaign of violence against the Jews. It is interesting to notice that during this campaign Arab terrorists murdered more of their own people who refused co-operation than they did of the Jews.

Gilbert Ashcar – fallacy

The sugar coating of the oldest bigotry - antisemitism, agenda-driven "author," Gilbert Achcar in his writing: hiding, distorting the awful true Goliath Arab nazism.[632] Just another bogus scholar (who lied about B. Gurion too, such as with an out of context "quote").[633]

Authors have put it: The Arab Palestinians supporters of Hamas are 'damned to play the role of the oppressed for whom intellectuals such as Gilbert Achcar tirelessly seek excuses.'

Muslims' antisemitism and holocaust denial: Muslim, as oppose to others, are expected to uphold "appalling views", which some have defined as racism.[634]

Professors conclude:[635] "This is a book in which an author from the political left seeks to protect the dogmas of Western anti-Zionism from the reality of Arab anti-Semitism."

In his book: He sugar-coates the sheer Jew-hater ex-Mufti with a blanket "anti immigration to Palestine" theme, and the calls to the Muslim world during the war to "kill the Jews," "wherever you find them" was about "immigration" or the Mufti's own account in his memoires reiterating debunked blood libels, for example?

In page 44 he quotes from O.A. Najjar about Filastin paper. But those quotes are really mainly an anti Zionist argumentative reply. Not a word regarding the overwhelming support and wide enthusiasm for Hitler, in and of itself.

In fact, historian Haggai Erlich ["The Middle East Between the Two Wars," Volume 2; Volume 5, Open University of Israel, 2002, p.81]: 'Even the newspaper Filastin ("Palestine"), which criticized Mussolini, supported Hitler, as did almost all other newspapers.'

The sheer public display of saluting Hitler in Arab Palestine (including 1934 and 1937) speaks volume. Or Ahmad Shukeiri's testimony in his book of him and his surrounding praying for Hitler's victory 1940. (Before he joined to fight for Hitler as reported in US Congress 1961). Or the poll in 1941 where some 80% of Arab Palestine supported the Nazi victory.[632]


Columnist points out: "A book that purports to be about the Arab relationship with the Holocaust is instead a gratuitous exercise in Israel-bashing." His "treatment of the Arab communist parties is lacking – they were more nuanced than he gives them credit for." He minimizes (racist) atrocities by Arabs against Jews and rants against Israel. "What does this have to do with Arabs and the Holocaust? The same can be asked of much of this tragic work."[636]

Reviewing Achcar's book, as A Remorseless Apology, historian decries, how Achcar bends over backward when explaining the conduct of Hitler's Mufti as well as another present-day Islamist, Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad.[637]


Noted historian:[638]

Achcar takes aim at the scholars... who have written major works on Nazi policy toward the Middle East in World War II and on the Arab response to those policies. He criticizes these historians of Nazi-Arab collaboration for contributing to a “hegemonic narrative” according to which a majority of Arabs are portrayed by these authors of “anti-Arab propaganda” as having supported Nazism in the 1930s. For anyone who has read the works that he is referring to, The Arabs and the Holocaust is a frustrating book to read. Achcar criticizes texts without fairly presenting their arguments and their evidence. From reading Achcar, the reader would be unaware that in fact none of these scholars engages in generalizations about all Arabs. None of them assumes that opposition to Zionism was, in and of itself, tantamount to sympathy for Nazism, or that it was only the product of anti-Semitism. And much of what they discovered and examined forms the empirical foundation for Achcar’s own study...

The Arabs and the Holocaust has elements of candor and courage. It is a salutary development that someone with Achcar’s political views acknowledges the realities of the Nazi-Islamist wartime collaboration. It is important to be reminded of the history of a secular Arab leftism and liberalism that opposed fascism, Nazism, as well as Zionism. Achcar undermines these virtues of his book with superficial, unfair, and unreliable readings of those with whom he disagrees, above all those who fought fascism and Nazism on the basis of secular, liberal, and even leftist values yet still support Zionism. His attack on these scholars is neither a contribution to scholarship nor a contribution to moderation.

Professor in left-wing intellectual magazine criticizes heavily Achcar's treatment of Arab anti-Semitism, his attempts to rationalize, the excuse of ignorance, his ignoring such sweeping factors in Arab Palestine such as the poll of over 80% supporting Germany.[639]


[Once in a while, Falastin, for practical and appeasing the Brits, especially in face of threats of censoring it, it proclaimed a supposed "pro Allied" piece (as in June 1934) stating that Arabs were anti Zionists before Nazism, diminishes not the factor: the paper’s overall underline, Hitler glorification. Just over a year prior to this weak reply, Falastin wrote (May/1933): "Noble Hitler," justifying his persecution of the Jews. It also dragged into its piece, the favorite Nazi tool, the fake "Protocols." Well, of course Hitler admiration derived from anti-Jewish bigotry. That is the entire point. Despite Arab-anti-Semitism-apologist Achcar's pathetically celebratory quoting this "reply" to criticism, by Falastin, which proves nothing, as its main "exhibit" - knows fully well he can not wash Falastin's Nazism away. Though, Istiqlal's al-Difa'a was worse and more openly so. And how about Falastin's position ahead of Nuremberg trials that Nazism is a form like any other, as well as portraying Nazi war criminals in a positive light before and after those Trials?].


Achcar also attempts to whitewash al-Qawuqji,[640] who baited Jews months after Nuremberg Laws.[198]

Not surprising, agenda driven Gilbert Achcar, who runs the Center for Palestine “Studies” at SOAS, he bullied out a British academic from their meetings, the academic was also smeared and banned from filming what really is going on at those lectures - brainwashing students, since he was first present at the infamous Abdel Bari Atwan (who declared in June, 2007, "If Iranian missiles hit Israel, I will dance in Trafalgar Square"), lectured there in May 2012.[641]


"Arabs bear no responsibility for Holocaust [sic]" the attempted-rewriter has been brainwashing students. While of course, the Arabs had a significant enough role in the Holocaust which makes Gilbert Achcar an Arab-role-in-the-Holocaust-denier.[642]

In a BBC 2 documentary hosted by comedian David Baddiel in Jan. 2021, Gilbert Achcar overtly excused the presence of Holocaust denial among "Palestinians."[643]


Gilbert Achcar, phrased the Hamas led Oct 7 2023 atrocities on civilians as a supposed "counter attack," worse, he compared these acts to the Warsaw Uprising, no less.[644]

Conclusion on sweeping pro Nazism in Arab Palestine

Noted:


  • H. Erlich on major newspapers supporting Hitler.[323] (And Falastin since 1932/3[320][322]).


  • Author - (on el-Carmel stating in 1932 its fascists' inspiration and) “All parties were dragged along by the extremists of the Istiqlal, whose newspaper al-Difa'a became a Nazi propaganda pamphlet.”[113]


  • Kamel Mrowa ([كامل مروّه] Kaamel Mruwweh, Kamil Muruwa), as the editor of the Beirut paper An-Nida, wrote to Von Ribbentrop the German foreign minister in Berlin: "The whole Arab youth is enthused by Adolf Hitler." (1933).[109] (In neighboring Levant - a blanket statement about Arabs in the area).


  • The editor of 'Al-Jami'a al-Islamiyya' [الجماعة الإسلامية] wrote on May 22, 1933: "When Hitlerism appeared, the Arabs cheered and rejoiced, saying: A blow from heaven in the hands of others..."[319]


  • The Templars' Die Warte des Tempels wrote March 15, 1935, that many Arabs saw Hitler as the most important man of the 20th century and almost every Arab knew his name. Fascism and National Socialism with its anti-Jewish attitude were accepted positively by many Arabs.


  • Nuremberg effect in rousing Arabs of Palestine: The great momentum of Nazi propaganda in the Middle East occurred in September 1935. When the "Nuremberg Laws" against the Jews were discovered and published, Hitler received greetings from all Arab countries and Islam. The largest number came from Palestine, where Nazi propaganda was strongest.[173]


  • 1936-8: "Nazi flags and pictures of Hitler were prominently displayed in store windows. Booklets explaining Nazi methods of forcing Jews from the Reich were distributed freely...

The shout of 'Heil Hitler' became a catchword which rang insolently over all Palestine."[181]


  • NYT May 1937, how 'All' of Palestine celebrated Muhammad's birthday with flying Nazi swastika and pictures of Hitler.[214]


  • Arabs' newspapers, urging the pupils to disobey Government Education Department issued orders prohibiting Arab pupils to participate in the May 1937 demonstrations.[215]


  • 1937, Doehle, German consul in Jerusalem: "Palestinian Arabs in all social strata have great sympathies for the new Germany and its Führer…"[231] Unveiled documents of Nazi official in Palestine writing to Berlin in 1937:[225]
    ‘Arabs admire our Fuhrer’ - “The Palestinian Arabs show on all levels a great sympathy for the new Germany and its Fuhrer, a sympathy whose value is particularly high as it is based on a purely ideological foundation,” a Nazi official in Palestine wrote in a letter to Berlin in 1937. He added: “Most important for the sympathies which Arabs now feel towards Germany is their admiration for our Fuhrer, especially during the unrests, I often had an opportunity to see how far these sympathies extend. When faced with a dangerous behaviour of an Arab mass, when one said that one was German, this was already generally a free pass.”


  • Awni Abd al-Hadi (leader of the Istiqlal Arab Independence Party and member of the Arab High Committee in Palestine, Ahmad Shukeiri’s employer), Jan 1937 general statement: 'Arabs Like Nazis.'[209]


  • Journalist J. Gunther in 1939: "The greatest contemporary Arab hero is — Adolf Hitler." (Elaborating on the Palestine link about it).[282]


  • Ahmad [Shukairy] Shukeiri's testimony in his book about 1940, on all - sympathizing with the Nazis.[365]


  • Noted in 1937,[220] "leaders of the Arab youth who seem to be more extreme in their nationalism than the older generation. Educated in schools which are, in spite of government ownership, hotbeds of chauvinism and anti-Jewish propaganda, these youths are also greatly influenced by fascist and anti- Semitic tendencies in present-day Europe. Hitler is for many of them the glorious hero and teacher."


  • Some 88% in Feb. 1941 poll - favoring the Axis: Arab-Palestine.[368]


  • We Arabs supported Hitler during WWII because he hated the Jews, recalled in a 2019 interview, former Jordanian health minister Dr. Zaid Hamzeh who was nine years old at the 1941 Rashid Ali coup days.[414] (A general statement on Arabs, especially by witness in the very area).


  • That the pro-Nazi Mufti represented the consensus of Palestine Arabs and had major backing of parties there. Per (anti-Israel author) Said's concession.[514][515][58][516]

And Time Magazine in 1946: 'The 53-year-old Mufti... is revered as a spiritual leader by Palestine's Arabs.'[645]


  • Arab activist, in telling the story of his childhood, as a matter of fact, during the war: "most of the Arabs in Israel were in favor of Nazi Germany."[299] [Referring to Arabs in the land of Israel - Mandatory Palestine].


  • 1940, in a popular magazine, it was simply put, that "Palestine's Arabs admire Hitler for his Jew-baiting."[367]


  • Historian on the Arabs in the land, referring on the WW2 period - atmosphere:[472] "anticipation of the results of the war and wishes of the majority of Arabs that Britain would emerge defeated in it."


  • Author, journalist historian:[473] The Arab street, which had been trained for decades to hate the British and harass the Jews, now found in Hitler, after his first victories, with the beginning of the war, the one who fulfills his wishes... The relationship between Hitler and Haj Amin determines the mood in the Arab street... The land of Israel was indeed a home front country and lived in relative peace, but the Arab street did not hide its admiration for Hitler and the Third Reich. Hitler was portrayed in the minds of the Arabs as the greatest friend of the Arab nation. They admired him for his hatred of the Jews and for the fact that he despised them and decided to exterminate them from the face of the earth. Hitler symbolized bravery and wisdom, leadership ability and certain victory.


  • A founder of the League for Arab-Jewish Friendship, after consulting with all her Jewish friends who have been in contact with Arabs for many years, and with all her Arab friends, in May 1942: "The vast majority of Arabs in Palestine and throughout the Middle East believe that Hitler will conquer the whole world. The current Arab leaders, who all support Hitler, believe he will win because they want him to win. The Arab masses also believe that Hitler is the most powerful force in the entire world, and therefore he is obliged to come out with the upper hand.

However, there are a number of Arab intellectuals, merchants, workers, and farmers who are not sure of Hitler's victory..."[477]


  • In June 1942, as the British bastion 'Tobruk' fell to the Nazis, Palestinian Arabs (as well as other Arabs), rejoiced.[480]


majority of the Arabs in Palestine Palestinian Arabs are fiercely 'anti-Jewish'… the radicals, who form a majority, see in the approach of Rommel an ideal opportunity to murder all Jews their seize their property.


  • Dec 21, 1942 letter, representatives of the Reich and the NSDAP in Palestine described the Arabs' hope for a great Arab state:[646] "Arabs in Palestine were waiting for Hitler to come to Palestine and expel all the Jews. They hoped for a German intervention to solve their conflict with consideration of their needs. Rommel was their legendary hero. Many Arabs truly believed in the Germans' victory. Some of them even listened to the short-wave German broadcast, the Kurzwellensender."


  • Nazis' planned 'extermination of the Jews in Palestine,' (stopped by Desert Rats), relied on help that they awaited from many local Arabs ready to serve as willing accomplices of the Germans in the Middle East.[601]


  • An Egyptian, who visited the country in the days after the conquest of Berlin wrote: "The people cry in the morning and sob in the evening. And blow to their cheek between morning and evening."[207]


  • Reaction of most Arabs that heard of the fate of the Jews in Europe, 1942 - 'open joy.'[554]


  • Author Tom Segev recalls: "My father ... knew that most of the Palestine Arab leaders supported the Nazis." [647]


If one Communist or two wrote something against Zionism and Fascism at the same tim, or that there were Arab soldiers who were paid by Jews (who were the ones mobilized en masse) Though Falastin & Ad-Difa changed tunes according to power, etc.[112] Yet, enough was the glorification of Hitler in 1932, in 1933 after Hitler assumed power and in 1934 to plant the seeds of venom, nor have they become less anti-Jewish while changing ("strategic") tunes. The trend in Arab press such as Ad-Difa still even a week before the end of WW2, because the Arab street applauds that;[648] the alarming of pro-Hitlerism "fresh" after the war, such as ahead of the Nuremberg Trials, the Falastin defending Nazism,[649], following the hanging of Nazis in 1946, Arabic press Falastin, Ad Difa, Al Wahda - exaltation of the dead Nazis,[650] and Hitler admiration in that year in Ad-Difa[651] and Alwahda[652] proves this too - the hatred - unrelated to the winning side.


Naturally, Arab-Palestinian Leader Farouq Qaddoumi stated: We Supported The Nazis In WWII - as a general description.[653]


Arab "Palestinian" leader, in Jerusalem (then under Jordanian rule), in spring of 1967: "We Arabs supported Hitler to get the British out of Palestine and to keep the Jews from taking it over - and that was our big mistake..."[654]


Prof. / author:[655]
The vast majority of the Palestinian (and all-Arab) national movement identified, whether openly or tacitly, with the position of their Mufti al-Husseini World War II leader, a loyal partner of Hitler, Himmler and Eichmann in the decision to physically eliminate the Jewish people.


As it was put in 1949:[656]
There is hardly a single Arab leader today who in those days was not an ally of Nazi Germany. The Nazi-Arab partnership flourished at a time when the war was close to the gates of our country, and names such as Rashid Ali, Amin al-Husseini, etc. still symbolize the "glorious" period of this idyll. The ending, as recalled, was not so glorious.

Post Nazi period, recent

Overview

Nazism admiration never ceased.[657]

After the war, The Mufti and al-Kailani, reminds researcher:[377]
both Arab leaders continued their anti-Jewish and Islamist policies unimpeded after the end of the war: al-Kailani until 1965 and al-Husseini until 1974. Outside of Israel, Nazism had hardly been delegitimized in the Middle East, and its adherents often came to power after the war ended. The Iraqi al-Kailani staged a coup in Baghdad but failed. He was sentenced to death, then exiled to Beirut. Al-Husseini also found himself in Beirut, where he was active in the World Islamic Congress, which he founded in Jerusalem in 1931 (he opened a Berlin branch a year later). With robust backing, he rose to become the first "Global Grand Mufti." A mufti is a religious and legal authority who hands down rulings on everyday issues to believers in his jurisdiction. His late half-brother Kamil was the previous grand mufti of Jerusalem. Al-Husseini received the title in 1921, and in order to preserve and expand his transregional "Mideast-Europe" legacy after 1945, he chose as his representatives Said Ramadan for Europe, in Switzerland, and Yasser Arafat in the Middle East. The Mufti advised Arafat in 1968 to take over the Palestine Liberation Organization (which he headed until 2004) and "to liberate Palestine," operating out of Gaza with Fatah troops.


After the war, pro-Nazi agent Kamel Mrowa ([كامل مروّه] Kaamel Mruwweh, Muruwa), at his Al Hayat, which became very influential, he lied about the Mufti's Nazism and had justified the Nazis' crimes, a line prelevant in the Arab world in the 1950s. His hateful line continued at the paper till 1990.[109]


The Time Magazine on June 24,1946: 'The 53-year-old Mufti... is revered as a spiritual leader by Palestine's Arabs.'[645] In November 1945, the Arab League requested the return of the ex-Mufti to Palestine.[658]


On Jan 10, 1946, the NYT reported, that "all-Inclusive gathering Palestine Arabs called for boycotting Jews-- wants Mufti's return."[659]


On May 2, 1946, at a "15,000 screaming Arabs"" violent demonstration and calls for a "holy war" against the Anglo-Americans, "many of the Arabs carried pictures of Haj Amin Effendi El Husselni, pro-Nazi former grand mufti of Jerusalem whose support of Hitler caused his exile from Palestine. Arabs alternately cheered the mufti's picture and cursed the British and Americans."[660]


The UPI reported on June 8, 1946, that the 'Pro-Nazi Grand Mufti of Jerusalem,' had "escaped" from France,' that the 'ruthless leader expected to reappear in troubled Middle East.'[661]


From the Time, June 24, 1946, the Mufti was 'revered' by Palestine Arabs and his Nazi activities known:[645]
The 53-year-old Mufti (whose claim to the aristocratic "El-Husseini" is dubious) is revered as a spiritual leader by Palestine's Arabs. He has been a fanatical anti-Zionist ever since the British appointed him as Mufti in 1921. In 1937, after a murder, he was wafted out of Palestine, where a warrant still exists for his arrest. During the war, he was accused of trafficking with Hitler and Mussolini, of fomenting the Iraq revolt of 1941, and of urging on Germany a systematic policy of exterminating Jews.


Even the Arab communists in (Mandatory Palestine) joined in rejoicing the Nazi Mufti's return, for they knew all too well what the Arab street wants:[662]

The Council of the League in Bloudan, which was preceded -- in May 1946 -- by a conference of Arab kings and presidents in Egypt (in Inshas, King Farouk's estate), discussed the matter of the Eretz Israel while knowing that the Mufti fled France and came to the East, his presence in the East even as a refugee enjoying refuge with King Farouk, strengthens the Arab movement in Israel, which has been made recently, is completely subordinate to the Arab League. If the Mufti's presence in the East restores to the Arab movement in Israel some of its previous independence for future solutions. In the meantime, efforts were made in Inshas and Bloudan and renewed efforts to tighten the alliance between the Arab countries and England. At the same council in Bloudan, a chapter in the struggle of the Arab Communist Party for its participation in the leadership of the national movement in the country will end. The council eliminated the efforts of the communists to share in the leadership -- complete and total elimination. After all, in recent times the countries of the League - in Egypt, Iraq and Syria - have started the work of "purging" towards the communists. However, the Arab communists in the country do not despair: they shared, after the slap in the face in Bloudan, they joined in the joy of the Arabs of the country for the return of the Mufti, Hitler's successor from Europe. It is only, because they know very well the 'soul' of the Arab public in Israel and there is no other way before them, but flattery and pandering to the nationalistic tendencies of the Arabs.

The Mufti party provoked and forced the Arabs of the country to celebrate loudly in honor of his escape from France.


Socialist-Arab Al-Ittihad praises celebrates Nazi Mufti, June-23-1946

On July 23, 1946, the Arab-Socialist Al-Ittihad [الاتحاد] (the Union), the Arab Stalinist weekly, in honor of the Mufti’s arrival in Egypt, praising the mufti after his escape from war crimes prosecution in Europe, reported approvingly that Arab Palestine "from end to end" had celebrated his triumphal return to Egypt.[663][664]


In June 1946, Bartley C. Crum, American member of the Anglo-American Inquiry Committee on Palestine, had warned the State Department on Release of Ex-mufti, linked him with Gestapo leaders Eichmann.[665] In 1947,[666] quoted "a Nazi War criminal, the grand Mufti had repeatedly suggested to Hitler Himmler and von Ribbentrop the extermination of European Jewry as a solution to the Palestine problem:[667] "the Mufti visited the Gas Chambers at Auschwitz where millions of Jews were exterminated and that Hitler instructed that in any ransoming of Concentration Camp inmates no Jews were to be included because of an agreement with the Mufti... letters from the Mufti showing that he encouraged the deportation of thousands of European Jews including children to Polish extermination Camps."


As the Mufti escaped, it was alerted by such as the Associated Press Foreign Affairs Analyst, as: "dangerous man," "on the Loose again. That "his influence extends into Trans-Jordan, Iraq, Arabia, Egypt, Iran and Syria, for he is gifted with leadership."[668]


British non-fiction writer and documentary producer, Christopher Hale:[669]

Haj Amin el-Husseini, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, left behind a more menacing and malign legacy. Germanproduced Arabic radio broadcasts had saturated the Muslim world with hysterical warnings about Jews and global conspiracies, and at the end of the war, the Mufti's renown in Palestine and Egypt was undimmed. He would have a profound and malicious impact on the development of Islamic radicalism following the foundation of the state of Israel in 1948. By the winter of 1944, Berlin was no longer a safe haven for men like the Grand Mufti. He had never been a brave man and was often found cowering under tables as the great armadas of Allied bombers pounded the capital of the Reich. His allies in the Foreign Office, like Erwin Ettel, did what they could to protect their esteemed Muslim guest and tried to coax him to escape Germany to whatever safe haven he chose by U-boat. The Mufti was simply too timid to contemplate such a journey and held on in Berlin to the very end. At the beginning of May 1945, the Grand Mufti and his entourage at last packed up and fled. He knew that once the British reached Berlin they would waste little time tracking him down. After many tribulations, they managed to reach Constance in the French zone of occupation. Recalling how well he had been treated after his flight from Palestine, when he escaped to French Beirut from British Palestine, the Grand Mufti surrendered to the French authorities. He was soon relaxing in an opulent villa near Paris. The British urgently petitioned the French authorities to hand over the fugitive Muslim cleric who had slipped out of their hands so many times. But General de Gaulle was in no mood to oblige his ally and personally issued instructions that el-Husseini should be permitted to remain in France and resume, without interference, his political activities on behalf of the Palestinian Arabs. For the French, who blamed the British for the catastrophe of 1940, the Mufti offered a delicious opportunity to spite perfidious Albion. Since the French had reasserted their presence in North Africa, they had good reason not to wound Arab public opinion. The Mufti had little time to enjoy French hospitality. His protectors discovered that an 'Irgun' assassination squad had arrived in France. On 28 May 1945, el-Husseini bolted to Italy, then secretly boarded a British ship, the SS Devonshire, bound for the Egyptian port of Alexandria.

The return of the Grand Mufti electrified the Arab world. At a rally at Heliopolis in Cairo exultant crowds swamped his convoy – and King Farouk offered him appropriately sumptuous accommodation at his 'Inshas Palace'. The leader of the Muslim Brotherhood, Hassan al-Banna breathlessly declared: 'The hearts of the Arabs palpitated with joy at hearing that the Mufti had succeeded in reaching an Arab country ... The lion is free at last and will roam the Arabian jungle to clear it if wolves. The great leader is back.'

In 1936, Haj Amin el-Husseini had embarked on an epic journey that had led him from Iran and Iraq to the hub of Hitler's Reich... The Mufti's hatred of Jews provided a poisonous bond with Hitler and his fanatical elite, above all Heinrich Himmler. In Berlin, the Nufti's loathing had been deepened... Faced with chronic unrest in Palestine, the British decided to leave the Grand Mufti in peace. Arrest would only enhance his reputation and they had nothing to gain from his martyrdom. An American agent stationed in Cairo reported that 'it was unlikely that any strong action will now be taken... against former Axis collaborators.'

... In November 1945 the reinvigorated Akhwan el Muslemin, the Muslim Brotherhood, incited attacks on Jewish homes and property in Alexandria. In the post-war period, Arab fantasies about the 'Jewish enemy' would be reinforced as the West German government reappointed many of the Mufti's Foreign Office supporters and stationed them at embassies in Baghdad and Cairo.


(Muhammad Said Massoud, first Arab political organization in Canada (Arab lobbyist), in 1946 disseminated pro Mufti propaganda there. Alson threatening in 1946: "The Jews have forgotten that history may repeat itself and that Arabs, once angered, may again throw all foreign elements into the sea."[670])


In Oct 1947, the NYT reported[671] that it was denounced reported troop movements by Arab states as "bluff and bluster" and that, under the leadership of the exiled Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin el-Husseini, the Arabs were "brazenly emulating Hitler's tactics."


Author in 1969:[672]

Nazi anti-Semitism – theory, practice and policy – fitted the needs of the Arab nationalist movement like a glove. Over the years it was to become a shirt of Nessus, a poisonous garment enveloping the movement with a spreading rash of maddening fears and delusions, a garment which it cannot shake off and which is eating it away, body and soul.


High-ranking Nazis escaped from Germany to become advisers to anti-Israeli Arab leaders and "were able to carry on and transmit to others Nazi racial-ideological anti-Semitism."[450]


Writer,[673] author, in his famed 1979 book,[674] wrote:[675]

Considering that Arab leaders, such as Haj Amin al-Husseini, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, backed the Nazis in World War II, and in the postwar period provided havens for fleeing war criminals, this is not strange. Interest in Hitler and the possibility that he might yet return was a recurring subject of discussion in the Arab press of the 1950's. Arab leaders followed Nazi propaganda methods diligently and came to rely on the Goebbels technique of the Big Lie and the repetition of the most outrageous libels. It is difficult to determine whether Arab propagandists were apt pupils or inept practitioners who actually believed their own fabrications. David Hirst of the Manchester Guardian, reporting on a 1972 interview with King Faisal of Saudi Arabia, found him "apparently carried away" with the "blood libel" myth that Jews killed Gentile children for ritual purposes in the preparation of Passover matzoth.

It was "an extraordinary outpouring of anti - Semitic prejudices," Hirst wrote. Extraordinary or not, Faisal repeated the story to the Cairo weekly, Al Mussarrat...


Journalist:[676] In the end, despite Hitler's best efforts, a grand Nazi-Islamic alliance wasn't to be... Yet the Nazis did succeed in one thing: poisoning the mind of many a Muslim against Jews. Anti-Semitic tropes propagated by the Third Reich, from medieval Christian blood libels to virulent conspiracy theories, have been grafted seamlessly onto old Islamic anti-Jewish prejudices, thereby gaining a new lease on life in the Muslim world.


Prof. B. Lewis:[677]
Since 1945, certain Arab countries have been the only places in the world where hard-core, Nazi-style anti-Semitism is publicly and officially endorsed and propagated.


Nazi Criminals were in Arab Countries immediately at the end of the war.[678]


Recalled in 1967:[679]

the Mufti was returned to his role after the war as leader of the Palestine question. He directed policy from a lavish and fortified home in Cairo and, as one of the Arab delegates to the United Nations in 1947 said, "the Mufti is the irrefutable leader of the Holy Land Arabs."


From Massuah, in 1974:[680]:

Antisemitic propaganda in Arab countries sowed hatred not only for the State of Israel but for Jews in general... Arab journalists praised Adolf Hitler 'the "hero" [as if] who fell in a "holy" war.'

In the last 25 years, since the establishment of the State of Israel, extensive literature has been published in Egypt and Lebanon that copied the racial theory and called for genocide against the Zionists and Israelis.

These books have often been published by official and government publishers. Racism has even been instilled in the textbooks of children of Arab countries. It is no coincidence that we were forced to disqualify parts of the textbooks that were accepted in Jordan and the Gaza Strip, under the Jordanian and Egyptian occupation. The "Protocols of the Elders of Zion" were published under the auspices of the Egyptian government and at its expense.

Since Nazi times, Cairo has been the only place where these "protocols" were published and widely distributed. Nasser himself recommended to visitors to him this book "which allows one to see inside the tricks [sic] of the Jews." Let us remember that important leaders of Arab countries of today were among those expecting a Nazi victory in World War II and some of them are admirers of Hitler, his entourage allies.

The Allied headquarters in Cairo, during World War II, forcibly prevented a development similar in Egypt to that which occurred with the Rashid Ali revolt in Baghdad.

The Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin al-Husseini, made an alliance with Hitler and hoped for the destruction of the Jewish community in the country. "Mein Kampf", the protocols of the "Elders of Zion" and similar propaganda pamphlets are not invalid literature today in Arab countries. While there are now Arab leaders, writers and journalists who are ashamed of these publications, no order has yet been given to destroy this horrific propaganda literature. When the Arabs met in the territories with our soldiers and the citizens of Israel, they were surprised to see a humane attitude towards them and did not believe what they saw and said: "Jews do not hate us and you can live with Israelis" ... The Arabs thanked us today. We would have been treated differently, and who knows what kind of massacres and atrocities the world would have witnessed in such a case."


Writer Alexandre Del Valle[681] cites the Gud Magazine of the extreme right in France which, in association with the Islamists, praised the Nazi-Palestinian alliance of World War II; this had been geared to eliminate the Jews of Palestine and facilitate the rise of a totally Arab state in Palestine, headed by the Mufti of Jerusalem, on their ashes.[682]


Historian:[59]

Husayni escaped indictment as a war criminal by shel­ter­ing in Egypt and the Le­banon. He died in 1974. But his legacy is very much alive to­day. We see it in the wide­spread sale of vis­ceral anti-Jewish (and not just antiZionist) literature in the Muslim world, and in the way in which Jews are por­trayed on Arab media. Collaboration between the Arab and Nazi worlds was in fact wide­spread in the mid-20th century. Arabs colluded with Nazis in the whole­sale demonisation of the Jewish people, and applauded and assisted in its whole­sale destruction Nazi fugitives from allied justice found safe havens in Arab lands. No amount of political correctness today — no amount of not-wishing to offend Muslim-sensitivities — can wipe away this past.

The truth is that, internally, the Arab world, and especially the Palestinians, have never hidden their sympathy for Nazism... But for foreign purposes, the Palestinian Arab movement and its supporters in the West present the opposite view.[683]


Holocaust survivor, longtime Congressman, the late Tom Lantos writing in 2002:[684]
Writing in 1986, Middle East scholar Bernard Lewis explained contemporary Arab antisemitism as a reaction to the sense of humiliation Arabs feel at repeated military defeats at Israel's hands, blows made all the more painful because they were inflicted by a people, Jews, long presumed to be inferior.

According to Lewis, Arabs were accustomed to viewing Jews as no better than "a tolerated subject minority, and ... by appearing as conquerors and rulers the Jews [in Arab reckoning] have subverted God's [sic] order for the universe."

Whatever its cause, the cancer of antisemitism has metastasized and spread throughout the Arab world. Jews, both as Israelis and simply as Jews, are demonized daily in the Arab press, electronic media, and textbooks, often with ugly illustrations and "political" cartoons on a par with the worst of Julius Streicher's Die Sturmer. Indeed, Nazi-style imagery and conspiracy-thinking abound in the Arab world, and all the ills of the world are attributed to "the Jews." As.. article in the New York Times noted, "Stay in a five-star hotel anywhere from Jordan to Iran, and you can buy the infamous forgery Protocols of the Elders of Zion. Pick up a newspaper in any part of the Arab world and you regularly see a swastika superimposed on the Israeli flag."

This worsening problem carries dire implications for the Arab-Israeli conflict, adding a racist and religious-warfare dimension to an already exceedingly difficult political problem. Moreover, in an obscenely bizarre twist, the Middle East may now be exporting to Europe the antisemitism it originally imported from there. Since the latest phase of Arab violence against Israel began in September 2000, there have been hundreds of antisemitic incidents reported in Europe, particularly in France.

Some of the ugliest examples of Arab antisemitism came in the wake of the September 11 attacks on the United States, as detailed in this important publication. The Arab media reaction to the September 11 horror reflected all the elements of Nazi-style defamation, particularly, Jewish [sic] conspiracy.

Here we can read the now-famous claims that Mossad organized the September 11 attacks; that 4,000 Jewish employees, forewarned, avoided work at the World Trade Center that day; and that Jews [sic] exploited their foreknowledge of the tragedy to profit from the stock market.

We observe the shocking sense of cultural inferiority self-serving but nonetheless real of Arab commentators who "prove" Jewish [sic] complicity in the September 11 murders by pointing out that "only the Jews are capable of planning such an incident, because it was planned with great precision of which Osama bin Laden or any other Islamic organization or intelligence apparatus is incapable." And we learn of the grisly, Nazi-type punishment one Egyptian cleric wishes on the Jews of America.

But the totality of what is presented in the following pages also reflects a sad reality: the Arab world's inability, first, to come to terms with the fact that Arabs planned and carried out the evil deeds and, second, to reflect productively on how and why that happened. Such is the classic utility the antisemite finds in his antisemitism: scape-goating Jews for problems of his own making.


The niece of one of Fatah's founders Yahya Sakher Habash (صخر حبش‎) Sakher Habash (1939-1970), growing up on the West Bank in the 1980s tells of being taught anti-Jewish hatred and to praise Hitler. Visiting in 2017 where she grew up, she says, the same hatred continues.[685]


Writer in 2006:[686]
...the point isn't to dredge up ancient history about Muslims and Nazis. Many Swedes got along swimmingly with the Nazis but who worries about the Swedes today? The Muslim world is another matter. And unlike the Swedes, the similarities between Nazism and Islamic fascism are not all in the past.


Author (in 2008):[687]
A comparison of murderous Nazi ideology with the jihadist ideology that dominates headlines today... early Palestinian nationalism was influenced heavily by Nazism. While other nations have disavowed fascism (Germany and Italy, for example) and have since developed into thriving democracies, the Palestinians have never reconciled with their past...


Hitler's fraud book Mein Kampf,[688] has been a best seller in the "Palestinian territories."[689][690] And researchers from the University of Hamburg revealed, Hitler is a popular figure, idol, among "Palestinian" youth.[691]


Author published in 2014 interaction with Arab "Palestinians":[692]
Samir asked me my opinion of Hitler. Not knowing how to react, I said nothing and just shook my head. He continued to explain: "Here many people like Hitler" and showed me a picture of Hitler on his mobile phone.


A noted Orientalist, conducting a poll in Arabic, in 2019: "If Adolf Hitler was alive today and was tried, what do you think is the sentence that the leader of the German Third Reich deserves...??" - most found him "innocent."[693]


Hitler, '"Mein Kampf among "Palestinians" (2022)
As late as 2022:[694]

Nazi propaganda and Hitler's Mein Kampf are available in many bookstores in Ramallah, but literature on the Holocaust is not.

Bookstore in Ramallah sells "Mein Kampf"

The Nazi pamphlet Mein Kampf can also be found in bookshops in Ramallah. In front of one of the bookstores, a temporary salesman is smoking with his wife and a mutual friend. When asked about the book, he hesitates. Then he says: "I love Hitler."

Expressions of love for Hitler are not uncommon when Palestinians are asked what they think of the Holocaust. The book seller's girlfriend, a young lawyer with long brown hair, also agrees.


Not unrelated.

From the other side. An Oct/2021 report:[695]
Neo-Nazis, White Supremacists Attempt To Revive WWII-Era Nazi-Palestinian Alliance: Gaza Conflict Provides Opportunity For Them To Promote And Actualize 'Final Solution,' With Online And On-The-Ground Efforts, Emerging Support For Terror Groups Hamas And Hizbullah And For Their Shared Mission Of Attacking Jews Worldwide.

Hitler’s Mein Kampf book was a hit as soon as it was published in 1999 - in 2000 the fifth edition was printed. According to British historian, Hitler's admiration for the Arab world stems first and foremost from the ease with which he succeeded in exterminating Jews.

A study by the German government among Arab youth in the State of Israel revealed that Hitler is at the top of the list of young boys' figures they admire.[696]

There is an "intersection between the mufti and his Nazi camp visits and today's hatred of Israel and Jewish symbols."[697]

Indeed Nazi symbolism, is never uncommon[698][699][700] at Arab Palestinians. And "too many Palestinians continue to play the Nazi card over and over again in some creatively destructive ways in the media, mosques and madrassas."[701]


That, in addition to, using Nazi propaganda to indoctrinate hate at children[702][703] and belittling the Holocaust.[704][705][706]

As late as 2022, "Palestinian" schoolbooks deny Holocaust, legitimize Munich massacre. It also incites against, lies about the Jewish faith, slander Jews as a whole.[707]


Historian:[467]

Although the Allies destroyed the Third Reich, what has lived on is the Nazi spirit. This spirit of hatred festered through the relationship between Amin Al-Husseini, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, and Hitler.

Post WW2 Arab / Islamist / Nazi alliances

Note: Though western entities made use of former Nazis, in Arabia it is uniquely different as the hatred ideology plays the role.

Such as, Von Leers serving as propagandist for nasser - engaged by the Egyptians as an "expert anti-Jewish propagandist,"[708][709][710] converted to Islam, changed his name to Omar Amin. And the former Nazis, then Neo Nazis: Otto Remer & Ernst-Wilhelm Springer (S.R.P) – elaborated further.


Of the first noted 'beginners' Arabs, continuing Mufti's legacy of Arab-Nazi cooperation, post WW2, are:


  • The Arab Office in Washington, particularly via Arab “Palestinian” Anwar Nashashibi, already in 1946. At least.[711]


  • Habib Ibrahim Katibah:
    active in Nazi pro Hitler propaganda since Hitler's rise to power, at his founded Arab group,[76][77], in 1946, "the names of several of the other top officers of the institute, including the present chairman of its executive committee, are to be found among the names of the eight original incorporators of the old bund-associated Arab National League."

Katibah, "on May 2, 1946, and again on May 9, 1946, was the signer of full-page paid advertisement appearing in a number of principal newspapers, advancing the propaganda cause of the Arab League, and attributed to a high nebulous source called the League for peace with justice in Palestine."[78]


  • A 1947 report about Syrian Arab Adnan al-Ard who came after the war to help Nazi Arabs (eliminating files, providing escape, etc.):[561]

There are even rumors that some of the directors of the extermination operation of the Jews in Europe, including Eichmann, are in contact with this office and some of them have already been transferred to "jobs" in Syria and Iraq.

What is still forbidden about the Germans is allowed to Dr. Ard and his Arab friends.

They conduct open and wild incitement against the Jews at all kinds of parties and meetings. Dr. Ard himself lectures to various German circles and spices up his lectures with insults and ridicule to the Jews, which were very pleasant to the palates of the Nazis.

A few months ago he lectured on the question of Israel to American officers and almost all of his remarks were devoted to an attack on "international Jewry."

Some Nazi fugitives to whom Arabs provided haven, even tried to come into Palestine at influx of illegal Arabs in 1947.[712]


  • Asides from Nazis training, fighting with Arabs 1947/8 - elaborated further.


  • Syrian Arab Akram Tabara, was at a SS division during the war,[713] who gave his name as Dr. John Homsi, recruited Nazis for 1948 War with Israel.[713][714]


  • The Mufti, Kaukji and Salim Idris:

From a 1951 report:[715] The ex-Mufti al-Husseini and Salim Idris سلیم ادریس - Secretary General of the Permanent Office of Palestine in Beirut are the link between the Nazi center in Cairo and the court of Farouk and the Arab League.

Nazi agents and former German generals sit in all the capitals of Arab countries working tightly with Fawzi Qauakji, who in Nov-1951 had visited Latin America and the Nazi "colonies" in those countries, and other Arab personalities, from former Hitler's associate. German-Nazi advisers in the training of Arab armies. Hundreds of Nazis, SS men, formerly German generals and colonels, recruited by Kaukji and Nazi spy Miller in Germany and transferred via Rome to Damascus and Cairo. German pilots work as experts and instructors in Egypt.

Already in 1950, Mein Kampf in Arabic was republished, reappeared, in Egypt.[716]

By 1953, the Nazis’ expertise expanded, and with it, admiration of Hitler grew, resurfaced. [717]


British author, historian, and journalist:[718]

Partners In a Evil

... Unlike Brunner, Remer was itinerant, and spent much time in that other nest of postwar Nazis—Cairo. If anything, the Egyptian capital was even more appealing than Damascus, and had been playing host to Nazis immediately after the war, when King Farouk opened his arms to scores of former SS and Gestapo officers.

That hospitality continued even after Farouk was deposed by the Free Officers Movement in 1952, as Nasser regarded German scientific and intelligence expertise as being an essential component of his regime. No less a figure than Joachim Daumling, the former head of the Gestapo in Düsseldorf, was tasked with establishing Nasser’s secret service. In fact, the list of some habitués of Cairo in the 1950s and the 1960s reads like a who’s who of Nazi Germany, featuring as it did the rescuer of Mussolini, Otto Skorzeny; the ace Stuka pilot Hans-Ulrich Rudel; the leader of a notorious SS penal unit, Oskar Dirlewanger; and the particularly odious and violently anti-Semitic stooge of Goebbels, Johannes von Leers. What made the relationship between these former Nazis and the Egyptians and Syrians so successful was that it was a genuinely two-way deal. The Arabs offered the Nazis a haven, as well as a market for all their nefarious dealings in arms and black market currency. The Nazis, meanwhile, were able to provide technical and military experts, as well as the knowhow of establishing the instruments of repression. However, below the back scratching lay a deep and dark underpinning to the relationship between the crescent and the swastika. That was, of course, a hatred of the Jews, and in particular, a desire to see the eradication of Israel.

That shared exterminationist desire had been born during the war itself, when the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin al-Husayni, had made his home in the luxurious Hotel Adlon in Berlin in 1941, and had impressed Hitler with his hatred of the Jews. The Mufti lobbied the Nazis hard to kick the British out of the Middle East, and he was instrumental in raising recruits for a largely Muslim unit of the SS called the 13th Armed Mountain Division of the SS Handschar.

In addition, throughout the war in North Africa, German intelligence had worked closely with the Egyptians, and the Mufti is thought to have been a key intermediary between King Farouk and Hitler himself. If further evidence were needed that the roots of the Nazi-Arab affair were required, then it is worth considering the fact that both Nasser and his successor, Anwar Sadat, had been wartime agents for the Germans.


... in Colombia anti-Semitism is spread mainly by Arabs from Syria, out of envy of the commercial talents of the new Jewish immigrants in this country. The Arabs are acting in collaboration with Nazis who have been released from detention. In recent months, there have been two cases of blood libel in Colombia.


  • The Arabic Voice of Hitler During WWII, [Younis] Yunus Bahri,[546] who stated proudly in a memoir he wrote after the war, "I was the first Arab to collaborate with the Nazis,"[425] Mufti's associate, in 1948[547] he continued on 'Voice of the Arabs' in Egypt, [720] and in the 1950s' had relationship with Nasser and Saadat.[547]


  • As the U.N. Assembly was held in Paris, French fascists collaborated with Arabs in disseminating Hitlerist propaganda flooding the hotels and driving vehicles through streets with loudspeakers such as the slogans: "Hitler was [sic] right"; "Death to the [sic] Jews, send them into the Crematoria."[721]


  • As of Jan 1949, amidst recruitment of Nazi generals to Arab army, two Arab officers who served in the Moslem Legion of Hitler during the war now occupy high army posts: Prince Mancour Daud, a former lieutenant colonel of the Moslem Legion, who is now a commander of an Iraqi division. Colonel Suleiman Bey, brother-in-law of the former Iraqi Foreign Minister Raschid Ali, fled to Germany after the unsuccessful 1941 coup a etat. He commanded as an SS Sturmführer, a battalion of the Moslem Legion. He is now in command of an Iraqi brigade.[722]
  • Pan-Arabist nationalist, Nasser was a Hitler admirer,[723] [724] and of the Mufti's,[725] had a slew of former SS Nazis,[726][727] not just as military helpers but in ideology too: some as political advisers and experts on 'Jewish affairs.'[728][723]

When Nasser took on the Muslim Brotherhood in the 1950s': During this period, the Grand Mufti maintained close relations with the burgeoning Nazi exile community in Cairo, while cultivating ties to right-wing extremists in the United States and other countries.[729]

- 1956, Mivtza Kadesh (Operation Kadesh - Suez Crisis):[730][731] Documents found in the offices of the Egyptian commanders called on the Egyptian army to prepare for the campaign to destroy Israel in a most cruel way. The army officers gave an Arabic translation of "Mein Kampf" by Hitler, so that they would draw "inspiration" from it.[730] This phenomenon was also recalled by Golda Meir Dec 5, 1956's speech.[732][733][734]


- Mufti's disciple, Von Leer "Omar" activities at least in 1959 and the 1960s with the United Arab Republic.[735][736]

In fact, Egypt,[715][679][718] then Nasserism - UAR[735] became a center for Arab ex-Nazi link, after WW2.


  • Erwin Schönborn, in the 1950s' was West Berlin’s most active Jew-baiter.

Distributed Nazi propaganda, primarily in Arabic in 1976 Innsbruk Olympics and held Nazi-Arab events.[737] He was chairman of various neo-Nazi splinter groups and of a 'German-Arab Society.'[738] played the "anti-imperialism" spiel.[739] He was chairman of various neo-Nazi splinter groups and of a 'German-Arab Society.'[738]


  • The neo-Nazi "German Social Movement," had relations with the Arab League. Among other things, it held a convention in 1957 in Freudenstadt. It featured numerous addresses, most of them marked by anti-Semitic innuendoes, delivered by a number of open devoteees of Hitler. Chief among these was, Karl Priester, former Hitler Youth and S.S. leader who heads now the movement and edits its anti-Semitic monthly magazine.[738]


  • 1950s.

Jorge Zurob Sabaj's, Central Arab Committee of Chile's weekly journal Mundo Arabe presented itself as a faithful follower of the ex-Mufti Haj Amin el Husseini whose portrait appeared on the front page on March 17, 1950, adding: "the spiritual and political leader of the Palestinian Arabs." The same issue carries a rehash of the Nazi stories.[740]


  • 1960s.

Neo-Nazi Franz Heinz Pfeiffer Richter's publication Cruz Gamada (swastika), was another example of cooperation between pro-Nazi groups and the Arabs, most of which was devoted to "Palestine, Arab land" and "Communist[sic] Jewish [sic] infiltration," or "Capitalist ... " (Nazis never had a problem with contradiction, of course).[741]


  • 1950s-1960s.

Otto Remer & Ernst-Wilhelm Springer: Otto Remer,[742] a former Wehrmacht officer who squashed the July 1944 military coup against Hitler.[743] His partner, Ernst-Wilhelm Springer, who had helped the Grand Mufti organize the Muslim SS division during the war.[744] Springer was a leading member of the banned Social Reich Party. At his trial for arms dealing to Arabs, Springer: "The political attitude of the Arabs," [AKA anti-Jewish sentiments], "and their misery prompted me to become active for the North African freedom movement."[745] Fleeing Germany for his activities at the Social Reich Party, reportedly, Springer was helped by the Mufti to find refuge among the Arabs. With Springer assuming an Arab name.[746]


  • In 1958, it was reported that: ‘Nazi-Arab organizations operate in West Germany under 18 names.’[747]


  • In Jan 1960, French Minister Jacques Soustelle at a protest rally organized by the Committee for the Defense of Democracy, stated that the source of anti-Semitism needs to be searched in the Arab League and Pan-Arabism. Indeed, observers pointed out at the time: in Arab countries, there are now roots of Nazism from which Arab nationalists now draw their ideas, some of whom hold key positions in the Arab political arena.

Swastikas in Lebanon, Jan/1960, shocked the Jewish community and showed signs of Nazi influence. Observers mentioned: The influential official newspaper Al-Hayat الحياة, in which the newspaper acknowledged the existence of a serious anti-Semitic movement in the world and called on the Arabs to join this movement, in order to act against the Jews and the State of Israel.

German economic experts help Nasser solve his economic problems. German officers serve as instructors in the Egyptian army. German propagandists are engaged in training and directing anti-Jewish propaganda over the waves of the Sawt al-Arab صوت العرب station and the other propaganda trumpets.[748]


  • Top Nazis directed from Cairo Neo-nazi activities throughout the world.

Reported in 1960:[749]



  • Mar 10, 1960.

At Ben Gurion's visit to the White House, a small demonstration: neo Nazis and Arabs side by side shown on TV in the US.[754]


  • Mufti's ally, Issa Nakhleh, his Palestine Arab Delegation and beyond, in the years: 1960s - through the early 1980s.


  • The neo-Nazi umbrella group 'Malmoe International', in contact with the Arab Union, and the Scandinavian-Arab Friendship League. (1960s).[755]


  • Neo-Nazi leader Bjorn Lundahl's agreement and dangerous plots with UAR - Egypt, through Kamel Hamad. (1960s).[756][757][758][759]


  • An early 1964 report:[760]
Arabs distribute Nazi material in West Germany. One of the pamphlets justifies the persecution of the Jews throughout history and by Hitler...


Nazi and Arab Influence in Latin America 1950, 1951 etc.
  • Latin America as a whole: 1950/1+

In 1951, "Nazi and Arab Influence in Latin America" has been discussed. The AJC "asserted that Latin America has become the center of the international Nazi movement." And had "linked the Nazi and Arab communities in Latin America, and pointed out that in some regions this combination was more influential politically and larger numerically than the Jewish communities."[761]


  • Argentina/Chile

Hussein Triki 1960s in Argentina.[762]


Palestine born Jorge Sabaj Zurob in Chile via his pro- Hitler[763]La Reforma / Mundo Arabe (- editor of both[764]) reprinted, elaborated on the old fraudulent "Protocols,"[75] and (Palestine born) Issa Nakhleh in the 1950s in Argentina. Recorded about 1955/6-1961/2 in Argentina:[765]

Nazi activity in Latin America - is the Arab League, which by supporting the anti-Semitic work wanted to weaken the sympathies of the governments and intellectuals towards Israel. They helped in every aspect and in every direction.

Earlier, the Arab agitators helped their Nazi followers in the propaganda that Jews are communists on the one hand and imperialists on the other. Zionism has become the solution for this propaganda...

Then Arab League's attaché Hussein Triki's publication and activities with Tacuara there in the 1960s, the cocktail of Nazi fugitives and (radicals among) Arab immigrants have brought about, what was described in 1975, as the Jews sitting on the opening of a volcano:[766] Argentine Jewry sits on the opening of a volcano, say emissaries who have been there these days. According to them, the earth is burning beneath the feet of the Jews not only in Argentina but in other extensive parts of the South American continent. The greenhouse, where Nazi refugees and tens of thousands of Arab immigrants found refuge, began to bear rotten fruits.

  • In 1967, there was a list of some 200 Nazi War Criminals Living In Arab Countries.[767]


  • 1991, 1997, 2001+.

Ahmed Huber, convert to Islam, "whose views were strongly influenced by his meeting in 1965 with Mufti al Husseini,"[768] Hitler has long adorned his study. After Sept. 11, he twinned the picture with one of Osama bin Laden. The voluble proponent of a strange alliance, one apparently strengthened in the aftermath of Sept. 11: Muslim fundamentalists and neo-Nazis, who share a hatred of the United States, Israel and Jews. According to him, some Nazi veterans also feel common cause with Islamic militants.

In 1991, German neo-Nazis attempted to form a "Condor Legion" to fight alongside Iraqis against the U.S.-led international coalition. In 2002, members of the European far right have journeyed to Baghdad to express solidarity with President Saddam Hussein.

In late 1997, Steven Smyrek, a German neo-Nazi and convert to Islam, who allegedly trained at an al Qaeda camp in Afghanistan, was arrested in Israel for planning a suicide attack.

In 1997, a Holocaust denial conference planned for Beirut would have brought together Pierce, Mahler of Germany's National Democratic Party, who planned to speak on "The Final Solution to the Jewish Question," and representatives of Hezbollah and other radical Muslim groups. The conference was canceled by Lebanon's government.[769]

Convert to Islam, neo-Nazi Albert Ahmed Huber:[770]

[W]e Muslims were fascinated by the Third Reich in the 1930s because Hitler had some ideas at the political level and the economic level , and the cultural field , which were very close to the political, economic, and cultural

So this man and his movement were fascinating to many Muslim intellectuals all during the 1930s. And since 1945, Muslims have been studying all of these things . And we judge him in a different way. Even if now, of course, when the Muslims protest against America, they say Bush equals Hitler, or Sharon equals Hitler, they say that not for themselves, but [because] they know that it has an impact on Western public opinion. You see Hitler himself had a quite positive attitude towards Islam...He said several times in his table talks that" After the final war the swastika will rule over Europe and will represent a new Europe.

We will help the Muslims in North Africa and the Middle East to reestablish the Caliphate." That means there would be an Islamic civilization. [And Hitler said] "In the Far East , there will be the rising sun " -Japan of course.

