Robert Mugabe (February 21, 1924 – September 6, 2019) was the repressive dictator of Zimbabwe from December 31, 1987, to November 21, 2017. Zimbabwe was previously a British colony, Southern Rhodesia, and a short-lived Republic, known as Rhodesia, before Mugabe took control. He violently oppressed anyone who opposed his government. He cracked down on dissidents and violently seized farms – seizures that led to much of the land becoming desolate as those who took the land knew about guns, not farming. A black nationalist, he eventually established one-party rule in his country, becoming Executive President of Zimbabwe in 1987 with his Marxist "Zimbabwe African National Union Patriotic Front" (ZANU-PF). He killed at least 20,000 people in western Zimbabwe.
In his 37 years in power, he went from the poster boy for the "New Africa", ruled by educated, democratic leaders, to the bottom of the heap. Under his rule, the health and well-being of his people have dropped dramatically, with his arbitrary arrests and torture of anyone considered to be an opponent. According to the World Health Organization, Zimbabwe has the world's shortest life expectancy – 37 years for men and 34 for women. It also had the greatest percentage of orphans, about 25%, according to UNICEF, and the worst annual inflation rate. Mugabe last won a "free" election in 2002 but "won" only after having his leading opponent arrested for treason. Mugabe attempted to oust Morgan Tsvangirai from the political scene in 2008, however, he failed and Mugabe lost to Tsvangirai, but refused to step down. The Zimbabwe parliament forced Mugabe to accept Tsvangirai as his Prime Minister, a post Mugabe previously removed. Mugabe died on September 6, 2019.
Rise to Power
Mugabe came to power after being one of the rebel leaders who fought against Rhodesia's white government. The various rebel groups, although not necessarily ZANU, were given training, arms and political support by China, the Soviet Union, East Germany, North Korea, Mozambique, Tanzania, Cuba, Libya, Ethiopia and the Communist Party of Great Britain. The UK and the UN did nothing, as Ian Smith, the Rhodesian government leader, had done absolutely nothing to endear himself to the world. Indeed, when faced with the prospect of having to grant equal rights and representation to the country's black citizens, he had responded by unilaterally declaring independence from Great Britain. Eventually, the British did step in and negotiated the Lancaster House agreement, which brought full democracy to Zimbabwe. Mugabe won the subsequent election – which was free and fair – by some margin, thus beginning his rule over the country. In 1987, Mugabe became Zimbabwe's first president after a governmental reorganization that created the position and gave it expanded powers.
Similar to many dictators Robert Mugabe has a personality cult. Nearly every major city and village in Zimbabwe contains a Mugabe road. Many Schools that had distinctly western names were changed to Robert Mugabe Academy or similar variations.
Military coup and resignation
In November 2017, Mugabe resigned, being forced out of office in a military coup, and he was replaced by his former vice president Emmerson Mnangagwa, whose record is about as tyrannical as Mugabe's.
Although nominally Marxist, Mugabe's policies are best described as the policies of extreme self-interest, where everything and anything goes as long as it serves to preserve his grip on power. The democratic process has been reduced to a farce by ballot stuffing and voter intimidation, his redistribution of land from farmers to his cronies and supporters has resulted in disastrously low harvest, and his refusal to accept aid, advice or criticism from outside have led to a cholera epidemic and an annual inflation rate of approximately 516,000,000,000,000,000,000%. Violence and fear have become ingrained into everyday life in the country, and all who oppose him are tarred with the tag of subversives and dealt with in brutal fashion.
- Date of Birth: 21/02/1924
- Place of Birth: Kutama Mission, Zvimba
- Country of Residence: Zimbabwe
- Nationality: Zimbabwean
- Father's Name: Gabriel Mugabe
- Mother's Name: Bona Shonhiwa
- Spouse's Name: Grace Marufu
- Marriage Date: 00/08/1996
- Children: 2 sons, 1 daughter
- School: Kutuma Mission School
- Son of a village carpenter
- Trained as a teacher in a Roman Catholic mission.
- Bachelor of Arts University of Fort Hare Education 1951
- Bachelor of Science University of London - UOL Economics
- Master of Science University of South Africa Economics
- Bachelor of Law University of South Africa
- Master of Laws University of South Africa
- Bachelor of Administration University of South Africa
- Bachelor of Education University of South Africa
- "The only white man you can trust is a dead white man."
- "We are no longer going to ask for the land, but we are going to take it without negotiating."
- Dzirutwe, MacDonald (September 6, 2019). Mugabe's legacy: thousands killed in 'rain that washes away the chaff'. Reuters. Retrieved September 6, 2019.
- Stevis-Gridneff, Matina (November 22, 2017). Mugabe’s Reign Ushered In Zimbabwe’s Economic Decline. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved September 6, 2019.
- Mutsaka, Farai; Anna, Cara (September 5, 2019). A look at the shattered Zimbabwe that Mugabe left behind. Associated Press. Retrieved September 6, 2019.
- McManus, John F. (September 13, 2019). Mugabe’s Legacy: Ruination of a Once Prosperous and Peaceful Land. The New American. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
- Kent, Simon (September 6, 2019). Ex-Zimbabwe Dictator Robert Mugabe Dead at 95. Breitbart News. Retrieved September 6, 2019.
- Wonacott, Peter; Steinhauser, Gabriele (September 6, 2019). Robert Mugabe, Former Zimbabwean Strongman, Dies at 95. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved September 6, 2019.
- Mutsaka, Farai; Torchia, Christopher (September 6, 2019). Mugabe: Overthrew white minority rule, then turned autocrat. Associated Press. Retrieved September 6, 2019.
- Newman, Alex (September 6, 2019). Fake News Media: Marxist Mass-Murderer Mugabe Was “Liberator”. The New American. Retrieved September 6, 2019.
- Multiple references:
- Suarez Sang, Lucia I. (November 21, 2017). Zimbabwe's Mugabe resigns ending decades-long dictatorship. Fox News. Retrieved November 24, 2017.
- Hayward, John (November 21, 2017). Mugabe Resigns After Zimbabwean Parliament Begins Impeachment. Breitbart News. Retrieved November 24, 2017.
- Celebrations in Harare After Mugabe Resigns. Voice of America. November 21, 2017. Retrieved November 24, 2017.
- Dzirutwe, MacDonald (November 20, 2017). Zimbabwe's Mugabe resigns, ending four decades of rule. Reuters. Retrieved November 24, 2017.
- Zimbabwe's Robert Mugabe resigns, ending 37-year rule. BBC. November 21, 2017. Retrieved November 24, 2017.
- Hayward, John (November 24, 2017). Emmerson Mnangagwa Could Be Interim President or New Tyrant for Zimbabwe. Breitbart News. Retrieved November 24, 2017.