Nazi Mufti today

In 1985, Arafat extolled his memory and emphasized that "the PLO is continuing the path set by the Mufti".[771] He told Edward Said that year, on the Mufti: "He was always right."[772]

In an Aug 2, 2002 interview, Arafat called the Mufti "our hero". And that he was of his 1948 troops.[773][774]

The Grand Mufti is still glorified, such as by "moderate" Arab Palestinian Mahmoud Abbas in 2013,[775][776] in 2016 at National Security Forces of - PA,[777] an event under his picture in 2018,[775] and in 2019 a PA official:Nazi-collaborator Mufti is leader and 'role model.'[778] Though, for political purposes, the Palestinian Authority has been -generally- downplaying "its Nazi orientation."[779] Especially to the outside world.[683]

The PA has named at least one school after the Nazi collaborator - the Amin Al-Husseini Elementary School in El-Bireh, the current PA Mufti has honored his predecessor by laying a wreath on his grave, and the PA National Security Forces have highlighted Al-Husseini on Facebook and in 2019 on the anniversary of his death, Abbas’ advisor praised Nazi collaborator as “role model”.[780]

Still, more often, while the PLO chose trying to deal with Mufti true Nazi record by pushing a vicious blame lie on the Holocaust, Hamas is more expressing the line that the Mufti's war was "just."[347]

(Whereas in the wider Arab world, the Mufti chapter has been largely silenced,[781] some like biographer, at Mohammed El Taher on the Mufti, have been rewriting history and white washing and sugarcoating.[782])

Fact is, that even regarding Palestine, which some apologetic Arab writers try to sugar coat him with, the Mufti was never "for the Arabs," but exclusively 'against' the Jews. In 1952 he explained to an interviewer: "This land... had belonged to the non‐Jewish peoples of Palestine..."[783]

Contradictory anti-Semitism

Islamic Anti-Semitism today: denies and or diminishes the Holocaust while contradictory using Nazi symbols which proves that the Holocaust did happen, then at times attaching the label on its enemy - is all motivated by hatred and an all out frustration that the Mufti’s support for extermination became a disappointment in history as Nazism became associated with evil.[784][696]

Noted in 2002:[785]
...the Israelis face virulent hostility from both the Arabs who condemn them as Nazis and from those who privately idolize Hitler’s achievements.
Historian: [786]
...the PA and its media have gone out of their way to minimize the genocide, if not deny it altogether. At the same time, the Palestinians are portrayed as the Holocaust's real victims...
Observed,[12]
There's no doubt that Hamas and Fatah are concerned that the curriculum would generate sympathy for Jews among Palestinian youth. But it's also likely that the two parties are worried about something else — that these lesson plans will unravel the lie that modern-day Israel is comparable to Nazi Germany.

The classic, Anti Semitic posters at Durban 2001, accusing of supposed Nazism while glorifying Hitler.[787]

Eichmann-ism

Outrageously rotten to the core, as (late as 2021) the official “moderate” PA flatters a three generation family of terrorists who adopted the name Eichmann, inspired by that arch Nazi butcher.[788][789]


  • Fawzi Salem al-Mahdi [فوزي سالم المهدي] known as "Abu Hitler,” [ابو هتلر] a senior commander in Arafat's bodyguard unit, "Force 17," whose two sons bear the first names Hitler and Eichmann.[790][791][792][793][771]


  • Known in Mar 2022:[794]
    A report is presented by an official PA TV female reporter whose name is Benazir Eichmann, named after Nazi SS leader Adolf Eichmann.

Nazi display

The outrage at Nazi display is greater when official "Palestinians" cheer to it or in almost all cases don't intervene. Far worse is when "Palestinian" official police are the ones perpetrating it. Such as on its official media, and "Palestinian" police,[795] security.[796] Unlike one isolated rare incident by a loner on the opposite side in 1997, with a drawing that offended Muslims, when she was condemned across the board in Israel and incarcerated for three years.[797][798] At times the Palestinian Authority for example promoted Nazi symbolism events, without directly commenting on it.[799]

At the same time, Arab-Palestinian moderates' perversion of the Holocaust is alarming at least since the 1980s.[800]

An Arab-Palestinian writer: "Hamas uses Hitler-like methods that Will doom the Palestinian People."[801]

At the end of WW2

March 1945.
Though the Mufti was arrested, his entourage, his followers Arab feudal lords ... continue to pursue their Fascist policy. Interviews given at the ... Pan-Arab congress by prominent "advisers" of the Arab rulers, reveal a perturbing picture of the mentality of these Arab overlords. King Ibn Saud's adviser, Sheik Youssef Yussin was quoted in a fascistic statement on that March 1945 congress. Which proved to be but an example of the entire group.[802]


Still:[648]

A week before the end of the war in Europe, the editor of Al-Ittihad [الإتحاد‎] asked an 'important activist' about the meaning of the current trend in some newspapers (his intention was probably for Difa'e [الدفاع], but Falastin [فلسطين‎] had to adapt to its rival in order not to lose circulation) to highlight the speeches of Hitler and Himmler and the Warwolf, to deceive the reader as if Nazism still has hope to win, and to weaken confidence in the unity of the Western allies and SSSR. The important activist replied that this trend satisfies the will of the people and increases the distribution.


Shortly after WW2

  • May 1945, days after Swiss authorities denied the Mufti's appeal for asylum and detained him,[803] author:[804]
On 9 and 10 May, several incidents occurred in Beirut in which French soldiers were attacked. One of the most serious of these clashes involved several members of a Palestinian contingent of the British army that was stationed south of Beirut. Joined by local anti-French protesters – supposedly 'Hitler's former clientele'– these soldiers had on 10 May escorted a march through downtown Beirut, tearing down French flags and attacking Lebanese policemen. Similar clashes had erupted a day earlier when Palestinian soldiers paraded under a portrait of Palestinian Mufti Amīn al-Husaynī and a flag bearing a swastika. According to reports of the French Sûreté Générale, proof was available that British elements and the Lebanese nationalist politician Riyād al-Sulh were involved in these incidents. While the Palestinian soldiers had reportedly been paid by British sources to provoke trouble, Sulh was suspected of having instructed and furnished them with the portrait of Husaynī.


  • Oct 1945.
Ahead of the Nuremberg Trials, the Falastin defended Nazism, stating that "Nazism which is -- as much a way of life as democracy and -- socialism" in a leading article.[649][805][806] Written in Nov 1945:[807]
The Arab League... It is now only a short step to acknowledging Nazi and fascist theories openly: the Palestine Arabic newspaper Falastin, for instance, attacked the Nuremberg trials, asserting that the Allies had no right to try nazis and nazism since this was a political ideology just as democracy and socialism are.


  • 1945/6.

At the Nuremberg Trials, in stark contrast to the Egyptian al-Ahram, the two Palestinian major Arab dailies, Falastin and al-Difa': "provided little coverage of Nazi policies against the Jews, although it is clear that it was aware of them" before the trials.It also chose emphasis on the Nazis' defense, omitting the detailed atrocities.[808]


  • Dec 20, 1945.

Some 3 months after WW2, (weeks after it pushed the idea, Nazism is just as any other social system[649]) the racist pseudo "analogies" were already there. The Falastin wrote 'that the decision of the American Senate in favor of Zionism is a [sic] crime against democracy that transcends the crimes of Hitler and Mussolini, Genghis Khan and Timurlan.'[809]


Ad Difaa, Jan 1, 1946: glorifies Hitler
  • Jan 1, 1946.

New Year of 1946, Arab newspapers in Jaffa published the "will" of Hitler with great prominence. The Islamic[34] Ad-Difaa (Al Difa) الدفاع, in honor of the Christian holiday has put at the top of the issue a picture of the "Fuhrer."[651][810]


  • Apr 1946.

Months after WW2, the Jaffa based Arab newspaper Al-Sirat (Originally: As-Sirat) - الصراط publishes Nazi-style anti-Jewish incitement, rationalizing European persecution of Jewry.[811]


  • May 1946.

The 'Anti-Nazi League' in US had presented evidence based on 'original documents' of Arab Office in Washington working with Neo Nazis in the US in propagating hatred. In particular correspondence by Arab "Palestinian" Anwar Nashashibi [النشاشيبي، أنور 1913-2005].[711]


  • May 1946.

Arab guards who passed via a van through Bnei Brak, stopped and began to paint swastikas on the walls of the Jewish houses. The police forced them to clean the walls with their bear hands.[812]


  • 1946.

The Arabic الوحدة al-Wahda - Newspaper in Jerusalem, as quoted in June 1946, glorified Hitler.[652]


  • June 1946.

Three Arab women swastikas cause brawl on Jaffa Street in Jerusalem. [813]


  • Jamal Husseini & Ahmad Shukeiri, in 1946, rationalize the genocide of 6,000,000 Jews

1946.
Both, Jamal Husseini and Ahmad Shukeiri had reiterated Goebbels ideology and had justified the Holocaust of systematically massacring 6,000,000 Jews.[519]


Laying the cornerstone for contradictory nightmare kingdom of propaganda, in which the principle of non-contradiction is suspended in favor of a rather malicious target,[696] (that continues strongly today[814][815]) months earlier, Shukeiri casted President Truman's stand, as Nazis on trial in Nuremberg. After Truman upon hearing about refugees' plight's, in Nov-1945 sent a letter to Attlee concerning resettlement of Jewish refugees in Palestine [214], Shukeiri as Director of the Jerusalem Arab Office, commented: "I regard President Truman's repeated declarations in favor of Zionism as a sign of the decline of American democracy. Capitalistic tyranny and angling for the vote of the five million Jews are the direct cause of this... I would have thought that this latest declaration was made by one of the great Nazi leaders who had escaped prosecution at Nuremberg..."[816]


  • 1946.

Jamal Husseini and Ahmad Shukeiri, declare at the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry that the Mufti is Arabs' "only" leader, and there's no substitute. While Hitler's atrocities still vivid on everyone's mind.
Description of the 1946 Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry: Hourani's testimony seemed to the Arabs too moderate, at least in its style if not in its context. And Ahmad Shukeiri, who spoke after him, tried to "correct" that impression. His fiery speech, full of threats, overt and covert, and full of eagerness to battle, did blur the impression of Hourani's testimony, but it is highly doubtful that this blurring might have brought any benefit to the Arabs.

To the hearts of a dozen people near and far at the scholars' table, Hourani's remarks penetrated and left a sevenfold strong impression from the fiery fire of hatred and the zealous war spirit of Ahmad Shukeiri, to the ridiculously bordering grotesque which brought his style.

The blind zeal and flaming hatred in Jamal Husseini and Ahmad Shukairy's words and their extremism, gave the impression that here and there in the blink of an eye they would pull knives out of the folds of their clothes and open with a real slaughter. The style of their remarks certainly did not strengthen the hands of the committee to leave the fate of the Jewish minority in their hands.

The clinging of the Arabs to the Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin al-Husseini, did not add much strength and power to them. The year was 1946. The memory of Hitler and his atrocities was still alive in the heart of everything, and aroused disgust. Thus they all found reason to flaw in the Arabs' statement that the Mufti is "their only leader who has no substitute." The bad impression due to the Arabs' adherence to the Mufti is strengthened when Crossman asks them whether the Arabs fought for democracy. Receiving a positive answer he repeatedly asked: Do you think the Nazis are a democratic movement! After being denied, Kram also intervened and posed a question on the same matter and was answered with an unreserved declaration of allegiance to the Mufti. Crossman then released the famous photograph in which the Mufti was seen surveying companies of Muslim volunteers in Serbia, who had enlisted in the Hitler Army on the Mufti's initiative. The Arabs were embarrassment.[817] This was repeated by Arab representative in UN in 1947, stating: "the Mufti is the irrefutable leader of the Holy Land Arabs."[679]


  • 1946.

Glorification of cooperation with Hitler at Arab villages.
An Intelligence 1946 report: [528]

Arab leaders who had fled the country during the war and cooperated with Hitler, began to return to Palestine with the full consent of the British authorities.

Among those who returned were Nimr el-Hattab, Amin el-Khouri, Subhi el-Hadra, and Jamal el-Husseini. Only the Mufti himself, Haj Amin el-Husseini, was not granted an entry visa, since even the British realized that that it would be carrying the policy of appeasement to impossible lengths. It was nevertheless made possible for him to "escape" from confinement, cross the country under an assumed name, and reach Egypt, where he was taken under the protection of King Farouk. Not many days passed before the Mufti, chief inciter of the anti-Jewish riots and close friend and collaborator of Hitler, began to make his influence felt throughout the country. News reaching the intelligence section said:

"The Mufti's agents are appearing in Arab villages, making speeches, and inciting to violence." — "Cash from the Mufti's treasury in Egypt is coming in for the purchase of arms for the coming 'Holy War.'" — "The Mufti is becoming almost legendary among the Arabs. Wonderful stories are being told of his meetings with Hitler and Mussolini." — "Arabs arriving from neighboring countries tell of widespread volunteering to the Syrian army in preparation for the day when it will invade Palestine and drive out the Jews."

Research:[347]

After World War II, Haj Amin was accepted as a hero in Egypt and Palestine. In 1946, Hassan al-Banna, the founder of the Muslim Brotherhood, called Husseini "a hero who challenged the empire and Zionism with the help of Hitler and Germany. Germany and Hitler are no more, but Amin al-Husseini will continue the struggle." A similar attitude of admiration was shown by the Arab Supreme Council and the Palestinian People's Party, which elected him their leader in 1945. In 1948, Amin al-Husseini was the commander of the Palestinian forces during the War of Independence, whose goal was to occupy and destroy the Jewish community.


Falastin (Filastin) glorifies dead Nazi war criminals (Oct 18, 1945): "روايات معلومة مثيرة عن انتحار غيرنغ وهتلر من قبله وغيرهما - Exciting [sic] information about the suicides of Goering and Hitler before him and others"
  • Oct 1946.

Following the hanging of Nazis, the Arabic press were exalting the dead Nazi war criminals:[650]

The Arabic press left its readers in no doubt of its opinion that the Nazis condemned at Nuremberg were men of great courage. Ad-Difaa's front page headline on Wednesday (the day of their execution) read "Nazi Leaders Await Death with Pride and Courage."

Referring to Goering's suicide, yesterday's Al Wahda wrote: "Goering preferred the death his leader had chosen. He considered death by hanging a disgrace, chose his leader's and carried out his way, intention."

Falastin's comment was: "Another black page of history has been turned with the death of the Nazi leaders by hanging."



  • 1946/7.

In Arabs' search for ex-Nazi officers to train units to fight the Jews, by the end of 1946, beginning of 1947, Nazi officers were "liberated" and have been smuggled into Palestine, where they were employed as instructors by "Futuwa" and "Nejada."[818]


  • 1946/7+.

In 1947, based on documantry evidence, it was charged that: 'Arabs foment race hatred' in the US, and its 'connections between Arab propagandists and former Nazi agents.'[819]

1947-1959

1947 Palestine Partition Plan


  • Nov-Dec 1947.

As the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine was declared on 29 November 1947, Arab Higher Committee demanded from the British that they refrain from intervening in the violence which Arab gangs unleashed with 5 hours of the Partition plan. In its leaflet it wrote: "The Arabs have taken the final solution to the Jewish problem," The overt reference to a "final solution" - Hitler's code name for the extermination of European Jews - was not accidental, as the Mufti Haj Amin al-Husseini, declared a jihad and had: Army of Sacred Jihad and the Rescue Army. Plus, as the supreme religious leader of the Palestinian Arabs, he called for the recruitment of every Arab city and village into its ranks.[820]


Pre- and duration of the 1948 war

Hitler's Aviso Grille in Norway, during WW2

(In 1946, the "Aviso Grille" was purchased by the Arab George Arida.[821][822]).

Spirit of Hitler Fighting Zionism - Egyptian Govt. linked paper headline Dec 1947


  • Boasting of Hitler "inspiration" and the "Palestine" Arab Salvation Army (ALA)


In December 1947:[823][824]
"The spirit of Hitler fights Zionism in Israel [Palestine]" - this is the headline of a long article that appeared today, in the Egyptian 'Al-Asas' [الأساس] close to the government. This article summarizes the decisions of the Arab prime ministers and recent developments.

The very fact is that the Prime Minister of Syria - Jamil Mardam - has received a message from the Syrian millionaire Arida who bought Hitler's cruise ship, that he is making it available to the [Arab] "Salvation Army" [جيش الإنقاذ] of Palestine to help preserve the Arab shores and prevent "Zionist infiltration" to the Land of Palestine [E"Y].

The "Salvation Army" headquarters will equip the ship and will make a nucleus for the first Arab fleet.


Illustration

cartoon, May 16, 1948, the grand Mufti Haj Amin al-Husseini with large swastika: (Jewish Palestine asks him:) 'Not like Dachau Herr Mufti?'

An epic cartoon appeared in The New York Times, on May 16, 1948: "Not like Dachau, Is it Herr Mufti?" Mufti wears a large swastika on his back.[825]


  • 1947/8 - 1955.

Nazi mobilization, including former Muslim SS:
Muslim Bosnians trained by the Nazis later volunteered to fight against Israel in 1948. Some 890 volunteers from Yugoslavia and Albania were in the Middle East by April 1948, before Israel's declaration of independence on May 15, 1948.[826][656][537]

Arabs feverishly recruited foreign legion: [827]

Pro-Nazi Refugees In Italy Approached

Arab agents are at present recruiting mercenaries to fight against the Jews in Palestine from among the Yugoslav Ustashi and Chetniks and the Ukrainians, Albanians, Circassians (former inhabit ants of the north-western area of the Caucasus) and other groups in Italy who were on Hitler’s side during the war, and are now under the care of the International Refugee Organisation. Able-bodied men both inside and outside the IRO camps, who are between 22 and 32 years of age, and who accept the Arab terms of payment—their fares to the Middle East and maintenance of their families in exchange for their pledge to serve in the Arab forces for at least one year—are being given visas by the Governments of Egypt, Syria and Transjordan.

Where the mercenaries are of Moslem origin, they are being officially “resettled” by formal negotiations between the Governments concerned and the IRO which, however, disclaims any knowledge of what use the individuals are put to on arriving in the Middle East.


Author, Orientalist, in 1966:[828]
The old Nazi loyalists met in the headquarters and in the Arab fighting units in the Land of Israel. The zealots of the Muslim fatwa war and the leaders of the new military dictatorships: the Mufti, Fawzi Kaukji and Iraqis of the 1941 war, volunteers of the "Muslim Brotherhood" and "Young Egypt", as well as the officers of the Egyptian pro-Nazi underground during Rommel's days; They were joined and received with open arms by Muslim Yugoslavs, who in the World War were in the ranks of the Hitlerite partisans of Pavelić, who were afraid to return to their homeland after the liberation from the British captivity. Former German-Nazi soldiers who were looking for new military adventures and the continuation of the war against the Jews, and deserting fascist British soldiers.


By the beginning of 1948, Black International - an army of 30,000 veterans of fascist military forces. Some were in action already in attack against Jewish settlements, others are undergoing rapid special training in Syria.

The army is composed of former Nazi soldiers, remnants of Gen. Vlassov's renegade Soviet battalion, remnants of Gen. Anders Polish army, as well as pro-Nazi Poles, Yugoslavs and Moslems whom the Mufti originally organized into a Moslem brigade to fight alongside the Germans. Furthermore, the bodies of pro-Nazi Poles have already been found among the attackers of our colonies whom we killed. What's more, the Haifa commander of the so-called Arab revolt is a German.

Commenting, source said: "These Poles, Russians, Germans and Yugoslavs... are the Arabs fighting for national liberation," he said bitterly. "Actually their cynical joy is unbounded at the double gift which has been handed them—the opportunity to butcher Jews, and get paid for it."

And a meeting of Black International was observed being held in Syria.[829] By Dec 1947, it's confirmed that various European guides, Nazi prisoners of war, former soldiers at Nazi Wehrmacht as well those in the 'Afrika Korps’, and other foreigners are already participating in the training of the Arab gangs.[259] Per a Jan 13, 1948 report, about 30 POW Nazis are participating in the battles of the Arab gangs, 15 of them as instructors in the Hebron area. Four Nazis command a gang of 200 Arabs in the Jerusalem area.[830] Three of the five Egyptian pilots who were shot down on May 22 in the Haifa area were neither Egyptians nor Arabs. They are believed to be Nazi Germans.[831]


-German advisers working with Arab troops. A letter intercepted in the fall of 1948, written by a German who was now serving the Arab cause. According to this letter, there were twenty escaped German POWs in Beirut, and most of them were "working on the Grille, the Führer's private yacht." -Nazi trained Fawzi [Fauzi] al-Qutb [فوزي نامق القطب] - had prepared the truck bomb: detonated on February 22, 1948, the 'Ben Yehuda Street bombing.'[832]


- On Jan 1, 1948:[833] Two Germans, one of them known to be a member of the Nazi Party, were killed by the Haganah.


- January 1948:[834]

Nazi Experts Training Arab Combat Units. About 15 Germans who were smuggled into Palestine from Egypt by the Arab Higher Executive are training Arab combat units, according to Arab sources quoted by Haboker.

Some of them are experts in explosives , it is reported, and were selected for that reason from prisoner-of-war camps in Egypt . Contact with them was established by Arabs who served in Germany during the war.


- On Jan 8, 1948, a Ukrainian Polish Nazi, Vladislav Zhidek, A.K.A. Michael Kliszczuk, was eliminated:[835]

UKRAINIAN SHOT DEAD IN CAFE Palestine Fost Staff A 37-year-old Ukrainian Pole Vladislav Zhidek, was shot dead While he was sitting in the Sichel Cafe in Ben Yehuda Road in Jerusalem about 4 o'clock yesterday afternoon. When a Red Shield ambulance arrived, the crew found Zhidek had been killed by a number of bullets in the head. He was attacked by one of two young men who walked into the cafe, fired a revolver at point-blank range and then left. A girl who was reported to be sitting with Zhidek was unhurt. Zhidek was also known as Michael Kliszczuk. Pictures found in his pockets showed him with other men near a Gestapo building decorated with swastikas. Later, it was learned that he had been shot by the Stern gang. A former SS Sturmbann-fuhrer, he had also been a high-ranking official in one of the districts of German-occupied Poland. He came to Palestine in 1941 and was arrested as a Nazi spy and was sent to Mezra, Latrun and, then Wilhelmina .

He was reportedly in contact with Arab gangs and was due to go to Syria to train Arabs. He had been employed for some time at Allenby Barracks. It was officially reported that no witnesses to the shooting had come forward.


- On January 14, 1948, a gang of 40 armed Arabs this attacked six Jews who were working the fields near Mishmar HaEmek, murdering one young man and wounding another. "The body of an Arab in military uniform apparently from Syria, with the word 'Falastin' on his sleeve, was found at the ambush, and some grenades were left behind." "A German rifle and 56 rouds of ammunition were found" there.[836]


- Jan 1948, two Nazi escapees, sentenced and executed as Mufti agents:[837]
JERUSALEM (Palcor) . — Two escaped Nazi prisoners of war, one of them a former Wehrmacht officer and the other a Volksdeutsch Pole (a Pole of German descent) were executed by Haganah, Jewish defense force, in Jerusalem yesterday after they were found in possession of documents implicating them with the Mufti-controlled Palestine Arab Higher Committee. The two Nazis, wearing civilian clothes, were arrested by Haganah seouts. They were interrogated and carefully searched before being sentenced and executed as Mufti agents. Government authorities later identified them as escapees from a PW camp near Cairo.


- Reported in February 1948, how Arab Agents are recruiting Pro-nazi refugees in Italy to fight against Jews:[838]

Feb. 20. (JTA) --

Arab agents are today recruiting mercenaries to fight against the Jews in Palestine from among the Yugoslav Ustashi and Chetniks and the Ukrainians, Albanians, Circassians (former inhabitants of the northwestern area of the Caucasus) and other groups here who were on Hitler’s side during the war, and are now under the care of the International Refugee Organization.

Able-bodied men, both inside and outside the I.R.O. camps, who are between 22 and 32 years of age, and who accept the Arab terms of payment–their fares to the middle East and maintenance of their families in exchange for their pledge to serve in the Arab forces for at least one year–are being given visas by the governments of Egypt, Syria and Transjordan. Where the mercenaries are of Moslem origin they are being officially "resettled" by formal negotiations between the governments concerned and the I.R.O. which, however, disclaims any knowledge of what use the individuals are put to on arriving in the Middle East.


- February 22, 1948: International News Service correspondent Kenneth Dixon wrote, how he witnessed evidence of the Palmach from papers on captured Nazis as well as German-style fighting techniques from Arab soldiers.[839]


-German advisers working with Arab troops. A letter intercepted in the fall of 1948, written by a German who was now serving the Arab cause. According to this letter, there were twenty escaped German POWs in Beirut, and most of them were "working on the Grille, the Führer's private yacht." -Nazi trained Fawzi [Fauzi] al-Qutb [فوزي نامق القطب] - had prepared the truck bomb: detonated on February 22, 1948, the 'Ben Yehuda Street bombing.'[840]


-March/1948 report: Some among non-Jewish Poles who came to Palestine during WW2 were actual Nazis, who took part in the extermination acts against the Jews, and who didn’t even speak Polish but claimed to general W. Anders to be Poles and he let them go. These experienced soldiers helped the Arabs against the Jews in 1947/8, despite being welcomed politely by the local Jews.[841]


-March 1948:[842]

In March 1948, Iraqi fighters arrived in the village of Bayt Dajan to reinforce the forces of gang leader Hassan Salameh. According to the testimonies of the defenders of the JNF, they participated in repeated attacks on the compound and during the battle, orders were even heard in German. It was assumed that Nazi officers had arrived in the area after the crash of Nazi Germany. As the struggle for the road and its surroundings intensified, the British evacuated the villagers to the Arab city of Ramla during April.


- April 1948, two hundred Nazi Yugoslav Moslems recruited for the Arab Liberation Forces arrive in Beirut.[843]

Nazi Fighting Forces To Support Arabs. Two hundred Yugoslav Moslems who were recruited for the Arab Liberation Forces arrived in Beirut this week on the s. s. Augustina, the Lebanese press reported yesterday.

They are former members of the Bosnia troops who were organised during the war by the Chairman of the Arab Higher Committee to fight for the Nazis in the Balkans.


- In April 1948, Saadie Basbusi (Basbousi بسبوسي), formerly employed at the Mufti's

al-Jami'a al-Islamiyya⁩ -⁨الجامعة الاسلامية, former announcer on the Nazi "Free Arab broadcasting station" in Athens, is broadcasting for the 'Liberation Army's' secret transmitter in Palestine, according to "Ad-Difa'a."[844]
A former Announcer on the Nazi "Free Arab broadcasting station" in Athens during the German occupation 8s now broadcasting for the 'Liberation Army's' secret transmitter in Palestine, according to "Ad-Difa'a." He is Saadie Basbusi.

The station is directed by Ali Naser Ed-Din, a Syrian nationalist who was once employ the now defunct Husseini paper "El Jamieh el Islamieh" (Moslem Unity).

Basbusi is the chief announcer.


- July 1948 report:[845]

Several hundred former members of the Nazi Prinz Eugen SS Division, recruited by Egyptian authorities in Austria as farm workers, immediately upon their arrival in Egypt Joined the Arab Legion of Transjordan and departed for the Palestine front to fight against the Jews, the Socialist newspaper Well Am Abend reported today.

The newspaper charged that Dr. Ismail Hassan, Egyptian representative in Austria, toured the U.S. zone several weeks ago and succeeded in obtaining exit visas for the several hundred, most of whom were Bosnian Moslems and held the rank of major to the Prinz Eugen Division. The disclosure of the identity of the men followed the capture of several of them by the Israeli forces, Welt Am Abend stated.


- In September 1948, it was reported:[846]

Former members of Nazi Storm Troop units --from detention camps-- are being recruited for the Arab forces, according to reports in the American zone in Austria, in the Hungarian press... Three youths arrested while trying to cross the Austrian border into Hungary told the Budapest police that at their camp, No. 318, groups were being allowed to leave after signing undertaking that they would leave to Palestine to join the Arabs. They wwee also given rifle instruction in the hills near the camp.

The three youths said they had been induced to sign such an undertaking by two Hungarian officers, Col. Arno Zabosh and Captain Ziga Yozef. They left their group as it was about to leave for Palestine, they said.


At the UN, in Nov 1948, it was voiced that there were "many Nazi officers in the Arab army."[847]


  • 1947-8.

Al-Husseini's 'Army of the "holy" war'.
Historians:[848] "Al-Husaini's top military commanders in the new war against the Jews—al-Qawuqji, Abd al-Qadir al-Husaini, and Salama—had all been Nazi collaborators." And "Abd al-Qadir had fought alongside the other two men on defense of Iraq's pro-Nazi regime."


  • Regarding Issa Basil Bandak (عيسى باسل البندك; 1891 – May 1984) and his media 'Sawt al- Sha'b:

He defended YMMA despite its anti-Christian tendencies were supported by such conservative (and anti- SMC) leaders as Sulaiman al-Taji al-Faruqi, he had out nationalism above anything else and promoted Muslims' rights even on the expense of Christians.' [849]

In October 1933, it was announced that Eissael Bendek [Bandak], member of the Arab Executive's Administrative Bureau, would direct a propaganda campaign in the interests of the Nazi Party.[181]

Bandak inserted the Mufti's propaganda at his paper and in 1948 renewed his alliance with him.[850]

Reported in 1949-50: El-Bandak had close contacts with anti-Semites and pro -fascists (Mohamed Maher in Egypt and Merwin K. Hart in America); accepted funds from Hart; the anti-Semitic press in America has given him and his message complere exsuport.[851]

Related: In 1947, the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith cited Merwin K. Hart's National Economic Council along with Gerald L. K. Smith's Christian Nationalist Crusade and the Ku Klux Klan as organized anti-Jewish organizations... which had significant influence, resources and membership."[852]


  • April 1948.

Nazis propaganda at attackers.

-At Operation Hametz April 1948, eyewitness' description at the time:[853]

Nazi poetry books are scattered on the floor, with the swastika hovering over their hair and the first verse of the Horst Wessel poem being published; Telephone wires connect the place to the various positions. On both sides of the rioters' headquarters - the ammunition room, which is full of boxes of various kinds, from which the occupiers took the spoils of war; And the Yugoslav rioters' room, which in panic had left their mats and utensils in place. A light blue and white flag now hangs on the building. In the corner of the room is a black plaque with chalk written on it: "The village of Salama was occupied by the Jews on the seventh of Pesach." The main house of the village, built in plazas, and housed in a large courtyard, belonged to a German family from Sharona. Here they found important documents, testifying to the connection that existed between the Germans in Palestine and gang leaders and the Nazis. The hand of the first enemy number one, the accursed German Nazi, stirred in the vortex of Palestine. And even today German officers stand at the head of the gangs and train them how to fight the Jews.

The information officer, who tells us about the documents, mechanically contains the book of a Nazi ideologue, in which he abolishes ... the Bible as the dust of the earth. In the same house remained tables, armchairs, chairs, pictures of Hitler and the Mufti, Arab propaganda pamphlets—, the natural fusion between the German Nazis and the local Nazis...


-On April 25, 1948, at Operation Yevusi, at the Sheikh Jarrah neighborhood, a building's occupants had hastily abandoned it, and a German flag with a black swastika in the center was found.[854]


-When the forces conquered Katamon, in the south of Jerusalem, they found inside a house Nazi flags that the Arabs were provided by their Nazi friends with the Mufti's endeavor. The flags were ready for "in due course." This is how the Arabs imagined the end of the war with the Jews.[855]

- Still in 1955.

German soldiers or S.S. made up a third of the 'Arab Legion', they were recruited during or shortly after the war in a British prisoner-of-war camp.[856]

Third of Arab Legion are German.1955


  • Oct 1948.

Pro-Nazi general Fawzi al-Qawuqji (who was at the pro-Nazi coup d'etat in 1941 Baghdad,[857][858] who had been in charge of broadcasting Nazi propaganda in the Arab world during Second World War II[202][859]), under his leadership/battle, in the Galilee, in a room next to a mosque built on remains of an ancient wall of a Hebrew synagogue, there was a shocking painting: an Arab battle plane with a swastika on its wings bombing a Hebrew Magen David Adom ambulance, and the wounds of the passengers bleeding: in front of the ambulance and behind it two Arab armored vehicles with large swastikas. Lethal fire was fired at the ambulance from the Arab plane.[860] [His genocidal plan was to "drive the Jews into the sea."[861]]


Describing from the days he was held captive by the Jordanians on the Nazis who came to abuse the Jews, the captive wrote in 1949:[862]
The fascists are coming. Sometimes the fascists from Europe who fought in the ranks of the legion and other Arab armies would also come to us. Among them were Germans, Yugoslavs and people of other nations, all blond and tall [and] of the sadistic type we know so well. They did not join the ranks of the Arabs except so that they could continue the extermination of the Jews. One German among them openly told us that after the current war not a single Jew would be left alive. He described to us with sadistic pleasure the bombing of Tel Aviv, and again with horrifying exaggerations. We would not reply with a single word to the comments of this type of guests.


1950’ and on


  • 1950s.

In 1960, it was revealed by a weekly popular German magazine,[863] that Eichmann helped the "Palestinian" terrorists Fedayeen with weapons.

Adolf Eichmann continued his war against Jews at the end of World War II with the help of zealous Arabs - writes the widely circulated West German weekly "Bunte Deutsche Illustrierte".

The weekly illustrated publishes a message, given to his correspondent Bruno Arnold, in the Sinai desert, by "Sheikh Ahmad," whose identity has not been disclosed. "Eichmann, who exterminated more Jews than all of us together, provided us with the weapons we are fighting against Israel. We swore to die and not leave Palestine in the hands of the Jews. We will kill them wherever they are," the Sheikh said.

The weekly's correspondent adds that after the Sinai War, Fedayeen operations against Israeli farmers in the Negev decreased, but "new assassinations, on a larger scale, are being prepared." "These operations," the reporter stresses, "are organized by former Nazis who found refuge in the Near East."

Eichmann's link was already noted in Dec 1956.[864] Von Leers, working for the UAR, had visited Eichmann in Buenos Aires in 1955, and stated that the Gestapo leader refused to give him information about the number of Jews who died in the concentration camps.[865]


More on the Fedayeen:

Otto Remer, Nazi Officer who helped foil Anti-Hitler Plot; "active from 1950 until his death in neo-Nazi movements;" in 1994 fled to Spain to escape a 22-month jail term in Germany for inciting hate, violence and racism by publicly denying that Nazi gas chambers ever existed or that the Holocaust occurred[866] - "headed the Egyptian training program which created the fedayeen 'guerrilla fighters.'"[867][868] The Fedayeen activities up to February 1955 were sponsored by local Egyptian command posts in the Gaza Strip, in conjunction with the ex-mufti of Jerusalem, Hajj Amin al-Husayni, then living in Cairo.[869]

Reported at the time, in 1955: "Most of them are followers of the former Mufti of Jerusalem."[870] And in 1956: "Palestinian Arabs consider him the spiritual godfather of the present Egyptian 'fedayeen' suicide squads."[871]


  • 1950s.

There was a period of friendship between Ahmad Shukeiri and Hans Rechenberg, a former Wehrmacht officer who had previously served as a senior official in the Nazi Interior Ministry of Wilhelm Frick. For about ten years, Rechenberg has been working closely with François Genoud who also aided "Palestinian" terror organizations.[520]


  • 1950+

The Neo-Nazi Wiking-Jugend" (WJ, "Viking youth), "At the time, they established an Arab auxiliary battalion composed of legionnaires, Germans, battle veterans and Arab terrorists."[872]


Though born into a Christian family, Arab Palestinian Issa Nakhleh was a fan of Islam - his book about Islam advertised on one of his linked neo Nazi groups.


  • 1950s, 1972, 1980s

Issa Nakhleh:
Palestine born Arab Issa Nakhleh [عيسى نخلة] (who, in July 1939 had defended, justified the "Arab propaganda centre in Berlin," Nazi Germany.[305]), Mufti linked,[873] was part of emissaries [teamed with Nazi collaborator[540] Akram Zuaiter] to Latin America, "Arab propagandists appealed to anti-Semitic sentiments to raise sympathy for their cause" - sent by Arab League programs which began in 1947.[874]

- He glorified the Hitler regime, in the 1950s through his publication in Argentina.[875]

[At the time, Nov 1953, he invited Ahmad Shukeiri for propaganda and fund raising in S. America.[876] (That would be some 8 years before Shukeiri would endorse the Neo-Nazi Tacuara from that country Argentina, at the UN).].

- At those years, Nazi-Arab cooperation in South America grew dangerously. One of the most important centers for the publication of pro-Nazi newspapers and antisemitic literature were there in Argentina. But also in many other Latin American countries.[877]


- Under his activity in the "Palestinian delegation", its postage meter was used to mail material for neo-Nazi advertising that had previously carried the headline: "Adolf Hitler: the George Washington of Europe."[878]


- Long articles by the "delegation" have been reprinted in Common Sense, The Cross and the Flag. The 'Palestine Arab Delegation' also maintained relations with the Neo-Nazi National Renaissance Party.[878]


- On December 30, 1963, Nakhleh wrote to infamous fascist "Canadian Fuhrer" Adrien Arcand.[879] Oblivious, or unaware, this Arcand referred in derogatory terms to Arab Palestinian restaurants.[880]


- Nakhleh was featured speaker at the March 7, 1969 Arab propaganda meeting, Invitations to the meeting were sent to persons on the mailing lists of prominent neo Nazis, supremacists.[873]


- In March 1971, Nakhleh peddled a so-called Jewish supposed "plot" at a meeting.[881]


- As head of 'Palestine Arab Delegation,' on Nov 14, 1972 Nakhleh denied the Holocaust, flat out, publicly.[882] In his cruelty also to hurt millions of survivors just 27 years after, he uttered the words "the millions are alive."[883]


- He worked with Neo Nazis and revisionists in the 1970s,[884] the 1980s[885][886] including as: "Legal Adviser to the World Muslim Conference."[887][888][889]


- At a convention of the Federation of Islamic Associations in the United States and Canada Inc. (FIA), on July 29, 1984 in Detroit, Hajji Abdullah Ahmad of Philadelphia distributed literature denying that six million Jews were killed during the Holocaust. Nakhleh delivered a speech in which he praised the anti-Semitic father Charles Coughlin (1891-1979) who worked in the area as well as the anti-Semitic propaganda that Henry Ford distributed there in his anti-Semitic book. (Lamented the few participants in the conference and the lack of members of Congress compared to what happens at conferences of Israeli supporters). He praised Farrakhan.[890]



  • 1950-1960s.

"Palestinian" Arab, Antoine F. Albina spreading Holocaust denial, in contact with notorious top Swedish Nazi Einar Gustav Wilhelm Aberg[756] and has been recycling his poisonous material.[891][892][893] As he sent around the material, parhetic Aberg was anxious for his material to receive, the widest possible circulation. "Please let this leaflet go arouhd the world," he pleads in one of them. "Anyone who wants to reprint this leaflet may do so. Translations into other languages permitted."[893] Albina also wrote his venom on a Lausanne newsletter, February March 1967.[894]



  • 1957.

Swastika by some Arabs in Nazareth, influenced by and against the backdrop of Nasser's threat to annihilate Israel. (It appears, this was not out in the open).[895]


  • Jan 1959.

Desecration of Jewish holy sites. Rachel's Tomb covered also with swastikas.[896] [897]


  • Oct 1959.

Arab drawing swastikas in Haifa, fined.[898]


SS men joining Arab Legion.1959
  • Revealed in 1959.

In December, 1959, it was discovered, after the arrest of some "ex" Nazis that an organization recruiting former Nazi S.S. Storm Troopers for an "Arab Legion Against Israel was operating in Germany."[899] [900]

1959-1979

  • 1959-1960.

In the late 1959 and early 1960, the eruption of anti-Jewish vandalism is known as the swastika wave or epidemic. It began in Cologne. A Jan 1960 report elaborated on United Arab Republic with help from Communists in East Germany were behind swastikas in Cologne. Mufti's disciple who converged to Islam, Von Leers, is a chief instigator. It is believed also that the UAR helps out in Nazi hate activity in the US.[735][901][902]

The Ex-mufti brought Von Leers to Egypt, German Authorities believed.[903] Goebbels' Johannes “Omar Amin” von Leers (d. 1965), was a Nazi disciple of Hajj Amin el-Husseini.[904][736]


  • 1960.

Alarm at a growing phenomenon by certain circles of Arabs in Israel caught up in Nazi ideology. Some publicly express their sorrow that the Nazis did not turn all the Jews into soap.[905]


  • 1960s.

"Palestinian" Arab, Antoine F. Albina in contact with notorious top Swedish Nazi Einar Gustav Wilhelm Aberg[756] and has been recycling his poisonous material.[906]


  • 1963-5+.

An alarming 1964 reporting on 'Neo-Nazi activities of Arab countries... an extensive anti-democratic and anti-Jewish Campaign is "being waged with greatly increased intensity" by Arab Propagandists... extremists and neo-Nazi groups, often operating jointly.' Arab hate propaganda intensified especially since Arab League (Hussein Triki) 'Nacion Arabe' launch in 1963. Arabs distributed a propaganda piece entitled "The Problem of Palestine Refugees," which is, in reality, a collation of diatribes against Zionism, Jews and Judaism. The pamphlet denies that six million Jews were destroyed by the Nazis.[907]

- In April 1964, it was charged: in many instances Arab agents and agencies are linked with neo-Nazi and Fascist groups equally committed to virulent anti-Semitism.[908]


  • Mar 5, 1965.

The Palestinian delegation in New York, (Issa Nakhleh and others) put out a statement blaming the Jews, who it claims started [sic. Supposedly] Hitler's war; it doubts the Holocaust calling it "alleged," then the message compared this number to 45 million non-Jews whose lives were cut short, blurring between peoples who fought and defenseless Jews who were slaughtered.[909][910]


  • 1960s-1970s.

Nazi link with “Palestinian” terrorists.
François Genoud [Genaud] was one of the founders of the Nazi party in Switzerland during the Hitler era; ally of Ibrahim Hafid - commander of the Arab Legion who fought in the service of Hitler. Motivated by Jew-hatred he became a passionate supporter of Arab "liberation" causes.[911]

He travelled to Berlin frequently during the war "to see his friend the grand mufti," and visited him afterward many times in Beirut, who'd consider him a "confidant until his death in 1974,"[232] and an Arab of Tunisian descent, Ibrahim Hafid, who was the commander of the Arab Legion fighting in the service of the Germans.[911][912]

After the war, his close contact was Ibrahim Hafid's man, Abdul Yousufi. Genaud was very active in Die Spinne (German for "The Spider")[911] helping Nazi war criminals escape justice. The "Arab Commercial Bank" - mostly of a dubious and illegal nature - was established by: François Genoud in partnership with Hans Reichenberg - former S.S. Officers - and with various factors in the Arab world. Genoud began to finance in Switzerland the activities of the "Friends of the Palestinians Organization" founded in Lausanne by neo-Nazi circles who saw helping the Palestinians as a way of expressing their anti-Jewish feelings.[911] In the 1960s he began supplying arms for various "Palestinian" causes. His co founded Lausanne-based New European Order organisation, met in Barcelona in April 1969, there "Palestinian" groups received financial support and Genoud placed them in contact with former Nazis who would assist their military training, as well as pledged support designated for the PLO.

Genoud was a close associate of George Habash and Jacques Vergès. In September 1969 he contributed finances for the legal expenses of three Palestinians from the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) following their attack on an El Al flight in Zurich, present at trial.[913][911] Including among the prisoners to be exchanged for the Achille Lauro hostages was one of West Germany's top neo Nazis.[913]

George Habbash was also close with former Belgian Nazi collaborator Jean Thiriart.[914] He gave money to Thiriart's publication La Nation Européenne, which in return supported Habbash in this magazine. Pro-Arab and anti-Jewish themes were explicit in La Nation Européenne, which included ads for The International Jew, the infamous anti-Semitic screed by Henry Ford. La Nation Européenne also eulogized Roger Courdroy, a Belgian Waffen SS veteran who was killed fighting for the Palestinians in June 1968. Courdroy was a close collaborator with Thiriart.

German Wehrmacht officer in World War II, Otto Ernst Remer was in contact with Yasser Arafat, "I know Mr. Arafat quite well, natürlich," he asserted. "I saw him many times. He invited me to eat at his headquarters. I knew all his people. They wanted many things from us." For Remer, anyone who was an enemy of Israel was his friend, particularly when a profit could be turned. He claimed to have brokered several business deals between West German companies and the PLO.[915]

-The W German neo-Nazi Karl von Kyna, fighting for "Palestinians" against Israel, fell in a commando raid on the Suez front in September 1967.[729]

-Known in 1968/9.
Richard Winterhalter, formerly of the SS death head squad, after the war converted to Islam and ooerated as a bomb expert for Palestinian terrorists. Knwon as 'El Hajj' - 'el hadj'.[916]

-A handful of W Germans subsequently joined the Hilfskorp Arabien (Auxiliary Corps Arabia), which had been advertised in Gerhard Frey's Deutsche National-Zeitung in 1968.

-Two years later, West German police arrested Udo Albrecht, founder and leader of the Freikorps Adolf Hitler, who was founded carrying an identification card linking him to El Fatah, the largest PLO faction, led by Yasser Arafat. Albrecht and twelve other neo-Nazi militants had fought alongside the Palestinians against Jordan's King Hussein during the battle of Black September, 1970.[915][917][918]

Albrecht, who boasted of direct access to PLO Chairman Yasir Arafat, is believed to have used PLO facilities in Lebanon to train West German neo-Nazis.[919] An alarming report was given over already in March 1970: Nazis and neo-Nazis aid "Front for the Liberation of Palestine" operations.[920]

-Per report in April 1969:[921] Fatah terrorists conducted training camps in the Venezuelan mountains, where young people are training in urban guerrilla warfare. The terrorists are in contact with former Nazis living in Venezuela.

-In 1977 Fatah made a deal with the French Work (L'Oeuvre Francaise), a neo-Nazi group, to train its members in terrorist operations on behalf of Fatah.[922][923]

-It has been confirmed that an unspecified number of German neo-Nazis received PLO military training in an Al Fatah camp near Beirut and that this information had been available to West German authorities since the start of 1980.[924]

-Karl-Heinz Hoffmann, "Fuherer" of the neo-Nazi Military Sports Group,[925] his links with Palestinian terror.[926] The link was publicized at the trial of Karl-Heinz Hoffmann responsible for the Dec 19, 1980 murder of Jewish publisher Shlomo Lewin and his friend.[927][928][929]


  • Jan 8, 1960.

Arabs draw swastika on the office of the m. Governor in Gush Halav.[930]


  • 1961.

In a report of Arabs posing as students urging Arabs to join 'George Lincoln Rockwell's 'American Nazi Party' activities and other Antisemitism: The so-called "Arab Information Center" increased the flow of propaganda mailings to Arab students. The latest is a pamphlet "Exodus: a distortion of truth." Instruction were given that: "crimes"[sic] against Palestinian Arabs were (supposedly) worse than any "alleged"[sic] atrocities by Nazis against Jews.[931]


  • April-Oct 1961.

Some of Arab "Palestinian" press reaction to the Eichmann trial:

- April 1961.
Al-Jihad Daily, (in the old City of Jerusalem, at the time under Jordanian occupation - Same owner as The Jerusalem Times[932] - goaded the Christians to pit against the Jews): "In the person of Eichmann the Jews are not trying Nazi Germany alone, but also the Christian world. They will try Eichmann on the soil which they usurped 13 years ago with their own crimes. If the Jewish authorities have the right to try Eichmann, the Arabs have more right to try Ben-Gurion and his gang..."[933]


- April 13, 1961:
The Ad-Difaa (al-Difa) [الدفاع], (Islamic "Palestinian," in the old City of Jerusalem, at the time under Jordanian occupation[932]) newspaper, wrote on April 13th: "We do not deny that the Nazis committed many mistakes... But why should Eichmann be judged for his part in having purged Europe from the plague (sic) whose name is (sic. Al-Difaa) the Jews?"[934]


- April 24, 1961: The Arab "Palestinian" Jerusalem Times (in the old City of Jerusalem, at the time under Jordanian occupation - Same owner as al-Jihad[932]) published an "Open Letter to Eichmann," in it: "Find consolation in the fact that this trial will one day lead to the liquidation of the remaining six million."[935][936]


- April 1961:
The magazine Al-Difaa [الدفاع], "explains" why Eichmann is in a glass cage. This is not to protect him from bullets, but to enable them to turn off the microphone, should he start saying things the Zionists "do not like."[937]


- Oct 17, 1961:
Ahmad Shukeiri, in his duatribe at UN, objected to the trial.[938][939]

(See also Arab reactions to the Eichmann trial).



  • October 1961.

The Palestine Liberation Delegation - PAD, under Issa Nakhleh and Omar Azouni,[940] sent to all U.N. delegations a formal statement by the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem declaring: "The enmity of Nazis to Jews was based [sic] on well-documented research and studies..."[941][942]


  • May 1962.

Arab from the village of Deir al-Asad, employed as a mechanic drew swastikas on the main road between Haifa and Acre. He tried to claim he drew chickens. However, photos presented by the prosecution showed the "chicken" were in fact swastikas.[943]


  • Nov 30, 1962.

Ahmad Shuekiri [Al-Shukairy, Shukairy, shuqayri] has spread vile Nazi type of propaganda at the UN[521][944] and on November 30, 1962 had promoted neo-Nazi stormtroop gang[522][523][524][526][945][753][10][946] who guarded monsters: Adolf Eichmann, 'Dr. Death' - J. Mengele,[527] and months earlier, had kidnapped, tortured a 19-year-old Jewish girl and carved swastika on her body,[947][948] telling her it was avenge for eliminating Eichmann.[949] After being called out by Latin American officials, realizing there is shame in the UN that, he tried to rewrite his action to switch it around. But no one bought his act. His hateful record was already witnessed and his mentioning the NYT article,[522] there the NYT clearly states the gang's nazi nature.[950] Weeks after the storm about it, Saudi Arabia's Faisal removed Shukairy from his UN post.[951][952][525]


  • 1963.

Two Haifa area Arabs were arrested, suspects in painting swastikas on the walls of houses in the Jezreelia housing complex in Neve Sha'anan.[953]


  • Sep 1963.

Young Arab arrested for drawing swastikas on houses in Bnei Brak.[954]


  • June 1964.

After a dispute between a Haifa resident and an Arab (23) from Nazareth, the Arab began with derogatory cries against the Jewish people accompanied by shouts of "Heil Hitler," at the street Shivat Tzion in Haifa, where many Holocaust survivors resided.[955]


  • May 1965.

After the Syrians hanged Eli Cohen, Arabs drew swastikas in Tarshiha.[956]


  • 1965.

A Jewish girl fell victim of violence by Arabs from Tarshiha who drew swastikas on the window of a Kupat Cholim clinic where she worked. She reported this to the police and since then she has been harassed and more than once threatened with death.[957]


  • 1966/7.

Pre 1967 war, at schools in Khan Yunis, Gaza, Nazi propaganda version: An Arab soldier in a German steel helmet breaks into Israeli territory. Dubbed ‘Hate schools.’[958]


  • 1968-1970s.

Once Arafat became head of the PLO in 1968, he continued the mufti's methods and approach. ‘Mein Kampf’ was required reading in some Fatah training camps.[725] - Arafat characteristically bought Hitler's Mein Kampf in bulk and distributed it to his followers in Arab translation under the title My jihad.[959] - In 1978, an Arabic translation of Adolf Hitler's "Mein Kampf" with a foreword by Yasir Arafat, chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization, fount at Fatah facilities in Lebanon.[960][961]

- After the April 2, 1969 Barcelona conference of neo-Nazi organizations with two Fatah recruiters. It adopted a resolution to assist the PLO in every way possible.

- "The first manifestation of this help was the recruitment of a former SS officer to command a PLO training camp at Basra, in Lebanon. In September of the same year, Jean Tireault, secretary of the neo-Nazi movement was arrested in Brussels in connection with PLO terrorists acts in Belgium. - At another meeting held in Paris, March 28 1970, Jean Robert Debbaudt, a Belgian ex- officer in Hitler's Waffen SS, leader of the neo-Nazi rexist Party, offered to place his group at the service of the PLO."[962]

From the Reagan Library:[963]

Links Between the Neo-Nazis and the PLO

Publications both in Israel and abroad have established that ties have existed between the PLO and various neo-Nazi groups since the 1960s when ex-SS officers found asylum in Arab countries provided advice and guidance to the budding PLO.

In April 1969, a world conference of neo-Nazi Organizations, on which about 100 delegates from Europe and Latin America participated was held in Barcelona, at which an Algerian delegate proposed a resolution condemning Zionist "imperialism" and succeeded in obtaining a promise from the neo-Nazi organizations of assistance in both manpower and arms for the PLO. The first manifestation of this assistance was the recruitment of an ex-SS officer to command a PFLP training camp at Basra in southern Iraq. In September 1969 Jean Tireault, secretary of the neo-Nazi movement in Brussels, was arrested on suspicion of maintaining contacts with PLO members who had carried out a terrorist attack in Belgium.

In 1970 a complex network of financial cooperation between neo-Nazi organizations and the PLO was uncovered, following the appearance of François Genoud, a Swiss banker who was the director of the Arab Bank in Geneva, as an observer of a PLO terrorist who had attacked an El Al plane at Zurich in February 1969. Genoud...of being connected with the 'Spider' currency smuggling network, which was regarded as responsible for the transfer to Swiss Bank vaults of the booty of Nazi thefts and robberies.

On 1973 a number of European newspapers revealed that two well-known neo-Nazis, the Belgian Karl van de Put and the German Johan Schuller, had acted as recruiting agents for Fatah.

Shortly before the October 1973 Yom Kippur war, the German neo-Nazi newspaper 'Nationalist and Soldiers' Chronicle' offered its readers a trip to the Middle East to learn about the Palestinian struggle. The notice stated that money was no problem, and that what was important was courage and friendship. At the same time Austrian police arrested the Austian neo-Nazi leader Herald Engelke, after his party had given asylum and assistance to PLO members who had been smuggled into Austria using forged Israeli passports in order carry out acts of terror there.

In January 1978 the general prosecutor of the West German Supreme Court at Karlsruhe opened an investigation into links between the neo-Nazi organizations and the PLO, following the arrest of 4 Germans who were members of the Adolf Hitler Free Korps - which had been engaged in arms-running from Arab countries on behalf of the PLO.

For the past few years, the various PLO factions have been showing their appreciation for the help which they have received from the neo-Nazis in Europe by providing them with financial assistance and training at PLO camps. For example, the West German student Gundolf Keller, a member of the neo-Nazi Military Sports Club who was killed in September 1980 when an explosive charge went off at the Munich Beer Festival, had undergone military training at a PLO camp in southern Lebanon. Karl Heinz Hoffman who heads this group, has also spent some in Beirut for "Business purposes." The exact nature of his business was later revealed in conversations which were monitored by German security forces in which he told his Palestinian friends that he was acting in the way Adolf Hitler would have acted had he still been alive.

Further details of neo-Nazi-PLO cooperation was revealed on 30 January 1981, during the interrogation of Adv. Manfred Roeder, one of the leaders of the West German neo-Nazi movement.


Abdel Rahman Al-Samiri - adopted the name Adolf Hitler to show his hatred for Jews. (Reported 1971)
  • Publicized in 1971:

From UPI on Feb 19, 1971:[964]

'Adolf Hitler' Starts 10-Year Term In Gaza. GAZA (UPI) - An Arab guerrilla nicknamed "Adolf Hitler" began serving a 10-year prison sentence for terrorist activities in the Israeli- occupied Gaza Strip. The prosecution at his trial before an Israeli military Court said Abdel Rahman Al-Samiri, adopted the name of the late Nazi dictator to show his hatred for Jews.

He was a member of PFLP.[965]


  • 1972.

PLO's code-named "Hitler" - in operation of murdering 13 Arabs who cooperated with the Israelis.[966]


  • 1972.

Neo-Nazi, Willi Pohl, aided Palestinian perpetrators of 1972 Munich massacre.[967] There was a further Neo Nazis plan proposed to kidnap German politicians in an operation code named “Mosque.” [968]


1973-2009. The racist Islamic Movement's inciting Sheikh Raed Salah who also made references to the medieval blood-libel,[969] reminisced about a 1973 highschool swastika drawing. While laughing he was telling the story of the drawing a big swastika on the board to await the one Jewish teacher he had. As the teacher didn't noticed it at first, the students directed the teacher to the board and to see his response.[970]

[Related on Raed Salah:

-In June 2002, Salah dehumainzed using his religion, wrote about "loser monkeys" "condemned" by Allah.

-On February 16, 2007, he recycled the ancient canard ritual blood-lible.[971]

-Though he did not utterly deny the Holocaust, he intentionally belittled it, including by inventing a similar specific figure on something else.[972]]


  • Nov 1974.

At Arab demonstrations for PLO, at Qalandiya, a flag was raised embracing a swastika.[973]


  • 1975.

A book by Ahmad Hussein, Palestine My Homeland, was published, which included the false claim that the Holocaust never occurred.[974][975]


  • Apr 1976.

Erwin Schönborn, founder of the ‘German-Arab community’ in Heidelberg and editor of ‘Nation Europa,’ the leading West German neo-Nazi publication. Under the guise of anti-imperialism, he sang the praises of nonaligned movements in the Third World. Typical was this spiel by him.[739] In the 1950s' was West Berlin’s most active Jew-baiter. In 1956 had issued a call for formation of a "German-Arab Community" the purpose of which will be the "coordination of the political battles for freedom of the German people and of the Arab nations."[976]

He was chairman of various neo-Nazi splinter groups and of a 'German-Arab Society.'[738]

In Feb 1976, in a report titled 'Nazis incite in Arabic,' it was reported that Erwin Schoenborn distributed to attendees of Innsbruck 1976 Winter Olympics, leaflets in 8 languages but the first was in Arabic, denying the Holocaust, protesting hunting former Nazis and announcing on upcoming so-called "Euro-Arab sympathy conference" setting a certain date "to mark the anniversary" of a Palestinian-Arab battle pre State of Israel in April.[737]

He publicly, repeatedly, denied the Holocaust. In 1979, he was sentenced to 18 months' jail for defamation, libel and coercion arising from his propaganda attacks against trials of former Nazis.[977]


  • 1976.

On Jerusalem campus, at days of clashes between Arab and Jewish students, candles lit in memory of the victims of the Holocaust were removed, on Holocaust and Heroism Memorial Day, Swastikas were drawn in different places in the dormitories, and as well as on the door of the dormitory manager's room.[978]


  • July-1976.

The horrific separation between Jews and non-Jews at "Palestinian" hijacking July 1976, Entebee,[979][980] was so outrageous that it prompted Hans-Joachim Klein to abandon RZ (Revolutionary Cells) as this reminded WW2.[981] Though nothing can really compare to unique Auschwitz. But the separation brought up associations to when the trains left.[981] True, the separating Jews from others was a pattern at PFLP, in this case it stood out even more, Arabs using Germans to help in that.

Related on PFLP separating Jews from non-Jews:

-El Al Flight 426 hijacking - July 23, 1968.[982]

-El Al Flight 253 attack - Dec 26, 1968, Athens.[983]

-Dawson's Field hijackings, September 1970.[984][985][986][987]



  • 1977.

Arafat's Fatah made a deal with the French Work (L'Oeuvre Francaise), a neo-Nazi group, to train its members in terrorist operations. L'Oeuvre Francaise agreed to conduct terrorist operations on behalf of Fatah.[988][962]

Nazism at Arab Palestinians – 1979-1999+

Nazism at Arab Palestinians: 1979-1999+

2000s

Nazism at Arab Palestinians: 2000s

See also

References

  1. Dan Williams, "Survey finds 28 pct of Israeli Arabs deny Holocaust," Reuters, Mar 20, 2007.
  2. "Israeli Arabs between Palestinanization and Islamism." Barak M. Seener, JCPA, 1 January 2008 [1].
    Fadi Eradat, "Poll: Over 25% of Israeli Arabs Say Holocaust Never Happened," Haaretz and AP, March 18, 2007.
    With 721 Arabs interviewed, the margin of error is 3.7 percent.
  3. Moran Katz, "40 percent of Israeli Arabs: (as if) never happened," Mako, May 17, 2009.
    A significant radicalization of the attitudes of Israel's Arabs: a new study conducted at the University of Haifa shows that denial of the Holocaust is very widespread, it turns out, even among the country's Arab citizens. Fewer and fewer of Israel's Arabs recognize the state's right to exist as an independent state, only 41% of Israel's Arabs recognize Israel's right to exist as a Jewish state.
    -Fadi Eyadat, "Poll: 40% of Israeli Arabs believe Holocaust never happened", Haaretz May 17, 2009.
    Survey also finds that only 41% of Israeli Arabs recognize Israel's right to exist as Jewish state.
  4. ADL. / Global 100.
    West Bank and Gaza 2020:
    93% Index Score, 93%. 1,900,000 People in this country harbor anti-Semitic attitudes.
    2,030,259 Adult population.
  5. Palestinian Holocaust Denial, Washington Institute, Apr 21, 2000.
  6. Seif Husseini, Emily Schrader, Holocaust Denial in the Arab World, JPost, May 9, 2018
  7. 7.0 7.1 search at PalWatch
  8. David Israel, Jason Greenblatt: PLO Official Rajoub Must Apologize to Jewish Holocaust Survivors, JP, Feb 22, 2019.
    On Thursday night, Jason Greenblatt, President Donald Trump’s Special Representative for International Negotiations tweeted: “Jibril Rajoub, a Senior Fatah Palestinian official says: ‘Since the 1967 [war], we have been living in camps similar to Nazi camps…’ My reply: Those Jews who were slaughtered in the Nazi death camps & those who survived actual Nazi camps, deserve an apology for this outrageous comment” “There is no comparison whatsoever,” Greenblatt added. “The shamefulness of his rhetoric is only eclipsed by the deafening silence resulting from the lack of condemnation from the PA and from others.”
  9. Martin Kramer, "Gaza Equals..." Aug 26, 2014. [2] [3].

    ... British novelist Howard Jacobson explained [4] why “call[ing] the Israelis Nazis and liken[ing] Gaza to the Warsaw Ghetto” goes far beyond mere “criticism” of Israel: Berating Jews with their own history, disinheriting them of pity, as though pity is negotiable or has a sell-by date, is the latest species of Holocaust denial. . . . Instead of saying the Holocaust didn’t happen, the modern sophisticated denier accepts the event in all its terrible enormity, only to accuse the Jews of trying to profit from it, either in the form of moral blackmail or downright territorial theft. According to this thinking, the Jews have betrayed the Holocaust and become unworthy of it, the true heirs to their suffering being the Palestinians.

    No Auschwitz or Warsaw ghetto for Abu El-Haj. But Dresden and Tokyo—why not? So what if Israel, unlike the Allies in World War II, warns civilians of impending strikes and, again unlike the Allies, eschews area bombardment and incendiary bombs? So what if one night of bombing over Tokyo killed 50 times as many as Israel’s month-long campaign in Gaza? When you see four boys dead on a Gaza beach, Abu El-Haj wants you to “recall,” with her, the 40,000 civilians killed in Hamburg. (Sorry, the actual figure was 42,000—but what’s another 2,000 here or there? Either way, the entire toll in Gaza fits into the margin of error of one firebombing in World War II.) Might the Israelis, in their targeting, ever commit something as human as a mistake, even a negligent one? No, they’re far too inhuman for that: when they kill, it’s always “premeditated.” “Nothing Unintentional” is the delicate title of Abu El-Haj’s article, which might as well have been called “Baby-Killers.”

    There is such a thing as legitimate criticism of Israel, and there is such a thing as crossing the line into demonization and, to put it plainly, Jew-baiting. The analogies spewed by Columbia’s tenured professors are of the latter kind, and are obscene. Jew-baiting covers a wider range than anti-Semitism, and Holocaust inversion is its favorite technique. Jew-baiting is the demand that Israel and its supporters explain [5] why Gaza isn’t like a Nazi extermination camp or a starved ghetto for the doomed, or why a targeted air campaign isn’t just like the incineration of Dresden.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Canadian Jewish review, January 4, 1963, page 1.

    Israel At U. N. Says Arabs Link with Nazis in Anti-Semitism.

    Israel accused Arab representatives of cooperating with Neo Nazi and Fascist groups in the United States, Latin America and elsewhere, to exploit Anti-Semitism as a political weapon. The charges by Michael S. Comay, Israel's parliament representative were made in reply to United Arab speeches... "It would be a sad day for the United Nations if it were to become indifferent or insensitive to any renewal of the Nazi spirit," he said... Mr. Comay's strongest protests were leveled at speeches by Ahmad Shuqairy, of Saydi Arabia and Hussein Zulficar Sabri, of the United Arab Republic. Minister of State for United Nations Affairs in the Saudi Government 'saluted' the 'Tacuara' movement in Argentina, which is regarded as a Nazi like association promoting anti-Semitic views. His speech was assailed by both Argentinian and Chilean delegates. "This episode in the debate has serious implications," Mr. S. Comay said, reports the New York Times. "We would hope that Mr. Shukairy's blessing bestowed upon the Tacuara group will serve to focus attention on this phenomenon and produce a backwash of public sentiment inside and outside the United Nations." The Israeli delegate said Mr. Sabri's technique was a "little less clumsy." It consisted, he said, of "trying to pin the Nazi label onto Israel and Zionism, in the hope that the public mind may be confused as between Hitlerism and those to whom it has caused such untold suffering. "The public mind will draw its own conclusions," he said. Mr. Comay remarked that the activities of known Nazis in the Cairo Government had become well-known. He specifically mentioned Johannes Von Leers, a propaganda expert in Hitler's Government, who, Mr. Comay said, has become "Cairo's top adviser" on anti-Semitism. He also mentioned Maj. Leopold Gleim and Maj. Bernard Bender as former Gestapo officers now holding high posts in "the secret police in the United Arab Republic. Mr. Comay expressed surprise that a spokesman had been a close associate of the former Mufti of Jerusalem, a Hitler collaborator.

    Of the 12,000,000 civilians murdered in Nazi-occupied Europe, half were Jews, Mr. Comay declared, and thousands of Jewish survivors found their way to Israel after the war, says the New York Times. "These are among people whom Mr. Sabri and Mr. Shukairy and their friends have the monumental indecency to smear as Nazis and Fascists," he said.
  11. Maurice Hirsch, Adv., "Hijacking Holocaust terminology to perpetuate falsities and demonize Israel," PMW, Apr 7, 2021.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Alana Goodman, Hamas and Fatah Team Up to Oppose Holocaust History in Palestinian Schools, Commentary Magazine, March 1, 2011.
  13. Leon Wieseltier, Palestinian Perversion of the Holocaust, The New York Times, June 12, 1988
  14. The Swastika Returns, WSJ, April 9, 2002.

    For most people, the Nazi swastika means one thing -- the Holocaust. So strong is this vile association with the Nazi slaughter of 12 million people, including six million Jews, that in some European countries, its display or sale can be a crime. So it is nothing short of shocking that in the past two weeks, posters, graffiti and placards have proliferated across the Continent displaying variations on the same theme: star of david and a swastika linked with an equals sign. Which is to say, the Israelis are now (supposedly) Nazis.

    The attempt to compare the 2,000 or so Palestinian deaths over the last 18 months -- most of them the result of armed combat with Israelis -- to Hitler's systematic massacre of millions of Jews in gas chambers and death camps would be absurd if it were not so insidious. But the analogy is not merely inaccurate.

    Tying the Jews to the Holocaust in this way has a special resonance that is as old and evil as anti-Semitism itself. For it is not simply that the Jewish state is being falsely accused of genocide, but specifically of the same genocide of which they were themselves the victims. Tying Israel to Hitler and his crimes has a way of appearing to excuse the real Holocaust. Binding together Israel and Nazi Germany in this way thus has the benefit of relieving Europe's lingering, deep-seated guilt over the Holocaust.
  15. Allegation: Israel’s Actions Against the Palestinians Can be Compared to the Nazis, ADL.

    The murder of six million Jews and millions of others carried out by the Nazis and their collaborators was the largest recorded genocide in modern history. Absolutely no comparison can be made between the complex Israeli-Palestinian conflict and the atrocities committed by the Nazis against the Jews.

    While one can criticize Israel’s treatment of the Palestinians, in contrast to the Holocaust, there is not now, nor has there been, a significant Israeli ideology, movement, policy or plan to exterminate the Palestinian population.

    The Nazis’ “final solution” to the “Jewish problem” was the deliberate, systematic and mechanized extermination of European Jewry. Hitler’s final solution led to the calculated, premeditated murder of six million Jews and the destruction of thriving Jewish communities across Europe.

    Israel says that its policies towards the Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza Strip are based on security concerns and the need to defend its population in the face of terrorist acts. But while these policies can certainly be scrutinized and criticized, they are in no way akin to the policies and actions of the Nazis and the Third Reich.

    By comparing Israel to Nazis, some seek to label Israel as a singularly, uniquely evil state on earth, playing upon old antisemitic stereotypes that treat Jews as demonic and uniquely evil.

    Moreover, it can be argued that those that make the comparison between the Jewish state and the Nazis and Hitler – who perpetrated the greatest and largest act of antisemitism in world history – have not chosen this comparison innocently or dispassionately. It is a charge that is purposefully directed at Jews in an effort to associate the victims of Nazi crimes with the Nazi perpetrators and serves to diminish the significance and uniqueness of the Holocaust.

    To make such a comparison is antisemitic and constitutes blatant hostility toward Jews, Jewish history and the legitimacy of the Jewish State of Israel.
  16. Shraga Blum, The warm ties between the swastika and the crescent, April 29 2014. I24 News.
    -'The warm ties between the swastika and the crescent' [Holocaust perversion and Palestinian Nazi links
  17. The Swastika Retuns, WSJ, April 9, 2002.
  18. Jeffrey Herf, "Nazi Propaganda for the Arab World," (Yale University, 2009), pp.15-16.
  19. Robert S. Wistrich, "Holocaust Denial: The Politics of Perfidy," (De Gruyter, 2012), p.219.
  20. Motadel, David. 2015. "The Swastika and the Crescent." Wilson Quarterly (Winter).
    Whereas he perceived Islam to be a superior religion, Hitler saw its Arab adherents as an inferior race
  21. National Alliance, Holocaust Deniers React to 9/11 Attacks | Southern Poverty Law Center, SPLC, Mar 5, 2002.
  22. Rothwell, Victor. War Aims in the Second World War: The War Aims of the Key Belligerents 1939-1945. United Kingdom: Edinburgh University Press, 2019. 41.
    However, the Nazis were clear in their minds that the Arabs were racially inferior, and there would, therefore, be no pleasure to be had from helping them in anything except for the extermination of Jews in their region.
  23. Martin A. Lee, "The Beast Reawakens," Taylor & Francis, 2000, p. 122; Martin A. Lee, "The Swastika and the Crescent," Aijac, May 2002.
  24. Pan Arabism Arabism = racism
  25. Erlich, Haggai, The Middle East Between the World Wars, The Open University Press, Tel Aviv, 1992, p. 46:

    Hitler spoke about the Arabs being "lacquered half-apes". Disparaging statements regarding the Arabs were also made by senior employees of the German Foreign Ministry, such as Fritz Grobba, the German ambassador to Iraq, who called the Arabs "a tyrannical and barbaric Oriental people."

    Rudolf Rahn, the envoy of the German Foreign Ministry to Syria, underestimated Arab nationalism: "There is no Arab national movement in Syria. The Syrian tribes are a wild and ugly group of races and religions, corrupted by greed, intrigue and jealousy, and for generations hunted down by the rival powers to accept bribes These tribes do not know the national sentiment [...] Their pursuit of so-called independence is nothing more than a means of incessant corruption. Under the guise of the desire for freedom, there is unrestrained exploitation of the workers by the ruling class. Even the racially better part, the Bedouins, are infected by the general corruption, and they are flocking after the power in power like jackals after animals of prey."
  26. Fisk, Robert, "The Great War for Civilisation: The Conquest of the Middle East," (Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 2007), Chapter 11.
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 Ofer Regev, "Hitler, al-Husseini, and 71 years to Operation Atlas", Mida, Oct 9, 2015.
    In 1944, laden with heavy equipment and barrels of deadly poison, Germans and Arabs in the vicinity of Jerusalem secretly landed for a joint operation against the Jewish community. He visited Auschwitz, recruited thousands of Muslims to serve the Reich, and even pushed for the establishment of an extermination camp in Israel.
    Husseini himself, in his book The Truth About the Palestine Problem, wrote:

    "Hitler hated the Jews ... Hitler is now avenging this accursed [sic] race ..." Operation Atlas.

    Following the defeat of the Nazis in the third battle of El Alamein (November 1942), the idea of 'Operation Atlas' took shape. The planning of the operation included the secret parachuting of a group of fighters consisting of Muslims, members of the Nazi pioneering training program, and Germans from the Templar colonies in Israel, who would be equipped with ten large containers of deadly poison. According to Prof. Yossi Ben-Artzi, the cell was supposed to rekindle the Arab uprising and create a new front in the Nazi campaign, and according to Prof. Yoav Gelber, the cell was intended for an intelligence purpose of recruiting and training aides. According to the accepted version, the members of the cell sought to poison the springs of Rosh HaAyin and bring about the death of a quarter of a million Jews in the Land of Israel.
  28. 28.0 28.1 Stav, Arie. Peace—Arab Caricature: A Study in Antisemitic Image. Tel Aviv: Zmora-Bitan, 1995, pp. 95-6. Stav, Arie. Peace : the Arabian caricature : a study of anti-semitic imagery. Israel: Gefen Publishing House, 1999. pp. 118-120. [6]. [7].

    Arab admiration for Nazism in the 1930s , after Hitler came to power, should be seen against the backdrop of such an identity of values. The explanation usually given for such admiration, namely, that a common antipathy toward France and Britain pushed the Arabs into Hitler's arms, is only a partial explanation. Furthermore, as a fundamental explanation, it is overly simplistic to the point of being a perversion of history.

    While Hitler's violation of the Versailles Treaty was a crude slap in the face of Britain and France, it came much later in 1936, with German rearmament, and in 1938, with the Anschluss of Austria. From 1933 at least until the German attack on Poland in September 1939, there were no grounds for assuming that Hitler, an Anglophile who based his long-term strategy, as outlined in Mein Kampf, on Anglo-German cooperation, would be the one to save the Arabs from British colonialism. As the Middle East was mostly under the British sphere of influence, Hitler viewed it at the time of his accession largely as secondary to his overall plans; German attitudes then could be summed up by Bismarck's aphorism, "The entire Eastern question is not worth the bones of a single Pomeranian grandier."

    Furthermore, while Jews were the victims of Mazi Anti-Semitism, that anti-Semitism included all Semites, at least at the "anthropological" level. Nazi contempt for Arabs is amply reflected in expressions of racist revulsion toward them, and of the embarrassment engendered among the Nazi leadership by the courtship toward them by Haj Amin al-Husseini, at least prior to the outbreak of the Second World War.

    Immediately upon Hitler's accession to power, parties emulating National Socialism were formed throughout the Arab world. One such party, established in Syria by Anton Sa'ada, adopted all the outer forms of Nazism with alacrity. Sa'ada, who presented himself to the world as "Fuehrer of the Syrian Nation", included in his party's platform the claim that "Syrians are a 'master race' by their very nature".

    Hitler himself was Islamized, acquiring the new appellation of "Abu Ali" (and in Egypt, for some reason, "Mohamed Heidar").

    Similar parties were also established in Iraq, Tunisia, and Morocco. However , the one party on the Nazi model in the Arab world whose impact transcended the period of the 1930s and which , to a considerable extent, fashioned the regime in the principal Arab land subsequent to the Second World War, was the Green-Shirted Young Egypt, which specifically copied the forms of the Hitler Youth and the Brown Shirts of the SA. The party was founded by Ahmed Hussein in October 1933 on the German model, replete with raised-armed greetings, a general staff, storm troopers, torch - light parades, and Nazi slogans (including a literal translation into Arabic of "One Nation, One Party, One Leader", and "Egypt über alles"). Gang of strong-arms to deal with opponents, and, needless to say , the status of "Fuehrer" for Ahmed Hussein. Nazi anti-Semitism was also incorporated into Young Egypt, including a boycott of Jewish businesses , physical harassment , and incitement to violence. As Dafna Alon has stated, "Nazi anti-Semitism – theory, practice, and policy – fitted the needs of Arab nationalism [in the 1930s] like a glove."

    During the war, Young Egyptians supplied Rommel with intelligence, and some, including a young lieutenant named Anwar Sadat, were courtmartialed for high treason and sent to jail. In time, Sadat and his fellow Young Egyptian Gamal Abd al-Nasser became part of the nucleus of the officers' movement that seized power in Egypt in 1952. Sadat expressed his admiration for Hitler in an open letter to him in the Egyptian daily Al-Mussawar, on September 18, 1953: "Dear Hitler..."

    The year was, as mentioned, 1953, only a short time after the revelation of the horrors of Nazism at the Nüremberg trials. Such open adulation for Hitler, such total obliviousness to Nazi war crimes and open yearning for Hitler's reappearance , are not considered morally perverse in Egypt. They are a true indication of the degree of identification with Nazism felt by Sadat, who was a faithful embodiment of the Free Officers' revolution. Indeed, the first act of the new regime after taking power on the night of July 22, 1952, was the banning of all political parties (including the one founded in October 1933 on the Nazi model)....

    Arab adulation for Nazism in the 1930s has been given faithful, and somewhat nostalgic , expression by Sami al-Jundi, one of the founders of the Syrian Ba'ath party, thus: . . 'We were racists, we admired the Nazis. We used to be steeped in Nazi books and of (books that served) as a source for the spirit of Nazism ... We were the first who thought of translating Mein Kampf. Anyone who lived in Damascus at the time was a witness of the inclination of the Arabs toward Nazism.'

    Needless to say, there was implicit Arab identification with Hitler's definition of Zionism in Mein Kampf: 'It doesn't even enter their (Zionists) heads to build up a Jewish state in Palestine for the purpose of living there; all they want is a ...'
  29. Lewis, B. (1987). Semites and Anti-Semites: An Inquiry Into Conflict and Prejudice. United Kingdom: Norton, p. 28; (1999), p. 28.
    One of the major Nazi theorists, Alfred Rosenberg, in his authoritative Myth of the Twentieth Century even warns the white races to be on their guard "against the united hatred of colored races and mongrels led in the fanatical spirit of Muhammad."...
  30. 30.0 30.1 Various. Routledge Library Editions: History of the Middle East. N.p.: Taylor & Francis, 2021. 263; Hirszowicz, Łukasz. The Third Reich and the Arab East. United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis, 1966.
  31. Trevor-Roper, Hugh Redwald., Hitler, Adolf. Table Talk, 1941-1944. United Kingdom: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1953. 547. Cited in: Melka, Robert Lewis. The Axis and the Arab Middle East, 1930-1945. United States: University of Minnesota., 1966. 72, Wistrich, Robert S.. Hitler's Apocalypse: Jews and the Nazi Legacy. United Kingdom: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1985. 164.
  32. Haj Amin and Berlin [Ḥag' Amin u-Berlin / G'eni Lebel]. 1996. 33.
    בשנת 1937 ביקר בדמשק , בבגדאד ובטהראן באלדור פון שיראך (Baldur von Schirach), מנהיג הנוער ההיטלראי, בדמשק נשאל פון שיראך על־ידי עיתונאים, כיצד אפשר להשלים בין התעמולה הנאצית בארצות ערב לבין תורת הגזע, המעמידה את הערבים בדרגה י"ב במעלת הגזעים. העיתונות הערבית ציינה אז שפון שיראך התחמק ונמנע מלתת תשובה הגיונית לשאלה זו.
  33. 33.0 33.1 Arab "mein Kampf" on Sale, JTA, October 31, 1938. [8].

    Jerusalem, Oct. 30, (JTA)

    Arabic translation of Adolf Hitler’s "Mein Kampf" was put on sale here today at the modest price of three piastres (about 21 cents). Many copies are being distributed among the Arabs free of charge. It was noted that the edition placed on sale here carefully purged the passage in which the Arabs are graded fourteenth on the racial scale.
  34. 34.0 34.1 34.2 Assaf, Michael. The Arab Awakening and Flight [Toldoth Hith'oreruth Ha'aravim Webrihatam]. Vol. 3. Pt 2. Tel Aviv: Hinuch Vetarbut, 1970. 284-5.

    1934. With the appearance of the daily newspaper A-Difa'a (Defense) in Jaffa, which was edited by a Muslim, a race and competition began, and the decision was finally in favor of the Arab-Muslim press. In 1935, a partisan daily newspaper of the Husseins also began to appear, edited by Jamal al-Husseini - "Al-Liwa" (The Flag), which was discontinued in 1937. The great competition between "Falastin" and "A-Difa" caused a front-line improvement - Professional in terms of speed in delivering news, disclosure, expansion and revelation, the Egyptian newspaper, large and rich, which had many readers in the country, and especially as the air connection between the two countries tightened was not the model and example for newspapers such as "Falastin" and "Difa'e," but Lebanese and Syrian newspapers, which were limited and had many shortcomings from a professional journalistic point of view ...

    He was a young Muslim, Ibrahim a-Shanti, a member of the Qalqilya who became rich (also from business with - the Jews, brokering the sale of land and more). He grew up and was educated in the British period, that is, in the period of the Arab national tide on the one hand and the nationalist, fascist-Nazi tide on the other. The newspaper was founded in 1934, that is - in fact Mussolini's preparations for an attack on Abyssinia and the beginning of the explorations of Nazi Germany in the Middle East. Although this newspaper served very carefully, it followed the policy of the fascist-Nazi axis in Palestine, as it was encapsulated in a venomous, aggressive and comprehensive pan-Arab propaganda (ie, continuous pan-Islamism as well)...

    אסף‬‎, ‫מיכאל‬‎. ‫תולדות התעוררות הערבים בארץ־ישראל ובריחתם‬‎. Israel: Tarbut ṿe-ḥinukh, 1970. 284-5‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

    1934, עם הופעת העתון היומי "א־דיפאע" (ההגנה) ביפו, שעורכו מוסלם היה, החלו מרוץ ותחרות, וההכרעה היתה לבסוף לטובת העתונות הערבית-מוסלמית. בשנת 1935 החל להופיע גם עתון יומי מפלגתי של החוסיינים, בעריכת ג'מאל אל-חוסייני - "אל־ליוא" (הדגל), שהופסק בשנת 1937. ההתחרות הגדולה בין "פלסטין" ו"א-דיפאע" גרמה בשורה הראשונה - שיפור עתונאי מקצועי בכל הנוגע למהירות במסירת ידיעות, לגילויין, להרחבתן ולריבויין, העתונות היומית המצרית, הגדולה והעשירה, שהיו לה קוראים רבים בארץ, וביחוד עם התהדק החיבור האוירי בין שתי הארצות לא היתה המופת והדוגמה לעתונים כ"פלסטין" ו"א־דיפאע", אלא עתוני לבנון וסוריה, שהיו מצומצמים ולקויים בחסרונות רבים מבחינה עתונאית מקצועית... היה צעיר מוסלם, אבראהים א-שאנטי, בן פלחים מקלקיליה שהתעשרו (גם מעסקים עם - היהודים, תיווך במכירת קרקעות ועוד). הוא גדל והתחנך בתקופה הבריטית, כלומר - בתקופת הגיאות הלאומית הערבית מזה והגיאות הלאומנית, הפאשית־נאצית מזה. העתון נוסד בשנת 1934, דהיינו - בעצם ההכנות של מוסוליני להתקפה על חבש והתחלת הגישושים של גרמניה הנאצית במזרח התיכון. ואמנם שירת עתון זה בצורה זהירה מאוד, אולם עקיבה, קולעת ומצליחה, את המדיניות של הציר הפאשי־נאצי בארץ-ישראל, כשהיא מובלעת בתעמולה פאן-ערבית ארסית, תקיפה וכוללת (כלומר הרצופה גם פּאַן־איסלאמיות)...

  35. ha-Arets - הארץ, 29 November 1938.

    הערבים "נחותי־גזע", לפי היטלר

    עתוני קהיר ודמשק פוקחים את עיני קוראיהם על משמעותה האמיתית של תורת הנאצים

    דמשק, (פלקור). תחת הכותרת "הערבים הם מגזע נחות — אומר היטלר" פרסם העתון הדמשקאי 'אלף־בא' את מאמרו החריף של השבועון המצרי, 'רוז אל־יוסף' על התרגום הערבי "של מלחמתי" של היטלר. בהקדמה כותב 'אלף־בא' שמעטים הם הערבים, היודעים "שהיטלר רואה בעם הערבי אומה נחותה שאיננה ראויה לשלטון עצמי ולעמוד בדרגה תרבותית וחברתית אחת עם העמים ה"אריים". הוא מעמיד אותה בספרו בדרגה אחת עם העמים השחורים של אפריקה. אחרי זה מספר העתון, בקיצור, על הרעש שהקים במצרים התרגום הערבי של ספר 'מלחמתי' שהשמיט, מתוך כוונה להטעות את הקוראים, את כל הקטעים שמדברים בגנותם של המצרים, ומביא את מאמרו של 'רוז אל־יוסף' במלואו.

  36. "Book Note." The Australian Jewish Herald 25 May 1939. [9].
    Hitler’s rating of the Egyptians and other Arabs as 13th on the list of races was, everybody knows by now, conspicuously omitted from the Arab edition of "Mein Kampf." . . . But the omission has since been rectified (and how!) by a new Egyptian publication called, after the name of its founder, Rose-el-Youssef. . . . . . Which has published in full what Hitler really said about the Arabs. . . . . And distributed it in hundreds of thousands of copies to Arabs through out the Near East.
  37. 37.0 37.1 Pierre Van Paasen, A MARGINAL NOTE, The Sentinel, 15 June 1933.

    ...Naziism is spreading . Under its own name and under other names it is invading countries...bordering on Germany. Action Francaise, the extremist nationalist movement... And how about Jerusalem... where Hitlerism is openly admitted in the nationalist Arab press... I was in Brentanos bookstore the other day in Paris. While waiting for the Order Department I saw ten copies of the French translation of Hitler's Mein Kampf being wrapped up with five copies of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion and when I casually glanced at the address which was stuck on the package I felt a shudder pass through me for the name on the label was: Jamal Husseini, Jerusalem. They are going to quote Hitler against the Jews in Eretz Israel ! They are going to invoke the arguments of a "modern statesman" against Chalutzim of the Emek Valley ! They are still thirsting for Jewish blood— these hounds of feudalism—they will invoke the doctrines of Fascism against helpless old men and women.

    Let those who feel so secure about the era in Palestine remember 1929, when a whole assembly of Jews danced their joy in Zurich and when the happiest prophecies about the future of Eretz Israel were uttered—ten days before the pogrom ! [10].
  38. The Palestine Post, 14 August 1939 —BELGRADE MOSLEMS WARN ARABS
  39. Palestine Post, 4 August 1940.

    "National Awakening," a new book by C. Zureiq, a promising young professor at the American University of Beirut, was reviewed by Nicolas Eff. Ziyadi yesterday. The writer advocates a thorough study of the Arab heritage, the establishing of links with the past and also a search for guidance by means of a study of Western methods. He urrges that the Arab people must examine themselves honestly and remedy their weeknesses.

    Dr. Salwa Khouri, whose medical talks have proved to be very popular, spoke on dietetics for babies, and their general care.

    A talk by an Arab Officer who had served in the Turkish Army was read yesterday. After referring to the ill nature of the arrogance German officers, the writer said that Germany had exploited her earlier friendship with Turkey to the latter's detriment . Now she was trying to repeat this experiment with the

    Arab and Moslem world. Hitler really believed that the Arabs were stupid enough to believe his honeyed words of friendship and independence. The Nazi movement was above all an imperialistic one and the Arabs realised this. Had not the Haifa air raids proved Hitler's intentions? —B
  40. Ha-Tzofeh, Dec 25, 1940
  41. ha-Arets⁩ - ⁨הארץ⁩, 8 July 1942.

    אין להאמין לתעמולת ה"ציר" בקשר עם תעמולת הציר ושידוריו לעולם הערבי כותב ה' יאלצ'ין ב"יאני סבאח" הטורקי: כלום יגלו גרמניה ואיטליה את כוונותיהן האמתיות לעולם הערבי? הרי אם יעשו כן, יצטרפו מיד כל הערבים בעולם לבריטים נגד ה"ציר". אין איש מאמין לתעמולה זו, כי ידוע שגרמניה ואיטליה חושבים את אסיה ואפריקה לנחשלים לגבי שאר חלקי העולם. אין להעלות על הדעת שהציר, שהתנפל על ארצות אירופה לא יפגע בעצמאותן וחופשתן של מצרים ארץ־ישראל, סוריה, עיראק ואיראן.

    Don't believe the "Axis" propaganda

    In connection with the Axis propaganda and its broadcasts to the Arab world, H. Yalçın writes in the Turkish "Yeni Sabah": Will Germany and Italy reveal their true intentions to the Arab world? After all, if they do so, all the Arabs in the world will immediately join the British in the "Axis" uniform. No one believes this propaganda, because it is known that Germany and Italy think Asia and Africa are backward compared to the rest of the world. It is inconceivable that the Axis, which attacked European countries, would not harm the independence and freedom of Egypt, the Land of Israel, Syria, Iraq and Iran.
  42. The Palestine Post, 14 October 1942 10,000 MOSLEM ARABS TORMENTED BY NAZIS
  43. Leila Khaled at SFSU, ADL. September 3, 2020.
  44. Leila Khaled: In Her Own Words, ADL, October 2, 2020.
  45. Autobiography of Leila Khaled, edited by George Hajjar, 1973.
  46. 46.0 46.1 Kehoe, T. J., & Greenhalgh, E. M. (2017). Living Propaganda and Self-Serving Recruitment: The Nazi Rationale for the German-Arab Training Unit, May 1941 to May 1943. War in History, 24(4), 520–543. https://www.jstor.org/stable/26393389
  47. Nazis Reassure Arabs; Antisemitism Confined to Jews, Spokesman Explains, The New York Times, November 5, 1942, 2.

    By Telephone to The New York Times. Stockholm, Sweden, Nov. 4.—

    During today's Foreign Ministry press conference in Berlin, the German spokesman took great pains to assure Arabs that the anti-Semitic policy of the Nazis was directed solely against the Jews and not against them...
  48. Hund, ‎Wulf Dietmar. Koller, ‎Christian. Zimmermann, Moshe. Racisms Made in Germany. Austria: Lit, 2011. p.52.
  49. Jamison, Albert Leland. Tradition and Change in Jewish Experience. United States: Department of Religion, Syracuse University, 1978, p. 243.
  50. Haaretz, Nov 07, 1941

    The zeal of a follower of racial theory

    One of the doctors at a hospital in the north of England recounted an act in which a young German pilot was brought to the hospital seriously injured and suffering from heavy blood loss.

    It became clear to the doctor that if they did not make a blood transfusion to the pilot, he would die, and this was explained to him. This one vehemently opposed the offer of transfusion, saying he could not bear the contamination of his Aryan blood. By canceling his prejudices, the doctor promised him that they would use only the blood of a volunteer from the Aryan Blondie type. The pilot stood his ground.

    The hospital register had many volunteers and in the hope that he would remove the fears from the pilot's heart, the doctor selected six of the tallest, pinkest and blondest blood donors, who were brought to the wounded man to see with his own eyes that no "dark" blood would go to his "northern" veins. But in vain. He said that death is better for him than to be turned over to the blood infection. And indeed he died in his fight against generous hands who prepared the injection of sedatives.

    הארץ, 7 בנובמבר, 1941.

    קנאותו של חסיד תורת הגזע

    אחד הרופאים בבית חולים בצפון אנגליה סיפר מעשה שהיה בטייס גרמני צעיר, שהובא לבית החולים פצוע קשה וסובל מאיבוד דם רב.

    נתברר לו לרופא, שאם לא יעשו ערוי־דם לטייס מות ימות, ודבר זה הוסבר לו. הלה התנגד בתוקף להצעת הערוי, באמרו שלא יוכל לשאת את זיהום דמו הארי. אגב ביטול דעותיו הקדומות הבטיח לו הרופא שישתמשו רק בדמו של מתנדב מטפוס ארי בלונדי. הטייס עמד בסרובו. בפנקס בית החולים היו רשומים מתנדבים רבים ומתוך תקווה שיסיר את החששות מלבו של הטייס, בחר הרופא בששה נותני דם מן הגבוהים, הוורודים והבלונדים ביותר, שהובאו בפני הפצוע כדי שיראה במו עיניו כי לא יערו דם "כהה" לורידיו ה"צפוניים". אך לשוא. "הוא אמר כי טוב לו המות מאשר להמסר לזיהום הדם". ואמנם מת בלחמו נגד ידים נדיבות שהכינו את הזרקת סמים מרדימים.

  51. Nazi Order Prohibiting Jewish Blood for Transfusions Causing Death of Many Soldiers, JTA, March 2, 1942. [11]

    The Nazi racial theory is costing thousands of German soldiers their lives, it was revealed by a German army doctor taken prisoner by the Soviets.

    The Moscow press reports that the German doctor, identified as Dr. Paul Schultze of the 68th German Infantry Division, spoke with bitterness over ”the senseless racial theory” which makes it difficult to carry out blood transfusions on wounded German officers and soldiers, since an order has been issued that no one in the armed forces may have ”Jewish blood” in his veins. The captured doctor is quoted as saying that there is not enough “Aryan” blood in reserve for transfusions, with the result that a large percentage of the wounded die.
  52. [Yet, in 1943 it was revealed, that Nazis use blood from 40,000 Jewish children for wounded German soldiers.] Nazis Use Blood from 40,000 Jewish Children for Wounded German Soldiers, JTA, May 24, 1943 [12]
  53. This World [HaOlam HaZeh], Nov 7, 1962. [13][14].
    Was Joseph Vissarionovich Djugashvili, Known as Stalin, a Jew?

    It turns out that this question greatly troubled Adolf Hitler.

    This week, British journalist Sefton Delmer published his memoirs, revealing that Hitler's personal photographer had told him that Hitler had personally instructed him to inquire into the matter.

    The photographer was sent with the Nazi foreign minister to Moscow at the time of signing the famous Soviet-German agreement.

    Hitler told him: "Listen, I want you to get as close to Stalin as possible and take a picture of his earlobe. I want to know if the earlobe is close to the face, meaning that he is Jewish, or that he is free, meaning that he is Aryan. It's very important for me to know that."

    The photographer returned to Hitler with a photograph of his ear proving that Stalin was not a Jew.

    גליון 1313 - 7 בנובמבר 1962

    האם היה יוסף ואסיריונוביץ דג׳וגאשווילי, המכונה סטאלין, יהודי?

    מסתבר כי שאלה זו הטרידה מאד את אדולף היטלר.

    השבוע פירסם העתונאי הבריטי ספטון דלמר את זכרונותיו, גילה כי צלמו הפרטי של היטלר סיפר לו, שהיטלר הטיל עליו אישית לברר את העניין. הצלם נשלח יחד עם שר־החוץ הנאצי למוסקבה בשעת חתימת ההסכם הסובייטי־הגרמני המפורסם. אמר לו היטלר :״שמע, אני רוצה שתתקרב עד כמה שאפשר אל סטאלין ותצלם את תנוך־האוזן שלו. אני רוצה לדעת אם התנוך צמוד לפנים, כלומר שהוא יהודי, או שהוא חופשי, כלומר ארי. חשוב לי מאד לדעת זאת.״

    הצלם חזר להיטלר, כשבידו תצלום של האוזן, שהוכיח כי סטאלין אינו יהודי.

    EIN PHOTO VON STALINS OHRLÄPPCHEN - DER SPIEGEL. 30.10.1962, 13.00 Uhr - aus DER SPIEGEL 44/1962.;

    Bullock, Alan. Hitler and Stalin: Parallel Lives. United Kingdom: HarperCollins, 1991. 685.
    Hitler was particularly interested in the photographs of the historic occasion. He had insisted that his personal photographer, Hoffmann, should accompany Ribbentrop, and before leaving had instructed him to be sure to obtain a close-up of Stalin's earlobes. He believed these would show whether Stalin had Jewish blood - whether the earlobes were 'ingrown and Jewish, or separate and Aryan'. He was relieved to see that Stalin passed the test and was not a Jew.
    Russel Watson, "Eerie Echoes Of Evil Genius", Newsweek, Apr 5, 1992.
    Until almost the end, Hitler was haunted by a question that could have occurred only to someone like him: was Stalin a Jew? He sent his personal photographer to the negotiations in Moscow for a close-up to see whether they were "ingrown and Jewish, or separate and Aryan." Stalin passed the earlobe test and the cynical treaty was concluded, enabling the two dictators to invade Poland and split it between them. Said an admiring Stalin: "Hitler knows his business."
    When Hitler wanted a photo of Joseph Stalin’s ear lobe during World War II.
    It was a crucial moment in the history of World War II. The signing of the Non-Aggression {act between the USSR and Nazi Germany was happening in Moscow in 1939. German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop and Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov signed the treaty. Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin was also present. Interestingly, Adolph Hitler sent a personal delegate with a specific mission to the conference. Incredibly, the Fuhrer's delegate’s mission was to photograph the ears of Joseph Stalin. The delegate was Heinrich Hoffmann, Hitler’s official photographer.
  54. The Palestine Post 28 August 1938 —A NAZI TRIPPER'S PALESTINE.
    Of course the author is 'pro Arab.' To read him you would never guess that the Arabs are Semites and therefore sub-human. If the Italians are "Aryans" and the Japanese "Honorary Aryans," why shouldn’t the Arabs be people acceptable by Nazi standards, worthy of Germany's friendship?
  55. Terrence McCoy, The "Perfect Aryan" Child Used in Nazi Propaganda was Actually Jewish, The Washington Post, July 7, 2014.
    A photo of a baby that adorned a Nazi magazine for a contest to find the "perfect" Aryan baby is revealed to be a Jewish girl.
  56. Iyunim bitkumat Yisrael, 1997, p. 254
    The yellow race and the black race are the most "dangerous" of our time for the Aryan race, according to Russian neo-fascist racism (in this matter they have a grievance against their leader Adolf Hitler for some reason removing the Russians from the respected family of Aryan nations).
  57. David Patterson, A Genealogy of Evil: Anti-Semitism from Nazism to Islamic Jihad (Cambridge, UK; Cambridge University Press, 2010), 111
  58. 58.0 58.1 58.2 58.3 R. Mather, "Hitler's war against Jews continues in 'Palestine'", JPost, Mar 16, 2015.

    When Hitler proclaimed the Nuremberg Race Laws in 1935, a number of Palestinian Arabs sent telegrams congratulating him... It was as early as 1933 that Husseini was in contact with the new regime in Germany. Within weeks of Hitler’s rise to power, the German consul-general in Palestine sent a telegram to Berlin reporting Husseini’s enthusiasm for Nazism and for the spread of fascism in the Middle East. When Husseini and several Arab sheiks met with the consul-general a few weeks later, he expressed his approval of the anti-Jewish boycott in Germany.

    Very soon, the Husseini family had set up the Palestinian Arab Party, which was nicknamed the “Nazi Scouts.” Husseini’s brother, Jamal, was chairman of the Palestine Arab Party and a delegate to his brother’s Arab Higher Committee. It was this committee that led a led a campaign of boycotts and terror against Jews, and the bombings of British offices between 1936 and 1939.

    In 1937, Husseini visited the Jerusalem German Consul, where he met with Eichmann to discuss “the Jewish question.” This meeting resulted in the Nazis agreeing to finance Husseini’s pogroms against the Jews in Palestine. Hitler publicly expressed his support for the Palestinian Arabs. This support was motivated by anti-Semitism and a suspicion of Britain’s colonial rule in the Middle East. In a speech made before the Reichstag in 1939, Hitler opined that Palestine is “occupied not by German troops but by the English,” and he accused British troops of oppressing the Arabs for “the benefit of J... interlopers.”… Palestinian scholar Edward Said, who is no friend of Israel, has conceded that Husseini “represented the Palestinian Arab national consensus.” He had ”the backing of political parties that functioned in Palestine,” and was “recognised in some form by Arab governments as the voice of the Palestinian people.”
  59. 59.0 59.1 G Alderman, How Arabs conspired in the Shoah The JC, Nov 10, 2006
  60. 60.0 60.1 Nicosia, Francis R., Nazi Germany and the Arab World. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 2015. 77-8
  61. Aboul-Enein, Basil H.., Aboul-Enein, Youssef. The Secret War for the Middle East: The Influence of Axis and Allied Intelligence Operations During World War II. United States: Naval Institute Press, 2013.Ch.2.
  62. Lewis, Bernard. Semites and Anti-Semites: An Inquiry Into Conflict and Prejudice. United States: W. W. Norton, 1999. p.47.
  63. 63.0 63.1 63.2 63.3 Wild, Stefan. "National Socialism in the Arab near East between 1933 and 1939." Die Welt Des Islams, vol. 25, no. 1/4, 1985, pp. 126–73. JSTOR. Die Welt des Islams. (1985). Germany: D. Reimer. Vols. 25-27, pp. 143-6.

    The German Consulate in Jerusalem reported much stronger sympathies — for the Germans in general and for the "Führer" in particular.

    'Ausschlaggebend für die bei den Arabern Deutschland gegenüber jetzt bestehenden Sympathien ist aber die Bewunderung, welche unser Führer genießt. Gerade die Unruhezeiten boten mir öfter Gelegenheit festzustellen, wie weit diese Sympathie verbreitet ist. Wenn man sich bei einer bedrohlichen Haltung einer arabischen Volksmenge als Deutscher zu erkennen gab, war dies im Allgemeinen schon ein Freibrief für ungehindertes passieren.
    Wenn man sich aber durch den deutschen Gruss "Heil Hitler," auswies, schlug die Haltung der Araber meist in Begeisterung um und der Deutsche kam zu Ovationen, bei denen die Araber den deutschen Gruss stürmisch erwiderten.

    Die Begeisterung für unsren Führer und das neue Deutschland ist wohl deshalb so verbreitet, weil die palästinensischen Araber in ihrem Kampf um ihre Existenz einen arabischen "Führer" ersehnen und weil sie sich im Kampf gegen die Juden in einer Front mit den Deutschen fühlen.'

    ['The decisive factor for the sympathy that the Arabs now have towards Germany is the admiration our leader enjoys. The times of unrest in particular often gave me the opportunity to determine how widespread this sympathy is.

    If one identified oneself as a German in a threatening attitude of an Arab crowd, this was generally a license to pass unhindered. But if you identified yourself with the German salute "Heil Hitler," the attitude of the Arabs usually turned to enthusiasm and the German received an ovation, during which the Arabs returned the German salute stormily. Enthusiasm for our leader and the new Germany is probably so widespread because the Palestinian Arabs long for an Arab "leader" in their struggle for their existence and because they feel they are on a front with the Germans in the fight against the Jews'].

    After Hitler's victory in 1933 elections, there were at least two attempts to establish with German help Arab off-shoots of the NSDAP in Arab countries.

    In April 1933 the German Consul General in Jerusalem, Heinrich Wolff was contacted by the Palestine correspondent of the Egyptian newspaper al-Ahrām, Joseph Francis, who acted as a spokesman for a group of Palestinian Arabs. In the same month, the German envoy in Baghdad, Fritz Grobba, was approached by 'Abdalghaffūr al-Badrī, an anti-sharifian ex-officer and editor of the Baghdad newspaper al-Istiqlāl. Both requested German assistance in establishing such a party. In both cases the answer was negative.

    The Auswärtiges Amt stated in the case of the Palestinian group:

    'A direct connection between Mr. Francis and members of the Ortsgruppen of the. NSDAP in Palestine would be regrettable. As German citizens then would be suspected of interfering in the domestic affairs of Palestine.'

    Thus, paradoxically enough, it was the German side which effectively stopped all efforts to create Arab cells of National Socialists parties. As far as the Near East was concerned, the overriding idea behind this policy was the wish not to encroach on the British position in the Bear East.

    For the same reason, not all demonstrations of sympathy towards Hitler's Germany were viewed favorably by the German side. When at the maulid-celebrations in Jerusalem in 1937 German and Italian flags were flown and in some cases also portraits of Fauzi Qawuqdjī, Mussolini and Hitler were shown, the reaction of the German Consulate was reticent:

    'Ich betrachte diesen arabischen Versuch , durch Hissung deutscher Flaggen und Ausstellen von Bildern des Führers ihren Unwillen über die Engländer und die Juden zum Ausdruck zu bringen, als wenig erfreulich und als einen gewissen Missbrauch. Die Engländer dürften sich aber darüber im Klaren sein, dass man von deutscher Seite zu der Durchführung dieser Demonstration nicht beigetragen hat und dass es sich um eine von langer Hand vorbereitete rein arabische Aktion handelt. Die jüdische Presse hat diese Demonstration ausführlich behandelt und unter anderem darauf hingewiesen, dass die Begeisterung der Araber für den Führer widersinnig wäre, weil dieser alle Semiten, also auch die Araber, hasse. Die arabische Presse hat hierauf nicht reagiert. Von deutscher Seite sind arabische Anfragen auf Überlassung deutscher Flaggen abschlägig beschieden worden. Von einer Einwirkung auf die Araber, eine Benutzung der deutschen Bilder und Flaggen zu unterlassen, habe ich vorerst abgesehen.'


    ['I look at this Arab attempt by hoisting German flags and exhibiting pictures of the Führer expressing their displeasure with the English and the Jews as unpleasant and a certain abuse. However, the English should be aware that one has not contributed to the implementation of this demonstration from the German side and that it is a long-hand prepared purely Arab action. The Jewish press has discussed this demonstration in detail and, among other things, pointed out that the enthusiasm of the Arabs for the Führer would be absurd because he hates all Semites, including the Arabs. The Arab press did not react to this. From a German side, Arab inquiries on transfer of German flags have been decided. From an action to the Arabs, to refrain from using German pictures and flags, I have for now'].


    The Palestinian paper al-Jāmi'a al-Islāmiyya wrote on January 1, 1938:

    'Many Arabs consider that Germany is a friend of the Arabs. This friendship is perhaps the result of the German hatred of Jews. Germany's anti-Jewish policy has caused a strong outflow of emigrants to Palestine - German Jews. This is the good that Germany did us.'

    [...] However, the Haavara agreement which regulated Jewish emigration from Germany to Palestine was never commented on, let alone criticised in the Palestinian Press. And the image of Hitler's personality remained positive : his short cut to military power had - according to the Palestinian paper al - Kirmil — its only precedent in the military achievements of the [their] "Prophet."

    The man who dominated Palestinian resistance to Zionism and who during the Second World War became an unhappy symbol of close collaboration between National Socialism and the Arabs, Hajj Amin al-Husaini, made clear that he welcomed the new regime in Germany and hoped for the spread of "fascist, antidemocratic leadership to other countries" and also approved of the anti -Jewish measures of the new regime. It is true that the Mufti also appealed "for a German-Jewish policy which would direct German Jews away from, not towards Palestine."

    The German Consul General in Jerusalem Wolff observed "that the Arabs were too primitive politically to fully appreciate the fact that Germany and German Jewish policy were greatly intensifying their problem."

    Francis Nicosia has shown in detail that Germany refused consistently in this period to become involved in anti-British policy in the Near East. When Fauzī al - Qāwuqjī approached the German envoy in Baghdad, Fritz Grobba, to obtain arms for the Arab rebellion in Palestine, he answered that relations with Great Britain were more important to the Hitler-government than possible gains of sympathy in the Arab world. The Arabs were given general sympathy for plans of self-determination — not more.

    The channels of transmission of National-Socialist and Fascist ideas to the Arab Near East were manifold.

    There was the deliberate attempt to spread these ideas via the usual diplomatic channels and the media.

    Broadcasts in Arabic from Germany started relatively late - in April 1939. The program consisted of recital of passages from the Koran, Arabic music, Arabic literary texts and political commentaries.

    One of the Arab speakers was Yūnus al-Bahri, who later wrote his memoirs about his time in Berlin under the title Hunā Berlin. Hayyi l - 'arab (Here is Berlin. Greetings to the Arabs) which was the customary start of the broadcasts  Here is berlin (greeting to the Arabs) which was the customary start of broadcasts.

    Approximately at the same time Radio Berlin edited an Arab bulletin Barid al-Sharq (Orient - Post), which regularly carried extracts from Hitler's speeches and political commentaries.

    There were the activities of the German embassies and legations, one of the most active diplomats being certainly the German envoy in Iraq, Fritz Grobba.

    These diplomats worked closely together with the local groups (Ortsgruppen) of the NSDAP, as far as they existed. There were a variety of contacts between the diplomatic missions and writers, politicians, journalists of different persuasions in Iraq, Egypt, Syria , Lebanon and Palestine. There were the Arab Clubs in Germany which were under the close supervision of the Gestapo. And there were free-lance journalists and politicians, Arabs who resided in neutral countries, who were influenced and sometimes paid by German money but were not under complete controle, like the Druze -Lebanese Emir Shakib Arslan (1869-1946), an Arab intellectual who resided in Switzerland, where he published his political journal La Nation Arabe...
  64. Helmreich, William. The Third Reich and the Palestine Question. N.p.: Taylor & Francis, 2017. [15].
  65. 65.0 65.1 Yehoshafat Harkabi, Fateful decisions, Am Oved, 1986, p. 9 יהושפט הרכבי, הכרעות גורליות, עם עובד, 1986, עמ' 9.
    הקשרים בין התנועה הלאומית הערבית לבין המשטר הנאצי בגרמניה החלו להירקם כבר בשנת 1933. במדינות הערביות השונות החלו מפלגות וארגונים מקומיים לחקות את שיטות הפעולה של המפלגה הנאצית ולאמץ את עקרונותיה. בקיץ 1933 נעשה ניסיון להקים תנועה נאצית ערבית גם בארץ־ישראל, ומשרד התעמולה הנאצי הגיש סיוע כספי לעיתונות הלאומית הערבית בעלת האופי האנטי-ציוני הקנאי בארץ-ישראל. אולם, אם עד פרוץ מלחמת־העולם השנייה עדיין נזהר המשטר הנאצי מלתמוך בתנועה הלאומית הערבית, הרי לאחר שהחלה המלחמה העולמית התהדקו הקשרים בין גרמניה הנאצית לבין מנהיגיה של התנועה הלאומית הערבית, ובעיקר עם חאג' אמין אל-חוסייני המופתי הירושלמי.
  66. Cohen, Michael J. Britain's Moment in Palestine: Retrospect and Perspectives, 1917-1948. United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis, 2014. p.404.
  67. "Jamea Al Arabia" Still Banned, "al Hayat" Appears. JTA, August 26, 1930. [16].
  68. Palestine Arabs Are with Hitler in His Enmity to Jews Says Grand Mufti’s Organ but Want Hindenburg to Win Because Hitler's Win Means Jews Flocking Out of Germany to Palestine: A Thousand Apologies Mr. Hitler but You Can't Blame Arabs for Putting Own Interests First. [17]. Jerusalem, Mar. 30th. (Jewish Telegraphic Agency). April 1, 1932.

    Should we Palestine Arabs be on Hindenburg’s side or on Hitler’s side in the German presidential elections, the "Jamea el Arabia", the organ of the Grand Mufti, asks in an article discussing the German elections. Some people may wonder, it says, of what particular significance it is to Palestine Arabs which of the two wins, but the fact is that we have a very considerable interest in the matter. Hitler and his Party are enemies of the Jews. They maintain that it is the Jews who are responsible for all the calamities that have befallen Germany since the war. If Hitler wins, the Jews in Germany will naturally have a bad time of it, and therefore the Jews support Hindenburg, not so much because they like Hindenburg, as because they are afraid of Hitler. We Arabs, although we are not German citizens, stand to gain or lose very considerably according to whether Hindenburg or Hitler wins. It would be only natural that we should be in favour of Hitler winning, because, as the Arab proverb puts it – "the enemy of my enemy is my friend". Unfortunately, however, though our inclinations are all with Hitler, it is not to our advantage that he should win, because if Hitler wins he will persecute the Jews who will then flock out of Germany, and naturally, for the most part, into Palestine. While if Hindenburg wins, the Jews will stay in Germany. In spite of all our sympathies for Hitler, therefore, we must wish success to Hindenburg, for whatever difficulties Germany may suffer because of the presence of the Jews, Germany can bear them better than can a poor country like Palestine.

    We offer thousands of apologies to you, Mr. Hitler, the paper concludes, but you cannot blame the Arabs, if, after all, they consider their own interests first.
  69. Nicosia, F. R. (2017). The Third Reich and the Palestine Question. United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis. 85.
  70. Haynt - היינט, 20 July 1934.

    "Long live the Hitler of Palestine" Jerusalem (ITA). The Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin al-Husseini, has already returned from Saudi Arabia and Yemen...

    During his return trip to Palestine [E.Y.], the Grand Mufti was enthusiastically welcomed by large crowds of Arabs at the various train stations between Egypt and Palestine [E.Y.]. An enthusiastic Arab shouted during the reception at the train station in Ramla: "Long live Hajj Amin al-Husseini - the Hitler of the Land of Palestine".
  71. The cry of the Jews of Central America.

    A letter of outcry from the Jews of Guatemala and San Salvador (Central America) was published in the New York "Tog." The letter states that several Jewish merchants were expelled for no wrongdoing. Their only fault: their Jewishness (Judaism). One of the deportees is the chairman of the Zionist Organization in Guatemala. He has been accused of being a communist, and for the sake of this snitching, he has been persecuted and impoverished. In San Salvador, trade is concentrated in the hands of Arabs. And in their war against the Jews (60 in number) will stop at nothing. They "proved" to the government that all Jews are communists. One Jew was shot dead, 12 were arrested, and after severe torture were deported from the country.

    The senders of the letter seek to publish it and arouse public opinion in America, because their lives hang in the balance (by a thread).
    Davar, 27 July 1932.
  72. [‫האװאנער לעבן‬‎]. Cuba: n.p., 1932. Havana Life, p. 12.
  73. Bureš, Jaroslav. Main Characteristic and Development Trends of Migration in the Arab World. Czechia: Institute of International Relations, 2008, p.90
  74. Editor-Propietario: Jorge Sabaj Z. La Reforma [Al-Islah]. Santiago, 13 de abril, 1933. "La política anti sionista en Alemania."
  75. 75.0 75.1 Mundo Árabe, la-Reforma - Jorge Sabaj Zurob: 'Arab world' magazine, excerpts from its vile racism and propaganda, DP, Jul 29, 2020
  76. 76.0 76.1 Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the ... Congress. United States: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1948. 4570.

    Arab Racist Propaganda Rebuked by Judge

    Extension of Remarks by Hon. Arthur G. Klein June 19, 1948

    ... The most conspicuous Arab publicist in the United States, H.I. Katibah, was revealed as the author of the lead article on pro-Hitler propaganda monthly published in Boston, Mass., in 1933.
  77. 77.0 77.1 Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the ... Congress. United States: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1946. pp.4938-4940.
    [British Treatment of Jews in Palestine Cries to Heaven While Arab Office Turns Out Propaganda Extension of Remarks by Adolph J. Sabath August 12, 1946].

    Let me, then, read a single inflammatory statement from a letter dated June 21 , 1946, on the letterhead of the League for Peace With Justice in Palestine, 420 Lexington Avenue, New York 17, and signed by R. M. Schoendorf, Habib I. Katibeh, and Ben H. Freedman.

    The first paragraph of this letter reads:

    World War III may burst upon the world if an attempt is made to transplant into Palestine, against the wishes of the Arabs, 100,000 displaced European Jews and using for this purpose the armed forces of the United States and Great Britain. [...] The chief propagandist and editor for the Institute for Arab-Anerican affairs is a man named H. I. Katibah, and he is the very same man who was director of the prewar Arab organization in the United States that was associated with the Nazi Bund. Just as the bund was supposed to make German-Americans into Nazis, so the Arab National League, of which this man was director, was supposed to make Americans of near eastern extraction into Nazis.

    As a matter of fact, not long after Pearl Harbor, the leading Arabic newspaper in America, Al-Hoda, openly admitted this Arab-Nazi connection, and urged Arab -Americans no longer to follow the false leadership of the German affiliated agitators.
  78. 78.0 78.1 Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the ... Congress, Volume 92, Part 11. United States. Congress. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1946 pp. 2634-5.

    Arab office Linked with Fascist Jew Baters -- President Truman Is Asked to Investigate Arab Propaganda in the United States

    EXTENTION OF REMARKS OF HON. EMANUEL CELLER OF NEW YORK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES [...] Outstanding publicist for the various Arab groups involved is H. I. Katibah, editor of the monthly Bulletin, and of other publications of the Institute for Arab-American Affairs, Inc. Katibah, the Anti-Nazi League charges, was one of the original incorporators and most active workers in the notorious Arab National League, founded shortly after Hitler seized the German chancellorship and incorporated at New York in 1938, and used to disseminate totalitarian propaganda among Americans of Near Eastern antecedents. The Arab National League operated in close association with the German-American Bund, then under the leadership of Fritz Kuhn, and its activities were regularly reported in the Nazi newspaper, Deutscher Weckruf und Beobachter, until that publication was sealed up by the FBI after the attack on Pearl Harbor. In addition to Katibah, whose name appears near the top of the institute's letterhead, it is significant that both the original bund-associated body and the present institute were formed under New York corporate charters containing much identical language and written by the same lawyers. Furthermore, the names of several of the other top officers of the institute, including the present chairman of its executive committee, are to be found among the names of the eight original incorporators of the old bund-associated Arab National League.

    This same H. I. Katibah, on May 2, 1946, and again on May 9, 1946, was the signer of full-page paid advertisement appearing in a number of principal newspapers, advancing the propaganda cause of the Arab League, and attributed to a high nebulous source called the League for peace with justice in Palestine. The original announcement address of the latter organization is merely the address of an advertising agency located at 345 Madison Avenue, New York City.
  79. Rahal Scheiban to Hitler. July 18, 1933, BAB, R 43 II /1420. Cited in Mallmann, Klaus-Michael., Cüppers, Martin. Nazi Palestine: The Plans for the Extermination of the Jews in Palestine. United Kingdom: Enigma Books, 2013. 30.
  80. Bestand R 43, Reichskanzlei: Einleitung, Serien Arbeit-Geschäftsgang (S. I - LXXII, 1-610). Germany: Bundesarchiv, 1984. 212.
  81. From Bethlehem To Paris Arab-Christian Editor Goes to Get Nazi Instruction, JTA, Oct 8, 1933. [18]. [19].
    (J. T. A Special Correspondent) Sept 16.--
    Eissa Bendak, editor of the radical Christian-Arabic bi-weekly "Sowt Es-Shaab" published in Bethlehem, has left for Paris where he will receive instructions from a group of Germans and Arabs on "conducting Nazi propaganda" in Palestine. Bendak was recently instrumental in organizing the Arab Fascist Party at Bethlehem whose object is to harass the Jews.
  82. Haddad, San Charles. The File: Origins of the Munich Massacre. United States: Post Hill Press, 2020. Chapter 7, "Rise of the Reich". From: Waldo H. Heinrichs, "Diary Entry, March 9," 115, Waldo Huntley Heinrichs Papers. (Waldo Huntley Heinrichs Papers (RG 115), Special Collections, Yale Divinity School Library. [20]).
    This pro-German, anti-Jewish pot also bubbled in Jerusalem cafés. Heinrichs would overhear pro-German, anti-Jewish conversations at places like Haddad's, a confectionary shop close to his residence.
  83. Nazis Claim Credit for Palestine Arab Rioting; England is Ridiculed, JTA, October 30, 1933. [21].
    The disturbances in Palestine are a direct consequence of Nazi agitation, according to the declaration of the Nazi leader, Schopman, addressing a meeting of Nazis in the municipal theatre in Koepeneck.

    "The Hitler achievement is not confined to Germany," Schopman told his audience,” but it has succeeded in stimulating national self-consciousness in other countries which is best testified to by the events in Palestine.” Der Angriff, newspaper popularly associated with Dr. Goebbels, Nazi propaganda chief, editorially comments tonight on the so-called Arab revolt and attempts to justify it. It remarks sarcastically on the efforts of England, the mandatory power, to protect the Jewish population in Palestine ...

    The remainder of the German press, while reporting Palestine developments, refrains from commenting on them. Enormous interest is shown by the Jewish people here who are besieging the Jewish Telegraphic Agency offices for the latest news from Palestine. The tremendous interest shown by them in this case is a remarkable instance of how, in recent months, Palestine has grown to occupy an important place in German Jewish considerations.
  84. Jewish Daily Bulletin (JTA), Nov 23, 1933.

    Nazis Reveal Contacts with Arab Riot Leaders; Goebbels Gets Reports

    Berlin, Nov 22.– A direct contact between the German Nazis and the Palestinian Arabs is revealed today in the Reichswarte, organ of the all-European Nazi organization, which is edited by the reactionary leader, Count Ernest von Reventlow.

    An emissary from Palestine has reached Berlin, it was learned today, and reported to the Minister for Propaganda, Dr. Paul Joseph Goebbels, and other Nazi governmental authorities on the recent disturbances in Palestine.

    The Munich edition of the Voelkischer Beobachter, which is not sold abroad, carries an article today glorifying the German settlers in Palestine, particularly those who settled in Sarona... Nazi Propaganda Drive in (Land of) Zion

    Jerusalem, 22.– Eissa el Bendak, newly appointed members of the Arab Executive's administrative bureau, will direct a propaganda in Palestine in the interests of the Nazi party. He recently interviewed several Arabs living in France and Germany in connection with the best possible means of adapting the Nazi program to the Holy Land.

    The arrested Arab leaders, Aouni Abdul Hadi, Jamal Al Husein and Izzat Darwaza, have been replaced on the Executive by el Bendak, Ishac Darwish, a nephew of the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, and Omar Saleh el Barguthy, a Moslem attorney.

    El Bendak is the editor of Sowt Es-Shaab...

    The Arab Executive has issued a proclamation complimenting the Palestinian Arabs on their bravery and for their resistance to the British government by declaring a general strike. A reply is being formulated to the statement issued by the Colonial Secretary in England demanding peace.

    The moderate Arab leader, Boulos Effendi Shehadeh, editor of the anti-reactionary "Meraat Al Sherk", has resigned from the Arab Executive because of the manner in which the "Arab Executive fled like cowards from the scene" of the rioting in the Holy City recently.

    He deplored the fact that the Arabs have surrendered so readily to pressure of British government military forces.
  85. Do'ar Hayom, December 11, 1933

    The Nazi spirit in Jaffa.

    The author of "El Blug" in Jaffa tells of the strengthening of Nazi spirit among the young Arabs in the country. Unknowns painted the swastika on a glass and various utensils in Arab cafes in Jaffa.

    The author tells of an incident that happened in the German cafe "Lawrence" located on the Jaffa-Tel Aviv border: A young Arab man sitting with his friends in the same cafe spread a Nazi flag on the table and drank with the patrons a toast to the 'well being' of the Arab Nazism. This upset the Jewish critics. However, Azmi Nashashibi, the deputy governor of Jaffa, intervened and said that here is a public place and if he does not like what he does, he has the authority to leave the place.

    So the Jews left the place.

    דאר היום, 11 דצמבר 1933

    הרוח הנאצית ביפו סופרו של "אל בלאג" מספר על תגבורת הרוח הנאצית בין הצעירים הערבים בארץ. נעלמים ציירו את צלב הקרס על כוסית וכלים שונים בבתי קפה ערבים ביפו. הכותב מספר על מקרה שקרה בבית הקפה הגרמני "לורנס" הנמצא על גבול יפו־ת"א צעיר ערבי שישב עם חבריו באותו בית קפה פרש דגל נאצי על השלחן ושתה עם המסובים לחיי הנאציות הערבית. הדבר הרגיז את המבקרים היהודים. אולם עזמי נשאשיבי, סגן מושל יפו, התערב בענין ואמר, שכאן מקום צבורי ואם מה שהוא אינו מוצא חן בעיני מי־שהוא—הרשות בידו לעזוב את המקום. אז עזבו היהודים את המקום.

  86. Nadeau, Jean-Francois. The Canadian Fuhrer: The Life of Adrien Arcand. James Lorimer & Company, 2011.
  87. Adrien Arcand:
    Elsewhere, the Mirror and the Coglu have received congratulations on several occasions over the past six months, long reproductions and sympathetic mentions in "La Libre parole" in Paris; the Encyclopedia of Menton, France; "Der Hammer", Leipzig; "Nationalistul", Jassy, Romania; "The Fascist," London; "The Patriot", London; "Falastin", national organ of the Arabs, Jaffa, Palestine; "The American Guard", Brookline, Mass.; "Volkischer Beobachter" (Adolph Hitler's diary), Munich; "Der Sturmer", Nürnberg; "The New Journal...

    Le Miroir, ‎Jul 17, 1932; Le Goglu, Nov 4, 1932.

  88. Nadeau, "The Canadian Fuhrer", p. 42.
  89. French Nazi Leaflets in Haifa, JTA, January 31, 1934. [22].

    An Arab was arrested here today for distributing Nazi leaflets in the French language. He said it had been given him by an officer of the S.S. "Smyrna," of the Deutsche Levant Line, which had loaded oranges for Germany.

    The title of the leaflet is "German Competition in Eastern Countries." The charge is that the literature was smuggled through the Customs.
  90. Palestine Paper Bears Anti-nazi Signs, JTA, January 31, 1934. [23].
    Palestinian paper money is in circulation bearing inscriptions such as "Boycott German goods" and "Do Not Buy Nazi Goods," according to "Falastin," Arabic daily of this town. The paper demands government action to prevent this form of propaganda, being inspired, it is obvious, not from love of Haman so much as hatred of Mordecai.
  91. 91.0 91.1 Blum, Sasson. The attitude of the Arabs of the Land of Israel towards the Jewish settlement and its Zionist enterprise between the events of Av 1939 (August 1939) and the outbreak of the events of 1936-1936 (April 1936)‬‎ [Yaḥasam shel ʼArviye Erets-Yiśraʼel el ha-Yishuv ha-Yehudi u-mifʻalo ha-Tsiyoni ben meʼoraʻot Av-5689 (Ogusṭ 1939) le-ven p'rots meʼoraʻot 5696-5699 (April 1939)]. Israel: Universiṭat Tel-Aviv, 1971. [24].
    Haifa based Al-Karmil (al-Karmal, El-carmel الكرمل, El-carmel, Jarīdat al-Karmal) asks in its issue of May 24, 1933:

    "Will there rise among us an Arab Hitler who will awaken the Arabs, gather their dispersed, and lead them so that they will do what is necessary ...?" A reader wrote in the July 1, 1934 issue of Falastin: "Hitler was liked by the Arabs, the Orientals, because that is the way of the world: the enemy of my enemies is my friend and ally." On the great and growing influence of the Nazi ideology among the Arabs of the land in droves, because they conform to the anti-Jewish mindsets prevalent among them ... There were soon growing signs of sympathy in the Arab street for Hitler and Nazism.

    The swastika is seen more and more on Arab houses, on Arab cars, and even shoe polishers near the Jaffa Gate in Jerusalem adorned crates in this painting.
  92. SWASTIKA ON ARAB ORANGES DISPLEASES BERLIN ARYANS. The Sentinel, 18 January 1934.

    Berlin (JTA)—Official circles here are protesting against the use of the swastika, official Nazi emblem, printed on the wrappers of Palestine oranges intended for export to Germany... Oranges marked "Saint Elijah, Jaffa," were wrapped in paper bearing a picture of the "prophet" surrounded by swastikas.

    The wrappers were found to have been used by an Arab exporting firm.
  93. ha-Arets - הארץ, 8 March 1934.

    "פלשתין" להגנת היטלר. 'פלשתין' נתקנא כנראה ב"אל אסלמייה" וב"אל ג'אמעה", שפרסמו מאמרים נגד תהלוכת העדלידע בתל־אביב. ופרסם מאמר, שבו הוא מפנה את תשומת " לב הממשלה לתמונות הקריקטוריות שהיו בתהלוכת העדלידע... Falastin in Defense of Hitler.

    'Falastin' was apparently jealous of Al-Islamiyah and Al-Jama'ah, which published articles against the Adloyada procession in Tel Aviv. And published an article, in which he draws the government's attention to the cartoonish images that were in the Adloyada procession...
  94. When Nazi Swastikas Were Paraded in Downtown Tel Aviv. Tel Aviv's Purim parades between 1933 and 1935 evolved from joyous celebrations into full-on protests against Nazi Germany. Nati Gabbay, nli.org.il, 16.03.2022. [25]

    ...The German Consulate heard of the stunt and sent a sharp letter of rebuke to Tel Aviv Mayor Meir Dizengoff, written in English. The Consul was most perturbed: [26] “Besides being of opinion that the person of a leading statesman on such an occasion should never be made the object of presentation whatever the intention might have been, I find myself in the necessity to protest most urgently against the tendencious [sic] manner in which Herr Hitler was publicly represented in this special case…I sincerely hope that they will think it right to apologize.” The letter sent to Mayor Dizengoff, the Tel Aviv Municipality Archives Dizengoff refused to apologize, responding: "It is clear that this display is nothing but a spontaneous reaction reflecting a public view that is unwilling to accept the fate of the Jews of Germany. In fact, one wonders why the protest was not even sharper…"

    The truth is, there was room to doubt the "spontaneous" nature of the exhibit, as it had been pre-approved by the municipality, which even rewarded the designers with a cash prize. The Hitler exhibit won sixth place and a cash prize of two Palestine Pounds, according to a Hebrew report in Davar, March 17th, 1933. By 1934, fear of the Nazis was even more grounded in reality. Hitler was consolidating his power, and anti-Jewish measures were on the rise. That year’s Purim parade in Tel Aviv was marked by full-on protests against the Nazis, featuring clear demands to boycott German goods and stand up to the National-Socialist party.

    This time around, the main attraction was a massive three-headed, swastika-emblazoned dragon, with an effigy of Hitler mounted on its back.
  95. Batog – באטאג, 10 April 1934. [27].

    Hitler agitation in Palestine. Formed in E.Y. a center for Hitlerist propaganda in the Near East. A Palestinian correspondent of Jewish newspapers abroad writes: Recently, the relations between the Jewish settlement in the Land of Israel [Eretz-Yisrael - E.Y.] and the German colonists in the country have become very strained. In the Land there are a few thousand Germans / 'Templars', who have their own colonies. Before the Hitlerite revolution in the country... the relations between the Germans and Jews in the country were friendly. As soon as the Hitlerites came to power in Germany, the relationship between the Germans and these Jews soon changed. The Germans in the country, which is true, never wanted to employ any Jewish workers in their colonies. Although the main consumers of their agricultural products are almost exclusively Jews. As soon as Hitler ascended the throne, Nazis = propagandists began to appear, who began to conduct anti-Semitism propaganda among the Germans in E.Y.. The agitation really soon bore fruit, the Germans became very aggressive and show full hatred towards the Jews in the country. Some time ago, the Germans in E.Y. had invited to visit them, the Austrian Nazi-leader Herr Walter Riehl, he should hold a report cycle there on the essence of National-Socialism. Walter Riehl used his visit to E.Y. for anti-Semitic propaganda and created in E.Y. a Nazi center for the entire East. The German Hitlerites in Israel are already conducting a twisted Hitlerite propaganda among the Arab youth. Among the Arab youth there is also a Reported in April, 1934, with the radical change after Hitler's ascend to power and propaganda infiltration, affecting feelings towards Jews by the Templars, there is also Hitlerite propaganda by the Germans among the Arabs. And there is: 'a Nazi organization among the Arab youth, which is led by the German Hitlerites in the country.'

    היטלעריאגיטאציע אין פּאלעסטינע.! געשאפן און א"י א צענטראלע פֿאר היטלעריסטישע פּראפאגאנדע אין נאענטן מזרח. אַ פֿאַלעסטינער קאָרעספּאָנדענט פון אידישע צייטונגען אין אויסלאַנד שרייבט: דו לעצטע צייט האָבן זיך זייער פאַרשאַרפט די באַציאונגען צווישן דעם אידישן ישוב אין ארץ-ישראל און די דייטשע קאָלאָניסטן אין לאַנד. און לאַנד געפונען זיך אַ פּאָר טויזנט דייטשן / "טעמפלער", וועלכע האָבן אייגענע קאָלאָניעס. פאר דער היטלעריסטישער איבערקערעניש אין דײטשלאַנד... זיינען די באַציאונגען צווישן די דייטשן און אידן אין לאַנד געווען פריינטלעכע. װי נאָר אָבער די היטלעריסטן זײַגען געקומען צו דער מאַכט אין דײטשלאַנר, האָבן זיך באַלד געענדערט די באַציאונג פון צי א"י דייטשן צו די דאָזיקע אידן. די דייטשן אין לאַנד האָבן, װאָס אמת איז, קײִנמאָל נישט געװואָלט באַשעפטיקן קײַן אידישע אַרְבֶעטֶער אין זײערע קאָלאָניעס. כאָטשׁ די הווִפּט פן קאָנסומענטן פון זייערע לאַנדװירטשאַפטלעכע פּראָדוקציעס זײנען כמעט אֹױסשליסלעך אידן. װי נאָר היטלער איז אַרוף אַפֿן בענקל האָבֿן זיך אָנגעהויבן באַװײזן נאַצי = פֿראָפּאַגאַגדיסטן, וועלכע האָבן אָנגעהױבן צו פֿירן אַנטיסעטיטישע פראָפּאַגאַנדע צווישן די דייטשן אין א"י. די אַגיטאציע האָט טאַקע באַלד געבראַכט פְרוכטן, די דייטשן זייגנען געוואָרן זייער אַגרעסיוו און װײַזן אַרױיס אַ פולע שנאה צו די אידן אין לאַנד. מיט אַ צייט צוריק האָבן די דייטשן אין א"י אינגעלאַדן צו זיך אַף אַ באַזוך דעם עסטרייכישן נאַצי - פורער הר. װאַלטער רילער, ער זאָל דאָרטן האלטן אַ ציקל רעפּעראַטן וועגן דעם מהות פון נאַציאָנאַל‏ סאָציאַלֿיזם. הַר װאַלטער רילער האָט אויסגענוצט זיין באַזוך אין א"י פֿאַר אַנטיסעמיטֿישער פֿראָפֿאַגאַנדע און האָט געשאַפן אין א"י אַ נאַצי צענטראַלץ פאַרן גאַנצן מזרח. די - דייטשע היטלעריסטן אין ‏א"י פֿירן שוין אויך אַ פֿאַרצװײנטע היטלעריסטישע פֿראָפּאַגאַנדע צווישן די אראבישע יוגנט. צווישן די אַראַבישע יוגנטלעכע געפֿינט זיך אויך אַ נאַצי אָרגאַניזאַציע, וועלכע ווערט אָנגעפירט דורך די דייטשע היטלעריסטן אין לאַנד. לעצטנס װערט אויך מֿיט יעדער דייטשער שיף, װאָס קומט אָן קיין יפוֹ אָדער חיפה, אַריינגעפֿירט ליטעראַטור, װעלכע ווערט דערנאָך פאַרשפּרײיט צווישן די אַראַבער אין לֿאַנד. די סכנה פון היטלעריסטן אין ארץ ישראל איז נאָך לעת עתה נישט גרויס, אָבֿער דער אידישער ישוב מוז שׁוין באצייטנס אָנהױיבן טראַכטן, װי אַזױ צו באַקעמפן די חברה-לייט.

  96. Wilhelm Frick, Holocaust Encyclopedia.
  97. American Jewish Year Book. (1934). United States: Jewish Publication Society of America, p. 193.

    London. -- In reply to query in House of Commons, Sir Philip Cunliffe-Lister,

    Colonial Secretary, admits that British government had advance knowledge of the visit to Palestine last spring of Dr. Wilhelm Frick, Nazi Minister of Interior.
  98. "Frick Palestine Trip Motive Seen In Arab Nazism." The Chronicler-Spokesman, 25 May 1934. [28] "Nazis Seek Arab Support." The Sentinel, 7 June 1934.
    JERUSALEM (JTA)—The secret behind the mysterious visit here last April of Dr. Wilhelm F. Frick, Nazi Minister of the Interior, has at last come to light. The Arab press has suddenly begun to print articles propagandizing the Nazi regime and crusading against the Jews. When Frick was here the story was that he had come on his honeymoon, but it now appears that his actual purpose had been the organization of anti-Semitic propaganda. Arab newspapers in Beirut and Bagdad are printing translations of Hitler’s autobiography, "Mein Kampf." In Palestine several Arabian newspapers have begun an intensive campaign to spread anti-Jewish propaganda and praise for Hitler. This open incitement in the Egyptian and Palestinian press recalls the fact that a number of Egyptian newspaper have for some time been subsidized by the Nazis. This sub-Arabian the Nazis. This subsidy has now been extended to the Arabian press in other countries as well. From well-informed circles the Jewish Telegraphic Agency learns that a well-organized office has been set up in Cairo for the purpose of spreading anti-Jewish propaganda.
  99. Misgav, Tel. Latrun Days: The story of the Latrun detention camps during the British Mandate 1941-1948. [Yemei Latrun: sipuram shel machnot hama'atzar bitkufat hamandat haBriti]. Ariav, 2007, p. 27.
    In May 1934, the Jerusalem police learned that extremist Arab nationalists intended to form the Palestinian Nazi Party, which aimed to fight Jews in coordination with the Nazi Party in Germany. In Israel, many swastikas began to appear on Arab homes and their cars. At the end of 1935 the number of members of the Nazi party in Israel was two hundred and eighty.
  100. 100.0 100.1 100.2 David M. Rosen, "Armies of the young: child soldiers in war and terrorism," (Rutgers University Press, 2005), p. 106.

    …The shrill calls to take up extremist politics invoked a symbolism that glorified youth, violence, and death. By 1936 Al Difaa, the paper of the Istiqlal movement and the most widely read paper in the Arab community, proclaimed, in clearly fascist tones, that "youth must go out to the field of battle as soldiers of the Fatherland." Others argued that the "Land is in need of a youth, healthy in body and soul like Nazi youth in Germany and the fascist youth in Italy which stands ready for the orders of its leaders and ready to sacrifice its life for the honor of its people and freedom of its fatherland." …Nationalist rhetoric accompanied major efforts to build fascist-style youth organizations by recruiting young men to serve as the strike force of the nationalist movement. Throughout the 1930s the children of wealthy Palestinians returned home from European universities having witnessed the emergence of fascist paramilitary forces. Palestinian students educated in Germany returned to Palestine determined to found the Arab Nazi Party. The Husseinis used the Palestinian Arab Party to establish the al-Futuwwa youth corps, which was named after an association of Arab Nazi Scouts. By 1936 the Palestinian Arab Party was sponsoring the developments of storm troops patterned on the German model. These storm troops, all children and youth, were to be outfitted in black trousers and red shirts… The young recruits took the following oath: "Life — my right; independence — my aspiration; Arabism — my country, and there is no room in it for any but Arabs. In this I believe and Allah is my witness." […]

    The al-Futuwwa youth groups connected Palestinian youth to fascist youth movements elsewhere in the Middle East. While the Mufti was establishing youth groups in Palestine, al-Futuwwa groups were established in Iraq.
  101. Der Momentדער מאָמענט,4 - May 1934 -נאציס ארגאניזירען פאליטישע מיטינגען אין א"י [Nazis organize political rallies in E"Y (Palestine)].
  102. [https://api.parliament.uk/historic-hansard/commons/1934/may/29/palestine-loan-bill#S5CV0290P0_19340529_HOC_539 PALESTINE LOAN BILL. (Hansard, 29 May 1934). Parliamentary Debates (Hansard).: House of Commons Official report. (1934). United Kingdom: H.M. Stationery Office, p. 115.
    I must give one other illustration—from Transjordan. The Amir wants to have the Jews there, and the Jews want to go there, but the Government will not let them go because, they say, it is not safe for the Jews in Transjordan. I think they might have invented a better excuse than that. In what country is it safe for the Jews if you take that line of argument? It is not safe for them on Clap-ham Common. It is safe enough for the English, and the whole world is safe for us. Why? Because we can hit back. We have made the world safe for the English, not by police, not by armies, but by arming the people themselves. The worst thing we have ever done in Palestine, worse even than our emigration distinctions, was when the Jews were being massacred and we, at the request of the Grand Mufti, almost at his orders, lined the Jews all up and disarmed them because they were Jews. That is the sort of thing which people remember. It was not under this Government, it is true, but you cannot expect that anybody in that country will look for justice or hope for better things as long as you have that spirit ruling there. I sometimes think that the feeling has now become pro-Nazi. Hitler's "Mein Kampf" goes to Palestine, and is sold freely. The whole book is a denunciation of the Jew—all lies and abuse. At the same time there is a book published in this country called "The Brown Book of the Hitler Terror." When that got out to Palestine it was banned. It is allowed in this country, but there it is legal to abuse the Jews but not legal to abuse the abusers. Then they were visited by Herr Frick. He stands among the half-dozen best Jew-baiters in the world. He goes to Palestine by the permission of this Government and sees everybody there. I wonder if he paid £60 as a tourist before he was allowed into that country.
  103. Palestine Arabian Nazi Unit Reported Formed, JTA, June 8, 1934. [29].

    Mukkattam, Arab daily, reports today that a Palestine Arab Nazi youth organization has been formed with a three-point movement hostile to the Jews. Reports to this effect were denied recently in the House of Commons by Sir Philip Conifer-Lister, British Colonial Secretary.

    The Arab Nazi program calls for the development in Palestine of a movement similar to German Nazism; a determined fight against Zionism and the maintaining of friendly contacts with Germany.
  104. NAZI HAND SEEN IN HAIFA. The Palestine Post, 13 August 1934.

    ANTI-JEWISH POSTERS. (From Our Correspondent) Haifa , Sunday . — Evidence of Nazi propaganda and its penetration into Arab quarters is furnished in placards which have appeared on walls here urging Arabs to boycott cinema houses. "Keep away from Jewish cinema houses which are contemptible," reads the Arabic announcement. "The Jews' gain is the Arabs' loss." To the right of the letter-press the Swastika appears.

    The Police have confiscated the posters.
  105. Arabs Use Swastika in Fight for Trade of Jews in Holy Land, JTA, Aug 14, 1934.

    Arabic posters with the swastika prominently displayed and advocating a boycott of all Jewish stores have suddenly appeared in Arab shop windows in Jerusalem and Haifa. At the same time walls in the two cities were placarded with the Arabic swastika posters.

    The anti-Jewish boycott movement, believed to be inspired by the Nazis, has as slogans: "The Jew's gain is the Arab's loss" and "Don’t go near Jewish shops."
  106. The Palestine Post, 17 September 1934.
    News in Brief
  107. ⁨⁨The Palestine Post⁩, 4 September 1934⁩. Glorifying Hitler [30].

    Nazi Pictures in Arab Papers. The two Jaffa Moslem dailies, Al Jamia Al Islamia and El Difa, which have recently been giving their last pages to illustrations, show a marked predilection for pictures from Nazi Germany.

    Of ten pictures in yesterday's El Difa, nine are concerned with Nazi activities. Al Islamia gives a few better , twelve out of a total thirteen photographs being German imports.
  108. ⁨⁨The Palestine Post⁩, 6 September 1934⁩. More Nazi Pictures In Arab Press.
    Thinly-Disguised Propaganda.

    The Arab newspapers of Palestine, notably 'Al Jamia Al Islamia' and 'Al Difa', continue to publish illustrations obviously supplied through propaganda channels in Germany. The title given to their eighth page is "The World of Pictures", but most of the photographs are of activities in the Reich to-day.

    Exaggerations have also been prominently featured in the Arabic press lately . 'Falastin' yesterday reported that an Arab woman had been "murdered" (sic !) in a Jewish hospital in Tel Aviv. That 4000 Jews a week were were entering this this country, was a report in 'Al Difa' from its Haifa correspondent.
  109. 109.0 109.1 109.2 Rubin, Barry., Schwanitz, Wolfgang G.. Nazis, Islamists, and the Making of the Modern Middle East. United Kingdom: Yale University Press, 2014. 247.
  110. GERMAN ANTI-JEWISH PROPAGANDA IS CONDUCTED IN PALESTINE, The Sentinel, 25 April 1935; The Southern Israelite. (Augusta, Ga.) 1925-1986, April 26, 1935, Image 2 « Georgia Historic Newspapers.
    From time to time, anti-Jewish slogans written in Arabic and German, and embellished with the swastika, appear on vacant walls and boardings in different Palestine towns, enjoining a boycott of Jewish goods and enterprises… According to well-informed local quarters , the origin of these throwaways is in a central Nazi propaganda ascent for Palestine who, it is believed, works through Arab Fascists. An attempt at Fascism was started some eighteen months ago as the only hope of Arab salvation in the present state of the Arab nationalist cause, as one young leader said. The object was to introduce an ultra-nationalistic spirit among the Arab youth. But it was more closely modelled on the National-Socialist brand of Fascism than the Italian, because the German politics embodied anti-Semitism as the central motive.
  111. Nazis Blamed For Arab Anti-Jewish Riots in Algeria.

    Nazis Blamed For Arab Anti-Jewish Riots in Algeria Dr. Coralnik Charges Hitler Agents Fomented Outbreak in Constantine

    New York —(Special)—Moslem attacks on Jews in Algiers are the direct result of activities of Hitler agents in the French colonies, it was charged here by Dr . Abraham Coralnik, associate editor of the Day and vice president of the Non-Sectarian Anti-Nazi League to Champion Human Rights. The Nazis, Dr. Coralnik declared in a radio address, are particularly active in the French colonies, where they eagerly seek to create situations and disorders that will prove embarrassing to France. Hitler talks peace and prepares for war, Dr. Coralnik said. In order to fan the flames of war, he is doing everything to spread racial and religious hatreds everywhere. His object is not merely the annihilation of the Jews. It is a plot to keep the world in a state of perpetual unrest and to hit France wherever, and whenever, possible. The Nazi agents have been concentrating their activities among the Arabs and other Moslems in the French colonies, and they have been the chief cause of the bloody outbreak in Algiers. France is well aware of it.

    Nor is such activity limited to French territory. A large number of Nazi agitators have been stirring up the Palestinian Arabs much to the discomfort of Great Britain. Recently three German agents were arrested by British authorities in Haifa and deported for anti-Semitic and anti-British propaganda.

    I discovered on my recent trip through Central America and Mexico that these countries are overrun by Nazi agents. Happily their activities there have not proved as successful as in Algiers. The half-Indian, half-white population of Latin America cannot comprehend the ridiculous theory of Aryan supremacy. Hitler eagerly adapted and greatly expanded the ruthless methods of German warfare and the idea of fomenting war between Mexico and the United States. He is using that policy successfully in stirring up the native Moslem populations of Asia Minor and Northern Africa.
  112. 112.0 112.1 Yaakov Shimoni, Arviyei Eretz Yisrael (The Arabs of Palestine), (Tel-Aviv, Palestine: Am Oved), 1947, p. 407.
    "Al Difa" changed its flavor several times: at the time of its founding it was considered the mouthpiece of the Istiqlal circles, who were then extremists and fans of fascism; Stories of direct ties formed then between its editors and Germans.
  113. 113.0 113.1 113.2 Shteigman, Yitzhak. Shelaḥ Daṿid : ha-yishuv ha-Yehudi el mul ha-hitnagdut ha-ʻArvit le-mifʻal ha-Tsiyoni be-Erets-Yiśraʼel, 1918-1948. Tel-Aviv : Mekhon Z'aboṭinsḳi be-Yiśraʼel, 1997. 142.

    The multiplicity of parties led to an awakening in the Arab street. All parties were dragged along by the extremists of the Istiqlal, whose newspaper al-Difa'a became a Nazi propaganda pamphlet. They made efforts to attract the masses with national recommendations, strong hatred of Jews and extreme demands from the authorities. The fascist regimes in Germany and Italy were a source of inspiration and imitation to the national Arab movement. As early as 1932, the newspaper Al-Carmel wrote: "The Nazi movement is a symbol, it is a source of hope - Arab nationalism must adopt the methods of its leaders in their pursuit of independence and freedom."

    The Mufti's bulletin al-Jamaa al-Arabiya's continued to incite the public against the government, expressing its support for fascist Italy, which the newspaper said had adopted sympathetic treatment of Arabs and the Muslim world "and supported their national aspirations."

    שטייגמן, יצחק. שלח דוד: הישוב היהודי אל מול ההתנגדות הערבית למפעל הציוני בארץ־ישראל, 1918־1948. תל־אביב: מכון ז׳בוטינסקי בישראל, 1997. 142.

    ריבוי המפלגות הביא להתעוררות ברחוב הערבי . כל המפלגות נגררו אחרי הקיצוניות של האיסתיקלאל, שעיתונה אל־דיפאע הפך לעלון תעמולה נאצי.

    הם עשו מאמצים למשוך את ההמון במליצות לאומיות, בשנאה עזה ליהודים ובתביעות קיצוניות מהשלטונות. המשטרים הפשיסטיים בגרמניה ובאיטליה היו מקור השראה וחיקוי לתנועה הערבית הלאומית. כבר ב־1932 כותב העיתון אל־כרמל: "התנועה הנאצית היא סמל, היא מקור התקוה - על הלאומיות הערבית לאמץ את שיטות מנהיגיה בשאיפתם לעצמאות ולחופש". ביטאונו של המופתי אל - ג'אמעה אל־ערביה המשיך כל אותה עת להסית את הציבור נגד הממשלה, ולהביע את תמיכתו באיטליה הפשיסטית, שלדברי העיתון אימצה יחס אוהד כלפי הערבים והעולם המוסלמי " ותומכת בשאיפותיהם הלאומיות." ...

    חבורת עז א-דין אל-קסאם בראשית שנות השלושים החלו להתארגן באזורים שונים בארץ אגודות ערביות חשאיות, ששמו להן למטרה לפעול בדרכי טרור, להטיל אימה על הציבור היהודי, ולקיים מתיחות בלתי פוסקת. בהנהגת עבד אל־קאדר אל - חוסייני בנו של מוסא כאזם, קם בקיץ 1931 באזור ירושלים ארגון שקרא לעצמו " אל-ג'יהאד אל מקדס" ( הג'יהאד ה"קדוש"). הוא התפתח מהר , חבריו קנו רובים ועברו הדרכה צבאית...

  114. 114.0 114.1 Mustafa Kabaha, "The Palestinian Press as Shaper of Public Opinion 1929-39: Writing Up a Storm," Vallentine Mitchell, 2007, p. 192.

    Ibrahim al-Shanti, owner and chief editor of al-Difa', was more active than any other senior journalist in his support of the youth corps. He took advantage of his many contacts in Palestine and started establishing a non-political national organization. He held the founding assembly of this organization at the home of Yusuf abu Badra in Jaffa. Al - Shanti wrote in an article in his paper after the assembly:

    'This assembly is the first step in organizing the Arab youth who have awakened and have decided to save the nation's honour. The next step will be quick to arrive, so that people will not say that the Arab youth in Palestine is ailing. In a few months this youth will appear in all its strength in order to form stronger foundations for the Palestinian issue, and it will demonstrate dedicated action for the glory of Arab Palestine.'

    Al-Shanti's extensive involvement in this field and the adoption of Nazi and fascist symbols for his enterprise caused many historians to accuse him of Nazi propaganda and even of accepting large sums of money in return for spreading Nazi propaganda amongst Palestinian Arabs, veiled by forceful and comprehensive venomous pan-Arab propaganda.
  115. Robert Lewis Melka, "The Axis and the Arab Middle East, 1930-1945," University of Minnesota, 1966, p. 49.
    One of Reichert's leading Arab informants and propagandists, a certain Ibrahim Chanti, whose value he also underscored in his talks with Eichmann, was a swindler who had gone over to the Allies "with flags flying" when the war broke out. Hentig wrote this in March 1941, by which time Reichert had given other evidences of his indiscretion and poor judgement in posts on Rhodes and in Rome.
  116. 116.0 116.1 [Adolf Eichmann: Technocraat van de Holocaust] Adolf Eichmann: Technocrat of the Holocaust [31], Emerson Vermaat.

    It was at the end of August 1944 that Eichmann confided to his fellow SS-officer Wilhelm Höttl that about four million Jews had been killed in the various death camps, and an additional two million had been executed by ‘SS Einsatzgruppen units’ during the invasion of Russia. Recent research has shown that these figures are correct. Eichmann was one of the very few who knew the total number of murdered Jews and Jews who perished.

    In Hungary alone, 434,351 Jews were deported, according to accurate figures kept by the Hungarian gendarmerie or national police. Most of them were gassed to death at Auschwitz. This occurred between May 15 and July 9, 1944 – a very short period indeed. Eichmann even ignored an order from Hungarian leader Miklos Horthy to stop the deportations. He called him an ‘old fool.’

    Hitler publicly predicted in January 1938 that the ‘Jewish race in Europe’ would be eradicated. Only seven years later, by January 1945, that is, the Nazis had actually murdered six million Jews.

    Eichmann started his career in the SS in 1932. He later began to take a keen interest in ‘Jewish affairs’ and ‘zionism’ and even read Theodor Herzl’s book on the Jewish State. Together with fellow SS officer Herbert Hagen Eichmann visited Palestine and Egypt in 1937. Palestine was a British mandate at the time. Back then Eichmann and Hagen were agents of the SS Security Service (SD) and posed as journalists as they travelled to the Middle East. They reported to their superiors in Berlin that Arabs and Egyptians did not like the Jews. (Things have not changed since 1937.) When ‘ordinary Arabs’ hear the name of Hitler they are elated. Their secret report was read by SD chief Reinhard Heydrich who had personally authorized the whole trip. (In 1939 Heydrich would become RSHA chief and play a key role in initiating the Holocaust – he died in June 1942, after an attack on his life.)

    Eichmann and Hagen also mentioned Ibrahim Chanti (Shanti), the owner of the most prominent Palestinian newspaper in the 1930s. Shanti was an important Nazi agent and Eichmann wanted to help him financially. He even proposed to pay off Shanti’s mortgage. The Nazi Propaganda Ministry supplied printing paper to Shanti. (Shanti is still revered in the Palestinian media.)

    Eichmann failed to meet Haj Amin Al-Husseini, the Palestinian Grand Mufti of Jerusalem and a notorious Jew hater. But Eichmann and the Mufti did shake hands a few months after the latter had fled to Berlin. (He arrived there in November 1941.) Both of them would become very close friends indeed.

    The Mufti was very anxious to meet Hitler, and he succeeded in doing so in November 1941. Hitler told the Mufti: ‘The road from Rostov (southern Russia, EV) to Iran and Iraq is shorter than the distance from Berlin and Rostov.’ ‘When we shall have arrived in the southern Caucasus, then the time of the liberation of the Arabs will have arrived.’ By the summer of 1942, the Nazis planted their ‘swastika flag’ on the 18,510 feet high Mount Elbrus – deep into the Caucasus. At the same time Marshall Erwin Rommel’s German Africa Corps was only 70 miles away from Alexandria, Egypt’s strategic port city, which is not very far from Palestine. The Nazis wanted to end British rule in the Middle East and Palestine and they nearly succeeded in doing so. Thanks to successful Russian counter offensives and the able British commander Bernard Montgomery, these Nazi plans were thwarted – but only just.

    Had the Nazis indeed succeeded in conquering Palestine and the Middle East, then the Mufti would quickly have returned to Palestine with Hitler’s solemn promise that he would be proclaimed leader of the Arab world.

    Moreover, Eichmann would have sent one of his best and most experienced SS officers to assist the Mufti in murdering all the Jews who lived in Palestine – another Holocaust, but now in Palestine.

    It was at the Eichmann Trial in Jerusalem that Gideon Hausner, the excellent Israeli public prosecutor, said: ‘After the victory, which was coming, as they (the Nazis, EV) hoped, these people were planning the same bloody work in the whole world, which would fall at their feet. And the Mufti, who had spilled the blood of the Jews in Hebron, Jaffa and in Jerusalem, in the riots of 1921, 1936 and 1939, was looking for a man like himself who would help him finish the job. He saw that they did it better there.’ ‘There’ refers to the death camps in Nazi occupied Poland. When he was still in Berlin, the Mufti wrote letters to several Foreign Ministers advising them to send Jewish children ‘to Poland, where they are under active supervision.’ Being ‘under active supervision’ meant, of course, being murdered en masse in Auschwitz and other infamous camps. (Defenseless children and their mothers were invariably ‘selected’ for ‘special treatment’ – ‘Sonderbehandlung’ –, the Nazi code word for death in the gas chambers, that is.)

    There is little doubt about it that the Mufti visited the death camp of Auschwitz in 1944. Consequently, he knew quite well what ‘under active supervision’ meant. Dutch Holocaust survivor Ernst Verduin claims that he saw ‘men with strange clothes’ in the camp on a very hot day in the summer of 1944. A German SS-officer assured him that what he witnessed was a visit by the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem and his entourage. The book contains the text of the author’s exclusive interview with Ernst Verduin on this issue.
  117. Esco Foundation for Palestine, inc., "Palestine: A Study of Jewish, Arab, and British Policies," Yale University Press, 1947, 778
  118. Kanaan, Haviv. The fifth Column: the Germans (Templars) in Palestine in years 1933-1948. Hakibutz Hameuchad, 1968. pp. 52-53.
    Cultivating the "Fifth Column"

    In an issue of March 15, 1935, "Die Warte Des Tempels," discusses ... The newspaper noted that fascism and Nazism had become a flag in the eyes of the Arabs in their political war. Adolf Hitler - continued "Die Warte" - is portrayed in the consciousness of the Arabs as the great personality of the 20th century. The popularity of our Fuhrer is so great that no Arab is present in Palestine today Even he is just a simple peasant that Adolf Hitler's hearing had not reached his ears. There are reports of attempts to form fascist and Nazi parties in the Arab public. Although these parties are secretly established, the influence of Nazi ideas on the way of thinking and behaving of the new organizations is no secret. The education of the younger Arab generation is today founded on the foundations of Nazi education; The Istiqlal Party, which began to reorganize, also adopted Nazi ideas. "This party's publication shows a clear sympathy for Nazism and fights fiercely against the Jewish boycott of Germany." At the same time, Nazi literature in Arabic was sold on the streets of Jerusalem and in other cities of Palestine. This literature, which dealt extensively with Jews, came to Palestine from Germany; Reich printing houses printed magazines and books in Arabic in millions of copies, and the Arab audience here read them eagerly. A special interest was aroused by Hitler's "Mein Kampf" in Arabic translation. It goes without saying that the British authorities were well aware of the contents of the registered mail bundles received from party activists. Important propaganda centers were used by German hotels and boarding houses, which used to be hosted The Nazi agents who came as tourists from the Reich.

    It was not difficult to gain the hearts of the Arabs in Nazi propaganda...
  119. 119.0 119.1 Wawrzyn, Heidemarie. Nazis in the Holy Land 1933-1948. Germany: De Gruyter, 2013. 95.
  120. Do'ar ha-Yom, 11 December, 1933.

    Open incitement in the Arab press. Despite the warning sent to the editor of "al-Difa'" (Ad-Difaa الدفاع) by the government - the Arab-Nazi newspaper continues to flood the pages of its newspaper with insults and incitement.

    דאר היום, דצמבר 11, 1933.

    הסתה גלויה בעתונות הערבית. למרות האזהרה שנשלחה לעורך "אדיפאע" על ידי הממשלה — מוסיף העתון הערבי־הנאצי להציף אח עמודי עתונו בדברי שסוי והסתה

  121. Do'ar ha-yom, 24 October, 1934

    Open incitement in the Arab press "Ad-Difaa'" (Al-Difa الدفاع) calls on the Arabs to keep the Jewish "danger" away in their hands Despite the warning sent to the editor of "Ad-Difaa" by the government, the Arab-Nazi newspaper continues to flood its pages with insults and incitement. In yesterday's issue, he publishes a kind of proclamation for the "Arab press and for every Arab man and Arab woman in Israel [palestine]... "The proclamation states:" The rising wave of immigration ... Let every Arab man and Arab woman know that they are the masters of this land and the others are strangers in it ... " דאר היום, אוקטובר 24,1934 הסתה גלויה בעתונות הערבית "אדיפאע" קורא לערבים להרחיק את "הסכנה" היהודית בידיהם למרות האזהרה שנשלחה לעורך "אדיפאע" על ידי הממשלה — מוסיף העתון הערבי־הנאצי להציף את עמודי עתונו בדברי שסוי והסתה. בגליון של יום אתמול, הוא מפרסם מעין כרוז ל"עתונות הערבית ולכל ערבי וערביה בא"י‭...‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬ "בכרוז נאמר: "נחשול העליה ההולך... שיכירו כל ערבי וערביה כי הם הנם אדוני הארץ הזו והאחרים הם זרים בה..."

  122. Israel Gershoni, "Arab Responses to Fascism and Nazism..." University of Texas Press, 2014, p. 108.

    'The German Jews are rich industrials and they will be the first, who will take the land from our hands.' Arab newspapers in Palestine covered all aspects of Nazi rule in Germany. Articles on Hitler were driven by curiosity about his character and often exhibited a blatant sympathy during the 1930s. Often, parallels were drawn between Germany after the Treaty of Versailles and the Arab Palestinians under the mandate...

    As early as 1934, the newspaper warned, "Europe will see no peace if it will not keep distance from the spirit of the swastika [ruh al-swastika] that dominates Germany today. . . . [Hitlerism] is an ideology full of disrespect of all peoples; it glorifies the German.."
  123. Ad Difa'a, June 10 1934 [32] [33].
  124. Ad Difa'a June 10, 1934, p. 2 [34].
  125. Ad Difa'a', July 4, 1934, p. 1. [35].
  126. Ad Difa'a July 10, 1934, p. 8. [36]
  127. The Palest. Ency.: Special Studies. Section Two, (1990), p. 564.

    "الدفاع أجزاء من كتاب هتلر كفـاحـي"

    Portions of Hitler's book Mein Kampf in the newspaper "the Defense"..
  128. Erlich, Haggai. The Middle East between the world wars. Vol. 4. Israel: The Open University, 1988, p. 286.
  129. Shimoni, Yaacov. Arabs of Israel. Israel: Am Oved, 1947, p. 407.
    Centering around these two... "A Difa'a newspaper" was founded with Nazi funds
    Asaf, Mikhaʼel. The history of the Arabs in Palestine. Israel: Dvir, 1970, p. 289.
    A Difa'a was founded with Nazi funds and has taken a Nazi line since its inception. For a while he worked in an agreement with the Istiqlal party...
    Essays on the Rise of Israel: A Collection of the Problems of Zionism, the Yishuv and the State of Israel. Israel: The Ben-Gurion Heritage Center, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, 1992, p. 254.
    An Arab assessment from 1945 claimed that Al-Difa'a was founded with Nazi funds.
  130. Haretz, June 13, 1934 [37]

    הארץ, 13 יוני 1934 מעשה במכתב מהיטלר לנוער הערבי טעות שגרמה לחקירה ממשלתית ולוויכוחים בבית הנבחרים ה' אברהים שאנטי, עורכו של 'א־דיפאע' הוא סופר בעל דמיון עשיר וסגנון מלוטש, ורבים קוראיו בין הנוער הערבי. לפני זמן מה התחיל לפרסם שורה של מכתבים מדומים ממנהיגים לאומיים קיצוניים באירופה, הקרובים לרוחו ומופנים לנוער הערבי... עד עכשיו נתפרסמו שלשת מכתבים כאלה: האחד מהיטלר בגרמניה (תמציתו באה ב'הארץ' בזמנה), השני ממוסטפת קימאל בטורקיה והשלישי מדי־וואלירה באירלאנד, ה"מכתבים" מעוררים את הנוער לפעול גדולות למען מולדתם, להיות גאים ולהמנע מהכנעה. עתונים עברים אחדים תרגמו מ'א־דיפאע' את מכתבו של 'היטלר' כאילו נשלח באמת מאת מנהיג הנאצים לעתון הערבי. בקשר עם זה פנו כנראה השלטונות למערכת 'א־דיפאע' ביפו ובקשו ממנה ברורים. 'א־דיפאע' מיום ב' פרסם בירור דברים. בשם 'מכתב מאת המערכת ולא מאת הקנצלר היטלר' מסביר העתון הערבי לקוראיו, איך נהפך מכתב דמיוני זה בעיני עתונים עברים אחרים למכתב אמתי, ואיך גרם הדבר לאי־הבנה ולויכוחים בבית הנבחרים הבריטי ולחקירה מצד ממשלת ארץ ישראל. 'א־דיפאע' מסיים: "שמא באורים אלה יספיקו לשלטונות שפנו אלינו בענין זה וישים קץ לחקירה!. "א־דיפאע" ידוע כעתון ערבי המתייחס בחיבה רבה ל'נאצים', מפזר שבחים להיטלר ולעוזדיו, מדפיס תמונות מגרמניה להראות את גודל פעולותיהם של ה'נאצים'. העובדא ש'א־דיפאע' מסתמך על 'היטלר' ודברי ימיו ורוחו לעורר את הנוער הערבי מעידה היטב על פרצופו האמתי של עתון ערבי זה.

    A story of a letter from Hitler to the Arab youth A mistake that caused a government investigation and debates in the House of Commons Mr. Ibrahim Shanti, the editor of 'A-Difaa', is a writer with a rich imagination and a polished style, and many of his readers are among the Arab youth. Some time ago he started publishing a series of mock letters from extreme national leaders in Europe, close to his spirit and addressed to the Arab youth... So far, three such letters have been published: one from Hitler in Germany (an excerpt appeared in Haaretz at the time), the second from Mustafa Kemal in Turkey, and the third from De Valera in Ireland. The "letters" encourage the youth to do great things for their country, to be proud and to avoid submission. Several Hebrew newspapers translated from 'A-Difaa' the letter of 'Hitler' as if it had really been sent by the Nazi leader to the Arab newspaper. In connection with this, the authorities apparently turned to the 'A-Difaa' editorial board in Jaffa and asked it for clarifications. On Monday, 'A-Difaa' published an explanation. Under the name 'A letter from the editorial board and not from Chancellor Hitler,' the Arab newspaper explains to its readers how this imaginary letter became a real letter in the eyes of other Hebrew newspapers, and how this caused misunderstanding and debates in the British House of Commons and an investigation by the government of Eretz-Israel [Palestine]. 'A-Difaa' concludes: "May these revelations be enough for the authorities who contacted us in this matter and put an end to the investigation!"

    'A-Difaa' is known as an Arab newspaper that treats the 'Nazis' very fondly, praises Hitler and his aides, prints pictures from Germany to show the scale of the 'Nazis' actions. The fact that 'A-Difaa' relies on 'Hitler' and his stories and his spirit to inspire the Arab youth is a good indication of the true face of this Arab newspaper.

    [Ironically for Mr Shanti, De Valera in 1937 showed his humanity to Jews:

    Andrew O’Connor, De Valera’s darkest hour: How Ireland dealt with the Nazi threat, Irish Times, Mar 16 2021.
    Andrew O’Connor on how Ireland sought to protect itself and its Jewish citizens. In 1937, two years before the outbreak of the war, Article 44 of Ireland’s new Constitution gave the Jewish community recognition and a right to exist within the country. This was a remarkable piece of legislation overseen by the de Valera government. Firstly, because the Jewish faith was being officially recognised and protected in a country where it was increasingly viewed that to be Irish one must be Catholic. But more importantly, it flew in the face of the anti-Semitism that was by then rampant elsewhere in Europe. The new Constitution was signed into law after a referendum, signifying Article 44 also had the backing of the people. However, for all its magnanimity, it is doubtful the new Constitution could have in any way protected Ireland’s Jewish community had there been a German victory.
    which is why E. D. Valera Forest was planted in Israel by Irish Jews. Irish Jews Dedicate Forest in Israel in Tribute to De Valera, JTA, August 22, 1966]
  131. Haretz, July 11, 1934 [38].

    הארץ 11 יולי 1934 תקנות המפלגה הנאצית בעתון ערבי – ב'אל דיפאע' נתפרסמו תקנות המפלגה הנאצית בגרמניה, המכילות ‭25‬‬ סעיפים, עם הדגשת הפיסקות, שהעתון רוצה שהערבים בארץ ישראל ינהגו על פיהן. העתון מעיר על זה: "יקראו בני הנוער הערבי וינהגו על פי תכנית לאומית חדשה". Nazi party regulations in an Arab newspaper - The regulations of the Nazi party in Germany, containing 25 sections, with the emphasis of the clauses, which the newspaper wants the Arabs in [Palestine] Eretz-Israel to act according to, were published in 'Al Difa’a'. The newspaper comments on this: "The Arab youth should read and act according to a new national plan."

  132. Davar, December 23, 1935.

    A new Arab newspaper began to appear in Jaffa, called "Al-Kafaàt" (The Battle). It is published by the Arab Youth Organization.. Telegrams by Wapd, in connection with the restoration of the constitution in Egypt - sent by Jamal Husseini, head of the "Palestinian Arab Party" (Mufti Party). A-Difae reappears. The government stopped the Arab newspaper for a few days, because of its incitement articles, now "a-Sirat", which appeared in place of a-Difa'e has stopped. [...]

    In memory of the "martyrs" - members of the terrorist group, the Arab newspapers continue to dedicate poems and greetings...
  133. Spizman, Leib, Revusky, Abraham. Yidn in Erets-Yiʹsroʾel. United States: Sharon, 1947. p. 325. Spizman, Leib, Revusky, Abraham. Yidn in Erets-Yiʹsroʾel. United States: Sharon, 1949. p. 325.
  134. Jerusalem Grand Mufti Makes Sensational Attack on American Press, JTA, October 17, 1929.

    October 17, 1929 5:00 am The Arab newspaper "Felestin," controlled by the Jerusalem Grand Mufti, made a sensational onslaught on American newspapers yesterday, singling out the "New York Times." … Of his interview with Mr. Van Paassen, the Mufti wrote in the English edition of the "Felestin" that it was merely an informal talk.

    Mr. Van Paassen stated before his departure that when he called on the Mufti for the interview, the head of the Moslem Supreme Council offered him inducements, including women, if he would take the Mufti’s side and color the news according to his personal views and ambitions.
  135. Ha-Yarden - הירדן, 17 January 1935 —The Germans in the country in Hitler's chariot .
    הגרמנים בארץ במרכבתו של היטלר
  136. Sulaiman, K. A. (1984). Palestine and Modern Arab Poetry. United Kingdom: Zed. p.11.
  137. Wistrich, Robert S.. A Lethal Obsession: Anti-Semitism from Antiquity to the Global Jihad. United Kingdom: Random House Publishing Group, 2010. Ch.21 'The "Liberation" of Palestine.'

    The Arab case against Zionism during the late Ottoman period was tainted by an anti-Jewishness that had become part of the "daily bread in Palestine," to quote one prescient observer. In November 1913,

    a prominent leader of the Palestinian anti-Zionist campaign, Sheikh Sulayman al-Taji from Acre, published a poem entitled "The Zionist Danger" in Filastin. It related to Jews as [supposedly] "the weakest [sic. al-Taji] of all peoples and the least of them" who were constantly haggling with Arabs to obtain their land.
  138. Morris, Benny. Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881-1999. United Kingdom: Knopf, 1999. p.65.
  139. Bartov, Omer. Israel-Palestine: Lands and Peoples. Germany: Berghahn Books, 2021. p. 270.
    In 1913 the influential Jaffa daily Filastin published a poem by a local Palestinian leader that included the lines ...
  140. Gilbert, Martin. In Ishmael's House: A History of Jews in Muslim Lands. United Kingdom: Yale University Press, 2010. Ch.9.
  141. Janrense Boonstra, "Antisemitism, a History Portrayed", SDU, Anne Frank Foundation 1989, p. 101.
  142. Elie Kedourie, Sylvia G. Haim: 'Zionism and Arabism in Palestine and Israel' (RLE Israel and Palestine), Taylor & Francis, 2015. p. 8 [39].
    Two other incidents in April added to Yishuv anxiety. In Jaffa, citrus-owner. Samuel Tolkowsky complained that Government permission for the reappearance of Falastin, which had been closed down by the Turks for incitement to race-hatred in April 1914, could only be a source of discouragement to 'moderate' Arabs and an official invitation to 'extremists'.
  143. 143.0 143.1 Jillian Becker, "The PLO: the rise and fall of the Palestine Liberation Organization", Volume 1984, Part 2. (Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1984). p. 21
    In March 1935 the Husseinis also formed a party, called the Palestinian Arab Party. It was, as its president Jamal Husseini freely boasted, inspired by German Nazism. It included a 'youth troop', modelled on the Hitler Youth, for a while actually called, the 'Nazi Scouts'.
  144. Morris, Research Fellow Truman Institute Benny., Morris, Benny. The birth of the Palestinian refugee problem revisited. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 2004. 28.

    Three small jihadiyya (fighting societies ) were established: Al Kaff al Khadra (the Green Palm) in the Hebron area, al Jihad al Muqaddas (the Holy War), led by Amin al Husseini's nephew, 'Abd al Qadir al Husseini, in the Jerusalem area, and al Shabab al Tha'ir (the Rebellious Youth) in the Tulkarm-Qalqilya area. All three planned or carried out anti-British attacks, albeit in a small way. More dramatic were the brief activities of Sheikh 'Izz al Din al Qassam around Haifa and in northern Samaria. After killing several Jewish settlers and a policeman, the band was cornered and Qassam was killed by the British in late 1935.

    More important in the 'militarisation' of Arab Palestine was the establishment by the Husseinis of the Futuwa (youth companies), in which youngsters were trained in military drill and the use of weapons. The movement, modelled after the Nazi youths organizations...
  145. Waschitz, J., Ha'aravim Be-erez Israel (The Arabs in Palestine), Tel-Aviv: 1947. 229.

    At a gathering of the Hussein Party's youth squads, green shirts following the example of the Egyptian fascists, the young people swore that "Palestine is my homeland, and there is no place for anyone who is not an Arab." Jamal Husseini quoted Hitler: "I started with six, then we were 600 and then 60 million."

    ושיץ‬‎, ‫יוסף‬‎. ‫הערבים בארץ־ישראל: כלכלה וחברה, תרבות ומדיניות‬‎. Israel: ‫הוצאת הקיבוץ הארצי השומר הצעיר‬‎229, 1947.‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

    במלחמה נגד מכירות קרקע, במשמרות נגד מעפילים ונגד פועלים יהודים במקומות ערבים. בכינוס פלוגות הנוער של מפלגת החוסיינים, חולצות ירוקות לפי דוגמת הפאשיסטים המצרים, נשבעו הצעירים כי "פאלאשתין מולדתי, ואין בה מקום למי שאינו ערבי". ג'מאל חוסייני ציטט את היטלר: "התחלתי עם ששה, אחר כך היינו 600 ואחר כך 60 מיליונים".

  146. The Sentinel, Thursday, March 21, 1935.

    NAZI HANDBILLS OPENLY SPREAD IN JERUSALEM.

    Jerusalem (JTA)—Nazis this week for the first time distributed anti-Jewish leaflets in Arabic and English through the streets of Jerusalem calling for a boycott of Jewish trade. Every cent which goes into a Jewish pocket is a nail in the coffin of an Arab, the Nazi leaflet stated. The Palestine government, it is expected, will start an investigation into the origin of these leaflets. While the Nazis were calling upon the Arabs to boycott Jewish business, the Arab Association of Orange Planters in the Gaza district joined hands with the Jewish Farmers Association in protesting against the Palestine governments plan to introduce a special high tax for new orange groves, in order to discourage the cultivation of new plantations...
  147. AA Memorandum, July 27, 1935, BAB, R 43 II /1420. Cited in Mallmann, Klaus-Michael., Cüppers, Martin. Nazi Palestine: The Plans for the Extermination of the Jews in Palestine. United Kingdom: Enigma Books, 2013. 30.
  148. Meir Ronen, Templer town, Jerusalem Post Magazine, March 13, 2008.
  149. Kroyanker, David. Jerusalem: The German Colony and Emek Refaim Street: a biography of a neighborhood, the story of a city. [Hamoshava Hagermanit Verehov Emek Refaim]. Israel: Keter, 2008, pp. 62-3, 66.

    מאורעות 1936-1939: במחצית הראשונה של שנות ה-30 עקבו ערביי ארץ-ישראל בדאגה אחר הגידול הדמוגרפי והתחזקות המעמד הכלכלי והפוליטי של היישוב היהודי, הם חששו מן האפשרות שארץ-ישראל תהפוך ל"בית הלאומי" עבור היהודים. מדיניות החוץ התוקפנית של גרמניה הנאצית ושל איטליה הפאשיסטית, עודדה את הערבים בכלל, ואת ערביי ארץ-ישראל בפרט, לראות במתיישבים הגרמנים בעלי ברית פוטנציאליים במאבק נגד היישוב היהודי ונגד הממשל הבריטי. באביב 1936 פרץ המרד הערבי נגד הבריטים, שלווה בשביתה בת חצי שנה. המתיישבים הגרמנים זכו למעמד... From the events of 1936-1939: In the first half of the 1930s, the Arabs of the Land of Israel anxiously followed the demographic growth and the strengthening of the economic and political status of the Jewish settlement, they feared the possibility that the Land of Israel would become the "national home" for the Jews. The aggressive foreign policy of Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy encouraged the Arabs in general, and the Arabs of Israel in particular, to see the German settlers as potential allies in the struggle against the Jewish settlement and the British government. In the spring of 1936, the Arab revolt against the British broke out, followed by a six-month strike. The German settlers were granted status... משרד ההסברה והתעמולה הגרמני עודד הצטרפות של תלמידים ערבים לבית הספר הגרמני המאוחד, כדי ליצור קדר עתידי של מנהיגות ערבית פרו-גרמנית שתשלוט בעתיד במדינה פלסטינית עצמאית. (גנזך המדינה , חטיבה 67) בהתאם למדיניות זו הוסכם כי מכסת התלמידים הערבים ...  בתמונת רחוב אחרת מתאר כנען את האדריכל והקבלן הרמן, אימברגר (ראו בניין מס ' 13 במסלול הסיור הראשון), שהיה: "מטייל בכל יום א' ברחוב הראשי של המושבה הגרמנית בירושלים, כשעל זרועו הסרט עם צלב הקרס. מול ביתו ישבו שוטרים בריטיים וערבים, הראשונים ברכוהו כרגיל באדישות הידידותית , והאחרונים הצדיעו לפניו בהערצה"... מול ביתו ישבו שוטרים בריטיים וערבים, הראשונים ברכוהו כרגיל באדישות הידידותית, והאחרונים הצדיעו לפניו בהערצה".

    The German Ministry of Information and Propaganda encouraged Arab students to join the unified German school, in order to create a future cadre of pro-German Arab leadership that will rule in the future in an independent Palestinian state. (Ginzach hamedina, Division 67) In accordance with this policy, it was agreed that the quota of Arab students... In another street photo, Canaan describes the architect and contractor Herman Imberger.. who was:

    "Walking every Sunday on the main street of the German colony in Jerusalem, with the swastika ribbon on his arm. British and Arab policemen sat in front of his house, the former greeted him as usual with friendly indifference, and the latter saluted him with admiration"...
  150. ”Swastikas in Jerusalem,” Dalia Karpel, Haaretz, Feb. 28, 2008. Updated: Feb. 29, 2008.

    In 1933, a branch of the Nazi party opened in Jerusalem's German Colony. Members greeted each other with the straight-armed salute, waved flags emblazoned with swastikas and cut off business ties with their Jewish neighbors. In a new book, architect David Kroyanker tells of anti-Semitic propaganda and plans to import weapons from Germany for use by Arabs against the Jews. Kroyanker, an architect and researcher who worked on this project with his wife Leora, devotes a chapter of the book to the Nazi period: "In the Shadow of the Swastika: 1933-1939." In addition to previously published materials, like the writings of journalist and author Haviv Canaan, Kroyanker relies on new, compelling sources from private archives, such as manuscripts and Templars' memoirs published in Australia in German, and adds rare photographs that are being publicized for the first time. Kroyanker was intrigued by the human side of the German Colony's history. His book describes the customs and ways of life of this group of people whose arrival here from south Germany was akin to "landing on the moon." They settled on rocky farmland that was purchased from the Arab village of Beit Safafa and built a "model settlement." "Look at the family photos and you'll see that they look like they stepped out of a late 19th-century magazine," he says. "They were photographed in Jerusalem dressed in their finest clothes in order to represent a European way of life in the heart of the baksheesh [a tip or bribe] wilderness. In some of the memoirs, you see their contemptuous attitude toward the Arabs... Kroyanker stresses in his book that until Hitler came to power, the Templers and their Jewish neighbors enjoyed good relations. The Germans patronized the Jews' shops and went to Jewish doctors, while Jewish business owners stocked products from Germany and the cinemas screened German films. There were also partnerships between businessmen and merchants from the two communities. Not all the Templers were swept up in the nationalist fervor after the Nazis' rise to power in Germany. There were some, primarily from the older generation, who worried about Nazi ideology taking precedence over the Templar ideology of messianic longings and the striving to create a Christian religious utopia. Kroyanker quotes an article from the Templar journal Das Warte, which criticizes Nazi ideology, saying "It ought not to be viewed as Christian, since it is founded on an Indo-German faith that leads to idol worship." But that didn't stop the growing support for Nazism. Heil (sic) Hitler The founder of the Nazi organization in Palestine in 1933 was the architect Karl Ruff, from Haifa. Nazi party branches were established in Haifa, Jaffa and Jerusalem and in several other Templer colonies. The Jerusalem branch was the largest; in April 1934, it had 67 registered members (the Haifa branch had 48). Ludwig Buchhalter, a teacher in the Templar school in the German Colony, was appointed head of the branch; he received instructions from Berlin and worked in coordination with the German consulate. In April 1934, Buchhalter hosted a party for local residents at the party headquarters in Jerusalem to celebrate Hitler's birthday. The event began with a performance by the boys choir from the Schneller orphanage. "After that, Buchhalter, the branch leader, called for everyone to honor the 45-year-old fuehrer with a triple Sieg Heil salute. Of all the fuehrer's qualities, he emphasized the man's humility." Buchhalter also read aloud a chapter from the book "With Hitler on the Road to Power." On May 1, 1934, the consulate hosted a festive reception and "it was decided that the members were now obliged to greet one another with a Heil Hitler greeting and straight-armed salute on the street, too, on condition that the greeting would not be interpreted as a provocation to others." Buchhalter summoned the party members to the Sport Club in Katamon, for a meeting with the chairman of the Nazi party in Stuttgart, who had come for a visit. That location was also used for lectures by professional Nazi propagandists, who promised their listeners that victory was assured and that they need only be patient. Until 1934, a British branch of the Scouts operated in the German Colony and held varied activities, for boys and girls separately. The youths went on hikes and erected tent camps in the Wilhelma Templer colony, learned Morse code, knot-tying and first aid, and sang British songs. In 1934, the club was converted to a branch of the Nazi youth movement, the Hitler Jugend. Haviv Canaan, who was an officer in the Mandate police at the time, described in his writings what Kroyanker calls "a typical National Socialist street scene in the second half of the 1930s": "Visible through the open windows of the mostly one-story houses was old but distinguished furniture, and the walls were adorned with pictures of leaders of the Reich. On the sides of the balconies, under the roof, swastika flags lay folded." The architect and builder Hermann Imberger used to stroll down the Colony's main street every Sunday, with a swastika band around his arm, and the Arabs he passed "saluted him with admiration."... Kroyanker also tells about the resistance that existed within the community to the Nazi activity: Philip Vorst, head of the Templer Association, banned the Nazi salute from the schools in 1935... Ban versus ban During the Arab revolt against the British, which began in April 1936 with a general strike that lasted six months, some Arabs saw the Templars as prospective allies in their struggle, and hoped that Nazi Germany would conquer Palestine from the British. Buchhalter told the German journalist Ralf Balke, whose book about the Nazi party in Palestine was published in 2001, how he would travel without any problem in his car, which had a Nazi flag attached, through areas that were under Arab control. And that once, when he forgot to remove the flag from the car, he "entered an area under Jewish control and came under fire from Jewish vehicles." Sakakini writes that the German children were sympathetic to the Arabs and, during recess, would throw stones at the Jewish buses that passed the school. But the school principal, Wilhelm Eppinger, refused to join the Nazi party. In October 1937, when it was decided that the school was to be merged with the school of the city's German Evangelical community, Eppinger was dismissed and replaced by Philip Vorst, who by this point was going along with the Nazis. Vorst exhorted the parents, students and teachers who assembled for the school's grand opening to cooperate with one another in keeping with the lofty spirit of Adolf Hitler.. The German Ministry of Information and Propaganda encouraged Palestinian students to attend the German school in order to create a cadre of pro-German leadership that would govern an independent Palestinian state in the future, reports Kroyanker, quoting from a document in the state archives. Palestinian pupils made up about a quarter of the student population and were also able to study Arabic there. Buchhalter, the head of the local Nazi branch, used to threaten residents of the Colony who didn't adhere to the Third Reich's anti-Semitic demands. Because of the attacks on Jews in Germany, the Jews in Palestine declared a ban on German businesses... Beginning in 1935, the Nazi party branches in Palestine instructed the Germans not to employ Jewish workers, and also recommended dissolving any business partnerships with Jews. ... Enemy property Ludwig Buchhalter reported to the Nazi leadership in Berlin about the possibility of selling two German properties to Jews - ... Ernst Schneller, the founder's grandson, represented the Augusta Victoria Foundation here at that time, which worked to promote German nationalism. The Schneller printing house produced the Nazi party stationery and party members were entitled to a 10 percent discount. Because of the Schneller family's Nazi ties, the British secret police eavesdropped on their telephone conversations, and monitored their movements."

    From secret police documents from 1936 to 1939, Kroyanker learned that the Schneller institution attempted to import weapons and ammunition from Germany, in order to train Arabs. In 1938, a booklet published by the Schneller institution included an article by Ludwig Schneller describing the feeling of suffocation at the German institution due to the proximity of Jews in the surrounding area, and expressing some blatantly anti-Semitic views...
  151. 80 Nazis Return to Palestine with Swastikas from Hitler, JTA, February 5, 1936.
  152. 152.0 152.1 Studies in the Restoration of Israel: A Collection of the Problems of Zionism, the Yishuv and the State of Israel. 1992 [Iyunim Bitkumat Israel 2, 1992]. pp. 260-267. Moshe Shemesh: The position of the Jaffa (based) newspaper, Falastin, towards the Axis Powers and the democracies. p. 260

    It is not clear whether Falastin received assistance from Nazi Germany or Fascist Italy during the period under review. According to the newspaper's positive attitude towards these two countries, it is likely that it did indeed benefit from both or one of them. The Arabs got hooked at Nazi racism and Aryan supremacy and especially by the principle of language as a unifying nationalist factor, such as the Arabic language that unites the Arab world. This admiration of the Arab world was expressed, among other things, in political bodies that tried to emulate Nazi or fascist organizations, such as Al-Futuwwah and Al-Najjada in Palestine, the Mistr Al-Fatah in Egypt, or the Syrian National Party. The Palestinian nationalists, including the Husseinis, showed great sympathy for the Nazis. The Husseinis saw the Nazis as natural allies in their struggle against the Jews. This is also evidenced by the Mufti's personal connections.. The position of the Falastin newspaper towards the two camps - the dictatorships and the democracies - in the period reviewed until the outbreak of the war, will be examined in two areas: The formal position of the paper, as expressed in the main articles; The position of the newspaper as expressed in the manner in which the information was provided current events in Europe.

    p. 261

    The formal position in the main articles... In general, it can be noted that during the years 1939-1938, there was a constant drift in the position of the newspaper and in the position of the Arab world in general towards democracies. This process stemmed from the aggravation of the global crisis and the prominence of Nazi Germany as the most powerful power, as well as the intensification of the struggle in the country.

    The first half of 1938: During this period the paper tried to be "balanced" between the two camps, but in fact tended more towards the Axis countries. In general, the newspaper raised allegations against the democratic nature of Western regimes and implicitly implied some sympathy for the dictatorial regimes. "There is not a single person who understands the spirit of the time who would agree that Italian fascism or German Hitlerism would take over Europe or the whole world, after the real English democracy had disappeared. But what man is not inclined to sympathize with this fascism or this Hitlerism, if there is in this sympathy to help the hundreds of millions remove from their hearts the bitterness for the sake of saving the world from a war that could lead to the end of human culture?" Following this line and the hidden sympathy for Germany ...

    p. 266

    At the same time, in order not to completely burn the bridges with the English, the editor tried to 'balance' these sharp articles in major articles that also criticized the dictatorial countries, though not on issues directly related to the Arabs but on issues related to Europe and tensions in the international arena. Due to the nature of this review. Its influence on Palestinian public opinion was minimal. The Palestinians were only slightly interested in what was happening in Europe, and most of their attention was focused on what was happening in Palestine and the struggle against the Jewish community and against Britain. This 'balance' did not, therefore, harm the positive image of the Axis powers, which prevailed in Arab public opinion at the time. Moreover, in the publication of the current information on what is happening in Europe, as will be seen later, the clear and sharp tendency to side with Germany stood...

    p. 267

    Censorship and the penalties imposed on the newspaper required its editors to use an elusive technique in publishing the news, which on the one hand would not give a reason to the mandate or censorship authorities to punish it and on the other hand would allow the newspaper to express its views against Britain and the West. This method of publication makes it difficult for the researcher and requires him to decipher it in order to recreate the true position of the newspaper. Understanding the method of publication will undoubtedly help to understand the trends of the newspaper in the period under review. It is possible to summarize in this way the measures taken by Palestine to overcome the obstacles of censorship and the position of the Mandatory authorities when it comes to expressing its positions by providing the information:

    A. The dominant method that stands out in reading the newspaper is a quote from a foreign press including the British, French, German and Italian press. In most cases the paper used to quote a British press. He frequently quoted from it news items, commentaries, and articles that included criticism of the administration and its policies and especially articles of sympathy for the Axis powers and articles that demonstrated tendencies toward conciliation toward them. In this context, the newspaper published commentaries and articles from the German or Italian press which criticized the West or tended to the position of the Arabs.

    B. Falastin contented itself with mentioning the cities of London, Rome, Paris or Berlin as the source of its information and refrained from mentioning the news agency that sent them. In sensitive news, the city of London has often been mentioned as a clear source that such a score was intended to train the news in the eyes of the censor, especially when the news is based on a quote from a British newspaper.

    C. An interesting phenomenon that I encountered a lot in the newspaper: a certain article, which London is excellent as a source, starts with giving details related to the headline, but then the newspaper moves to other news under subheadings unrelated to the headline and still continues to be based on the same source. This gives the impression that London is the source of further knowledge.

    p. 270

    "An important speech that Hitler is about to deliver with very important statements on German foreign policy.'" - He did not do so with Chamberlain's speeches. It should be emphasized that it is not the news itself that is important here, but the proportions in delivering and emphasizing the news from Germany compared to similar news from the evening that were very few.

    p. 271

    About Hitler comparing him to Napoleon. Similarly to his treatment of Mussolini in early 1938, Falastin (March, April and May 1939) published extensively information about Hitler's actions and his character and influence. These reports were the mainstay of the foreign news page of the paper and may even be said to be more central than the reports on Mussolini in early 1938. Although the descriptions were factual, the headlines given to them were positive in tone or so-called neutral and attention-grabbing. In presenting Germany's positive stance on the Arab issue, the Islamic-religious element was also overemphasized, in order to highlight Hitler's sympathy for Islam and the Muslim world. Hitler is also interested in following Mussolini and getting the title of Muslim defender. Characteristically, Hitler's reference to the Palestinian problem was emphasized in his April 1, 1939, speech. The role of Palestine and the Arabs in the Fuhrer speech; We will not interfere in the affairs of others and we do not want them to interfere in our affairs: we have never asked the British about the affairs of Palestine and what is happening in it and what they want.

    The shift towards a pro-German orientation was expressed in a broader report on Germany and in the emphasis on Germany's aggressive, rigid and 'bold' position in Europe ...
  153. 153.0 153.1 Morris, Benni, "Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881-1999", (Knopf, 1999), pp 124-5.
  154. Haaretz, Jan 1, 1935.

    Nazi Arabs The author of "El Blag" writes: The Nazi idea is spreading among the Arabs in the Land of Israel.

    A member of the Executive Committee of the Arab organization from Haifa said at the last Executive Committee meeting that the Arab national youth in Haifa likes the Nazi principles, and believed that the best way to save the Land of Israel from the Jews was to follow these principles.

    הארץ, 1 ינואר 1935. ערבים נאצים

    סופרו של "אל בלאג" כותב: הרעיון הנאצי הולך ונתפשט בין הערבים בארץ ישראל. חבר הועה"פ של ארגון הנוער הערבי מחיפה אמר באספה האחרונה של הועה"פ שהנוער הערבי הלאומי בחיפה חובב את הפרינציפים הנאציים, וסבור, שהדרך הטובה ביותר להציל את ארץ ישראל מידי היהודים היא לנהוג על פי פרינציפים אלה.

  155. Ha-Yarden - הירדן, 25 April 1935.

    התעמולה הפרו־איטלקית בין הערבים על מכתבו של האמיר שאקיב ארסלאן מאת א. אבידן שמועות הקרובות לאמת מספרות על תאים נאצים הקימים בין הערבים, הפועלים כיום לשם הרחבת הפעולה האנטי יהודית ואף האנטי אנגלית, ואולי גם נגד האינטרסים של מעצמות אחרות. The pro-Italian propaganda among the Arabs On the letter of Emir Shakib Arslan By A. Avidan

    Rumors close to the truth tell of Nazi cells existing among the Arabs, which are currently working to expand the anti-Jewish and even anti-English action, and perhaps also against the interests of other powers.
  156. 156.0 156.1 Asaf, Michael. The history of the awakening of the Arabs in Palestine and their escape [תולדות התעוררות הערבים בארץ־ישראל ובריחתם]. Israel: Publisher Culture and Education: in collaboration with Davar Publishing House, 1967. p. 129.
    בתקופה ההיא נטתה התנועה הערבית אל הכוחות הפאשיסטיים באירופה, שהתחזקו מאוד עם תפוס הנאצים את השלטון בגרמניה. הסוכן הערבי הפאשיסטי-נאצי הראשי היה האמיר הדרוזי שכיב ארסלאן, שעזב את עדתו הדתית הצרה והצטרף ב־1919/ 20 לתנועת ה"איסתיקלאל" הסורית הפאן-ערבית, ומאז התמידו יחסיו ההדוקים עם מנהיגים ערבים בארץ-ישראל וביחוד עם החוסיינים.
  157. 157.0 157.1 Wien, Peter. Arab Nationalism: The Politics of History and Culture in the Modern Middle East. United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis, 2017. p. 63.
    As seen, Shakib Arslan, one of the key figures of Arab nationalist thought and pan-Arab and -Muslim activism in the interwar period, published his book al-Hulal al-sundusiyya only a few years later and dedicated it to "paradise lost."
  158. Hagay Hacohen, Arabic translation of ‘Mein Kampf’ sold in Israel, JPost, Oct 22, 2019.
    The history of how the German publication ended up in Arabic is a fascinating one. After several false starts that contained mistakes such as Hitler stating he "became a socialist" and not a nationalist, the job fell to Shakib Arslan who used a French translation.
  159. Borders, Boundaries and Belonging in Post-Ottoman Space in the Interwar Period. Netherlands: Brill, 2022. p. 143.
    In 1938, the Arab nationalist and Nazi interlocutor Shakib Arslan, at the time in exile in Geneva, recommended al-'Urabi to the foreign office's Middle East division and the propaganda ministry as a possible translator...
  160. Rubin, Barry., Schwanitz, Wolfgang G.. Nazis, Islamists, and the Making of the Modern Middle East. United Kingdom: Yale University Press, 2014. p. 248.
    The Syrian Islamist and former Nazi collaborationist agent Maruf ad-Dawalibi became al-Husaini's successor as the group's leader. In 1984, as Saudi Arabia's delegate at a UN seminar on religious tolerance and freedom in Geneva, ad-Dawalibi  explained: "Why did Hitler want to exterminate them?. . . It is because they call themselves...

    Islamism's successful remaking of its image and its sweeping under the rug its old participation in the German-Ottoman and Nazi-Islamist alliances was demonstrated by the continuity of institutions, ideology, and personnel. Al-Husaini's personal heir in the global Islamist movement was Muhammad Said Ramadan...

    In 1958, when Syria merged temporarily with Egypt and Abd an- Nasir extended his repression of the Muslim Brotherhood there, Ramadan fled to Geneva where he became the Muslim Brotherhood's and al-Husaini's European representative. That post as the chief Islamist in Europe was previously held by Shakib Arslan, the kaiser's and the Nazis' most consistent Arab ally who up to 1945 had been subsidized by Hitler's regime.
  161. The Palestine Post⁩, 16 October 1939⁩.

    EMIR SHAKIB ARSLAN AN "HONORARY GERMAN "

    BEIRUT. — A full account has now appeared in the local of press of the visit paid to Germany by the Emir Shakib Arslan, who for the past few years has headed a Syrian nationalist propaganda service in Geneva. The visit was described by the German broadcasting stations as evidence of Arab sympathy for Germany.

    According to reliable Swiss newspaper reports quoted in the local press the Emir met only some of the minor Nazi leaders. It is reported that Hitler at first refused to authorise the grant to him of the honorary German citizenship on the grounds that he was a Semite. In Berlin, the Emir met another honorary aryan the notorious Baron von Oppenheim who managed the German espionage service in Arab countries during the World War.

    Local comment is highly newspaper is unflattering to Shakib Arslan who is thought to have traded in what remains of his political integrity for a cash grant calculated to make it easier for him to maintain an expensive establishment in Geneva, where sympathizers have lately been few and far between.
  162. 162.0 162.1 Motadel, David. Islam and Nazi Germany’s War. United Kingdom: Harvard University Press, 2014. p. 88.
    Articles in Barid al-Sharq, dominated by the usual anti-British, anti-Communist, and anti-Jewish agitation, also drew on religious themes...

    Contributors included the Lebanese pan-Islamist Shakib Arslan and Abdurreshid Ibrahim, who, after his service for Germany during the First World War, had now become imam of the Tokyo Mosque, giving the paper a further pan-Islamic tinge... The journal also published several speeches by members of the Nazi elite, by al-Husayni (including his calls for Jihad)...

    The editors of Barid al-Sharq also published an Arabic- language brochure with the title Islam and the Jews (al-Islam wa-l-Yahud), based on a series of articles that the journal had run earlier under the same title. Numerous copies were distributed in Tunis. In spring 1942, the German consulate in Tangier reported the "confiscation" of several boxes of the brochure by Spanish officials. Files stored in the archives of the Foreign Office in Berlin indicate that the distribution of Barid al-Sharq in the Tangier zone repeatedly caused friction between German officials and the local Spanish administration during the North African campaign. The SS played only a small role in Germany's propaganda efforts targeting the Middle East and North Africa. Perhaps the most significant example was the attempt by SS officers to portray Hitler as a religious figure.
  163. Palestine Post, 13 May, 1935, 7.

    Nazi Propaganda In Palestine Swastika Chalked on Train That a train arriving at Afuleh from Haifa, en route for Samakh, bore a swastika chalked up on one of the coaches, with an Arabic inscription beneath "Germany Over All" ("Deutcshland Uber Alles"), is a report in "Davar," Labour daily.

    When the train, which was carrying delegates returning from the Arab youth conference at Haifa, reached Afuleh station, the station-master ordered the signs to be removed, the paper adds.
  164. Palestine Train Flies Swastika, The New York Times, May 13, 1935
  165. 165.0 165.1 165.2 Arabs in Haifa Form Nazi Club; Well Financed, JTA July 1, 1935.
    Arab youths here have organized a Nazi club, it was learned today.

    The club has already established headquarters and goes under the name of “The Red Moon.” Apparently the organization has strong backers, for all of its deficits are promptly met, and it seems able to draw upon unlimited financial resources. This is viewed as another manifestation of an intensive Nazi anti-Semitic activity sponsored by the Hitler government, and which has broken out throughout Palestine and the Near East. Nazi agents have appeared in various parts of the country in an attempt to incite the Arabs against the Jews. They have been particularly successful among Arab nationalist youth. Groups of brown-clad Arab youths are now organized in the larger cities.

    Recently the Federation of Arab Youth in Palestine petitioned Hitler to help them prevent the Jews from obtaining additional land in Palestine.
  166. The Week in Review. ‘’The Sentinel’’, 11 July 1935.

    In Haifa , shades of Hitler, it was learned that Arab youths have organized a Nazi club that goes under the name of Red Moon.

    They wear brown shirts too and seem to be well-financed.
  167. The Chronicler-Spokesman, 14 June, 1935..

    ARABS ASK SALE OF LAND BAR

    JAFFA (JTA)—-The Federation of Arab Youth in Palestine sent a cable to Adolf Hitler asking him to forbid selling to Jews the land on which the German orphanage in Palestine is located. A telegram to the same effect was also sent by the Arab Youth Federation to the German Consul General in Jerusalem.
  168. Gates of Zion Defaced by Swastika of Arabs, JTA, July 18, 1935. .

    A Nazi swastika sign carrying the inscription 'Heil Hitler" appeared today on the Gates of Zion in Jerusalem, opposite the tombs of the Jewish kings.

    The sign was obviously painted by Arabs. Palestine police authorities are investigating the case.
  169. ⁨⁨Der Tog⁩ - ⁨דער טאג⁩, 18 July 1935. [41].

    סװאסטיקא, מיט אױפשריפט "זאל [ח"ו] לעבן היטלר" אויף ירושלימ'ער טויער

    ירושלים, יולי 17 (איטא). — א סװאסטיקא־צײכען, מיט דער אויפשריפט "וױװא היטלער!", האט זיך דא הײנט באװיזען אויף דעם צימטויער, קעגענאיבער די קברים פון די אידישע מלכים. עס וױיסט אויס, אז דאס האבען אראבער דארט אויסגעמאלען דעם היטלעריסטישען האקענ־קרייץ.

  170. Arab Daily Sees 14 Moslems on New Council, JTA, June 25, 1935. [42].

    With Palestine full of conflicting rumors about the projected Legislative Council, Al Difaa, the largest Arab daily in Palestine, today reported that the Council will consist of fourteen Moslems, four Arabs and four Jews. In addition to the above number of representatives of the different communities, the paper writes that the Council will also include the mayors of Jerusalem, Jaffa, Haifa and Nablus. The chief secretary of the Palestine government and the district commissioners of Jerusalem, Jaffa and Haifa will also be members of the Council. The chief justice of Palestine and eight heads of different departments in the government will also be members of the proposed body, according to Al Difaa.

    The Arab paper also reports today that "uniformed and Nazified" Arab youth troops are being formed in Palestine.
  171. 171.0 171.1 Israeli, Raphael. The Death Camps of Croatia: Visions and Revisions, 1941-1945. N.p.: Taylor & Francis, 2017. p. 119
    Delegations from the Arab world participated in the Nuremberg marches of the Nazis, during the 1930s, and expressed their common disgust toward the Jews and their joint accusations of the Jews... Upon the publication of the racist Nuremberg Laws in 1935, Hitler received greetings from the entire Arab world, from Morocco to Palestine, where Nazi propaganda had taken root.
  172. Küntzel, Matthias. Jihad and Jew-hatred : Islamism, Nazism and the roots of 9/11. New York: Telos Press Pub., 2007, p. 28.

    Moreover, al-Banna was far too religious a man to accept a non-Muslim leader such

    When Hitler promulgated the Nuremberg race laws in 1935, he received telegrams of congratulation from throughout the Arab and Islamic worlds, but in particular from Palestine, where German propaganda had been most active.
  173. 173.0 173.1 Lebl, Ženi. Haj Amin and Berlin [Ḥag' Amin u-Berlin / G'eni Lebel]. 1996. 31

    Signs of sympathy for Hitler and Nazism grew on the Arab street. The swastika flag was also hoisted over Arab homes, Arab cars, and even Arab shoe polishers adorned their crates with the Nazi emblem. Dr. Franz Reichert, a writer for the German News Agency (DNB) in Jerusalem, provided free money to the Arab press, propaganda and photographs about the life of the renewed Germany, and these would devote entire pages to this material. The British saw Dr. Reichert as the main puller In the Nazi spy network in the country, but no action was taken against him. In May 1935, the Palestine-Israeli police learned that extremist Arab nationalists were preparing to form the "Palestinian Nazi Party" in order to fight the Jews in coordination with the sister party in the Reich.

    The great momentum of Nazi propaganda in the Middle East occurred in September 1935. When the "Nuremberg Laws" against the Jews were discovered and published, Hitler received greetings from all Arab countries and Islam. The largest number came from Palestine, where Nazi propaganda was strongest.

    לבל, ג׳ני. חאג׳ אמין וברלין. ישראל: 1996. 31.

    [סימני אהדה להיטלר ולנאציזם הלכו ורבו ברחוב הערבי. דגל צלב הקרס הונף גם על בתי הערבים, על מכוניות ערביות, ואפילו מצחצחי נעליים ערבים קישטו את ארגזיהם בסמל הנאצי. ד"ר פראנץ רייכרט (Franz Reichert), סופר סוכנות הידיעות הגרמנית (DNB) בירושלים, סיפק חינם אין כסף לעיתונות הערבית תעמולה ותצלומים על חיי גרמניה המתחדשת, ואלה היו מקדישים עמודים שלמים לחומר זה. הבריטים ראו בד"ר רייכרט את מושך החוטים העיקרי ברשת הריגול הנאצית בארץ, אך לא פעלו נגדו. במאי 1935 נודע למשטרת פלסטינה - א"י כי לאומנים ערבים קיצונים מתכוננים להקים את "המפלגה הנאצית הפלסטינית", כדי להילחם ביהודים תוך תיאום עם המפלגה־האחות ברייך. התנופה הגדולה בתעמולה הנאצית במזרח התיכון חלה בספטמבר 1935. כאשר נתגלו ופורסמו "חוקי נירנברג" נגד היהודים, הגיעו להיטלר מברקי ברכה מכל ארצות ערב והאיסלאם. המספר הגדול ביותר הגיע ומפלסטינה, שם היתה התעמולה הנאצית החזקה ביותר.]

  174. Graffiti with a swastika in the Old City of Jerusalem. jfc.org.il.

    Paramount Diary of January 1, 1936: The alleys of the Old City of Jerusalem. 1936

    The Old City of Jerusalem… passersby looking at a graffiti of a swastika and the inscription Hitler in English on a stone wall, the alleys of the Old City, policemen patrolling the place. (From the Sherman Greenberg Film Collection).
    ([43] Beneath is seen a deleted star of David while the Nazi sign is up).
  175. Losin, Y. (1982). The Pillar of Fire: Chapters in the History of Zionism. Israel: Shikmona, in collaboration with the Israel Broadcasting Authority (Heb.), p. 221. [44].
  176. DK Jaffa to AA , Mar. 1, 1936, PAAA, R 78338. As cited in: Cüppers, M., Mallmann, K.. Nazi Palestine: The Plans for the Extermination of the Jews in Palestine. United Kingdom: Enigma Books, 2010, p. 38.
  177. Antisemitism International: An Annual Research Journal of the Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism. (2004). Israel: Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism. p. 46.
  178. Porat Yehoshua, From Riots to Rebellion: The Arab-Palestinian National Movement 1929-1939. [Heb.], Tel Aviv: Am Oved Publishing, p. 95.
  179. Kanaan Haviv. In the Eyes of a Palestinian Officer: The Story of the Birth of the Palestinian Resistance. [Heb.] Givatayim: Masada, 1980. p. 85.
    General strike -

    The extent to which the riot in Jaffa was prepared in every detail was evidenced by the Arab leaders' decision -- which was taken at noon that day -- to declare a general strike "until peace is restored." A protest meeting was held in Nablus, which that day took the central place at the forefront of the Palestinian struggle... In Nablus, every Jewish vehicle that crossed the city was also immediately stoned. A protest meeting was also held in Tulkarm. The Germans are celebrating While the curfew went into effect in the two twin cities, the sounds of cheering and joy were heard in the German settlement of Sharona and in the German Valhalla neighborhood in Jaffa. The Germans celebrated the eve of Adolf Hitler's birthday. Arab friends were also present in the houses of the community leaders. Various signs testified that those who organized the riot against the Jews that day targeted the timing for Hitler's birthday; Not much time passed and the compensation that the Arab nationalists received from the Third Reich for their struggle was revealed... The second day of the uprising The next day, Monday, I left for Tel Aviv. Even the sky wept for the lives of the innocent people and rain fell on the city during the funeral. Crowds filled Maze Street where the morgue is located, the nearby Yavne Street and the great Allenby Street. The roofs and balconies of the houses along the route of the mourning journey were blackened by the crowd. The dead were carried on wooden stretchers. The cries of the widows and orphans brought tears to the eyes of the thousands who followed the journey which He made his way to the Tel Aviv City Hall building on Bialik Street. From the balcony of this building, under the national flag draped in black, eulogies were delivered by Mayor and builder of Tel Aviv Meir Dizengoff - the old man, Chairman of the Board of the Jewish Agency David Ben-Gurion and Chairman of the Board of the National Committee Yitzhak Ben-Tzvi. At the moments when Ben-Gurion said in his thundering voice that "the murderers will not be able to terrorize the Jewish population in the Land of Israel and the Jews abroad," the attendants did not know that murder and destruction were once again rampant in Jaffa.

    That day, the second day of the storm, 5 more Jews were murdered in Jaffa and 29 were injured. But the curfew was lifted in the morning and the crowds in Jaffa began to gather again in the streets and squares, again the instigators from Jerusalem appeared among them, rejoicing over the balance of blood and destruction of the previous day. This time the murders were concentrated in the border neighborhoods that had not been completely evacuated of Jews: Manashia and Abu Kabir...
  180. 180.0 180.1 Steininger, Rolf. Germany and the Middle East: From Kaiser Wilhelm II to Angela Merkel. United States: Berghahn Books, 2018, pp. 38-40.

    Hitler enjoyed great popularity in the Arab world, as shown by an episode in 1936, immediately after the Arab uprising against the British broke out in Palestine. The newly appointed consul general, Walter Döhle, reported that a caravan trip with colleagues from Jerusalem to Jenin had been cancelled. Döhle – who had already been greeted by an Arab with the cry 'Hoch Deutschland' (esteemed Germany) – continued the trip on his own and later reported to Berlin: When I stopped on the road to mount a highly visible swastika flag on the radiator of my car, in addition to the official flag attached to the flag stand, a car with Arabs came from the direction of Nablus. I spoke to the Arabs. They agreed to assist me during the passage through Jenin. The transit through Jenin went slowly, with stops about every five metres. My car was constantly surrounded by an excited crowd equipped with sticks and sabres (old German weapons). Five to six Arabs stood on the footboard of my car in a permanent parley, in which I only intervened with the Arabic words 'Konsul Almani' and the German greeting 'Heil Hitler'. The response from the Arab side followed likewise with 'Heil Hitler' and applause so that the trip bore comparison to a triumphal procession. Among the Arabs, the German greeting 'Heil Hitler', symbolic of the Führer's and the Reich Chancellor's popularity, had the strongest impact on this frenzied mob. [From: 'Zwischenfall in Dschenin'. Walter Döhle (Jerusalem) to AA, 28 April 1936. Palästina, Doc. 99.] On every level, the Palestinian Arabs show great affection for the new Germany and its leader, a support that is worth all the more as it is based on purely idealistic concepts.... However, what is decisive for the affection that now exists towards Germany among the Arabs is the admiration which our Führer enjoys. Especially at times of unrest, there have been more opportunities to determine how deep this liking extends. If you made yourself known as a German when threatened by an Arab crowd, this was generally a free pass for unobstructed passage. If you identified yourself with the German greeting 'Heil Hitler', the attitude changed suddenly into admiration and the Germans received an ovation, in which the Arabs responded vigorously to the German greeting. The enthusiasm for our Führer and the new Germany is probably so widespread because the Palestinian Arabs, in their struggle for their existence, have longed for an Arab 'Führer' and because they felt united with the Germans in the struggle against the Jews...

    [From: Walter Döhle (Jerusalem) to AA, 22 March 1937. 17 pages; facsimile in Palästina, 426–43.]
  181. 181.0 181.1 181.2 181.3 Ziff, William Bernard. The Rape of Palestine. New York: Longmans, Green And Co., 1938. Full text of "The Rape Of Palestine By William B. Ziff (1938) (with Page Links For The Table Of Contents)". The rape of Palestine / William B. Ziff. HathiTrust Digital Library. pp. 404, 413, 417-8, 430.
  182. Krantz, Hazel. Daughter of my people: Henrietta Szold and Hadassah. United States: Jason Aronson, 1995, p. 112.
  183. Fineman, Irving. Woman of Valor: The Life of Henrietta Szold, 1860-1945. United States: Simon and Schuster, 1961. p. 382.
  184. The Meriden Daily Journal, ‎Oct 10, 1936 (p. 9).

    Chasing Arabs To Give 16,000 British Troops In Palestine Busy Winter Invading Hideouts By Milton Bronner ... The world beheld a Jewish activity that astounded it — men and women going back to the land, draining marshes, irrigating dry. plains, plains, ains, planting trees on bare hill-sides, making the land to blossom with the orange, the olive and rich ripe grain. The Arab majority In Palestine viewed all this with hostile eyes... There have bwn periodic outbreaks in which lives have been lost. But the worst one of all broke out some months ago and has continued with increasing violence. It has been charged that German Nazi agitators with their anti-Semitic itic ic propaganda have been at work among the Arabs... The lawless bands have been organized by a Syrian. Fawzi Koukdjl. who so far has been able to supply his followers with ample arms and munitions.

    To chase his men to their many mountain lairs, to run down where they conceal their extra arms supplies, to find and arrest Fawzi and his lieutenants is going to give the 16,000 Tommies, who will ultimately be in Palestine, a very busy autumn and winter.
  185. 185.0 185.1 Kelly, Matthew. The Crime of Nationalism: Britain, Palestine, and Nation-Building on the Fringe of Empire. United States: University of California Press, 2017.
    (p. 96).
    The Times reported in May that an Arab café in the Old City of Jerusalem was prominently displaying a picture of Hitler, alongside images of King Ghazi and Mussolini. The article related, "The Arabs explain that they naturally acclaim ... Herr Hitler because he dislikes the Jews."
    (p. 210).
    "The Prophet's birthday in Palestine: Arab Nationalist displays," 22 May 1937, Times of London. This was not the first display of popular Arab sympathy for the Nazis. As early as 21 April 1936, a man in western attire managed to spare himself a beating (or worse) at the hands of an Arab mob in Tulkarm only by shouting "Heil Hitler" and giving the Nazi salute.
  186. 186.0 186.1 Kabha, Mustafa. Journalism in the eye of the storm: the Palestinian press as an instrument for shaping public opinion 1929-1939. Israel: Yad Yitzhak Ben Zvi, 2004. 32:
    Al-Husseini... The lively and unrestrained young leader was recognized as the sole leader of the Arabs of the country after the role he played in the events of August 1929.

    Page 74:

    When the events of August 1929 broke out, the British High Commissioner Chancellor was on leave. Upon his return, he published a statement about the events in which he very harshly attacked the Arabs and called them "barbarians, cruel and murderers".

    The statement came out on September 1 and was distributed all over the country. In the remote villages the announcer was dropped from airplanes.

    Page 151:

    The newspapers wanted their leaders to be similar to Germany's leaders, as al-Karmel [Al-Karmil - الكرمل] asked: "Will an Arab Hitler rise up among us to stir up the Arabs, gather their scattered people and lead them to fight and defend their rights and their homeland?"

    They also wanted to educate and nurture the Palestinian youth like the education of the German and Italian youth, as Emil al-Houri [Ghuri إميل الغوري] wrote in the first issue of his al-Shabaab [الشباب] newspaper: "O Arab youth! Wake up from your slumber and see what the aggressive enemies have done to you."
    Page 186:

    This can be learned by the story that Akram Zuaiter brings in his memoirs:

    On April 21, 1936, I was informed by telephone from Tulkarm that the city was closed and a national committee would be established today. There was a big demonstration in the streets of the city. During the demonstration, a car drove by and the driver was wearing a western hat. When the protesters started attacking the car, the driver shouted "Heil Hitler", hung the Nazi flag on his car and waved goodbye to the Nazi movement. So the crowd greeted him, took his hat and replaced it with a turban. This story can teach about the Nazi influence among the crowds in the Palestinian street.
  187. דוכן-לנדוי, ל., & Doukhan-Landau, L. (1985). Maj. Thomas J. Tulloch: A Biographical Sketch / קווים לדמותו של מייג’ור תומס ג’ טאלוק. Cathedra: For the History of Eretz Israel and Its Yishuv / קתדרה: לתולדות ארץ ישראל ויישובה, 34, 182–189. [45] [46], [47].

    In March 1936, shortly before the outbreak of the events of that year, Tulloch decided to say what was in his heart and wrote a long and detailed memo to Winston Churchill, who was then serving as a member of the British Parliament, in which he described the picture of the situation as he saw and understood it. Churchill was very impressed by what was written and through his secretary asked to know to what extent Tulloch wanted the material he sent to be confidential.

    Tulloch replied to him on April 29, 1936, that he did not want to keep anything a secret, except his name so that word of his memo would not reach Israel and spoil his standing among the Arabs, and that they would stop telling him things that are of great importance for understanding the situation for his approval. In addition, he feared that he would be flooded with trending stories of the Jews, while he himself strives to remain independent and draw his own conclusions independently. His answer was written already after the events of April 1936 broke out, and in the letter the killings of the Arab rioters are described in detail. As for the 'general strike' announced by the Arab leaders, he writes that the common people suffer from it and are impoverished, while the 'leaders' covertly buy their needs from the Jews, but the lower-class Arabs do not dare to raise their heads against the 'leaders'. These require frequent meetings with the High Representative, as if it were their right. The strike and the reign of terror also drove away the tourists.

    The students of the agricultural school 'Kadoorie' in Tulkarm are on strike, and according to him, this is really absurd since the school was built with the money of the Jewish donor Sir Ellis Kadoorie. Tulloch writes difficult things about the police, in which Britons, Arabs and Jews served. Only the British police chief, Spicer, is praised by him; While the Arab policemen, according to him, do not help the Jews who are being attacked, although there has been an improvement since the events of 1929, when they stood by, saw acts of robbery and murder and did not intervene, Tulloch's heart goes out to the Jewish policemen who live together with the Arab policemen and must receive orders from their officers. Their salary is meager and they cannot live on it because they are more educated and their standard of living is higher. In his opinion, the number of British police officers should be increased, because it is a shame to employ the British army that was sent to Israel to make peace there. There is also interest in the information that Tulloch brings about the influence of the Nazis on the Arab residents of Israel. The Nazis penetrated the ranks of the Arab scouts. Many of the young Arabs study and get educated in Germany free of charge, and when they return to Israel they spread the Nazi ideology among the Arabs. The Arab press is full of hate speech against the Jews, and the censorship is not strict with them. The country is strategically important and could have flourished and prospered if peace had been established between the Arabs and the Jews. But Tulloch predicts that the country will indeed develop and flourish, because the Jews' desire to succeed is determined and they will succeed, despite the difficulties that the mandate government puts in their way. And finally, we will mention the congratulatory letter that Tulloch sent to Eric Mills on March 15, 1934, when he was appointed by the High Commissioner to serve as director of the immigration department of the mandate government. In a letter written after the Nazis came to power, Tulloch congratulates Mills and says that a great privilege fell on his part in being appointed during such an exciting historical period at the gates of immigration to Israel. He asks him to open wide the gates of the country to the Jewish immigrants fleeing for their lives from the Nazi persecution. These Jews will not burden the country's economy. On the contrary, they will bring with them wealth and knowledge, excellent education and good taste. Tulloch ends his letter by saying that if Mills acts in this way, he will receive the gratitude of the intellectual people of the people who are persecuted on his neck without injustice. Moreover, such an act of magnanimity will contribute to raising the profile and glorifying the name of the British Empire, which has suffered in this region.

    It is not known how much the Jewish community at that time knew how to appreciate the Scottish Major, who, being a conservative British patriot of the old school, saw the Jewish people as a virtuous people and judged/spoke about them favorably.
  188. 188.0 188.1 Events in the Land of Israel 1936: Memorandum. Antifa. Tel Aviv: M. Erem, 1936, pp. 37-41.

    [...] The hand of fascism from abroad in events. The distinct fascist elements in the Arab national movement became close, housemates with German world fascism. Hitler's book "Mein Kampf" has long since become obsolete as the 'guide' for the Arab intelligentsia and the youth. An excessive affection is known among them for German fascism, which is very close to them in its opposition to the Jews. Hitler's rise to power was received in the Arab press with cheers of sympathy despite the fear that Hitler's anti-Semitism would increase the immigration of German Jews to the Land of Israel. In other words, they agree with Hitler to beat the Jews, and how much better it would be if everyone beat his own Jews. Arab fascism's sympathy for Germans and mutual friendly relations stood out this month in recent events. Very close to the events, during the first attack by Tulkarm, April 15, when Hazan and Danenberg were murdered, the attackers released one of the passengers and returned his money, when he declared his Germanness. And in the case of a German who passed through the Arab city of Jenin (on the road from Haifa to Afula to Tel Aviv) and was attacked by the crowd, as soon as he raised his hand in the "Heil Hitler" greeting, they returned the greeting and let him continue his journey. This was in the first week of the events (April 19-26). Some time later, a group of passengers passed through the same road, among them the French, Italian and German consuls, each in his own car. They were accompanied by a military guard, who received an order not to shoot. The truck, which drove first, was attacked. The injured drivers moved to the other cars, the truck was burned and the convoy returned to Nablus. There the military guard got on the phone with the authorities in Jerusalem and received a vigorous order to take the passengers to Haifa. The German and Italian consuls did not wait and passed Jenin safely without any guard. Only the French consul did not feel that he was so inoculated... - In Acre, leaflets were distributed in Arabic with the signature of the "Nazi Party" (Al Khizb a Nazi [الحزب النازي]). The operation of the Nazis in Israel was forged in the German colonies in Israel in Sharona, Wilhelma and the German colony in Haifa. Sharona's Germans immediately joined Hitler when he came to power. There was a case where a Jew was beaten there... Italy tried years ago to expand its network in Israel. It is a mistake to think that in this case only the Abyssinian issue fulfilled its role. A few years ago, Italy tried more than one attempt to acquire economic and political influence in Israel. Italy built buildings, brought its insurance companies into the country, founded cultural clubs there to teach the Italian language and literature, paid for Italian teachers for the high schools. At the expense of the Italian government, textbooks and notebooks are given to students for free. The newspapers published news about the participation of the Italian fascists in the recent events. On June 7th, the newspaper of the Egyptian government party 'Rose al Yusuf' in Cairo published an article in which it demanded from the 'Arab Higher Committee' in Jerusalem to deny the news, carried in Egyptian newspapers, that he was receiving support from a foreign source. The newspaper adds that the news is based on serious facts and demanded a clear answer from the committee. The denial did not come. Although there are rumors that the police discovered the names of the Arab leaders, who received 2000 pounds from Italy and 5000 from Germany. The few facts, which certainly do not exhaust the material, clearly prove that the German and Italian fascists had a hand in the events of E.Y. [Palestine], intending to win them the friendship of Arab fascism in Israel. It goes without saying that it is an exaggeration to think that it was "foreign intervention" that caused the outbreak of events. It only served as a kind of their "helpmate". However, it was our duty to point this out, so that the social nature of the foreign movement becomes even clearer and to pose the question to the progressive public: How can an antifascist explain this matter? It was possible for one movement to fulfill two missions: revolutionary, worthy of sympathy, and fascist, worthy of condemnation. Who is the antifascist who will explain this complex? No! Fascist "revolutionary" has not yet gained sympathy and love from the fighters of fascism.

    P. C. P. and the events. A sad chapter in itself is the behavior of the Communist Party in Israel amid these bloody events. When it comes to the "Communist Party", everyone can surely imagine that the party appearing under that name, whatever its attitude to the very question of Jewish immigration and rooting in Israel, will oppose it in any way to the chauvinists on any side, condemn the bloody terrorist attacks on innocent people, on women and children, condemn as a matter of course the burning of the fields and the destruction of the labor of working people. Emphasize the slogan of class war instead of a war of nationalities. But no, not in the least! This is not the first time that P.C.P. Joins the chauvinistic incitement of the most reactionary Arab circles and supports it in every lecture. Suffice it to mention one case from the recent past. When some time ago smuggled weapons were discovered in cement barrels in the port of Jaffa, although it is not clear who and for whom these weapons were smuggled in, the Arab instigators nevertheless raised a cry, because the Jews brought weapons into the country in order to kill nothing more and nothing less. So the P.C.P. put out a proclamation, in which it tried to outdo the Arab fascist nationalists by inciting against the Jewish settlement, in this proclamation it addressed the "Arab people" in a distinctly nationalist style under the name of "the fathers, who shed their blood for the homeland" and conducted a really horrible propaganda, because "the confiscated weapons were not intentional but towards the hearts of the Arabs, in order to destroy them to the point of boycott". Although P. C. P. clearly knew that the Jewish settlement did not conduct or prepare to conduct slaughters in the Arabs. By the way, the course of recent events has clearly demonstrated who is in possession of large treasures of smuggled weapons and who used them to attack innocent passers-by and workers in rejected villages. It is worth mentioning that when this announcement was published around the world, it caused a great outrage among the Jewish masses, and the Jewish communist press abroad ("Morgen Freiheit" in New York and "Neye Presse" in Paris), and was forced to declare that this announcement was nothing but a provocation. It was also difficult for them to imagine, communists will publish such a chauvinist proclamation that incited people against people. Here in Israel, the PCP did not deny the authenticity of the proclamation and did not deny itself to even from a single line of the inciting document, whose friends abroad evaluated it as a provocation. When the preacher from the Haifa Al-Qassem mosque organized a terrorist gang, which raided the roads with the intention of murdering defenseless Jewish passers-by, after all. P.C.P. not only did it not try to explain to the Arab masses, that this is not the way, rather, to their liberation, PCP along with the Muslim clergy and the nationalist youth influenced by fascism, it praised Sheikh al-Qassem as a "freedom fighter," who should serve as a role model for the youth. Any assassination of Jewish lives, from which side it came, with any slogan, was always encouraged and praised by the P.C.P. And this is how it behaves in the current events as well. Not even in one of the multiple announcements, which P.C.P. published in the blood oaths, it does not condemn in a single word the brutal murders of defenseless innocent people. Even cruel atrocities, such as throwing a bomb at the old people's center in Jerusalem, placing a bomb in a kindergarten in Ness Ziona, throwing a bomb into the train car, filled to the brim with Jewish passengers, which seriously injured women and a two-year-old boy, even in cases like this PCP does not find not even a single word of condemnation in announcements, on the contrary, all of this is raised to the level of "acts of heroism". In every publication P. C. P. is to purge the Arab reaction of any responsibility for the events. The only culprits are the Jews, in the well-known formula: "The Jew must be burned" ... and they spread various different libels and rumors about the Jewish settlement, in order to inflame the hatred towards the Jewish masses. After the bomb was thrown at the school in Tel Aviv on the border of Jaffa and miraculously only 9 children were injured, from 6 to 11 years old, the Arab newspapers announced, in order to clear the murderers, that the bomb was thrown by communists, and when a suspected Arab was arrested - they revealed their opinion, that He is a communist, when the suspect was released - the fascist Arab newspapers continued in its accusations against the communists. It only added that this crime was committed by the Jewish communists. Since the Jews are the ones who brought communism to the Israel, and wherever a communist -- he is a Jew, so declares and informs 'Falastin', one of the leading chauvinist newspapers. In response to this, P. C. P. put out a proclamation, in which it proves its "righteousness" and lays all the blame for throwing the bomb on the Jews - - - themselves, who threw the bomb on their own sons, in order to arouse anger among the Jewish workers towards the Arabs and P.C.P. doesn't this bring to mind the claim of the ancient anti-Semites from the time of the Tsar and the modern ones in Poland, that the Jews are staging riots on themselves, in order to arouse anger against the Russian or Polish people? P. C. P. Not in any of its pamphlets mentions even a single word that the Arab reactionary circles are interested in inciting the Arab masses against the Jews, in order to distance themselves from the anger of their exploiters and leave them in ignorance and slavery. PCP rejects any suspicion that the current leaders of the Arab National Movement have any fascist tendencies or any connection with fascist elements in Israel, despite all the facts that confirm this. P. C. P., it did not highlight any of her own slogans throughout the days of the events, she is constantly being dragged along the tail of the reactionary leaders, each time clinging to their own slogans and defending them without any hesitation. In all announcements P. C. P. , there is not a single word against the Effendi and the 'Nationalists loan sharks', who mercilessly strip the skin of the fellahin. In general, there is nothing in these proclamations about the division into classes and about class antagonisms in the Arab people. Rather, P. C. P., they talk enthusiastically about the "national unity" of the Arab people, as if national unity is the latest ideal of the communists, despite the fact that this unity means surrendering the working masses to the unlimited influence of the exploiters and the clergy. In contrast, PCP, in its campaign to deepen the national hatred, pointing to the Jews as the haters of the Arab people. Even imperialism is mentioned by P. C. P. as hated only because of its supposed help to the Jews. Instead of explaining to the masses, Jews and Arabs alike, that the imperialist government does not support either the rights of the Jews or the rights of the Arabs, but rather the rights of the British Empire, points out P. C. P. the British rule as a protector of the Jews. We believe that it is permissible to prove that this kind of propaganda has nothing to do with communism and is a betrayal of internationalism.

    What can be the result of this propaganda, when it acquires influence on the masses? It pollutes the air with poisonous fumes of chauvinism. It deepens the chasm between the masses of the two nations instead of helping to close it. It increases the positions of the reactionary leaders and helps to tighten the ties between the Arab masses and their leaders, who do not intend at all to liberate the masses...

    (The Antifa group in Mandatory Palestine - very lefty, also tied to socialists and was critical against right wingers as a whole, criticized by some for being unfairly dragged in its 'opinion' when not being fascist. But on facts: Arab Hitler admiration as expressed, known at the time, including taking Mein Kampf as a 'guide,' etc., seems factual).

  189. Bidwell, R. L. (1998). Dictionary of modern Arab history: an A to Z of over 2000 entries from 1798 to the present day. United Kingdom: Kegan Paul International, p. 321
    In October 1930 Moscow dissolved the PCP Central Committee and appointed a new one with a majority of Arabs. In 1934 Radwan al-Helou ("Musa") returned from Moscow and started to organise Arab cells in the trade unions. Musa formed alliance with the nationalist leaders such as the Mufti Haj Amin al-Hussaini despite Russian denunciations of them as Fascists and in 1937 Jewish communists attempted to set up their own party. Musa prevented this but shortly afterwards the British imprisoned him for his nationalist activities, keeping him in detention until Russia joined the war, when the PCP was allowed to operate more openly. Under Russian direction it was the only Arab group not to oppose the partition of Palestine. After I948 a separate legal Israel Communist Party came into existence while Musa and others went to the West Bank where they shared the fortunes of the Jordan Communist Party which, after some minor successes, was formally banned in 1957...
  190. Arabs Read Hitler

    "My Struggle" Becomes Best Seller Among Anti-Semitics.

    BERLIN. November 26 (AP). -- Arabs, who join with Nazi Germany in antagonism to Jews, are reading Adolf Hitler's book "My Struggle." The Fuehrer's autobiography, with its Antisemitic theroies, has been translated into Arabic and already is a best seller in Palestine, German newspapers say.

    The German edition once was barred in Palestine during the high point of Jewish immigration there, but Arabs who fought the Jewish influx, are reported much interested in the new translation.
    AP, Nov 26, 1936. Nebraska State Journal Archives, Nov 26, 1936, p. 2 - NewspaperArchive
  191. Books and Authors; FORTHCOMING BOOKS. The New York Times, April 4, 1937. [48]. [49] [50].

    Hitler's “Mein Kampf” once banned in Palestine is now reported to be a Best seller among the Arabs who have joined with Nazi Germany in antagonism to the Jews.

    Houghton Mifflin company have recently issued a popular priced edition of the Book under the title "My Battle."
  192. Mein kampf among the Arabs

    Under its standing heading 'Books and Authors' the New York Times last sunday published the following paragraph:

    Hitler's Mein Kampf once banned in Palestine is now reported to be a Best seller among the Arabs who have joined with Nazi Germany in antagonism to the Jews. Houghton Mifflin company have recently issued a popular priced edition of the Book under the title 'My Battle.'

    One is at a loss to explain this bit of news.

    Was it the purpose of the item to call attention to the fact that the Nazis are sowing their seeds of venue even among the Arabs of Palestine? This is not news. Nor Are the Nazis alone in this nefarious activity. The Russian communists have not remained Idle either. Or perhaps the emphasis should be placed on the fact that American publisher Houghton Mifflin company is furnishing the sinews of hate indeed is making a substantial contribution towards the spread of the nazi maniacal race doctrine among the primitive peoples of the Orient. A rather intriguing paragraph to say the least.
    [Philadelphia Jewish Exponent Archives, Apr 9, 1937, p. 4 - NewspaperArchive [51].
  193. 193.0 193.1 Fatah, Tarek. The Jew is Not My Enemy: Unveiling the Myths that Fuel Muslim Anti-Semitism. Canada: McClelland & Stewart, 2011. 60

    By the time the Palestinian uprising began in 1936, the Nazi hatred of the Jew had been incorporated into the existing Muslim narrative...

    In September 1937, Adolf Eichmann.. carried out a mission to the Middle East accompanied by the head of the Hitler Youth, Baldur von Schirach, who later funded an "Arab Club" in Damascus where German Nazis trained recruits for the mufti's growing army of insurgents. In his seminal study on the mufti, Klaus Gensicke writes, "The Mufti himself acknowledged that at that time it was only due to German funds he received that it had been possible to carry through the uprising in Palestine. From the outset, he made high financial demands which the Nazis to a great extent met."
  194. Doʼar ha-yom - דאר היום, 4 May 1936.
    Jabotinsky and Patterson's serious difficulties with the Government of Palestine and the Ministry of the Colonies

    At a large public meeting of the Z.CH [New Zionist Organization [הסתדרות ציונית חדשה] in London. They demand that the High Commissioner withdraw from the Legislative Council's program and offer him to renew the Hebrew Legion. Had England understood, it could have "established a new Gibraltar in the Near East" London 28 ... Jabotinsky... I say to the British government: 'Let us build Israel as we can. And it will be able to absorb millions of Jews. Without causing any harm to the Arab populations"...

    The assembly notes its recognition of the service "made by the new Zionist Organization by drawing the attention of the High Commissioner and the Ministry of the Colonies, as early as April 5 and 6, twelve days before the riots, to the urgent danger in Israel of unrestrained anti-Jewish incitement."

    קושיותיהם החמורות של ז'אבוטינסקי ופטרסון אל משלת ארץ־ישראל ואל משרד המושבות באסיפת־עם גדולה של הצ"ת בלונדון הם דורשים מן הנציב העליון לתזור בו מתכנית המועצה המחוקקת ומציעים לו לחדש את הלגיון העברי‭-. ‬ אילו הבינה אנגליה, יכלה "להקים לה גיברלטר חדשה במזרח הקרוב"‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬ לונדון‭28,. ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬ ז'אבוטינסקי... אני אומר לממשלה הבריטית: "תנו לנו לבנות את א"י כפי שאנו יכולים. והיא תוכל לקלוט מיליוני יהודים. מבלי לגרום כל רעה לאוכלוסים הערבים"... האספה מציינת את הכרתה בשרות " שעשתה ההסתדרות הציונית החדשה בזה שהעירה את תשומת לבם של הנציב העליון ומשרד המושבות, עוד ב־5 לאפריל וב־6 בו, שנים עשר יום לפני המהומות, לסכנה הדחופה הקיימת בא"י בתוצאות ההסתה האנטי־יהודית הבלתי מרוסנות.

  195. Davar - דבר, 21 September 1936.

    תאוות הבצע ([כך - שידר האנטישמי]) של היהודי היא שגרמה להקרבת בנו - כך "מסביר" מנהל התכנית הערבית ברדיו ירושלים את האגדה הערבית על נאמנותו של שמואל בן עדיה ב"חופש הדיבור" בארץ כבר הגענו לידי כך שתחנת הרדיו בירושלים שידרה לשומעים אמש בין ‭7.45‬ ו־8 ‬‬‬‬‬ הרצאה אנטישמית – והמרצה — שמי, והשנאה לישראל נמסרה בלשון שמית. השמי הזה אינו אדם פשוט, פקיד מדרגא א' הוא ושמו: אברהים אפנדי טוקאן, הסגן הערבי של מנהל תחנת השידור הא"יית‭.‬‬‬‬‬

    It was the greed ([sic - broadcasted the antisemite - editor]) of the Jew that caused his son to be sacrificed -

    This is how the director of the Arab program on Radio Jerusalem "explains" the Arab legend about the loyalty of Shmuel Ben-Adia

    In "Freedom of Speech" in the country, we have already reached the point where the radio station in Jerusalem broadcast to listeners last night between 7:45 and 8 a.m. an antisemitic lecture - and the lecturer - a Semite, and hatred of Jews was conveyed in Semitic language. This Semite is not a simple person, he is a first-rate official and his name is: Ibrahim Effendi Toucan, the Arab deputy director of the Broadcasting Station.
  196. Telos, Issues 128-130. Telos Press, 2004, p. 58.

    [M. Kuntzel:]

    During the 1936-1939 Palestinian revolt, the swastika was used as a mark of identity: Arabic leaflets and graffiti were liberally decorated with it, Arab children welcomed each other with the Hitler salute and vast numbers of German flags and pictures of Hitler were displayed even at celebrations of Mohammed's birthday.
  197. 197.0 197.1 197.2 197.3 Meir-Levi, David. History Upside Down: The Roots of Palestinian Fascism and the Myth of Israeli Aggression: Easyread Large Edition. Canada: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2010. 8-9.

    He was directly involved in organizing the 1929 riots that destroyed the 3,000-year-old Jewish community of Hebron. And he was quick to see that he had a natural ally in Hitler and in the rising star of Nazi Germany... In September 1937, Adolf Eichmann and another SS officer carried out an exploratory mission in the Middle East lasting several weeks, and including a friendly visit with the mufti. It was after this visit, in fact, that Haj Amin went on the Nazi payroll as an agent and propagandist. During the "Great Arab revolt" of 1936–1939, the war against the Jews of Palestine and against the British enforcement of the Mandate, which Haj Amin helped organize and which Germany funded, the swastika was used as a mark of identity on Arabic leaflets and graffiti.

    Arab children welcomed each other with the Hitler salute, and a sea of German flags and pictures of Hitler were displayed at celebrations. The identification was so strong that those obliged to travel through areas involved in the Palestinian revolt soon learned that it was prudent to attach a swastika to their vehicle to gain immunity from Arab snipers.
  198. 198.0 198.1 M. M. Silver, "The History of Galilee, 1538–1949: Mysticism, Modernization, and War," (Rowman & Littlefield, 2022), p. 296.
    In 1936, months after Hitler's Nuremberg Laws stripped Jews in Nazi domains of citizenship rights, and branded them as genetic undesirables, Qawuqji was not squeamish about baiting Jews as spineless cowards and opportunists.
  199. Leslie Stein, "The Making of Modern Israel: 1948-1967," (John Wiley & Sons, 2013), p. 110.
    By June 6, the Israelis had been outclassed by a joint force of Syrians, Lebanese, and the mainly foreign volunteer Arab Liberation Army (ALA) led by Fawzi alQawuqji, a Lebanese-born Arab with pro-Nazi sympathies who had been in Germany during World War Two.
  200. Emmanuel Navon, "The Star and the Scepter: A Diplomatic History of Israel." (U of Nebraska Press, 2020), p. 131.
    In September 1947, the Arab League established an Arab Liberation Army. It was led by Fawzi al-Qawuqji, who had been in charge of broadcasting Nazi propaganda in the Arab world during Second World War. Al-Husseini's chief bomb-maker, Fawzi al-Kutub, had learned bomb construction in an SS course in Nazi Germany.
  201. Pappe, I., " Atzulat Haaretz...", (Bialik, 2002), pp. 340-1
  202. 202.0 202.1 202.2 The Sydney Jewish News, 2 May 1947

    The Arab Killer - Nazi and the General

    By Our Special Correspondent SOLOMON ITZHAKI (Jerusalem)

    A few days after General Barker's departure from Palestine, there was a new ! guest at the Lydda airfield darned Fawzi Kawkadji..

    His activities during the war years are well known, he was the aide-de-camp of the ex-Mufti of Jerusalem, he went to Yugoslavia and Bulgaria to mobilize Moslem citizens of these countries against Russia and Great Britain, he spoke tens of times on the Nazi radio calling the Arab world to rise up against "British Imperialism and Bolshevist [sic] Judaism”; he became a bemedalled SS-man and got even a Nazi wife. What’s going on behind that international story the hero of which is Fawzi Kawkadji?

    Whom will he serve at present? The Russians, the French, the British? In any case, with the arrival of Kawkadji in the neighbourhood of Palestine the list of the Arab leaders who, during the war, were engaged in hostile activities against the Allied Nations, has been completed... The British could easily arrest him. There is no doubt, that he IS one of the great war-criminals, but—the official communique of the Palestine Government naively stated today: “Fawzi Kawkadji regretfully escaped the vigilance of the Palestine Frontier Control...”
  203. Davar⁩ - דבר⁩, 18 June 1936.

    אספת ערבים בגרמניה

    ברלין. 16, ‬באסיפת ערבים ובני המזרח בברלין נתקבלו החלטת נגד העליה היהודית לארץ־ישראל. הנאספים החליטו להכחיש אה הידיעות, המתפרסמות בעתונות היהודית כאילו איטליה וגרמניה עוזרות לתנועה הלאומית בארץ־ישראל. הם החליטו גם להחרים את החנויות של היהודים, לא לגור אצל משפחות יהודיות ולא לבוא אתן במגע.

  204. Sachar, Howard Morley. A History of Israel: From the Rise of Zionism to Our Time. New York: A.A. Knopf, 1996. p. 200. [52]; 2007 ed. [53] [54].
    "...By midsummer 1936 the intensity of the fighting mounted as Arab irregulars poured into the hill country around Jerusalem, into Galilee and Samaria. A majority of them at first were local Palestinians recruited by Haj Amin’s agents. But soon 'Committees for the Defense of Palestine’ were established in neighboring Arab lands. Syrian and Iraqi volunteers began arriving in Palestine at the rate of two or three hundred a month. Their leader, Fawzi al-Qawukji, played a vital role in the ensuing civil war... He was a compact, sandy-haired man in his early forties when the civil war began, gruff, vigorous, and endowed with an unquestionable dynamism that he cultivated in open imitation of his hero, Adolf Hitler. During the summer of 1936 it was Qawukji who organized military training among the Arab nationalists, imposing a single, unified command over the disparate rebel forces and helping smuggle in Axis [i.e. Nazi German and fascist Italian] weapons. His guerilla technique rarely varied. It took the form of night assaults on Jewish farms, the destruction of cattle and crops, the murder of civilians."
  205. 205.0 205.1 Alexander, Edward. The State of the Jews : A Critical Appraisal. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction, 2012. 71.
    -Alexander, Edward. The State of the Jews: A Critical Appraisal. United Kingdom: Routledge, 2017. 71.
    -Edward Alexander, "Exploring Nazi-Palestinian Arab collaborations," JHV, May 08, 2008.
  206. Jewish Frontier. United States: Labor Zionist Letters, Incorporated, 1936. 8.

    [An Editorial... Though we realize that the crushing of the terrorists is no light task,] we feel that the government did not take sufficiently stringent measures at the right time in order to weaken their influence. Had the government expended the time, energy and money that it devotes to tracking down a few "illegal" Jewish immigrants, to discovering the identities of those "legal" residents who endanger the peace of the whole country through their criminal assaults, the situation would now be less serious. But the government displayed no special vigor in this regard. It tolerated incendiary propaganda in the Arab press. It permitted demonstrations in Nablus which shouted the slogan "Long live Al-Kassam's spirit" (Al-Kassam was one of the terrorist murderers slain by the police, who has now been canonized by Arab leaders as a national hero.) After the debate in the English parliament concerning the Legislative Council—a debate which—showed a sympathetic and understanding attitude toward Zionist aspirations, the government permitted the Mufti's journal, "A Liva" (Liwa), to create the impression that all elements friendly to Zionism in England were in the pay of Jews. "The old Empire bows its head before Jews, because Jews [sic] have [sic] money," or further the Mandate is only apparently in English hands because Jews have purchased it long ago." Another Arab paper "Falastin" agitated openly for an alliance between the nationalist movement and Sir Oswald Mosley. The government seemed incapable of understanding that though it might be possible to treat fascist agitation humorously in London, amusement was out of place in Jaffa. The entire German population of Palestine numbers barely three thousand. Assuming that every one of them is a Nazi, they are still unable to publish a daily newspaper without assistance. The fact that a Nazi paper began to appear in Jerusalem, was in itself evidence enough that well-financed Hitler agents were in the country striving to establish contact with the Arab population. The government saw fit to ignore this.

    Now it need not be surprised that the words "Heil Hitler" should be a magic pass-word, protecting the speaker from Arab attack.
  207. 207.0 207.1 207.2 207.3 207.4 Waschitz, Joseph. The Arab in Erets Israel [Ha-Aravim be-Eretz Yisrael. Israel: hotsa'at ha-ḳibuts ha-artsi ha-Shomer ha-Tsa'ir] (Palestinian Arabs), 1947. pp. 329-330.

    In terms of the external form, the Arab movement approached the glistening world of Fascism... In April 1934, the Husseinis' "Al Jamia Al Arabia" (on the occasion of the opening of the Bari broadcast) wrote that Italy was the only power that had only economic and cultural trends and sought to move closer to the East. In the same newspaper (35.4.4) Shakib Arslan wrote that Mussolini is a huge personality. The leader of European policy and that the Arabs should not be moved by the Abyssinian government that persecutes Muslims. During the Abyssinian War, the Husseinist newspapers in Italy and the opposition newspapers supported the Abyssinians. (In 1937, "Falastin" also became pro-Italian). Along the Italian side, Nazi Germany also began to raise its profile among the Arabs and succeeded in doing so, especially during the days of the events. May 22, 1937, a holiday. Large Nazi flags fluttered in Jaffa. The front of the workers' association's house was adorned with swastikas. In many houses swastikas and pictures of the Fuhrer, the Duce and the leaders of the revolt were seen. In 1938, one hundred Palestine Arabs visited the Nazi party conference in Nuremberg. Needless to say, how great was the effect of the German victories, in the first period of the war, on the Arabs of the country, and how difficult was then the impression of their defeat: an Egyptian, who visited the country in the days after the conquest of Berlin wrote: "The people cry in the morning and sob in the evening. And blow to their cheek between morning and evening."
    [מבחינת הצורה החיצונית התקרבה התנועה הערבית לעולם־המליצות של הפאשיזם... באפריל 1934 כתב "אל ג'אמיעה אל-ערביה" של החוסיינים (בהזדמנות פתיחת שידור בארי), שאיטליה היא המעצמה היחידה שיש לה מגמות כלכליות ותרבותיות בלבד והשואפת להתקרב אל המזרח. באותו עתון כתב (35.4.4) שכיב ארסלאן, שמוסוליני הוא אישיות עצומה. מנהיג המדיניות האירופית ושאין הערבים צריכים לרגוש מחמת הממשלה החבשית הרודפת את המוסלמים. בימי מלחמת-חבש תמכו עתוני החוסיינים באיטליה, ועתוני האופוזיציה בחבשים. (בשנת 1937 הפך גם "פאלשתין" פרו - איטלקי). בצד איטליה התחילה גם גרמניה הנאצית להרים את קרנה בין הערבים והצליחה בכך, ביחוד בימי המאורעות. ביום 22 במאי 1937, יום חג. התנפנפו דגלים נאציים גדולים ביפו. חזית הבית של אגודת הפועלים היתה מקושטת צלבי קרס. בבתים רבים נראו צלבי קרס ותמונות הפיהרר, הדוצ'ה ומנהיגי המרד. בשנת 1938 ביקרו מאה ערבים ארצישראליים בוועידת המפלגה הנאצית בנירנברג. אין צורך לתאר, מה גדולה היתה השפעת הנצחונות הגרמניים, בתקופה הראשונה של המלחמה, על ערביי הארץ, ומה קשה היה אחר כך רושם מפלתם: מצרי, שביקר בארץ בימים שלאחר כיבוש ברלין כתב: "העם בוכה בבוקר ומתייפח בערב. ומכה על לחיו בין בוקר וערב."]

  208. The Palestine Post⁩, 4 January 1937⁩ pp. 1, 8. [55] "Arab Disapproval Over New Alliance. Istiklalist Newspaper Reaction."
  209. 209.0 209.1 The Sentinel, 25 February 1937 — Arabs Like Nazis , Says Moslem
  210. Scores of Jews Reported Injured, Shops Looted After Baghdad Arab Demonstrations, JTA, July 18, 1937.

    Jerusalem, July 18. (JTA) -- Scores of Jews were injured in Baghdad, Capital of Iraq, thirty so seriously they were sent to hospitals, and many Jewish shops were pillaged, after mass demonstrations against Zionism, according to reports received here today.

    All Jewish shops in the city had been closed throughout the day because of the demonstration, called to protest Partitioning of Palestine and led by Auni Bey Abdul Hadi, Militant Palestinian Arab Nationalist.
  211. Mallmann, Klaus-Michael., Cüppers, Martin. Nazi Palestine: The Plans for the Extermination of the Jews in Palestine. United Kingdom: Enigma Books, 2010. 38-39.
    According to the German consul in Jaffa, Timotheus Wurst, in late March 1936 the Muslim Palestinians were "deeply impressed by fascist, particularly National Socialist, teachings and views. National Socialism, with its anti-Jewish notions, has struck a chord among the Arabs of Palestine... battle against Zionism. Among the Arabs, fascism and National Socialism have in many cases become the standards against which all other political systems and teachings are measured, and, in the eyes of many Arabs, Adolf Hitler is without a doubt simply the most important man of the 20th century. Our Führer's popularity is so great that there can hardly be a single Arab, even the lowliest peasant, who doesn't know the name of Hitler."

    Like the Boy Scouts, the Istiqlal Party in particular has "embraced the National Socialist theses to the greatest extent. The Istiqlal Party organ, The Defense, has a markedly National Socialist orientation." One year later, the Völkischer Beobachter printed an interview with the party's president, Auni Abd el-Hadi.

    In the interview, he admitted proudly that while he was interned by the British he had thoroughly worked through the English translation of Mein Kampf.
  212. Arab apprentices Admire Hitler, Davar, March 10, 1937.
  213. Davar - דבר, 18 March 1937.

    Nazi poison The Association for Made in Israel submits: The agent of the well-known German company "Knoll" has been staying in Jerusalem for two weeks. While visiting an Arab pharmacy, an Arab patient came in with a prescription and asked for medicine. The owner of the pharmacy sent the wholesaler to fetch the medicine, the agent saw the packaging and found out that the medicine was made in Israel, approached the 'patient' and began preaching Nazi-style morals about buying "Jewish products from Tel Aviv." By the way, he took the prescription from him and saw that the doctor was also a Jew, he could not resist and told the Arab "Not only are you as an Arab should be ashamed to buy the Zionist products, you also go to a Jewish doctor and this is a danger for you, the Jewish doctor and the Jewish factory [sic] can poison you." This was said in the presence of an agent of a well-known English factory, who considered him an Englishman. It is worth noting that this Nazi agent arranges large orders among the Jews.

    רעל נאצי האגוד למען תוצרת הארץ מוסר: זה שבועיים שוהה בירושלים הסוכן של החברה הגרמנית הידועה "קנולל"‭ . ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬ בשעת בקורו בבית מרקחת ערבי נכנס חולה ערבי עם רצפט ובקש תרופה. בעל בית המרקחת שלח לסיטונאי להביא את התרופה, בראות הסוכן את האריזה והוברר לו שהתרופה היא מתוצרת הארץ, נגש ל"פאציאנט" והתחיל להטיף לו מוסר בסגנון נאצי על שהוא קונה "תוצרת היהודים מתל־אביב". אגב לקח מידו את הרצפט וראה שגם הרופא הוא יהודי, לא יכול להתאפק ואמר לו לערבי "לא בלבד שאתה בתור ערבי צריך להתבייש לקנות תוצרת הציונים, הנך גם הולך לרופא יהודי וזוהי סכנה בשבילך, הרופא היהודי ובית החרושת היהודי יכולים גם להרעיל אותך" זה נאמר בנוכחותו של סוכן של בית חרושת אנגלי ידוע, שחשבוהו לאנגלי. כדאי להעיר שהסוכן הנאצי הזה מסדר הזמנות גדולות אצל היהודים.

  214. 214.0 214.1 "ALL ARABS CELEBRATE PROPHET'S BIRTHDAY; Christians Join Moslems in Fete Unprecedented in Palestine--Hitler and Duce Cheered". Wireless to The New York Times. May 23, 1937, Section General, Page 31.
  215. 215.0 215.1 Swastikas Fly As Arabs Mark Mohammed’s Birthday, JTA, May 23, 1937.
  216. Uj Kelet⁩, 22 May 1937⁩, "Muhammad's birthday."
    Jerusalem, May 21. Arab merchants in Palestine decorate their windows with pictures of Hitler and Mussolini.
  217. Simon, Reeva S.. The Jews of the Middle East and North Africa: The Impact of World War II. United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis, 2019. [56].
  218. Arielli, N.. Fascist Italy and the Middle East, 1933–40. United Kingdom: Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2010; Arielli, N.. Italian Involvement in the Arab Revolt in Palestine, 1936-1939. 2008. [57].
  219. The Tuscaloosa News, ‎Aug 17, 1937. (p.3)

    Il Duce, Hitler Exert Pressure By Milton Bronner. NEA... After the world war was won... The Arab population increased from 600,000 to 950,000...

    The fascist government maintains at Bari, in the boot of Italy, a broadcasting station from which for many months a constant stream of anti-British propaganda has been issued in Arabic...
  220. 220.0 220.1 The National Jewish Monthly. (Vols. 51-52). (1937). United States: B'nai B'rith., p. 186.
  221. The Sentinel, Thursday, August 07, 1941 Former Nazi Envoy Charged With Stirring Palestine Riots.
  222. Julián Schvindlerman, "When Hitler Became Abu Ali," The Miami Herald, Friday, June 9, 2002, p. 39. [58] [59] [60] Arabs Admirers of Nazism...
    Nazi Minister of Propaganda Joseph Goebbels praised the Arabs' "national .. conscience," noting that "Nazi flags fly in Palestine and they adorn their houses with Swastikas and portraits of Hitler.
  223. ha-Arets - הארץ, 23 May 1937

    The Arab press on the processions The Arab newspapers from Shabbat ... devoted almost all their pages in honor of this day ... and enthusiastically describe the ornaments in the various cities in honor of holiday. 'Falastin' particularly emphasizes the participation of Christians in the day of remembrance of the Arab "prophet". The newspaper announces that two Nazi flags were hoisted on Bustros Street and the swastika was painted on the entrance gates of the Arab Workers' Association. Many Arabs painted the swastika on the blank part of the Arab flag. Pictures of Mussolini, Hitler and Kaukji were hung in various places and in the store entrances.

    ... 'Falastin' notes in a special way that the Italian and German business and office owners in Haifa decorated their shops and offices and participated in the "holiday"...
  224. ha-Arets - הארץ 21 May 1937 —Arab demonstrations in Haifa and Jerusalem [הפגנות ערבים בחיפה ובירושלם]

    Arab demonstrations in Haifa and Jerusalem... As early as Thursday, hundreds of Arabs gathered near the Jerini Mosque and the Eastern Gate (Bab Sharqiya الشرقيّة), singing national songs to the sound of drums and dances, wielding swords and raising fireworks. Arabs raised on their shoulders shouted for the lives of Arab kings, the Mufti of Jerusalem, Advocate Wadia al-Bustani (who handles the release of Acre prisoners) and in memory of the well-known Sheikh Izz Din Qassam... Last night, at about 8 o'clock, the number of Arab congregations in the east of the city increased. And their number reached thousands of people. These tried to pass through Kings Street to the end of the old shopping center and from there wanted to return through Hamra Square and Market Street to the Istiqlal Mosque. During the procession, cries were heard for the life of Fawzi Kawkaji, Arab kings, Sheikh Qassam. When the news was delivered late in the evening, cheers continued near this mosque.

    Pictures of Hitler and Mussolini ahead of the "Prophet" holiday In preparation for the ... holiday, which will be on Shabbat, many preparations are being made in Jerusalem on behalf of the perfect to glorify and decorate the holiday. Arab houses were hoisted on many houses and the streets were decorated.

    At the entrance to the Old City on David Street, a large gate of honor decorated with large Arab flags was erected.

    It is worth noting that the Arab cafe 'Khwat al-Maraf' near the Jaffa Gate was decorated with large Arab flags ... and two large pictures of Mussolini and Hitler.

    Dozens of Arabs crowded to see this special "decoration" in honor of the perfect religious holiday.

    Yesterday evening, about 200-300 Arab brats gathered, most of them schoolchildren, and held a demonstration in the streets of the Old City. They chanted slogans against the government and sang inciting songs of the well-known kind ...
  225. 225.0 225.1 225.2 225.3 225.4 Yaakov Lappin, Nazis 'shipped arms to Palestinians', YNet, May 7, 2006.
    Historical documents in Britain’s National Archives in London show that Nazi Germany attempted to ship arms to Palestinian forces in the 1930s.

      A British Foreign Office report from 1939 reports of “news of a consignment of arms from Germany, sent via Turkey and addressed to Ibn Saud (king of Saudi Arabia), but really intended for the Palestine insurgents.” Britain’s chief military officer in Mandatory Palestine also noted reports “regarding import of German arms at intervals for some years now.”   British documents from the same period, and German records photographed by an American spy and sent to the British government, said that a number of Nazi agents were sent to Mandatory Palestine, in order to forge alliances with Palestinian leaders, and urge them to reject a partition of the land between the Jewish and Arab populations.   One Nazi agent, Adam Vollhardt, arrived in Palestine in July 1938, and was reported to have gained strong influence with Arab leaders, meeting with Palestinian leaders throughout 1938. Vollhardt held several meetings with leading Arab politicians and told them “that the Palestine question would be settled to the satisfaction of the Arabs within a few weeks,” adding that “it would be fatal to their (Palestinians’) cause if at this juncture they showed any signs of weakness or exhaustion.”   “Germany was interested in the settlement of the (Palestine) question on the basis of the Arabs obtaining their full demands,” Vollhardt was reported to say to Palestinian leaders, according to a report by the British War Office. Vollhardt also assured Arab leaders that “the Germans could continue to support the Palestinian Arab cause by means of propaganda.”   German documents photographed and sent to Whitehall by an American spy revealed that in 1937, German officials had calculated that “Palestine under Arab rule would… become one of the few countries where we could count on a strong sympathy for the new Germany.”   ‘Arabs admire our Fuhrer’   “The Palestinian Arabs show on all levels a great sympathy for the new Germany and its Fuhrer, a sympathy whose value is particularly high as it is based on a purely ideological foundation,” a Nazi official in Palestine wrote in a letter to Berlin in 1937. He added: “Most important for the sympathies which Arabs now feel towards Germany is their admiration for our Fuhrer, especially during the unrests, I often had an opportunity to see how far these sympathies extend. When faced with a dangerous behaviour of an Arab mass, when one said that one was German, this was already generally a free pass.”   A second Nazi agent, Dr. Franz Reichart, was reported to be actively working with Palestinian Arabs by the British Criminal Investigation Division “to help coordinate Arab and German propaganda.” Reichart was also head of the German Telegraphic Agency in Jerusalem.   German records show that the Nazis viewed the establishment of a Jewish state with great concern. A 1937 report from German General Consulate in Palestine said: “The formation of a Jewish state… is not in Germany’s interest because a (Jewish) Palestinian state would create additional national power bases for international Jewry such as for example the Vatican State for political Catholicism or Moscow for the Communists. Therefore, there is a German interest in strengthening the Arabs as a counter weight against such possible power growth of the Jews.”   Jewish refugees abandoned   The records also show that the news of increased Nazi-Arab cooperation panicked the British government, and caused it to cancel a plan in 1938 to bring to Palestine 20,000 German Jewish refugees, half of them children, facing danger from the Nazis.   Documents show that after deciding that the move would upset Arab opinion, Britain decided to abandon the Jewish refugees to their fate.   “His Majesty’s Government asked His Majesty’s Representatives in Cairo, Baghdad and Jeddah whether so far as they could judge, feelings in Egypt, Iraq, and Saudi Arabia against the admission of, say 5,000 Jewish children for adoption… would be so strong as to lead to a refusal to send representatives to the London discussions. All three replies were strongly against the proposal, which was not proceeded with,” a Foreign Office report said.  

    "If war were to break out, no trouble that the Jews could occasion us, in Palestine or elsewhere, could weigh for a moment against the importance of winning Muslim opinion to our side," Britain’s Minister for Coordination of Defence, Lord Chatfield, told the British cabinet in 1939, shortly before Britain reversed its decision to partition its mandate, promising instead all of the land to the Palestinian Arabs.
  226. 226.0 226.1 Nazi Agents Infiltrated Mandatory Palestine Prior to World War II. By David Krusch, JVL.
    Smuggled photographs of documents from Nazi Germany prior to World War II offer insight into a secret alliance between Nazi agents and Palestinian leaders. These German documents, photographed by an American spy in 1937 and sent to British intelligence, are now housed in the British National Archives in London. The documents show, among other things, that the Nazis attempted to send a shipment of arms "via Turkey and addressed to Ibn Saud, but really intended for the Palestinian insurgents."

    According to British documents and photographed Nazi records, several Nazi agents were sent to Mandatory Palestine to meet with Palestinian leaders, and influence them into rejecting a proposed partition plan which would divide the Jewish and Arab populations. Adam Vollhardt, a Nazi agent, was sent to Palestine in July 1938, and held several meetings with Arab leaders. He told Palestinian leaders that “Germany was interested in the settlement of the question on the basis of the Arabs obtaining their full demands,” and the "Germans could continue to support the Palestinian Arab cause by means of propaganda." Germany believed that Palestine under Arab control would be one of the few countries that would give "strong sympathy" to the new Germany under Nazi rule. A report from German General Consulate in Palestine in 1937 stated, "The formation of a Jewish state…is not in Germany's interest because a (Jewish) Palestinian state would create additional national power bases for international Jewry such as for example the Vatican State political Catholicism or Moscow for the Communists." The Nazis attempted to boost the power of Palestinian leaders in order to counter Jewish national aspirations for a state in Palestine. In 1937, a Nazi official wrote a letter from Palestine to Berlin which said that Palestinian Arabs showed "a great sympathy for new Germany and its Fuhrer…based on a purely ideological foundation." Another agent, Dr. Franz Reichart was working in conjunction with Palestinians "to help coordinate Arab and German propaganda."

    The documents also show that due to increased Nazi-Arab alliances, the British government cancelled a plan in 1938 to bring 20,000 German Jewish refugees to Palestine so it would not upset Arab opinion. A British Foreign Office report said that when British representatives in Arab countries were asked if Arab governments would support a proposal to bring 5,000 Jewish children to Palestine for adoption, they said the reaction would be so strongly negative that the Arabs would probably refuse to even send delegates to London to discuss such a proposal. Lord Chatfield, Minister for Coordination of Defence, was quoted as saying, "If war were to break out, no trouble that the Jews could occasion us…could weigh for the a moment against the importance of winning Muslim opinion to our side." Therefore, 20,000 Jewish refugees, many of them children, were abandoned and left in Nazi Germany to face the horrors of the Holocaust.
  227. Cleveland Foreign Language Newspaper Digest. (1940). United States: Works Projects Administration, District Four, p. 600. 8905 JW. Oct 21: 5/2-7. By S. Yitzchoki
  228. 228.0 228.1 Documents on German Foreign Policy, 1918-1945: Poland; The Balkans; Latin America; the smaller powers, June 1937-March 1939. United States: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1953. 755-6; Document on German Foreign Policy, 1918-1945: series D.. United States: n.p., 1953. [61]
  229. Ben-'Ezer, Ehud. Anshe Sedom. Israel: ʻAm 'oved, 1968. 219.
    ...In his place was appointed Consul Walter Dohle, who had been a loyal Nazi since the 1920s in Germany. In July 1937, during the events, which were in fact an armed Arab uprising directed against the Jews and the British Mandate alike, the Mufti, who was now the leader of the country's Arabs, visited Dohle and proposed cooperation between the Arabs and the Axis powers against England, France and the Jews.

    ...במקומו נתמנה לקונסול ולטר דֶהלה שהיה נאצי נאמן עוד משנות העשרים בגרמניה. ביולי 1937, בתקופת המאורעות, שהיו למעשה מרד ערבי מזוין המכוון נגד היהודים והמנדט הבריטי כאחד, ביקר המופתי, שהיה עתה מנהיגם של ערביי הארץ, אצל דהלה והציע שיתוף-פעולה בין הערבים לבין מעצמות הציר נגד אנגליה, צרפת והיהודים.

  230. Steininger, Rolf. Germany and the Middle East: From Kaiser Wilhelm II to Angela Merkel. United States: Berghahn Books, 2018. 43-4
  231. 231.0 231.1 231.2 Lyn Julius, "Arab anti-Semitism, and the Nazis", Jewish Journal, February 8, 2018.

    In 1937, Walter Doehle, German consul in Jerusalem, wrote: “Palestinian Arabs in all social strata have great sympathies for the new Germany and its Führer … If a person identified himself as a German when faced with threats from an Arab crowd, this alone generally allowed him to pass freely. But when some identified themselves by making the ‘Heil Hitler’ salute, in most cases the Arabs’ attitude became expressions of open enthusiasm, and the German gave ovations, to which the Arabs responded loudly.” [...] The Mufti was personally responsible for the deaths of 20,000 European Jews murdered in the Nazi Holocaust. He organized the killing of 12,600 Bosnian Jews by Muslims, whom he recruited to the Waffen-SS Nazi-Bosnian division. He personally stopped 4,000 children, accompanied by 500 adults, from leaving Europe and had them sent to Auschwitz and gassed; he prevented another 2,000 Jews from leaving Romania and 1000 from leaving Hungary for Palestine – they too were sent to death camps...

    The ghost of Nazi-inspired, anti-Jewish bigotry was never exorcised from the Arab world. In fact Arabs became its torch-bearers. On Jan. 14, Palestinian Authority leader Mahmoud Abbas, whose university thesis was an exercise in Holocaust denial, shocked all right-thinking individuals with a speech dripping with anti-Semitism, and blaming the Jews for their own deaths in the Holocaust.
  232. 232.0 232.1 David Lee Preston, Hitler's Swiss Connection, The Philadelphia Inquirer, Jan. 5, 1997.

    He was an unrepentant Nazi who devoted his life to aiding Adolf Hitler's surviving henchman and those he saw as Hitler's natural anti-Jewish successors: Arab terrorists. He was a financier of fascism, and a manager of the hidden Swiss treasure of third Reich. A shadowy figure in six decades of international intrigue, he masterminded an airplane hijacking, underwrote attacks on Israel and paid for the defense of Adolf Eichmann, Klaus Barbie and "Carlos the Jackal." An anti Jewish propagandist, he made a fortune publishing Nazi tracts...

    In 1934, back in Switzerland, the 19 year old Genoud joined the pro-Nazi National Front, and two years later he began to forge the other political links that would prove so valuable. He traveled to Palestine. There he met the grand mufti of Jerusalem, the pro-Nazi religious and political leader of Palestinian Muslims, Amin el-Husseini, who was to spend most of World War II in Germany, and who, according to British author Gitta Sereny, "would consider [Genoud] a confidant until his death in 1974."

    Genoud traveled to Berlin frequently during the war "to see his friend the grand mufti," and visited him afterward many times in Beirut, according to Le Monde correspondent Jean-Claude Buhrer. The grand mufti "entrusted Genoud with the management of his enormous financial affairs," according to Sereny. Working for both Swiss and German intelligence agencies, Genoud traveled extensively in the Middle East.
  233. Moubayed, Sami. Syria and the USA: Washington's Relations with Damascus from Wilson to Eisenhower. United Kingdom: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2012. 42-43. [62]

    Nazi influence in Syria The Second World War had an immediate and direct effect on Syria, because of the French mandate. At a grassroots level, the people of Syria were enchanted with Adolf Hitler, united in a desire to defeat the French. Crowds gathered in the old cafes of Damascus to listen to Hitler's inflammatory speeches while his autobiography Mein Kampf became a national bestseller in Syrian bookstores, after being translated into Arabic. The Syrians even provided transit facilities for German planes being sent to the East through Damascus, Aleppo and Palmyra. True, the Third Reich was a dictatorship – no different perhaps from what France had brought to Syria in 1920 – but so long as it was willing to help the Syrians achieve independence, they did not really care what kind of system it imposed on Europe. Prominent nationalists in Syria took up Hitler's cause, notably the youth leader Fakhri al-Barudi, and the Damascus, notable Shukri al-Quwatli, aided by King Farouk of Egypt who was also vehemently pro-Nazi. One vehicle for advancing Nazi goals in Syria was al-Nadi al-Arabi (The Arab Club) a secular organization that preached Arab nationalism and emancipation from European control. It was founded by Said Fattah al-Imam, a young Syrian educated in Berlin during the inter-war years, who was close to both Quwatli and Barudi.

    In 1936, Imam travelled twice to Germany, once even meeting personally with Hitler to try to talk him in to shipping arms to the Palestinians and Syrians so they could use them to fight off the British and the French.
  234. Lebl, Ženi. Haj Amin and Berlin. 1996. p. 41.

    המופתי לא ויתר, ושליחו השני יצא בדצמבר 1937. היה זה ד"ר סעיד עבד אל-פתח אל- אימאם, סורי לאומני, מייסד "המועדון הערבי" בדמשק ואגודת הערבים הלומדים בגרמניה. ד"ר אל־אימאם הביא למשרד התעמולה של גבלס איגרת המלצה של המופתי, אשר הסתיימה במלים "הייל היטלר!".

    The mufti did not give up, and his second emissary left in December 1937. It was Dr. Said Abd al-Fattah al-Imam, a Syrian nationalist, the founder of the "Arab Club" in Damascus and the association of Arabs studying in Germany. Dr. al-Imam brought a letter to the Goebbels Propaganda Office a recommendation by the mufti, which ended with the words "Heil Hitler!".
  235. Documents on German Foreign Policy, 1918-1945, from the Archives of the German Foreign Ministry. United States: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1953.(No.576). p.777.

    The Propaganda Ministry to the Foreign Ministry... BERLIN, November 24, 1937. MY DEAR HERR KNOTHE: 

    Having been unsuccessful, despite several attempts, in reaching you by telephone today, I should like in this letter to ask if I may trouble you for an appointment. I come from Damascus on behalf of the Grand Mufti of Palestine, His Excellency Haj Amin al-Husayni, who at the present time is in Beirut, and also on behalf of the Great Arabian Club in Damascus and the Administrative Board of the National Bureau for Propaganda and Public Enlightenmen and I am planning to return to Damascus after our conference. Herr Geiger, the Chief of the Ortsgruppe of the NSDAP in Beirut, with whom you are very well acquainted, gave me a letter to you at the time of our first conversation, and he will get in touch with you as soon as he has assumed his new post in the German Embassy in Paris. I should be very grateful if you would have a message sent me at telephone number 664403 as to when I may call on you in person. H-il Hitler!

    DR . IMAM.

    [These documents were also sent to the War Ministry and to the Dienststelle Ribbentrop.]
  236. Neubert, Friedrich Paul Harald. Die deutsche Politik im Palästina-Konflikt 1937/38. Germany: Dr. Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität, 1977, pp. 105-106.
    Im Auswärtigen Amt wurde der Anregung Jussuf Jassins, Deutschland sollte die Bemühungen der arabischen Staaten in einer den arabischen Interessen entsprechenden Lösung der Palästinafrage mit diplomatischen Mitteln unterstützen, keine besondere Auf-merksamkeit zuteil.

    Hentig notierte zu dem Bericht Grobbas vom 9. November 1937, daß der Anregung des deutschen Gesandten, Deutschland möge seine Haltung in der Teilungsfrage von der Haltung der arabischen Staaten abhängig machen, vorerst nicht gefolgt werden könne. Mit der Flucht des Mufti von Jerusalem, Husseini, nach Syrien hatte sich die Führung der Unabhängigkeitsbewegung der Palästinaaraber stärker nach dem französischen Mandatsgebiet verlagert. Husseini suchte im November 1937, ungeachtet des bisher nur geringen Erfolges seiner Bemühungen um ein stärkeres deutsches Engagement in Palästina, die Fäden nach Berlin neu zu knüpfen. In seinem Auftrag reiste im November 1937 der in Damaskus lebende arabische Nationalist Said Abd el-Fattah Imam nach Deutschland, um den deutschen zuständigen Behörden ein weitgespanntes Programm einer deutsch - arabischen Zusammenar- beit vorzutragen und um Unterstützung für die Sache der Araber in Palästina zu bitten. Hinter Imam standen nach seiner Angabe außer dem Mufti von Jerusalem auch ein Arabischer Club, als dessen Leiter sich Imam bezeichnete, und der Verwaltungsrat des nationalen Propaganda- und Aufklärungsbüros, der wie der Club seine Sitz in Danaskus hatte. Said Imam legte in einem Schreiben vom 24. November 1937, gerichtet an den Leiter des Referates VII 4 (Islamwelt) im Reichspropagandaministerium, Knothe, seine Bitte um Gewährung einer Unterredung dar. Aus dem Brief geht hervor, daß Imam bereits zu einem früheren Zeitpunkt, dessen genaues Datum nicht bekannt ist, eine Be-sprechung mit Knothe gehabt haben muß, über deren Inhalt und Ergebnis wir aber nicht unterrichtet sind. [In the Foreign Office, Yussuf Yassin's suggestion that Germany should use diplomatic means to support the efforts of the Arab states to find a solution to the Palestinian question that corresponds to Arab interests received no particular attention. Regarding Grobba's report of November 9, 1937, Hentig noted that the German envoy's suggestion that Germany should make its position on the partition question dependent on the position of the Arab states could not be followed for the time being. With the flight of the mufti of Jerusalem, Husseini, to Syria, the leadership of the Palestinian Arab independence movement had shifted more to the French mandate. In November 1937, Husseini tried to tie the threads to Berlin again, despite the little success of his efforts so far to increase German involvement in Palestine. On his behalf, the Arab nationalist Said Abd el-Fattah Imam, who was living in Damascus, traveled to Germany in November 1937 to present the responsible German authorities with a wide-ranging program of German-Arab cooperation and to ask for support for the cause of the Arabs in Palestine . According to him, in addition to the mufti of Jerusalem, the Imam was backed by an Arab club, which the Imam described as its leader, and the administrative board of the national propaganda and intelligence office, which, like the club, was based in Danascus.

    In a letter dated November 24, 1937, Said Imam, addressed to the head of department VII 4 (Islamic world) in the Reich Ministry of Propaganda, Knothe, explained his request for an interview. The letter shows that Imam had previously, whose exact date is not known, must have had a meeting with Knothe, but we are not informed of the content and outcome of this....].
  237. Anabda Dorschel-Dan, Secret file reveals Haganah feared Eichmann infiltration post-WWII, TOI, Aug 25, 2015
  238. 238.0 238.1 238.2 Chen Malul, Adolf Eichmann’s Secret Visit to Palestine, The Librarians [בלוג הספרייה הלאומית], Nov 6, 2017.

    Years before Eichmann was brought to Israel to stand trial, the notorious mass-murderer visited Mandatory Palestine in 1937 while disguised as a journalist... "Eichmann reported from his visit to Israel: The creation of a Jewish State must be prevented", Maariv, 28th of April, 1961...

    On 2 October 1937 the Romania docked at the port of Haifa, carrying the two Nazi officials who travelled incognito as a German journalist and a student. Their application to enter Mandatory Palestine was denied by the Mandatory authorities. It is not clear whether the two had been identified or whether their entry permits had aroused the suspicion of the customs officials. In any event, they were given a temporary entry permit for one night only. Disappointed by the failure of their mission, the two toured Haifa and spent the night on Mount Carmel. After the time they were allotted was up, they sailed for Egypt where they met with Mufti Amin al-Husseini and...

    Even though the two Nazi representatives had been within the borders of Palestine for less than a day, Adolf Eichmann considered himself a qualified expert on the future of the state-in-the-making. In a detailed report to his superiors, Eichmann wrote that the economic situation of the Jewish settlement was dire, and it did not appear that it would improve any time soon. He did not tie the difficult situation to either geopolitical or material conditions but (as befitting a good Nazi) blamed it on the Jews’ ...

    Eichmann’s great fear was that the expulsion of the Jews from Germany would contribute in the future to the establishment of a stronger and prosperous Jewish entity that would rely on the great wealth which the deportees would bring with them to Palestine...
  239. Heinrich Himmler | Holocaust Encyclopedia.

    It was Himmler whom Hitler entrusted with the planning and implementation of the "Final Solution." In his most quoted speech, that of October 4, 1943, in Poznan to a gathering of SS generals, Himmler explicitly justified the mass murder of the European Jews in the following words:

    "In front of you here, I want to refer explicitly to a very serious matter….I mean here…the annihilation of the Jewish people…. Most of you will know what it means when 100 corpses lie side by side, or 500 or 1,000…. This page of glory in our history has never been written and will never be written….We had the moral right, we were obligated to our people to kill this people which wanted to kill us."
  240. העולם הזה, גליון 1235 - 17 במאי 1961. This World. Issue 1235 - May 17, 1961.
    Heydrich - Commander of the Security Lines at SS

    Among the tens of thousands of books by the National Library in Jerusalem, this week I found a forgotten book that no one has touched in years. He is one of a kind. Name of the book: 'SS - Combat Organization To the War on...', by Heinrich Himmler. The first page of this book is decorated with a rubber stamp, bearing a swastika and the words: "Party The German National Socialist Workers - Haifa Branch. "

    Under the stamp, a personal dedication in this language: "Dedicated cordially to the party branch in Haifa - Berlin, November 2, 1937 The National Commander of the SS

    Below that, his personal signature by Heinrich Himmler, in blue ink.

    The date is not accidental. A month earlier, on October 2, 1937, the SS sergeant Adolf Eichmann had visited in Haifa. He stayed in the city for a few hours, met with the local Nazis and got into a taxi on Mount Carmel, before continuing on his way to Cairo, due to lack of permission to stay in the country. And Eichmann's report on this trip bears the date - 4.11.37 and there is no doubt that Himmler sent the book as a gift to the Haifa branch at the request of Eichmann (through his superiors), as a token of gratitude to the Haifa Nazis.

    The first chapter of the book is dedicated to Jews... Haman was the prime minister of the Persian nation, which is an Aryan nation. He understood the Jewish...

    These "wisdom" words of Heinrich Himmler are not important in themselves. They prove, at most, that the chief commander of the SS. .. in addition to its racist madness, is also historiosophical. However, there is one detail in this description, which is extremely important. Himmler notes that Haman decided to "resolve the problem of the Jews."

    Himmler does not specify what the proposed solution was. But the Bible itself teaches that the solution will be through the destruction of peoples, the physical extermination of the Jews throughout the empire The mighty Persian, from India to Kush: "And books were sent by the hand of the runners into all the king's lands, To destroy, kill and lose all the Jews, from youth to old age, children and women, in one day ... and their possessions to loot."


    It is probable that in writing this book, Heinrich Himmler did not yet dream of the physical extermination of the Jews of the world... Yet the wording of this book proves that the seed of extermination lay in the very essence of the Nazi racist conception, and that this was its consistent conclusion, the conception designers did not even think of it in the first place, in full consciousness. Anti-Semitic racism was at the heart of the Nazi worldview. And the extermination of the Jews was the core of the antisemitic conception.

    Such was the case when Himmler wrote this book - and when Corporal SS. In 1935, Adolf Eichmann reported for the first time to work in the 112th, 2nd Department of the Jewish Department of the Chief Bureau of the Security Service.
  241. Prof. Moshe Zimmerman, Globes, 25.10.2015
  242. Danny Dayan of Yad Vashem, Maariv, Feb 19, 2022
  243. 243.0 243.1 'BLACK HITLER' JAILED TO AWAIT SENTENCE; Gorgeous Array of Sufi Abdul Hamid Avails Nought -- Found Guilty in Pamphlet Sale., The New York Times, January 16, 1935, Page 7.
    A ... dusky-skinned man stood before Magistrate Thomas Aurelio yesterday in Harlem Court. His name, he said, was Sufi Abdul Hamid. A year ago he was acquitted in the same court when the police accused him of urging his Negro followers to drive the Jews and Italians out of Harlem.
    [63][64]
  244. BLACK HITLER BEATS DEPORTATION MOVE. Times Union. Brooklyn, New York. 21 Jun 1935, Page 1.
    Proves He Entered U. S. From Egypt Legally. Harlem's Black Hitler, as the followers of the picturesque, white-turbaned Sufi Abdul Hamid call him, was purged of violating the immigration laws today after he had convinced Ellis Island officials that he came into this country from Egypt legally.
  245. Mark Christian Thompson, "Black Fascisms: African American Literature and Culture Between the Wars," (University of Virginia Press, 2007), p.10.

    With this explosion of interest in the war came frequent, violent assaults on Italians in Harlem..

    The Harlem soapboxer and putative "Black Hitler" Sufi Abdul Hamid and his "Don't Buy Where You Can't Work" boycott campaign were... in the speeches of the popular soapboxer Sufi Abdul Hamid that both the black and white presses referred to him as the "Black Hitler"...
  246. Cary D. Wintz, ‎Paul Finkelman, Encyclopedia of the Harlem Renaissance", (Routledge, 2012).
    ... the appellation "black Hitler" in both the black and the white press with his rhetoric of black nationalism and virulent anti-Semitism.
  247. Farrakhan In Top Echelon of America's Blacks, The Jewish Floridian, January 10, 1986, p. 12-A.

    ... Yet Nazi Germany in 1935 had no monopoly on anti-Semitism, nor was black America immune. The Louis Farrakhan of that era was Sufi Abdul Hamid. New York's self-styled - Black Hitler."

    Born plain Eugene Brown in Philadelphia. Sufi as a youth went to sea, where he picked up a smattering of exotic languages, and then landed in Chicago where during the late 1920's he caused a sensation by draping his massive frame in a combination of jackboots, diamond-studded belt, flowing cape, and fez. First posing as a Bhuddist mystic, he soon claimed to be an African disciple of Mohammed, divinely ordained to redeem the South Side from Jewish merchants. His "Don't Buy Where You Can't Work Campaign shook loose few jobs in the depressed economy of the 1930's; but the shakedown payments he extracted from frightened businessmen financed his pur- chase of the private plane that flew him to New York in 1933.

    IDENTIFYING himself from a soapbox on Harlem streetcorners as "the man that Jews fear, and arescared to death of." Sufi ranted against "Zionist colonialists" in Palestine, as well as "them Jews in Washington who rule us all."

    An admirer of Haj Amin el Husseini, the notorious Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Sufi also courted both the German-American Bund and the Christian Front. His tirades hurt rather than helped efforts to win more and better jobs for blacks in Harlem's white-owned department stores. On the other hand, he could claim some credit for helping spark the Harlem Riot of 1935. If one knows about Sufi's antics in the 1930s, it is hard to escape a sense of history repeating itself in Farrakhan's rise during the 1980's. However, there are important differences between "then" and "now."

    These explain why Sufi's decline came swiftly, while Farrakhan's isn't yet on the horizon. For one thing, that was a time when group libel wasn't necessarily considered protected free speech. Jewish organizations did more than damn Sufi 'in the court of public opinion'; they were able to put him on the defensive by repeatedly having him hailed before police magistrates for incitement to violence and disturbing the peace. FOR ANOTHER thing, black organizations forthnghtly condemned Sufi at the same time as they sought reconciliation with the Jewish community. By the late 1930s. New York's blacks and Jews were cooperating in an ambitious drive for equal employment opportunity.

    Amidst wartime social tensions Harlem again erupted in the 1943 riot, but no anti-Semitic demagogue emerged, and the developing black-Jewish civil rights alliance worked to contain the damage to intergroup relations. Why is it unlikely that Louis Farrakhan our contemporary Sufi will quickly go the way of his predecessor, who was a spent force politically several years before his death in a plane crash in 1938? The overriding reason is that the current generation of black leaders is legitimizing him through their indifference to and sometimes tolerance of anti-Semitism. TAKE THE case of Mayor Marion Barry of Washington. D.C. Despite being implored to speak out, he waited seven weeks before he delivered one word of criticism of Farrakhan's July 22 anti-Semitic tirade in the Capitol. Fear has something to do with this silence but, I fear, cynicism also plays a role. The kind of cynicism that Molotov voiced about fascism in justifying the Hitler-Stalin pact of 1939: "It's just a matter of taste."

    The most troubling finding of the Wiesenthal Center's public opinion poll taken over the past 20 years is not the significant incidence of anti-Semitism in the ghetto; it's the surprisingly high levels among younger, better-educated blacks on college cam- puses and in the professional world. The current generation of black leaders came of age during the 1970's, when their youthful mood of radical expectation often made them impatient with, and suspicious of Jews associated with the traditional or "moderate" civil rights agenda. Now, these leaders have carried this negative attitude into the 1980's...

    Dr. Harold Brackman is visiting Assistant Professor in the History Department of the University of Kansas.

    He is a special consultant on black- Jewish Relations for the Simon Wiesenthal Center in Los Angeles.
  248. Murray Friedman, "What Went Wrong? : The Creation & Collapse of the Black-Jewish Alliance," (Simon and Schuster, Sep 11, 2007), pp.92-93.

    One of the most radical was a turbaned Muslim from Chicago named Sufi Abdul Hamid. In Chicago Sufi's exotic dress and his claim to have been divinely ordained by Muhammad to redeem the city's south side from Jewish merchants... New York his racist message lost none of its punch. Identifying himself as the black Hitler... even though many tenements owners were not Jewish. Indeed... blacks owned 75 percent of Harlem real estate in 1936 and that "Daddy" Browning, John D Rockefeller and the estate of John J. Astor were among the largest single property owners in the area. ... An admirer of Haj Amin el-Husseini, an Arab ally of Hitler and grand mufti of Jerusalem, Sufi openly courted the German-American Bund and the Nazi-like Christian Front...

    Ultimately, however, Sufi's anti-Semitism backfired.
  249. Jorda, Iwo. Araber-Aufstand. Wien: 1943. pp. 156, 187f, 257.
    qted in Mallmann, Klaus-Michael., Cüppers, Martin. Nazi Palestine: The Plans for the Extermination of the Jews in Palestine. United Kingdom: Enigma Books, 2010. 39
  250. The Sentinel, 4 June 1936.

    Suspect Nazis in Palestine Uprising

    Jerusalem, June 1 (JTA)— Suspicion of Nazi complicity in the Arab revolt increased when numerous German citizens from Tanganyika, speaking Arabic fluently, were arrested in Jaffa on suspicion of being connected with harbor disturbances.

    The belief that Germany might be involved was strengthened when it was discovered that many of the rifles found with Arab rebels after uprisings at Nablus, Tulkarem and Jaffa, were of German make. Observers had previously inferred from that fact the Arabs were using new rifles that some foreign power might be implicated.

    Arabs in lighters attempted to set Jewish boats in the temporary Tel Aviv harbor on fire by throwing tins of burning gasoline on board. Newspapers expressed the belief that Nazis were involved...
  251. The Sentinel, 4 June 1936. Arabs Captured with Smuggled Nazi Arms
  252. Nazi Envoy Greeted By 2 Arab Editors. The Chronicler-Spokesman⁩ 17 December 1937⁩. The Sentinel⁩, 16 December 1937⁩.
    By Jewish Telegraphic Agency CAIRO —Franz von Berk, aide to Reich Propaganda Minister Goebbels, arrived here last week and was met by the editors of two Palestine Arab papers, Falastin and Adifaa. Dr. Goebbels is scheduled to visit Cairo next month.
  253. The Palestine Post, 7 December 1937.

    Editor Of Nazi Daily Visiting Egypt. Dr. Goebbels Expected To Arrive Shortly Recent visitors to Egypt include the Editor of the well-known daily, Der Angriff, Herr Schwarz von Berk, one of the principal collaborators of Dr. Goebbels, the German Propaganda Minister and former Editor of the Angriff , who is himself expected to arrive in Egypt shortly. Study of Near East It is understood that Herr Berk intends to spend six months in the Near East and to work, inter alia, for the wider distribution of German literature and newspapers Officially, his visit is described as one of study preparatory to his writing a book on Near Eastern conditions. Besides Egypt and the Sudan, he will visit Syria, Iraq and possibly other countries as well. Contact with Palestine Press

    Falastin is informed that the Editor of Der Angriff has expressed a desire to meet colleagues from this country. In this connection it is pointed out that the Editors of Falastin and Ad Difaa recently left for Egypt by air.
  254. The National Jewish Monthly. United States: B'nai B'rith., 1938, p. 328.
  255. The Sentinel⁩ 9 December 1937⁩. Nazis Affiliate with Arabs; To Boycott Palestine Goods.
  256. French Paper Exposes Nazi Armament of Arab Terrorists, The Sentinel, 9 December 1937
  257. 257.0 257.1 The American Jewish World, 9 September 1938 —Arab Terror Grows; Evidence of Fascist, Nazi Backing Seen

    Arab Terror Grows; Evidence of Fascist, Nazi Backing Seen

    JERUSALEM (Special)—Arab terrorists grow bolder and violence continues unabated in Palestine.

    Evidence has become more concrete that Nazi and Fascist influence and money is backing the terrorist group as a means of embarrassing Britain.

    While other banks have posted heavy guards against recurring holdups, the German and Italian banks continue business unguarded and their managers freely say they need no protection in an Arab country.

    Notices are appearing calling for volunteers for the Arab rebellion, signed with the name of Youssef Abu Dura, rebel commander – in-chief.

    While Arab policemen looked on indifferently an Arab crier went through Jaffa calling on Arab youth to enlist for expulsion of all infidels from Palestine and establishment of an Arab kingdom.

    The Arab population appears to be more in fear of the vengeance of the terrorists than of punishment by the authorities.

    A demand from rebel headquarters to Falastin, Arab daily, that it disobey the government order against publishing terrorist news , sent Falastin representatives into the hills for conference with the rebel authorities , and there are indications that Falastin, caught between prohibitory orders from the government and mandatory orders from the terrorists may suspend publication.

    Terrorism mounts daily in the Tel Aviv-Jaffa area, and the Jewish community of Tel Aviv appealed to the government to permit enlistment of a Jewish defense corps and to erect a fence between the Arab and Jewish municipalities.

    The appeal was made after a bomb explosion in which nine Jews were wounded, three seriously and destruction of a synagogue by incendiary fire.

    Near the Damascus gate terrorist murdered a Christian Arab for giving information to the police.

    Arab constable was murdered on the Jerusalem-Jaffa highway. Terrorist even destroyed a police post at the Wailing Wall in Jerusalem.

    An appeal by Moslem religious leaders for abstinence from violence during the three-month penitentia period of Shehur Al Haram was angrily rejected by the terrorists.

    According to figures published here by the Palestine Post 266 deaths by violence occurred in August. Include in this total were 48 Jews, 193 Arabs and 19 British soldiers or officials.
  258. Forverts - פארװערטס, 15 September 1938.

    Arabs Murder 10 Jews in Bloody Day of Terror. Hitler and Mussolini Send More Money to Terrorists. Jerusalem, Sep 15 - The Arab terror on Palestine is financed by Hitler and Mussolini. A report about it had sent in wire the well-informed correspondent of the 'New York Times', by Joseph Levy.
    אראבער טויטע ‭10‬ אידען אין בלוטיגען טאג פון טעראר. היטלער און מוסאליני שיקען נאך געלד צו טעראריסטען. ירושלים, סעפט 15 - דער אראבישער טעראר און פאלעסטינא ווערט פינאנצירט פון היטלער'ן און מאסאליני'ען. א באריכט וועגן דעם האט צוגעשיקט אין א קעיבעל דעס גוט-אינפארמיטער קארעספאנדענט פון דער "נוא יארק טיימז", פונעם דזשאזעף מ. ליווי.

  259. 259.0 259.1 HaMashkif - המשקיף, 11 December 1947.

    European guides for the Arab gangs

    Nazi prisoners of war who fled Egypt and anti-Semites from England

    By our political writer

    The Arab League announced yesterday in Cairo (Reuters affirms) that Germans from the Wehrmacht, and especially members of the African Corps, had announced their desire to volunteer for the Arab troops for the war in E"Y [Palestine] ...

    Various European guides, Nazi prisoners of war and other foreigners are already participating in the training of the Arab gangs. The role of foreigners in previous riots is known, that in the days of the events of 1936-39 the help of German and Italian guides to the Arab gangs was widespread, and only thanks to it was it possible for the Arab gangs to last for a long time ...

    Nazis and English offered their service to the Arabs

    Cairo - more than 5,000 people, many of whom were soldiers in the First and Second World Wars, ran telegrams and letters from various parts of the British Empire, America and Europe to the Arab League headquarters, and offered their service to the Arab League -, it was reported yesterday ... Proposals from the French, and Germans who served in the Nazi Wehrmacht as well as in the 'Afrika Korps' were reported. [...] ... and the 'Haganah' rejects requests from Irish volunteers

    'U P.' Brings an amendment to an article published yesterday on the desire of 6,500 American Irish to enlist in the Haganah (defense) of the Jewish community in Eretz Israel. David Wohl, a representative of the Americans for Haganah, said that their requests were rejected, first of all - because the 'Haganah' in Israel has between 60,000 and 80,000 members. And second, because the 'Haganah' does not want to endanger the lives of American citizens. מדריכים אירופיים לכנופיות הערביות שבויים נאציים שברחו ממצרים ואנטישמים מאנגליה מאת סופרנו המדיני הליגה הערבית מסרה אתמול בקהיר (כך מאשר רויט'רס‭,‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬ (‬כי גרמנים מן הוורמכט, ובמיוחד אנשי הקורפוס האפריקאי הודיעה על רצונם להתנדב לחילות הערבים למלחמה בארץ־ישראל... מדריכים אירופיים שונים גרמנים נאצים שבויי המלחמה וכן זרים אחרים משתתפים כבר באימון הכנופיות הערביות. תפקיד הזרים במהומות הקודמות ידוע, כי בימי המאורעות של 39־1936 היתה העזרה של המדריכים הגרמניים והאיטלקיים לכנופיות הערביות רבת־משקל, ורק הודות לה אופשר לכנופיות הערביות להחזיק מעמד במשך תקופה ארוכה...

    נאצים ואנגלים הציעו שרותם לערבים

    קהיר (ר) — למעלה מ־5,000 איש, שרבים מהם היו חיילים במלחמת העולם הראשונה והשניה, הריצו מברקים ומכתבים מחלקים שונים של האימפריה הבריטית, אמריקה ואירופה למפקדת הליגה הערבית, והציעו את שירותם לליגה הערבית כן נמסר אתמול... כן נמסר על הצעות מצרפתים, וגרמנים ששירתו בוורמכט הנאצי וכן ב'קורפוס האפריקני.' ‭[...]‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬ ... ‬וה'הגנה' דוחה בקשות מתנדבים אירים 'יו. פי.' מביאה תיקון לידיעה, שפורסמה אתמול, על רצונם של 6,500 אירים אמריקניים להתגייס להגנת הישוב העברי בארץ־ישראל. דוד ווהל, נציג 'אמריקאים למען ההגנה' אמר שבקשותיהם נדחו, ראשית - משום של'הגנה' בארץ-ישראל יש מ-60 עד 80 אלף חבר. ושנית- מפני שה'הגנה' אינה רוצה לסכן את חייהם של אזרחים אמריקניים.

  260. Joseph M. Levy, PALESTINE OUTLOOK CONTINUES GLOOMY; Nazi Anti-Jewish Campaign Stirs Neighboring Lands--Moderate Arabs Swayed REVISIONISTS ARE FACTOR Moderate Arabs Swayed - More Terrorism Expected, The New York Times, July 24, 1938.
    The strife in Palestine continues unabated and hopes for an improvement of conditions seem scant. One need not be a confirmed pessimist to despair of a possible return to normalcy in the near future.
  261. Der Tog⁩ - ⁨דער טאג (ניו יורק)⁩, 10 February 1938.
    DISCREDITED, disrobed .. Oswald Mosley, British fascist fuehrer, is extending his "domain" from Hyde Park to Jerusalem. His latest utterance is an exhortation to Arabs to "Unite, and you will reach your goal!" Sir Oswald gives it as his opinion in an interview published in Adiffa, Arab daily; that "Britain cannot hand Palestine to an alien people," promising to set things right about five years from now, when he takes over the helm of British affairs. Proving, of course, that race hate inciters have nothing to lose and everything to gain by continuing their agitation; it takes a cataclysm to put a Jew-baiter out of business.
  262. Daytona Beach Morning Journal May 19, 1947. "Meet The Arabianazis." By Walter Winchell.
  263. 263.0 263.1 263.2 Friends Of Democracy's Battle. (1948). United States: (n.p.). Vol. VI, No. 15. August 1, 1948.

    NY Court Blasts Arab Apologist Katibah, Grand Mufti Linked With Nazis; Justice Charges Latter 'kindled Flames Of Pogrom'.

    On May 5, 1948, Hon. Maurice Simmons, Justice of the Court of Special Sessions (New York), dismissed a complaint for criminal libel made by Habib I. Katibah against the publisher of the New York Daily Mirror...
  264. Head Of Arab League Commits Suicide Here; Dr. Shatara, Brooklyn Physician, Favored Palestine Round-Table. The New York Times. Jan. 9, 1942.
  265. Leader of Arab League in America Commits Suicide in New York. JTA, January 11, 1942. [65]
  266. Osterberg, Änne. Mehr als alles behüte dein Herz: Wie unsere Herzen und unser Land heilen, wenn uns die Wurzel wieder trägt. Germany: BoD – Books on Demand, 2021, p. 356.

    In Berlin wurde ein 'arabischer Club' als Zentrum der Palästina-Agitation und des arabischsprachigen Rundfunks etabliert. Eichmann, Baldur von Schirach, Abwehrchef Wilhelm Canaris und der Leiter des Orientreferats im Auswärtigen Amt, Werner Otto Hentig, erkundeten die Möglichkeiten, die Araber auf ihre Seite zu bekommen. Dabei bildete der Mufti die zentrale person.

    Während der deutsche Nationalsozialismus sich formte und an Einfluss gewann, entstand in arabischen Ländern die politische Ideologie des Islamismus. „Die Muslimbruderschaft wurde im Jahr 1928 von Hassan al-Banna in Ägypten gegründet ...
  267. Israeli, Raphael. The Death Camps of Croatia: Visions and Revisions, 1941-45. United Kingdom: Transaction Publishers, 2013, p. 120.
  268. Nordbruch, Götz. Nazism in Syria and Lebanon: The Ambivalence of the German Option, 1933–1945. United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis, 2009, p. 157ff42.
    Miqdādī also served as president of the Arab Club in Berlin, see Sh. Arslān, 'Une Soirée au Club Arabe de Berlin', La Nation Arabe, no. 18–19, 1938, p. 1005. For Miqdādī, who was of Palestinian origin...
  269. 269.0 269.1 Jones, Frederick Elwyn. The Attack from Within: The Modern Technique of Aggression. United Kingdom: Penguin Books, 1939, Chapter II, 'The Rome – Berlin Axis', pp. 36-37, 43-45.

    As was reported in the House of Commons in February 16, 1938, in Palestine, "Italian women were disguised as charity workers and nuns and they supplied Arabs with faked pictures of Jewish atrocities and told the Arabs that their poverty was due to British mis-management. Travelling cinema vans showed the Arabs faked pictures of Jews killing Arabs . . . The Italian broadcast from Bari was picked up in Palestine and interspersed in an attractive programme was a series of slogans like ‘Palestine belongs to the Arabs’, 'Kill the Jews’ ‘Let Palestine Arabs re-arm'."

    Similar activity, it was stated, took place in Syria...

    While synagogues have been burned in Germany a mosque has been built in the heart of Berlin, where Moslems may perform their devotions.

    That is a small item in the Nazi programme to capture the sympathies of the Arabs. Goebbel's Propaganda Ministry professes to have discovered a number of points common to the Nazi creed of the sword and the teachings of the.. Mohammed. Not only has a school been opened in Berlin , where Moslem students are given free education and board; it has been decided to "convert" 25,000 Nazis to Mohammedanism. They will be organised in a newly-formed Moslem association, Jamait-e'Muslimin, which already has an understanding with the Mufti, a leader of the Palestinian Arabs. It is intended that the 25,000 converts shall be sent to various Moslem countries as trade and political missionaries. Two centres have already been started for them in the Near East. The one in Cairo directs Nazi work in Egypt, Sudan, Palestine, and Transjordania. The other, in Bagdad, covers Iraq, Syria and Lebanon. Nazi agents are chiefly persons engaged in promoting German trade, teachers, bank clerks, and travellers. The chief forms of Nazi penetration are–subsidies to and blackmail of the vernacular Press, clubs, German classes, correspondence exchanges, and dissemination of propaganda and films.

    Since the 1937 visit to the Near East of the Hitler Youth Leader Baldur von Schirach, Nazi propaganda has intensified. Typical of the methods now used to influence the Arabs and undermine British prestige in the Near East is the founding of a club called "el Nadi el Arrabi" (the Arab Club) which is the nucleus of an elaborate Pan-Arab organisation with members in all parts of Europe and the Near East. This organisation gives practical assistance to terrorists in Palestine. Its European head-quarters are in a third floor office on the Kurfuerstendamm in Berlin. It carries on its work: "under cover of the Arab Club, ostensibly a 'cultural society' for the benefit of Arab students in Germany. The printed notepaper used bears the inscription in Arabic and German: 'Permanent Defence Committee for Palestine in Europe–Berlin headquarters'. "Like all similar organisations in Germany, the 'Permanent Defence Committee' is obliged to possess an official Government permit for its activities." This permit has not yet been received , but M. Abdul Mottalib, an Arab citizen from Bagdad, who is secretary of the Arab Club, informed me (the Daily Telegraph Correspondent) that he had little doubt that permission would be granted without difficulty, 'as we conduct the Committee as part of our club.'

    "The Arabs of Berlin, M. Mottalib Added, had net with nothing but sympathy and understanding at the hands of the Berlin authorities. "Under the auspices of the 'Defence Committee' all the Arabs in Europe are being mobilised with a view to collecting funds to aid the Arab cause in Palestine and to obtain support from European sources. Money, supplies and arms are being sent from Europe and the Near and Middle East to Palestine. Cash cannot be sent from Germany owning to strict currency regulations." [Report by the Daily Telegraph on October 29, 1938].

    Nazi propaganda is rife in Palestine itself. Typical are the posters (written in Arabic) with text reading: "The Jew will (sic) use every penny he earns from you to buy your soil," and the kites which are flown bearing the inscription (in Arabic) "Long Live Hitler". An Arabic edition of "Mein Kampf" appeared in 1939. It has a picture of Hitler on the cover, under the heading of "The Strongest Man in the World". Hitler has taken care to remove from this Arabic edition the passage in which he puts the Arabs on an inferior 'racial grade'.

    More than one Arabic newspaper has, in spite of the increased cost of newsprint, suddenly increased its number of pages and displayed German propaganda and pictures of ...
    ;

    Brian of London, Nazi Pallywood 1938 And Fake Italian Charity Workers, IC, Mar 5, 2012. E. Weatherwax, The Attack Within by Elwyn Jones – the parallels with Hitler and Islam(ism), and 1939 and 2012, (March 2012).

  270. The Indian Express, Oct 30, 1938, p. 5.
  271. נשף ערבי־נאצי בברלין — ha-Tsofeh (Tel Aviv - הצפה, 3 August 1938. [66].

    נשף ערבי־נאצי בברלין. לונדון(פאלקור‭—. (‬ ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬ סופרו הברלני של "דיילי טלגראף" מודיע כי בקלוב הערבי בברלין התקיים נשף ארצישראלי, שבו השתתפו מלבד העסקנים הערביים, השוהים עתה בברלין, גם כמה מראשי המפלגה הנאצית. בנאומיהם שנשאו בנשף דובר על הסולידאריות בין הגרמנים והערבים, המכוונה נגד היהודים ונגד אנגליה.

    Arab-Nazi ball in Berlin. London (Palcor.) The Berlin writer of the "Daily Telegraph" announces that a Palestine ball was held at the Arab club in Berlin, in which, in addition to the Arab activists, who are now staying in Berlin, some of the leaders of the Nazi party also participated. In their speeches at the ball, they spoke of the solidarity between the Germans and the Arabs, directed against the Jews and against England.
  272. Arab Jubilant At Hitler Talk. - Page 2 Spokane Daily Chronicle · ‎ Sep 13, 1938

    ARABS JUBILANT AT HITLER TALK. JERUSALEM Sept. 13. (AP)— Jubilant Arab reaction today to Adolf Hitler's references to Palestine foreshadowed increased resistance in this troubled British mandate. "Now we are not without friends in Europe," an Arab spokesman said. "Our ultimate success as a nation lies In the hands of Hitler and Mussolini and not in Britain and France."

    This was one response to Hitler's assertion at Nurnberg yesterday that "poor Arabs aro defenseless and left in the lurch."
  273. Statesman Journal from Salem, Oregon on September 16, 1938 - Page 1.

    Hitler and Mussolini were brought to the fore in Palestine following the fuehrer's Nurnberg speech last Tuesday in which he said Arabs in the Holy Land were "Defenseless and left in the lurch."

    Arabs greeted the statement Jubilantly, one spokesman declaring: "Now we are not without friends in Europe; our ultimate success as a nation lies in the hands of Hitler and Mussolini and not in Britain and France."
  274. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on October 10 1938 - Page 2.

    Arabs in the Holy Land were hailing Adolf Hitler of Germany and Premier Benito Mussolini of Italy as their "hope" in the Arab-Jewish dispute. The Italian premier and the German Fuehrer were brought into Palestine's troubled picture following Hitler's Nuremberg speech of September -12 in which he said Arabs-in the Holy Land were "defenseless and left in the lurch."

    Pin Hope to Hitler

    An Arab spokesman greeted Hitler's: statement with this declaration: "Now we are not without friends in Europe; our ultimate success as a nation lies in the hands of Hitler and Mussolini and not Britain and France."
  275. St. Petersburg Times - Sep 16, 1938.

    Arabs Hail Hitler As Liberator; In Spain Franco Is Worried London. –(AP)– A broad scale of British reinforcements to troubled Palestine was announced here yesterday simultaneous with reports that Egypt was taking defense precautions in North Africa… Although the officials declined to disclose the exact number of troops going to Palestine, it was estimated 8,000 men were involved in the transfer to the Holy Land where many Arabs are hailing Reichsfuehrer Hitler of Germany and Premier Benito Mussolini of Italy as their "hope" in the Arab-Jewish dispute... Arabs Look to Hitler

    Hitler and Mussolini were brought to the fore in Palestine following the fuehrer’s Nurnberg speech last Tuesday I which he said, Arabs in the Hoy Land were “defenseless and left in the lurch.”
  276. The Palestine Post, 16 September 1938 — Page 2. [67]. [68].

    FALASTIN DEFINES DICTATORSHIP PAPER DOUBTS HITLER'S SINCERE CONCERN Writing in its Tuesday's issue, Falastin devoted a leading article to the theory that Palestine was in the forefront of world affairs, and that the position in Palestine had become more grave in view of Herr Hitler's speech at Nuremberg. The paper expressed doubts as to whether the German Fuehrer was really and sincerely concerned with Arab rights or merely championed them in order to annoy the Democracies. The reference to Palestine in Herr Hitler's speech showed, the paper added, how parlous the situation here really was.

    'Falastin' then explained that a dictatorship was really a State which had freed [sic] itself of Jewish [sic] influence [sic], while democracies were countries which still bore that onus.
  277. The Advocate: America's Jewish Journal. Vol. 94. United States: n.p., 1938. 20.
    Falastin, commenting on Hitler's speech at Nuremburg, declared that a Dictatorship was really a state which had freed [sic] itself from Jewish [sic] influence [sic], while democracies countries which still bore that onus.
  278. The Australian Jewish News. 23 September 1938.

    HUNDRED PALESTINE ARABS SAIL FOR NAZI CONGRESS. JERUSALEM.

    A party of one hundred Arabs embarked for Germany today on the liner Galilee at Haifa, to attend the Nazi Party Congress at Nuremberg.
  279. GERMANY: Centre (sic) Of The World!, TIME.com, Monday, Sept. 12, 1938.
    Time. United States: Time Incorporated, 1938. p. 32.
    Announced as Adolf Hitler's "honor guests" this week in Nürnberg were 100 certified Jew-baiting Arabs brought especially from Palestine and Africa...
  280. Davar - דבר, 5 January 1947.
    [פאוזי כאן -- פאוזי שם...] "Fawzi here - Fawzi there..."

    ... In 1938, at the Nazi Party conference in Nuremberg, Hitler was greeted by an Arab delegation headed by an Arab, with a neatly trimmed beard, wearing a turban and very polite. It was, of course, Fawzi-bei Kaukaji, who found the Germans allies in his war against the English. And here the war broke out. Fawzi often travels between Rome and Berlin. His clear, incisive voice was heard from Bari.. broadcast stations. But in 1940 he appears again in Syria. He was seriously injured this time, during the bombing. His German friends, who took over Syria with the help of the Vichy people, made available to him a plane that they transferred to Germany for surgery.

    Fawzi is not a man who sits idly by. Together with other adventurers he participates in Rashid Ali's rebellion. And once again it is up to him to accumulate boundaries and break through loopholes. After many incarnations he came to Germany again and Hitler put the Iron Cross on him.
  281. The Montreal Gazette, ‎15 sept 1938.

    [Zion Arabs' Terrorists Extremes Alienate Kin in Adjacent Lands By Joseph M. Levy (Wireless to The New York Times and The Gazette) Jerusalem Sep 14...]

    Arabs In Zion Lose Neighbors' Backing. Reliable information just received by the writer from Syria, which is now the headquarters of the Palestine Arab rebellion, reveals that German and Italian money is subsidizing the Arab terrorism in Palestine. It now transpires that the amount of money received by the Palestine committee in Damascus for the support of the terroristic activities in the Holy Land would not cover one month's expenses, considering tho large scale of Arab terroris. All this is further proof that money from Germany and Italy is financing the Arab rebellion here. A circular letter signed by one rebel chief, Arif Abdul Razik, which is addressed lo British forces in Palestine and written in English with the intention of creating a mutiny among British troops, is another proof that there is the German hand behind all this terrorism.

    The letter has all the earmarks of Nazi influence. It is couched in familiar anti-Jewish Nazi propaganda, with striking similarity to phrases constantly seen in Der Stuermer: "It would be tragic for the British nation to lose its tradional friendship with the Arabs for the sake of the aggressive[sic] race[sic] of parasitic [sic. Arif Abdul Razik] Jews [sic].. inhuman[sic. Arif Abdul Razik:] creature... disase," reads one paragraph of this appeal. This circular letter, coupled with Hitler's Nuremberg reference to "defenceless Arabs in Palestine" has convinced British circles here of Germany's intention to keep up the Arab terrorism in Palestine and weaken Britain In Europe by forcing her to send troops here, thus reducing the number of British forces in Europe.

    One regiment, the Eighteenth Brigade arrived in Palestine from England today, and three more regiments are following shortly, which will bring the total number of British troops here to about 10,000.
    ARAB NATIONS LOSE ZEAL ON PALESTINE; Egypt, Iraq and Syria Realize Fallacy. of Harassing Britain at Present ITALO-GERMAN AID SEEN Subversive Letter to Troops Bears Out Suspicion of Support for Terrorists. [69]. By Joseph M. Levy, wireless To the New York Times. Sept. 15, 1938.
    While terrorism continues unabated here and greatly increased in the south of Palestine, interest in the Palestine Arabs on the part of Iraq, Egypt and Syria is rapidly diminishing...
  282. 282.0 282.1 Gunther, John. Inside Asia. United States: Harper & Brothers, 1939. 528. [70] [71].
  283. Bensoussan, Georges. Jews in Arab Countries: The Great Uprooting. United States: Indiana University Press, 2019. 313.
    The Reich multiplies its pamphlets and newspapers in Arabic, aimed at the 60,000 Muslim prisoners of war from the ... Nazi influence was such, that in July 1944 a Tunisian Francophile could still write: "cut open the heart of an Arab and you will find a little Hitler inside." ... "The sole man present in Germany"—this was the headline, under Hitler's portrait, in an Iraqi newspaper. Shop windows displayed his photo. This was the case in Jenin (in Palestine) in 1938 as well as in Baghdad in May 1941.
  284. Palestine Post, 21 October 1938.

    SPIRIT OF HITLER

    The 'Scotsman' in a leading article on the Palestine question, states: "No British Government can impose a scheme which would ultimately make it possible for the Arabs to massacre the Jews. Such a solution breathes the spirit of Hitler, not of England."
  285. The Australian Jewish News. 23 September 1938.

    HUNDRED PALESTINE ARABS SAIL FOR NAZI CONGRESS.

    JERUSALEM.

    A party of one hundred Arabs embarked for Germany today on the liner Galilee at Haifa, to attend the Nazi Party Congress at Nuremberg.
  286. GERMANY: Centre (sic) Of The World!, TIME.com, Monday, Sept. 12, 1938.
    Announced as Adolf Hitler's "honor guests" this week in Nürnberg were 100 certified Jew-baiting Arabs brought especially from Palestine and Africa...
  287. From eltaher.org the Oct 26, 1938 issue of Al Shabab (Youth) [72]: "الله ولي أهل فلسطين الذين لا هتلر لهم ولا أمّة لهم." "Allah is the guardian of the people of Palestine who have neither Hitler nor a nation for them."
  288. 288.0 288.1 "Matthias Küntzel: Islamic Antisemitism: How It Originated and Spread," July 3, 2018.

    Islamic antisemitism did not develop spontaneously but was invented and used as a means to an end. This process began about 80 years ago in the context of Arab attempts to stop the Zionist immigration to Palestine which considerably increased in the 1930s. The first text that propagated sheer Jew-hatred in an Islamic context by mixing selected anti-Jewish episodes of Mohammed’s life with the so-called wickedness [sic] of Jews in the 20th century was a 31-page brochure in the Arabic language with the title Islam and Jewry, published on August 18, 1937 in Cairo. In September 1937, this pamphlet achieved significance through its distribution at the “National Arab Congress” in Bludan, a health resort in Syria, 30 miles (50 kilometres) northwest of Damascus... While historians have still to answer important questions about Islam and Jewry and Bludan, the political context which facilitated the emergence of Islamic antisemitism is quite clear....

    The brochure itself culminates in the following call: “Do not tolerate the partition plan, for Palestine has been an Arab country for centuries and shall remain Arabic forever.”
    Küntzel, Matthias. Nazis, Islamic Antisemitism and the Middle East: The 1948 Arab War against Israel and the Aftershocks of World War II. United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis, 2023. [73].

    Islam and Judaism" This text, first published in Arabic on 18 August 1937 in Cairo, is the first full presentation of the construct of a direct connection between Muhammad's clashes with the Jews in Medina and the contemporary conflict in Palestine and of a link between the seventh and twentieth centuries. "A distinguished Arab [probably a reference to El-Husseini - M.K.] wrote this book about the profound hostility [sic] of the Jews to Islam and their actions.. " states the Foreword..   "Since his appointment as Mufti of Jerusalem in May 1921, the aim of El - Husseini's policy had been to turn the limited territorial conflict in Palestine into an unlimited religious life-death war. From 1922 to 1936, he concentrated his campaigning on the alleged to the Islamic holy places. With the aim of mobilizing the religious peasantry , who were little impressed by nationalist slogans, and focusing the attention of the world's Muslims on Jerusalem, he elevated the Temple Mount into the symbol of the anti-Zionist struggle and declared defense of the Al-Aqsa Mosque a religious duty. In early summer 1936, he sent agents to Egypt to win support for his cause there... The publication of Islam and Judaism in summer 1937 marks the beginning of the second stage of the process of turning the territorial conflict in Palestine into a religious war . What made it different from the previous efforts?...

    [The publication of Islam and Judaism was not inspired by the behavior of Palestine's Jews, but by the fact that summer 1937 saw the first attempt to get agreement on a two-state solution]... In the following years, Berlin took on the task of distributing Islam and Judaism. The Nazis' efforts to mobilize Arabs against Jews had shown them that Muslims did not understand and rejected their racial antisemitism... David Motadel refers to Islam and Judaism as "One of the most significant examples of this kind of religiously charged anti-Jewish propaganda among Muslims"  while historian Jeffrey Herf has characterized it as "one of the founding texts of the Islamist tradition , one that defined the religion of Islam as a source of hatred of the Jews."... The publisher of Islam and Judaism was Mohamad Ali al-Taher, Director of the Palestinian-Arab Information Office in Cairo. Al-Taher was a prominent journalist from Palestine who had lived for a long time in Cairo and was close to the Muslim Brotherhood. He attended the Jerusalem Islamic Conference in 1931 and was one of the better-known participants in the Bloudan event of 1937 where he joined Propaganda committee established there...

    But who was this "distinguished" Arab to whom authorship of Islam and Judaism is attributed? Although this secret was revealed neither in Cairo in August 1937 nor a month later in Bloudan, people in Berlin believed they knew who it was. In 1938, the Berlin-based publishing house, Junker and Dünnhaupt Verlag, published the whole pamphlet under the title Islam-Judentum. Aufruf des Großmufti an die islamische Welt im Jahre 1937 ("Islam-Judaism - Appeal of the Grand Mufti to the Islamic World in 1937") ...
  289. Warburg, Gustav Otto., Warburg, Gustav., Laski, Neville. Six Years of Hitler: The Jews Under the Nazi Regime. Germany: G.Allen & Unwin, 1939, (Chapter: Spreading the Poison), p. 279. Jones, Frederick Elwyn. The Attack from Within: The Modern Technique of Aggression. United Kingdom: Penguin Books, 1939, p.45.
  290. Y. Getz, "Shuk [Market] Shukeiri," ⁨⁨Ma'ariv⁩, 2 December 1966. [74]
    "Haj Amin fled from the British to Lebanon... Ahmad Shukeiri approached the German Consulate in Jerusalem... And as he told at the time... he was invited as a guest to Nuremberg at the ceremony of accepting the Nazi racial laws..."
  291. Terrible riots at German Jews, Hatzofeh, Nov 11, 1938.
  292. Kristallnacht | Holocaust Encyclopedia
  293. Foreign News: Best Seller, Time, Monday, Mar. 13, 1939.
    Adolf Hitler's Mein Kampf has earned its author an estimated $3,120,000 in royalties. Some $3,000,000 has come from Germany, where the volume is a "must" for every bookshelf, but there have also been respectable sales among Palestine Arabs...
  294. Steininger, R. (2018). Germany and the Middle East: From Kaiser Wilhelm II to Angela Merkel. Germany: Berghahn Books, p. 45.

    In 1938, two years after the Arabs first rose up against the British and Jews in Palestine, the self-proclaimed religious fighter Abu Durra, leader of the uprising movement in the northern district of Palestine, appealed directly to Adolf Hitler as the 'great leader of Germany, who created everlasting honour and glory for his nation', to inform him of the 'atrocities and cruelties' of the British military government. In a letter to Hitler dated 23 December 1938, he added: 'This unjust government perpetrated every barbarity and committed every cruelty. It blew up numerous villages, arrested thousands of peaceful residents and seriously abused them. It hanged men, robbed possessions, destroyed their houses and dwellings; it also tried to question their honour. Shame on this government and shame on their alleged justice and civilization!' Then Abu Durra wrote about the Jews: We will tell them what you, the leader of Germany, said about the Jews during a conflict: he, who in the midst of bullets and shells, takes the cigarette from his brother does not deserve to enjoy it at a time of peace. The Jew, who was stingy towards you with cigarettes during the war, can in no way be useful to Germany. I would not like to make you, great German leader, acquainted with the Jews. You know them and their history, and knew them even before we met them. Abu Durra ended by expressing the following wish: 'That you, who with one word makes Europe tremble, bring our cause to all of Europe'...

    Original and translation sent by Walter Döhle (Jerusalem) to AA. Palästina, Doc. 136.
  295. La Reforma [Al-Islah]. Santiago, 28 de agosto, 1938.
  296. Gerold Frank Is Dead at 91; Author of Celebrity Memoirs. By Dinitia Smith. New York Times. Sept. 19, 1998
  297. Frank, Gerold. The Deed. N.p.: Valmy Publishing, 2017. [75]

    For the next three and a half years—1936 until September, 1939, when World War II broke out—the Arabs were to loot, terrorize, shoot, rape, attack Jewish settlements and lay waste to farms. The Mufti of Jerusalem, encouraged by Axis successes in Abyssinia and Central Europe, had seized power among the Palestine Arabs. What began as a six-month strike against increased Jewish immigration turned into a guerrilla war in which Arab extremists did not hesitate to attack their own moderates and even the British. The British Administration, hoping to appease the Arabs, met this challenge half-heartedly. It became unsafe for Jews to venture outside the Jewish quarters of the cities, or to travel in the country without armed guard.

    Passing an Arab shop one might hear a record chanting in Arabic, "Slaughter the Jews!" Photographs of Hitler began to spring up in Arab barber shops and cafés, side by side with those of the Mufti. Youngsters in Arab villages marched about waving small swastika flags.
  298. Yeme ha-kalaniyot: Erets Yisrael bi-tekufat ha-Mandat by Segev, Tom. Keter, 1999 [Page 341: Hilda Wilson the teacher from Bir Zeit ...] Page 335:
    … Wilson foresaw: "But he was a Jew!" They protested. Wilson tried to divert the discussion to the question of who a great man is: he is a man who influences the spirits of his contemporaries, Wilson said. Most of the students, she wrote, mentioned Adolf Hitler at the top of every list.

    Segev, Tom. One Palestine, Complete: Jews and Arabs Under the British Mandate. United Kingdom: Picador, 2001, p.412. (More about author Camera, Tom Segev)

  299. 299.0 299.1 299.2 Arbel, Tuvi. The story of Muhammad Abu Sarari. Israel: Docostory, 2000. pp. 13, 19.

    From the events of '36 I have the memory of a child. So the gangs acted and terrorized the Jews. The one who organized them was Hassan Salame. The members of the gangs wanted to harm the Jews who bought agricultural goods from the West. They would lie in wait in the wadis and on the roads for Arab merchants who smuggled vegetables and fruits to the Tikva market. If they caught the smugglers, they would beat them, throw the goods at them, and the poor people returned home without the money and without the goods. The ones who benefited from all this were us children. We collected everything that was left in the field and brought it home. I still remember from that time, that every day at 9:30 someone would come with a bicycle and bring newspapers from Egypt. He would also come to Beit Dagon and sell newspapers. I was six years old, but I could not read. My brother would read and I would hear what was going on in the world, but I didn't always understand these politics. Although I didn't go to school, I was always curious and loved to learn. Among all the brothers, I was the closest to the father. He would take me everywhere, even to pray. I learned a lot from this, because I saw a lot. There were 50-100 people praying in the mosque. I remember the imam delivering sermons and praying for the victory of Abu-Ali. Abu Ali is Hitler. So that the British who ruled the country at the time, and who were Hitler's rivals, would not understand who he was talking about, the Arabs called Hitler: Abu-Ali. The Arabs were very afraid that they would be heard speaking adoringly of Hitler, in mosques and cafes, and accused of collaborating with the Germans. And indeed that is what happened to our imam. Shortly after his sermon in favor of Hitler, the British arrested him and imprisoned him without trial. In that period, incitement and attacks on the Jews began. The Mufti, Haj Amin Al Husseini, who was one of the leaders of the instigators against the Jews, was arrested by the British... I worked at this cafe for two years, and I only had two days off. During the war, the British prevented the Arabs in the country from listening to Berlin radio. When the British found out that they were hearing this radio, they would close the cafe for three months. But in the cafe where I worked, they heard Radio Berlin, and I, the little one, watched out for the British police. Hassan Abu-Havila, the owner of the cafe, asked me to sit outside, in the dark, to warn if the police were coming, who patrolled the street every evening.

    Two Arab policemen and an English policeman. (In the Jewish cities, two Jewish policemen and an English policeman used to walk.) The Arabs listened to Radio Berlin, because they thought that only he was telling the truth. They were sure that what the Americans were saying was a lie. Most of the Arabs in Israel were in favor of Nazi Germany. The Arabs also listened to Radio Turkey. There was no ban on this, even though Turkey was with the Germans. The policemen were wearing shoes with metal on the soles, so I could hear them coming from a distance...
    >(PS, Muhammad (Abu Talal) Abu Sarari [محمد (أبو طلال) أبو صراري] was born in Jaffa, later on was an 'activist in workers' committees and in the Committee for the Arabs of Jaffa..' From: "The story of Muhammad Abu Sarari - interview 1", 'Simania').
  300. Davar - דבר, 12 May 1939.

    מוסקבה על יחסי חג' אמין — נאצים מוסקבה, 11. ‭‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬ השלטונות הארצי-ישראליים מודאגים מטיסתו הפתאומית לברלין של דאוד אל־חוסייני, בן-דודו של המופתי. בחוגים יודעי דבר סבורים, כי דאוד חוסייני זה משמש כמקשר בין המופתי לשעבר והממשלה הגרמנית‭.‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬ בשנה האחרונה בלבד הוציאה גרמניה על תעמולה בין ערבים בארץ ישראל ‭60,000‬ לי"ש.‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬ Moscow on Relations Hajj Amin - Nazis Moscow, 11. The authorities in Israel [Palestine] are concerned about the sudden flight to Berlin of the Mufti's cousin. Knowledgeable circles believe that this Daoud Husseini serves as a liaison between the former Mufti and the German government.

    In the past year alone, Germany has spent 60,000 pounds on propaganda amongst the Arabs in Israel [Palestine].
  301. Parliamentary Debates: Official Report. United Kingdom: H.M. Stationery Office, 1938, p. 943. JEWISH CITIZENSHIP. HC Deb 12 April 1938 vol 334 cc943-8.
  302. 302.0 302.1 Melka, Robert Lewis. The Axis and the Arab Middle East, 1930-1945. United States: University of Minnesota., 1966. 62.
    Besides espousing a fanatic Pan-Arabism, the Futuwwa adopted a frankly totalitarian ideology, and, as though in recognition of kinship, in 1938 sent a delegation to a Hitler Youth rally in Berlin..
  303. Gunitsky, Seva. Aftershocks: Great Powers and Domestic Reforms in the Twentieth Century. United Kingdom: Princeton University Press, 2017. 132.
    Iraq's radical youth movement al-Futuwwa was explicitly based on the Hitler Jugend; in 1938 the movement sent a representative to the Nuremberg rally, and soon afterwards hosted the leader of the Hitler Youth.
  304. The Jewish community of ancient Babylonia - whose territory was part of what is now Iraq - Yad Vashem [76].
    May 30, 2022.
    In 1938 the Al-Futuwwa youth organization sent a delegate to the Nuremberg Nazi party rally, and in turn hosted the Hitler Youth leader Baldur von Schirach in Baghdad.
  305. 305.0 305.1 The Palestine Post, 13 July 1939. The "Settlement" in Palestine a Triumph for the 'Axis.'
  306. The Canadian Jewish Chronicle, Mar 31, 1939. (pp. 102-3). [77].

    To Baghdad Again. By Roman Slobodin (J.T.A. Staff Correspondent). EDITOR'S NOTE: Mr. Slobodin has made an intensive study of Nazi penetration in the Near East and his disclosures of espionage activities by German agents shed light on current developments in central and southeastern Europe and cast an ominous shadow of events to come...

    Jerusalem... new.. faces in cabarets in the Near and Middle East...have turned up in the night clubs of Cairo. A feminine regiment has captured the night life of Beirut, "Paris of the Middle East." The new girls are Nazi agents. Though of them pose Hungarians, they are all German. The most comely and clever among them have undergone an intensive course in propaganda and "information" -work at the schools for foreign agents directed by Propaganda Minister Goebbels. Their mission in the Levant is far from frivolous... Reputedly the center of German activities among the Arabs is the comfortable Arab club in Damascus. This institution, German-supported, has important Syrian officials among its members. There are many rumors about the secret "athletic training" that goes on in its gymnasium. A police raid at the home of a prominent member uncovered a little armory of eight rifles, twelve bayonets, four revolvers and plenty of ammunition. There could be slight doubt of the connection between this cache and Arab terrorism in neighboring Palestine. It was interesting to note that most Syrian newspapers ignored the raid. Members of the club had hurried to see the editors. The German influence over the press, and particularly the Arabic press, throughout the Levant, is notable development of past months. It has been achieved largely by Nazi "co-ordination" of the advertising German commercial interests. The mechanism was laid bare in Egypt. The German Government notified German firms advertising in the Egyptian press that henceforth their ads were to be placed through a certain Nazi official. The influence over the press, obtained through the totalitarianized spending of advertising money was quickly evident in the flood Nazi and anti-British propaganda, and the support of extremist politicos. The dealings with the press are a fair sample of the thorough systematization of German interests serve Nazi aims. Every German in the Levant is given his place, and registered at the Hamburg office for control of Germans abroad. According to reliable reports, every German must have official permission to anything which might affect his status or present future usefulness, such changing his residence or selling land which he owns. Those coming from Germany recently have had special training for their Nazi duties. Those living in the East before Hitler's advent who show special aptitude are called home to take the Hamburg training course. Agents for German products, travelling salesmen, newspaper men and students are among the most useful but bets overlooked. Anyone not fitting into the Nazi plan is summarily treated. The Syrian agent of a leading German drug house, a competent business man, was dismissed recently to be supplanted by a prominent opposition politician. There was some business justification, since the new agent might be expected to use the same rough-and-ready tactics for promoting sales that he did in politics. But this was only incidental. The real reason is fairly clear from the fact that with his help it will be possible to export German goods to Syria to be sold to pay for Nazi activities. This is a very popular device. It serves the double purpose of avoiding a drain on Germany's slender international exchange resources and making it impossible to trace cash remittances. That is one reason why it is very difficult to trace actual German financing of, for instance, terrorists in Palestine. Strengthening of the Nazi grip on the Arab nationalist movement is promoted by bringing Arab politicians to Germany. Hamburg now competes with Mecca as a goal for Arab pilgrimage. One of the recent visitors to the propaganda capital was Jamal Husseini, nephew and right-hand-man of Haj Amin el Husseini, former Mufti of Jerusalem, leader of the Arab revolt in Palestine, now self-exiled in the Lebanon. Jamal Effendi visited Hamburg for ten days and returned Beirut eminently satisfied with the results of his trip. VYING with Beirut and Damascus a centre of Nazi propaganda is Baghdad, 600 miles across the desert, capital of the independent Arab kingdom of Iraq. From the Baghdad headquarters of the Committee for Defense of the Palestine Arabs, Arab speakers are dispatched through the length and breadth of Arabia, reciting propaganda, manufactured in Hamburg, about British oppression and atrocities" in Palestine and Jewish designs against Arab holy places. From here, too, a flood of literature in Arabic is distributed. There is no room even for pretense that the expense of this campaign and the big cash contributions sent to the ex- Mufti, are raised among the populace Iraq. The country, about the size Italy, is largely desert, with a scattered population of 3,500,00 consisting almost entirely of peasants and nomad Bedouin so poor they are barely able to keep themselves alive of times. Yet this waste land has suddenly blossomed with gold for the Palestine revolt. The truth was half- revealed through the maladroitness the Baghdad headquarters in issuing two announcements, one of the amount raised in Iraq, a few score dollars, and the other of the amount forwarded to the Mufti, several thousand. By an unfortunate juxtaposition, these two items appeared simultaneously in different columns on the same page of an Arabic newspaper. German propagandists hi Iraq have been more successful in getting next to the Government than in Hamburg.. German propagandists in Iraq have been more successful in getting next to the Government than in Syria. In the French-mandated country, the Government is officially opposed to the Nazi-sponsored policies, and the German agents work principally, though not entirely, with the powerful and lively opposition. But King Ghazi's administration has on occasion condoned and even espoused Nazi efforts. A striking example is the broadcasting by the powerful Baghdad Government radio of the "news" of the official German News Agency (Deutches Nazhrichten Euro). The Baghdad station was built with British money. Yet night after night it fills the ether over all Arabia with blood-curdling tales about British atrocities in Palestine that make George Creel's World War propaganda pamphlets read like bedtime stories for children. A by-product of this Nazi achievement is that the 90,000 Jews in Iraq are in an extremely unhappy position, have already begun to feel the hand of persecution and. if events continue along their present course, the guarantees of minority rights in the Anglo-Iraq treaty recognizing the country's independence may be expected to go the way of similar pledges in Europe, and the 2,000-year-old Jewish community will be in imminent peril of a pogrom. An apparent apathy of Great Britain is one of the anomolies of the situation, here as elsewhere in the East Iraq was formerly under British Mandate. Its army was trained by British officers and equipped with British arms. The British-controlled Iraq Petroleum Company dominates the Mosul oil fields. The Royal Air Force has the reputation of being the behind-the-scenes boss of the country would seem to be easy enough for Britain to squelch at least blatant Nazi campaigning ...

    For the Nazi plans, Palestine is pivotal point, and the German organization, after long and careful preparation, is now operating sensationally there.
  307. (Biographer Ya'qub Al-'Awdat). Al-'Awdat 1971, p. 32.
  308. Wulf, Stefan. Jerusalem-Aleppo-Konstantinopel: der Hamburger Tropenmediziner Peter Mühlens im Osmanischen Reich am Vorabend und zu Beginn des Ersten Weltkriegs. Germany: Lit, 2005, p. 22. [78].
    "daß Canaan 1939 von den Engländern wegen Propaganda für Hitler-Deutschland verhaftet worden sei."
  309. Goodrick-Clarke, Nicholas. Hitler's Priestess: Savitri Devi, the Hindu-Aryan Myth, and Neo-Nazism. New York: University Press, 1998. p. 174
    Hitler had enjoyed quite a following among the nationalist youth of Egypt during the war, after Nassiri Nasser, the later president's brother, had published an Arab edition of Mein Kampf in 1939...
  310. Patterson, David. A Genealogy of Evil: Anti-Semitism from Nazism to Islamic Jihad. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 2010. p. 104.
    The first Arabic-language edition of portions of Mein Kampf was published in Egypt in 1939 by Nassiri Nasser, the brother of Gamal Abdul Nasser who admired Hitler as the strongest man in Europe.
  311. Arab "mein Kampf," Shipped from Egypt, Put on Sale in Palestine, JTA, January 26, 1939.
    A large shipment of Hitler’s "Mein Kampf" in Arab translation arrived here from Egypt today and were immediately put on sale at one shilling (25 cents) each. The Egyptian firm that published the translation was reportedly financed by the Nazi Propaganda Ministry.
  312. Davar - דבר, 19 February 1939.

    [קאהיר מרכז לתעמולה נאצית בכל המזרח תעמלנים וחומר-הסתה נשלחים מקאהיר לארץ-ישראל, לסוריה, לסעודיה ולעיראק—. ארגון צבאי של הגרמנים בקאהיר‭—. עתוני לונדון מרבים לספר בשבועות האחרונים על הגברת פעולותיהם של הפאישיסטים הגרמניים והאיטלקיים במזרח הקרוב והתיכון, ובארץ ישראל בפרט. העתונים מסתמכים על עובדות ומעשים. המרכז הראשי לתעמולה הנאצית בכל המזרח הקרוב — כותב "דיילי האראלד" בגליון מ־3 בפברואר — הוא בקאהיר. למעלה. מ־3000 לירות לחודש! מוציא המרכז הזה לצרכי תעמולה במצרים בלבד.] Cairo the center for Nazi propaganda throughout the East Agitators and incendiary material are sent from Cairo to [Mandatory Palestine] Eretz-Israel, Syria, Saudi Arabia and Iraq. Military organization of the Germans in Cairo—. Franco's emissaries in Syria.

    In recent weeks, the London newspapers have often reported on the increased activities of the German and Italian fascists in the Near and Middle East, and in [Mandatory Palestine] Eretz-Israel in particular. The newspapers rely on facts and deeds. The main center of Nazi propaganda in the entire Near East - writes the "Daily Herald" in the issue of February 3 - is in Cairo. Over 3000 lira per month! is being spent by this center for propaganda purposes in Egypt alone...
  313. 'Al Jihad' Fanning The Flames Advising Great Britain. The Palestine Post, 27 March 1939.

    By proclaiming that the Jewish National Home had now been completed with the absorption of the maximum number of immigrants, Great Britain could solve the Palestime problem with one stroke of the pen, according fo the Jaffa Al Jihad (Holy War). But as the London Conferences were defeated through the will of the Zionist [sic] criminals[sic], the article goes on , it is clear that two factors made for its failure : Zionist influence on British M.P.s and Jewish threats against Great Britain. The article then states that the German News-Agency had published two documents[sic] showing Jewish[sic] influence[sic] at work, the first being a letter showing that Lord Harlech, when Colonial Secretary, had allowed the country to be swamped[sic] with Jewish immigrants, and the second containing statements by Dr. Weizman and Mr. Ben-Gurion (described as the liars), who said that they womld be ready at any moment to reach agreement with the Arabs in order to throw off British authority. The Arabs would be ready to take the Devil's own cooperation to reach independence, but they did not wish to give up British rule for Zionist domination. Yet, notwithstanding the foregoing, the paper finds fresh hope in the reported continuation of the Anglo-Arab negotiations in Egypt, where the atmosphere is cleaner[sic] than in London and there is no Zionist influence[sic].

    Falastin thinks that the British Government's intention in postponing the publication of its Palestine policy was to fan still further the hatred between both sections of the population so that Great Britain might remain in power.
  314. Kabahā, M., Caspi, D. (2011). The Palestinian Arab In/outsiders: Media and Conflict in Israel. United Kingdom: Vallentine Mitchell, pp. 58-59.

    The Palestinian Press During the Second World War.

    When the Palestinian revolt subsided and ended in the early months of the Second World War, which broke out in early September 1939, all activities of the Palestinian National Movement and its various Palestine branches were suspended. One reason was the absence of the senior leadership, whose members were either under arrest or in forced exile (by the British) or had joined Mufti Haj Amin in his wanderings among Baghdad , Rome and Berlin. Another reason was the developing economic reliance of the Palestinian bourgeoisie on the British market: the financial circumstances of significant parts of the bourgeoisie depended on their engagement in supplying the needs of the British army and its war efforts in the East, leading to compromising and conciliatory views towards Britain and its allies. Those who refused to compromise felt the wrath of the British censor: the authorities often used newsprint quotas and restrictions of other technical services in order to punish newspapers voicing criticism and to reward more compromising news-papers (interview with Fawzi al-Shanti, Jerusalem, 5 June 1995). During the Second World War eighteen new newspapers appeared, of them three dailies, six weeklies, six monthlies and three that appeared erratically (Mawsou'a 1994, Volume 4 , pp.448-9). Two of the most prominent, al-Muntada, 'Discussion Forum', and Huna al-Quds, 'Here is Jerusalem', were published by British authorities, with the aim of influencing Palestinian public opinion in favour of Britain and its allies. These two newspapers were virtually the only available sources of information on the fighting on the different fronts, even for other newspapers, although the news they presented was probably censored and edited at the discretion of the authorities. Two other newspapers, al-Ittihad and al-Ghad, 'The Tomorrow', were leftist-oriented and expressed the increasing influence of popular elements and labour unions which began to assemble at the time, challenging the senior political leadership, many of whose members were absent...
  315. Arabic Studies, (1991), Vol. 27, Iss. 9-12, p. 130.

    الى جانب هذه الاجهزة الدعائية المتخصصة في شؤون الشرق ، اقامت حكومة الرايخ محطة اذاعة باللغة العربية في جوار برلين كذلك اصدرت مجلة « بريد الشرق » التي كانت تصدر كل اسبوعين في حين زودت جريدة النهار « البيروتية ، بادارة للاخبار وتجهيزات..

    In addition to these propaganda agencies specialized in the affairs of the East, the Reich government set up an Arabic radio station in the vicinity of Berlin. It also published the "Barid al Sharq" magazine, which was published every two weeks, while providing the "Al-Nahar" newspaper, "Al-Beirutiyah", with news management and equipment.
  316. Wien, Peter. Arab Nationalism: The Politics of History and Culture in the Modern Middle East. United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis, 2017, 252.
    Von Leers also published articles in Barid al-Sharq.
  317. Le Maroc et l'Allemagne: actes de la première rencontre universitaire : études sur les rapports humains, culturels et économiques. Morocco: Editions arabo-africaines, 1991.

    Al-Jaheer is a monthly magazine published by the Arabic section of Radio Berlin. It was addressed to the same readers of the "Barid al-Sharq" who had to be persuaded to be hostile to the Anglo-Saxons, the Communists and the Jews. On the other hand, the magazine seeks to bring the sympathy of these readers towards Germany, which is intended to be shown as a great power advocating Islam and Muslims. In this context, it is possible[sic] to understand that picture decorated for the back cover of double issues 5-6 of the magazine (December 1942), which shows the Mufti of Jerusalem...

    الجهير مجلة شهرية يصدرها القسم العربي بإذاعة برلين كانت موجهة لنفس قراء « بريد الشرق » الواجب إقناعهم بمعاداة الانكلوساكسونيين والشيوعيين واليهود . وبالمقابل ، تسعى المجلة إلى جلب تعاطف هؤلاء القراء نحو ألمانيا المراد إظهارها كقوة عظمى مناصرة للإسلام والمسلمين في هذا الإطار يمكن فهم تلك الصورة - المزينة لظهر غلاف العدد المزدوج 5 - 6 من المجلة ( دجنبر 1942) والتي تبين مفتي القدس...

  318. Alexander, Edward. The State of the Jews : A Critical Appraisal. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction, 2012. 73.
    -Alexander, Edward. The State of the Jews: A Critical Appraisal. United Kingdom: Routledge, 2017. 73.
    -Edward Alexander, "Exploring Nazi-Palestinian Arab collaborations," JHV, May 08, 2008.
    Lebel suggests that the relations between the Arab and Nazi leaders were based on something more than a quid pro quo, i.e., Arab help in the Nazi war effort in exchange for Nazi help in the struggle against the Jews and British. the Jews and British. They also shared certain values, if bloodthirstiness and all-consuming Jew-hatred can be called "values."
  319. 319.0 319.1 דבר, 24 מאי 1933 " ה'אנטישמיות' הערבית". Davar, May 24, 1933. [79].

    Arab 'anti-Semitism.'

    We knew quite well, that the official leaders of the Arabs of the country and their journalists hate "Zahion" [sic] and the Jewish settlement in Israel in general. The causes and reasons are known. They are not in any case showing hostility towards the Zionists and the Jews in Israel, they would repeat and emphasize that they are free from hatred of the Jewish-people, from anti-Semitism. On the contrary, they would boast at every opportunity of their rights, related to the love of the Jewish-people in the past, and as if their hatred in the present did not apply to the Jewish community, the events in Germany came and revealed the true face of this Semites. Three daily newspapers in [Eretz-Yisrael] Palestine, which reflect the opinions of Arab leaders and the active political class: 'Falastin' - فلسطين, 'Al-Jami'a al-Arabiyya' - الجامعة العربية and 'Al-jamā'ah al-islāmīyah' - الجماعة الإسلامية. To begin with, there was a difference in the attitude of these newspapers towards the persecution of the Jews in Germany. 'Falastin' wrote several times against the persecutions, although in a very lukewarm tone, the two Muslim newspapers drowned from the first moment any small comment about opposition to the persecution of a people — in case they did not forget to attach such a comment — in a flood of harsh words, slander and justification of the persecution of the Jews. And the next day, 'Falastin' also followed them. The crown of Arab anti-Semitism in the events of Germany goes without a doubt to the Mufti newspaper: 'Al-Jami'a al-Arabiyya.' This newspaper supported Hitlerism in the past, because fascist nationalism is its ideal. It always repeated the slogan: we support Hitler and only one thing will violate our joy. With his victory, his rule will increase the flow of Jewish immigration to Israel. And here Hitler came to power, terrible persecutions took place against the Jews of Germany, and 'Al-Jami'a' immediately sided with the Nazis to protect them from the "false [sic] Jewish" propaganda. Almost every day, original and translated articles appear in this newspaper fighting the news about "so-called persecutions", (الاضطهاد .) All the world's newspapers and German government laws are false, and only a denial of the Nazis' are credible to the editor of 'Al Jamiah'. Several times he claimed in main articles from the government on the "insult" of the German consuls in Jerusalem and Jaffa at the hands of the Jews, and "establishes" in connection with this the inferiority of the Jewish race in the Holocaust to the Germans. And it was not enough to pit the Arabs against the Jews, but he began to pit the Jews against the Germans in Palestine. In the issue of May 16, he writes in this vein: There has been a German diaspora in Palestine for decades.... And in his speech about the Jews in Germany he writes (ibid.) "The Nazis rose up against the German Jews, who spread..." And the editor of 'Islamiya' writes simply (on May 22): "When Hitlerism appeared, the Arabs cheered and rejoiced, saying: A blow from heaven in the hands of others." … Well, the 600 thousand Jews in Germany are the 600 thousand ancestors of German communism! Is it just ignorance here? And are there any ignorance here at all? But between 'Al-Jami'a' and 'Islamiyah' there is a difference of opinion on one point: according to the former, Hitler caused a loss to Palestine by increasing the aspiration and immigration to the land, whereas the latter account of the owner of 'Islamia' is of great win to all "seekers of justice: "First of all, the strongest Jewish community in Europe must be torn to pieces, and in any case, Jewry in general is weakened. Second, there is no doubt that Hitler's ideas will also spread to other countries, according to the "Law of the Spread of Contagious Diseases," and Jewry will be destroyed there as well. And third, now the end will come to the rule of England and France in the world. Italy has already risen and Germany is now standing beside it. Well, looting of systems, a new equilibrium, and here is a convenient opportunity for "those seeking justice." The main "demander of justice" of "Islamia" removed all veils here: his ambition - the destruction of Jewry. Of course, 'Falastin' needs no lesson in anti-Semitism and hatred of the Jews from its Muslim friends. It stands on the 'height' of place and time. All the conspiracies and lies that the anti-Semites in the world have concocted from time to time in relation to the Jews are chewed up every day in this newspaper and are presented to the reader with the addition of a well-known "Palestinian spice". The newspaper tries to publish any news that contains any "denouncing" of Hitler's opponents, and concludes (May 4): "We did not doubt it at all, since the Jewish newspapers began to widely spread their abundant lies [sic] about the persecution of Jews in Germany, because they are false [sic] in their information, and criminals in their signature on the German people, who gave modern culture so much philosophical science and art." Of the small Arab newspapers, 'Mir'at Al-Sharq مرﺁة الشرق - ' was the only one, which expressed human sorrow for the persecution of the Jews in Germany, but demanded a price for this expression: renouncing the Balfour Declaration! For anyone who knows the heads of the strata in the Arab camp, there is no surprise in the 'anti-Semitic' revelation of the Arab newspapers. We know it..! However, what is interesting about this whole phenomenon is that in the same pages where these Muslim Arabs are standing alongside Hitler, who declares to the world that his plan is to place the Jewish community, which has lived in Germany no less than during the days of Islam on earth, outside of any civil law — in those pages, the Arabs of the country are literally "scream bloody murder" on persecution of their brothers in North Africa! And those Muslim Arabs, who see themselves as being persecuted in several places, have no desire to listen to the moans of other persecuted people. We have known satisfied and complacent nations that out of kindness are deaf to the suffering of weak and persecuted nations and communities. But even in such times there is no such uniform chorus, of those who rejoice in persecutions, who rejoice in profligacy, insolence and rudeness, as the chorus of the Arab oppressors. It's nothing but the political hatred for Zionism caused the logic of these journalists to go crazy! On the one hand, France and Italy claim that they respect every religion in general and Islam in particular, and all the rumors about the persecution of Muslims in Tripoli, Barqah, Tunis and Morocco are false; On the other hand, Hitler claims that the expropriation of the Jews from German life is a fundamental clause of a new plan. And how do the Arab-Muslims want to be believed if they deny France, Italy and Hitler together? The persecuted of France and Italy — they are persecuted on the verge of denial by these governments, while the persecuted of Hitler — who he, his government and his aides confirm the persecutions every day in speeches, laws and deeds — are not persecuted?! What is this logic? Here the real value of the fugitive talks about justice, about war against imperialism and the like like Husseini, Farooqui and El Issa stands out. They shout at the oppressor, as long as they do not have the strength to oppress. And from here there is only one and only conclusion regarding Eretz Yisrael: the Arab leaders are already Hitlerites in idea, and woe and woe to the Jewish community in Israel if they are given power. The 'anti-Semitic disclosure' regarding the events in Germany should be used as a political document for us in any political negotiations about the regime in Israel. This is for the outside.

    And on the inside: have the owners of the "spiritual center" and those who are complacent with a Jewish minority in Israel learned a lesson from the events in Germany and the reaction of the Arab leaders in Israel?
  320. 320.0 320.1 Zmanim. (1998). Israel: Zemorah, Bitan, Modan. p. 2.
    In February 1932 the newspaper Falastin published an extensive article about Adolf Hitler; The thrilled writer enthusiastically and admiringly described the personality of Hitler, whom he called one of the greats of the New World or the "Iron Man of Germany."
  321. Kabahā, Muṣṭafá. The Palestinian Press as Shaper of Public Opinion 1929-39: Writing Up a Storm. United Kingdom: Vallentine Mitchell, 2007. p.142.

    Filastin expressed appreciation for Nazi leader Adolf Hitler and compared him to Palestinian leaders, saying: Hitler, who has proven himself a remarkable [sic] leader striving to redeem his people, did not rely on personal or family influence or on social, scientific and economic status.

    He based his acts on the sincerity of his mission, while in Palestine the leaders are corrupt, liars, robbers, servants of the Mandate government, who prefer this government to the homeland and to the future of its sons.
  322. 322.0 322.1 The Palestine Post, May 22, 1933.
    "Noble Hitler" — Says "Falastin"

    "Falastin" considers the Jews to be quite in the wrong in their criticism of anti-Jewish acts in Germany. Hitler is [sic[ Innocent and Noble, strong and beloved by his people and has succeeded in saving [sic] his country from the vile (sic) Jews."

    The Elders of Zion are also dragged into Falastin's article . They rule the world and do not like Hitler and are doing all they can to overthrow him, writes the Jaffa paper
  323. 323.0 323.1 Haggai Erlich, The Middle East Between the World Wars," vol.2; vol.5, Open University of Israel, 2002, p.81.

    ...But Falastin also reflected the overall view of fascism as a national and organizational prescription, for example the writer the physician and communist (and who was close to the 'Husseini' camp) Khalil al-Budeiri in Falastin, January 5, 1936: It is very easy to explain our youth's sympathy for the fascist idea. All the news passed on to us about this movement illustrates it as a new human revival that promises hope and prosperity. We, too, who are at the beginning of our national revival, should strive to achieve similar goals and communicate with the movements that aspire to them, this and more, adolescence tends to admire power and heroism ... No comprehensive research has yet been conducted on the mood of the Palestinians, but the journalism of the time (the same study by the historian Dr. Mustafa Kabha) shows a great deal of admiration for the power and solidity of Nazi Germany's achievements. May 14, 1933 The first months of the reign of the German dictator and exclaimed: "Will an Arab Hitler appear among us to awaken, unite and lead us to lead us to fight and defend our rights?" Al-Difa's newspaper had long published translated excerpts from Hitler's Mein Kampf's book. He kept a regular correspondent in Berlin who persisted in sending sympathetic articles about the achievements of the Nazi regime. The paper's editor, Ibrahim al-Shanti, called on Arab youth (in an article from June 1, 1934) to "learn from Hitler's actions and imitate them in order to achieve similar national achievements." The Jaffa-based Falastin, which criticized Mussolini, supported Hitler, as did almost all the other newspapers... The first page of the Jaffa-based Falastin issue dated April 29, 1939. The headline announces "Hitler's historic speech," in which he rejects the Roosevelt letter, the cancellation of the naval agreement with Britain and the cancellation of the nonaggression pact on Poland. In the center of the page, around the image of the brazened face of the Nazi ruler.. the body of the report, the subtitle summarizes other parts of Hitler's speech...

    This speech of Hitler was accepted by many in the world as an act of a madman who consciously degenerates humanity into the abyss. In this way, for example, even the leader of the "Young Egypt", Ahmed Hussein, responded to these words, but the Jaffa-based 'Falastin' does not hide its sympathy. The title he chose is a quote from the Fuhrer "I have built in peaceful [ways] what others have destroyed by force."
  324. Michael J Cohen, "Britain's Moment in Palestine: Retrospect and Perspectives, 1917-1948," Taylor & Francis, 2014, p. 398
  325. Gunther, John. Inside Asia. United States: Harper & Brothers, 1939. 558
  326. The Jewish Record, Oct 22, 1937. (p. 2).

    The Al Capone Of Palestine. At Bay, closely guarded by 200 "shoot-to-kill" Arabs, in the.. mosque of Omar, the St. Peters of... Moslems, built on the site of King Solomon's temple hides the man, who for sixteen years has defied the British Government and flourished the torch of "holy war" to set the world of Islam aflame...

    To measure the extend of his ambitions and the power he has sought, you must imagine concentrated in him the aim to be a Hitler, a Mussolini, a Caliph, ruler of Islam — with the mentality and methods of an Al Capone. That and no less.
  327. The Living Age ... ,(Littell, Son and Company, 1937), vol. 353, p. 304-5; In the Troubled Mediterranean. Italy Woos the Arabs, by Andre Palert. The Living Age, December 1, 1937, pp. 304-305.
    Italy Woos The Arabs

    By ANDRÉ PALERT Translated from Marianne, Paris Liberal Weekly. PREMIER MUSSOLINI'S attempts

    to influence the Arab world against Britain, really date back a decade...
  328. Howard Morley Sachar, "Europe Leaves the Middle East, 1936-1954," (Allen Lane, 1974), p. 50.
    Similar accounts were published in October, 1938, by the respected French weekly Marianne. André Palert, the paper's special correspondent in Jerusalem, interviewed the Mufti at the latter's office in the Haram al-Sharif and was informed that Italian arms and funds were reaching the Holy Land, although in limited...
  329. ⁨⁨Der Tog⁩ - ⁨דער טאג⁩⁩, ⁨ 6 November 1937⁩. [80] [81].

    Arabs demand money and arms from Hitler and Mussolini

    Fugitive Arab leaders send intelligence to Rome and Berlin. - Two English soldiers killed in Jerusalem. - Head of Arab village near Haifa seriously injured. High commissioner cancels trip to Israel.

    Jerusalem, Nov. 5 (Palcor). - The Palestinian Arab leaders, who fled to the neighboring countries, have chosen delegates who will travel to Rome and Berlin, with the aim of gaining support from Mussolini and Hitler in their fight against the English and the Zionists - this was reported in local Arab circles.

    It is further reported that the Arab emissaries, apart from money, are also looking to get weapons for the Arab terrorist gangs in the Land of Israel.

    Last night, individual shootings took place in different parts of the country. A mukhtar (chief) of an Arab village in Haifa was seriously wounded by a bullet fired at him by an Arab terrorist.

    In Beit She'an, terrorists shot at the house of a local Arab leader. No one was found...

    אראבער פארלאנגען געלט און געווער פון היטלער און מוסאליני

    אנטלאפענע אראבישע פיהרער שיקען פארשטעהער קײן רױם און בערלין. — צװײ ענגלישע סאלדאטען דער'הרג'עט אין ירושלים. — הױפט פון אראבישען דארף לעבן חיפה ערנסט פארוואונדעט.—האי-קאמישאנער לײגט אפ רײזע קײן ארץ-ישראל.

    ירושלים, נאװ. 5 (פאלקאר). — די פאלעסטינער אראבישע פיהרער, װעלכע זײנען אנטלאפען פוז דאנען אין די שכנות'דינע לענדער, האבען אויסגעקליבען דעלעגאטען װאס װעלען אינגיכען אפפארען קיין רױם און בערלין, מיט'ן צװעק צו קריגען שטיצע ביי מוסאליני'ן און היטלער'ן פאך זייער קאמף געגען די ענגלענדערי און די ציוניסטען — איז דא תיעט באריכטעט געװארען אין היגע אראבישע קרייזען.

    עס װערט װייטער באריכטעט, אז די אראבישע שליחים װילען, אחוץ געלט, אויך זוכען צו באקומען געװעהר פאר די אראבישע טעראריסטישע באנדעס אין ארץ-ישראל.

    נעכטען ביינאכט זיינען פארגעקומען איינצעלנע שיסערייען אין פארשדענע טיילען פון לאנד. א מוכטאר (הויפט) פון אן אראבישען דארף לעבען חיפה איז ערנסט פארװאונדעט געװארען פון א קויל, װאס אן אראבישער טעראריסט האט אוף איהם געפייערט.

    אין בית־שאן האבען טעראריסטען אויסגעשאסען אויף דעם הױז פון א דארטיגען אראב'ישען פירער. קיינער איז ניט געטראפען געװארן...

  330. Jeff Jacoby (@Jeff_Jacoby) Tweeted (12 May, 2019)
    In 1938, the French journal Marianne reported that Arabs in Palestine were enthusiastically pro-Nazi: “At Nablus, the Arab population [gives] shouts of ‘Heil Hitler’.… the Arab journals Falastin & Al Difa’a … reproduce large portraits of various leaders of the Third Reich.
  331. Richard Mather, Hitler's war against Jews continues in 'Palestine', JPost, March 16, 2015.
    In 1929, Husseini distributed pamphlets saying: “O Arabs, do not forget that the Jew is your worst enemy and has been the enemy of your forefathers.” He also announced that the Jews had “violated the honour of Islam.” This led to a pogrom in Jerusalem and a massacre in Hebron, where 60 Jews were killed and the town ethnically cleansed. The British attributed the attacks to "racial animosity on the part of the Arabs."
  332. The Quarterly Review. United Kingdom: John Murray, 1938, p. 208-9; "Friends of Europe" Publications. United Kingdom: Friends of Europe., 1938, pp. 25-6.

    THE NAZI INTERNATIONAL. THE NEAR AND MIDDLE EAST.

    In the Near and Middle East propaganda has been rife since 1934, when legal proceedings were taken by a Jew of Cairo against the local German Society for publishing a pamphlet in defence of Hitler's persecution of the Jews, which contained the usual anti-Semitic slanders. The case was lost on the technical ground that the prosecutor was not personally libelled, and an impetus was immediately given to further agitation, which was extended to Egyptian circles.

    In April 1935, fifty German agents were sent to Africa and the Near East, and a letter was addressed by the Ministry of Propaganda on May 16, 1935, to the Reich Minister of Foreign Affairs, thanking him for his help in regard to colonial propaganda and stating: 'Our agents have received instructions and orders for the task and we have informed our consular representatives at Haifa, Jaffa, Algiers, Agadir and Rabat. We have also informed our agents (Vertrauensleute) and influential natives. We, too, are of the absolute opinion that success can only be achieved if the most intense propaganda effort is concentrated on the natives.

    In Cairo and Alexandria the methods employed are the distribution of libellous leaflets, appeals — in both Arabic and German — to boycott Jewish firms, inflammatory articles in obscure papers, and street demonstrations.

    In the autumn of 1937 Herr Baldur von Shirach, head of the Hitler Youth, and Herr von Berk, editor of the 'Angriff' (the organ of Dr Goebbels), both made a tour of the Near East, and news of a plan for intensifying the boycott of Jewish firms in Egypt was first published in the German and Austrian press.

    That Germany has played a part in assisting the Arab revolt in Palestine and is exploiting both Pan-Islamism and anti - Zionism is by no means only a rumour. The Jerusalem police intercepted documents in 1936 proving that the Arab leaders received 50,000£ from Germany and 20,000£ from Italy for the purpose of strengthening their resistance. According to the Palestine Post,' 'the editor of the extremist Arab daily "Ad-Difaa" visited Cairo to meet a "prominent German personage" and returned suddenly to expand its pages and greatly extend its news and pictorial services.' The swastika has appeared in Arab leaflets and German rifles have been captured more than once from Arab terrorists.

    In Damascus there is a club called El Nadi el Arrabi' (The Arab Club), which is generally known to be maintained from German sources.
  333. [Philip J. Noel-Baker M.P. House of Commons, May 22nd, 1939] Parliamentary Debates (Hansard).: House of Commons official report, Vol. 347. Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons. H.M. Stationery Office, 1938. Contains the 4th session of the 28th Parliament through the session of the Parliament., pp. 2045-6 Palestine 22 May 1939.
    • Hearings, United States. Congress. House. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1943, pp. 456-7
    • The Jewish National Home in Palestine: Hearings Before the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, Seventy-eighth Congress, Second Session, on H. Res. 418 and H. Res. 419, Resolutions Relative to the Jewish National Home in Palestine. February 8, 9, 15, and 16, 1944, Volume 1.United States. Congress. House. Committee on Foreign Affairs. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1944, pp. 456-7 [82].
  334. "POWER POLITICS: Semitic Friends," Times, Monday, July 03, 1939.
    In Germany hand-picked Arabs are invited as honor guests to the Nazi Party's annual Congress at Nürnberg, where they usually hear Nazi orators bait the Jews. Both Nazi and Fascist newspapers, moreover, rarely miss a chance to fight the battle of the Arab in Palestine and Syria. Last week they found some choice items to report...
  335. The Palestine Post, 3 September 1939 — HITLER IN ARABIC FROM BERLIN
  336. Hajj Amin al-Husayni: The Mufti of Jerusalem Holocaust Encyclopedia
  337. Dalin, David. Icon of Evil: Hitler's Mufti and the Rise of Radical Islam, (Taylor & Francis, 2017), chapter 6.
    'From his youth, al-Husseini believed in the credibility of these accusation of... ritual murder.'
  338. 338.0 338.1 Axis Radio Stations Intensify Anti-jewish Broadcasts to Arabs in Palestine. Syria, JTA, January 21, 1942.

    Paving the way for a possible attack on Turkey and for an invasion through Turkey into Syria and Palestine, both Germany and Italy today loosed a barrage of anti-Jewish propaganda in Arabic from their broadcasting stations in Zeesen, Athens and Bari. The Axis broadcasts were all directed to the Arabs in Syria and Palestine. They alleged that England intends to incorporate Syria in a Jewish State and to provide preferential treatment for Jewish traders both in Syria and in Palestine. The Athens station went so far as to revive the Damascus blood libel of 1840 in order "to prove the criminal tendencies of the Jews and their love for bloodshed." Announcing that today’s broadcast “is the first of a series on Jewish criminal activities,” the Athens radio station went into great details concerning the notorious Damascus Affair and stated that some of the Arab leaders in Palestine who support England in the present war are descendants of the Jewish families who were involved in the Damascus case. It warned the Arabs in Palestine and Syria not to permit themselves to be influenced by these "Moslem converts who aim to enslave the Arab people."

    The belief was expressed here today that the new note of anti-Jewish incitement in the Axis broadcasts to the Arabs is a result of a wide propaganda program for the Arab world now prepared by the Jerusalem ex-Mufti in Berlin. Further intensification of anti-Jewish talks to the Arabs from German and Italian radio stations is expected. It is thought that some of these talks may be delivered by the ex-Mufti himself, it was said here today. The Germans believe, it was asserted, that the voice of the ex-Mufti over the radio will greatly impress the Arabs in Palestine, Syria and Transjordan where listening to Axis broadcasts is not prohibited.
  339. Shaw Pyle, Markham. Fools, Drunks, and the United States: August 12 1941. N.p.: Bapton Literary Trust No 1, 2011. 72.
    The blood libel had hardly been heard of in America in 1941, certainly among Gentiles. It is only recently that newer immigrants have brought that evil belief to America, immigrants whose embrace of the blood libel descends from Hitler's engagement, and contrariwise, with the Jew-hating Grand Mufti of Jerusalem from 1921–1948, the Nazi ally Mohammad Amin al-Husayni, der Großmufti. In America in 1941, only a few Gentiles, most of them scholars, and the Jews, had heard of the ancient canard: for that wicked slander to have taken root, too few manure-shoveling Central European peasants of the stock whence Hitler, had come to America.
  340. Israeli, Raphael. Poison: modern manifestations of a blood libel. United Kingdom: Lexington Books, 2002. 170.
    Of course, who would dare reprimand the representative of Saudi Arabia? Even if he is found to have been the secretary of the Jerusalem Mufti, Haj Amin al-Husseini, who had collaborated with the Nazis during the war?
  341. Mufti, Declaring Jews Have No Rights of Access to Wailing Wall, Admits Himself Believer in Protocols, JTA, December 4, 1929. [83].

    The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, that hoary old anti-Semitic document, once the basis of Henry Ford's attacks on Jews, was brought into the hearings of the Palestine riots when the Grand Mufti, whose evidence was heard here yesterday at a private sitting of the Inquiry Commission in his own house, admitted that he was a confirmed believer in the Protocols.

    William Stoker, Arab counsel, seemed surprised when Sir Boyd Merriman declared that the Protocols had long since been exposed by the "London Times" as a forgery... The Mufti himself seemed to be unaware that the Palestine Government had prohibited the circulation of the Protocols.
  342. Brog, David. Reclaiming Israel's History: Roots, Rights, and the Struggle for Peace. United States: Simon & Schuster, 2017. [84].

    THE RIOTS OF 1920 AND 1921

    On March 7, 1920, the Syrian Arab Congress declared Syrian independence under the reign of King Feisal. Less than a month later, on April 4, tens of thousands of Arabs streamed into Jerusalem for the annual Nebi Musa festival. This religious celebration provided a perfect opportunity for Palestine's Arab nationalists to send a strong message to their British overlords.

    They took to the streets carrying photos of King Feisal and demanding that the British cede Palestine cede Palestine—which they called "Southern Syria"—to the new monarch.

    When the procession reached Jerusalem's Arab Club, a number of nationalist leaders appeared on the balcony to address the crowd below. Speaker after speaker demanded independence and unity with Syria.

    They also called for violence against the Jews. Observers recalled hearing the crowd chant," Slaughter the Jews," "We will drink the blood of the Jews," and “Palestine is our land, the Jews are our dogs." In Arabic, this last phrase forms a rhyming couplet. 

    Thus incited, Arabs wielding knives, clubs, and stones burst into the Jewish quarter. They ransacked Jewish homes and looted Jewish stores. They raided synagogues and yeshivas and ripped up Torah scrolls. And they attacked any Jews they found. 

    By the time the riots finally ended several days later, 5 Jews had been killed and 211 had been wounded. Many of the female victims had been raped.

    The British police quickly concluded that a young nationalist leader (and future Mufti), Amin al-Husseini, was responsible for the violence. A court found Husseini guilty of inciting the riots and sentenced him to ten years in prison. He evaded jail by fleeing to Damascus.

    A year later, on May 1, 1921, Palestine's Arabs launched another round of violence against their Jewish neighbors. This time the Arabs of Jaffa went on the attack. Author... describes what followed: 

    "Arab men broke into Jewish buildings and murdered the occupants; women came afterward and looted. Bearing clubs, knives, swords, and in some cases pistols, Arabs attacked Jewish pedestrians and destroyed Jewish homes and stores. They beat and killed Jews, children included, in their homes; in some cases they split the victims' skulls open."

    The attacks quickly spread from Jaffa to neighboring villages and beyond.

    On the morning of May 5, two to three thousand Arab villagers and Bedouin attacked the Jewish town of Petach Tikvah. This time, however, the British intervened. British infantry, aided by armored cars and air support, turned back the Arab assault.

    Two more attacks followed the next day. Several thousand Arabs from Ramle attacked the neighboring Jewish town of Rehovot, shouting, "Slaughter the Jews." Rehovot's residents successfully repelled the offensive. Further north, hundreds of Arabs from Tulkarem and its surrounding villages attacked the Jewish town of Hadera. Here the British intervened with infantry and air power to rout the invaders.

    By the time the British had quelled the 1921 riots, 47 Jews had been killed and another 146 had been wounded.
  343. Jewish Encyclopedia Daat - Riots 1929. פרעות תרפ"ט.

    Riots 1929, in which many Jews were killed throughout the country. Content: The origin of the massacre in Hebron, Har Tov, Kibbutz Hulda. Riots 1929 Riots raged by the Arabs among the Jews, in 1929, in which many Jews were killed throughout the country. After a week of incitement, the Arabs began organized riots in Jerusalem on Friday, August 23, 1929. Crowds of Arabs who came to pray on the Temple Mount burst in the direction of Jewish Jerusalem, hitting knives and clubs with every Jew who happened to be on their way and destroying the shops. The villages near Jerusalem took an active part in the riots; The village of Deir Yassin, which dominated the western neighborhoods of the city and was close to the Givat Shaul neighborhood, played a key role. The neighborhoods in the south of the city were also attacked by the Arabs of the area - Kibbutz Ramat Rachel was completely destroyed after its residents were abandoned and part of the Talpiot neighborhood was destroyed, including the house of the writer S. Agnon. . Origin At the exit near Jerusalem, about 30 Arabs from the nearby Arab village (Colonia) attacked the extreme house in the neighborhood, the Maklef family home, one of the neighborhood's founders. In a few moments, the members of the Maklef family and two guests who were at home were slaughtered with knives, together seven people. The women were abused before the murder, they were raped and then murdered. After the murder and looting set the house on fire. One son, Mordechai, survived (later became IDF Chief of Staff). Among the killers was the shepherd of the Maklef family as well as the Arab policeman who was the only one to use a firearm. After completing the massacre at a peeling house, the killers moved into the home of Broza, also one of the neighborhood's founders. The Broza family barricaded themselves in their home and the Arab attackers were unable to break in, so they turned to nearby houses. Two hours after the murder, three police cars arrived at the scene and took most of the locals to Jerusalem, and the houses of the colony were robbed by the Arab neighbors. The massacre in Hebron But the worst of all happened in Hebron; The Jews lived in Hebron for hundreds of years and lived in peace with their Arab neighbors. But all this did not prevent the Arabs from storming the houses of the Jews on Saturday morning, August 24, 1929, and killing anyone who happened to be in their way. The murder was brutal and the abuse of women was horrible. Out of a settlement of 600 Jews, 67 men, women and children were murdered in cold blood that morning and many dozens were injured. Told an eyewitness: The rioters attacked the Jewish baker and burned his head in the fire of Primus, who set him on fire, and when they saw that he was still alive, his intestines were beaten with daggers ... She begged the murderers to kill her and when they "felt sorry for her" they rattled her stomach and burned her intestines. (Book of Hebron, page 418) A memorandum sent by the Hebron Refugee Committee to the High Commissioner states, among other things: That day all the Jews were expelled from Hebron, and returned to the city only 40 years later, after the Six Day War. (Some of the Jews returned after the riots of 1929, but were expelled from there in 1936). In Tel Aviv and Haifa, too, the Arabs rioted against the Jews (13 people were killed in both places), but the more difficult problem was in the small and isolated localities, far from large centers. Har-Tov, 130 people, was attacked by local Arabs. All the residents were fortified in one of the houses with 5 rifles in their possession. Each time the rioters approached the house, rifle fire was opened on them and they retreated. One of the settlers dressed up as an Arab and in the evening managed to get to the train station and call for help. Meanwhile, the rioters raided the farm and the settlers' houses and looted everything nearby (cows, horses, grain, furniture and more). Towards midnight, soldiers arrived at the scene in two armored cars, and a number of shots were fired by the rioters. All the residents were transferred by train to Tel Aviv and the small settlement was completely destroyed by the Arabs. A fate similar to that of Har Tov befell both the nearby village of Uriah and the small settlement of Beer Tuvia in the south of the country. Kibbutz Hulda On the evening of August 26, the agricultural farm that was later Kibbutz Hulda was attacked by thousands of Arabs from the area. After a heavy battle, in which the commander of the place, Ephraim Chizik, was killed, a military force arrived at night and evacuated the residents of the kibbutz. The Arab rioters looted everything nearby, and then set the kibbutz on fire. Safed Disruptions did not pass over the north of the country, and many localities were attacked, but the most severe happened to the Jews of Safed. Nearly 3,000 Jews lived in Safed and lived on good terms with their Arab neighbors (about 10,000 in number). Indeed, there was silence in Safed, while disturbances raged throughout the country. However, on the fifth day of the riots, when the police and the army seemed to be in control of the situation, there was a bloodbath in Safed. On Thursday afternoon, August 29, 1929, Arab rioters broke into the Jewish Quarter, stabbing and killing Jews mercilessly. The rioters set fire to a fuel depot and the fire soon spread to all parts of the Jewish Quarter. Within half an hour, 18 people were killed, most of them women and the elderly, and 80 were injured and treated at Hadassah Hospital. The defense organization showed utter incompetence, and only police intervention prevented a greater disaster. In the evening, 10 army cars arrived and by order of the governor, the soldiers gathered the city's Jews into the government yard. The Jews stayed in the government yard for two days and watched as their houses caught fire. On the second night, the Arabs also attacked the government yard and two Jews were killed in the shootings, one of them a boy who was wounded and later died of his wounds. On Saturday morning, the refugees left the government yard and returned to the plundered and destroyed Jewish quarter, and only on Sunday did material aid arrive from Tiberias and Haifa. "There is no doubt that a small and organized defense force could have prevented the disaster. However, that force was not present." (History of the Haganah, II, p. 339) The small Jewish settlement in Ein Zeitim, near Safed, was also attacked. 3 Jews were killed and the rest fled to Safed. Documentation of disturbances according to the newspapers of the period, in the book "The Attack" by Israel Amikam.

    Source of the entry: Prof. Yehuda Lapidot
  344. Erel Segal, When Ra'ed Salah writes poetry, Mida, 11/22/2014.

    On August 24, 1929, dozens of Arabs broke into the home of the pharmacist Gershon Ben Zion in Hebron. Even though for years Ben Zion provided free treatment and medicine to hundreds of Arabs and even though he was not a Zionist it did not help him. Ben Zion was brutally murdered. Not before the bloodthirsty rioters, some of them perhaps even the ones Ben Zion was taking care of, gouged out his eyes. The rioters did not spare the members of his household. They raped and murdered his daughter and wife. Thousands of rioters raided the homes of the Jews and carried out a campaign of robbery, rape and murder unparalleled in its horrors. The blood washed the alleys of Hebron. The sights were shocking in their cruelty. Mutilated bodies, children who were burned alive, babies whose heads were smashed against walls, women who were raped and dismembered, and hundreds of amputees.

    The British watched in horror and did not lift a finger. The cry was the same cry, "Allah Akbar".
  345. 345.0 345.1 Edy Cohen, The Arab Mein Kampf, News1, Feb 16, 2014.

    "Islam and the Jews" - the Mufti's essay - The hatred [sic] of the Jews towards the [sic] Arabs and Islam is ancient, which has taken root in the souls of the Jews since the beginning of Muhammad, the blessing of Allah... in the call to Islam. Enmity between the two peoples Haj Amin al-Husseini: "Some people may also think that if the Palestinian problem is solved in a way that satisfies the Arabs, and the Jews leave the Arab lands, then there will be no more reason for hostility between the two peoples - the Islamic Arab and the Jew. This is a misconception." From 1937, a small Arabic booklet called "Islam and Judaism" began to appear in the Middle East, written by the Mufti Haj Amin al-Husseini. As noted in "The Nazi Palestine," the pamphlet appeared without mentioning a company name. A year later, the Muslim Brotherhood in Cairo published an identical pamphlet stating that it had been written by a cleric and a great sage from Palestine. The pamphlet was translated into German and Croatian during World War II and distributed to the Bosnian Muslim SS soldiers - the SS Division. The 13th mountain "Handschar".

    This is a clearly anti-Semitic racist booklet, full of anti-Jewish expressions - the Arab Mein-Kampf. Mufti Amin al-Husseini presents the Jews in this pamphlet as [sic] enemies of Islam, as an irreparable race and as responsible not only for the killing of the Prophet Muhammad, but for all the troubles that befell the Muslims from the beginning of Islam to the present day.
  346. The Palestine Post, 12 September 1937. Page 4.

    Bludan Congress Against Partition Ahmed Shukeiri of Acre. The Mufti's Message Palestine Arabic have newspapers published the full text of the Mufti of Jerusalem's lengthy message to the Bludan Congress, in which he portrayed the danger to Arab countries of the Zionist-Jewish movement, which he described as a European Crusade against Islam, and declared that the Arab people would rise and fight world Jewry... Lebanese Attitude According to the Beirut correspondent of "Al Islamia," a rift has arisen between the Lebanese Premier and the Minister of Interior over the latter's desire, following a visit by Mouin el Maadi , the Mufti of Jerusalem's to envoy, to secure Lebanese Government support for the Palestine Arab question. L'Orient , of Beirut , regarded as the unofficial organ of the Lebanese Government , has indicated in a leading article that there can be no other attitude than that of friendly relations with the population of Palestine , no matter whether they were Arabs or Jews. Lebanon's best policy was one of complete neutrality, it was affirmed. "Nothing advantageous would have emer