China disputed territories
The Peoples Republic of China lays claim to almost all of the South China Sea bordered by the Philippines, Vietnam, Malaysia, Brunei, and Taiwan. Beijing has sought to bolster its claims in the strategic waterways by building artificial islands in the area and building military outposts on them. In one and half years, between 2013 and 2014 under Xi’s rule, the PRC created more than 3,200 acres of territory.
In relation to Taiwan, the regime views the self-ruled island as part of its territory and has vowed to bring Taiwan under its fold with force if necessary. CCP academics openly teach students the regime could bribe Taiwanese politicians, ban trade and tourism from China, convince the few remaining countries that recognize Taiwan diplomatically to switch to the PRC, block Taiwan's participation in international organizations and meetings, and assassinate some Taiwanese to instill fear among the population.
During the opening ceremonies of the 2020 Tokyo Summer Olympic Games, NBC Sports broadcasting network did not represent Taiwan or the South China Sea as part of the PRC on a map as the People's Republic of China athletes were being introduced. The Chinese Consulate General in New York said in a statement that NBC “hurt the dignity and emotions of the Chinese people. We urge NBC to recognize the serious nature of this problem and take measures to correct the error." The official state funded media organ Global Times called it a "dirty political trick."
East Turkestan (Xinjiang)
- Main article: East Turkestan
The main inhabitants of East Turkestan are the Uighurs among other Turkic peoples such as Kazakhs, Kirghiz, Uzbek and Tatars. East Turkestan was an independent country until the year 1949, when it was invaded by the Communist Chinese. From the years 1951-1959, there were over 14 major armed rebellions against the Chinese occupation. The largest armed rebellion took place in Khotan from December 28-31, 1954.
Natural population growth in Xinjiang has declined dramatically; growth rates fell by 84 percent in the two largest Uyghur prefectures between 2015 and 2018, and declined further in several minority regions in 2019. For 2020, one Uyghur region set an unprecedented near-zero birth rate target: a mere 1.05 per mille, compared to 19.66 per mille in 2018. This was intended to be achieved through “family planning work.”
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (XUAR) government documents bluntly mandate that birth control violations are punishable by extrajudicial internment in “training” camps. This confirms evidence such violations were the most common reason for internment (Journal of Political Risk, February 2020).
XUAR documents from 2019 reveal plans for a campaign of mass female sterilization in rural Uyghur regions, targeting 14 and 34 percent of all married women of childbearing age in two Uyghur counties that year. This project targeted all of southern Xinjiang, and continued in 2020 with increased funding. This campaign likely aims to sterilize rural minority women with three or more children, as well as some with two children—equivalent to at least 20 percent of all childbearing-age women. Budget figures indicate that this project had sufficient funding for performing hundreds of thousands of tubal ligation sterilization procedures in 2019 and 2020, with at least one region receiving additional central government funding. In 2018, a Uyghur prefecture openly set a goal of leading its rural populations to accept widespread sterilization surgery.
By 2019, XAUR planned to subject at least 80 percent of women of childbearing age in the rural southern four minority prefectures to intrusive birth prevention surgeries (IUDs or sterilizations), with actual shares likely being much higher. In 2018, 80 percent of all net added IUD placements in China (calculated as placements minus removals) were performed in Xinjiang, despite the fact that the region only makes up 1.8 percent of the PRC’s population.
Shares of women aged 18 to 49 who were either widowed or in menopause have more than doubled since the onset of the internment campaign in one particular Uyghur region. These are potential proxy indicators for unnatural deaths (possibly of interned husbands), and/or of injections given in internment that can cause temporary or permanent loss of menstrual cycles.
Between 2015 and 2018, about 860,000 ethnic Han residents left Xinjiang, while up to 2 million new residents were added to Xinjiang’s Han majority regions. Also, population growth rates in a Uyghur region where Han constitute the majority were nearly 8 times higher than in the surrounding rural Uyghur regions (in 2018). These figures raise concerns that Beijing is doubling down on a policy of Han settler colonialism.
These findings provide the strongest evidence yet that Beijing’s policies in Xinjiang meet one of the genocide criteria cited in the U.N. Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, namely that of Section D of Article II: “imposing measures intended to prevent births within the [targeted] group” (United Nations, December 9, 1948).
Xinjiang's largest concentration camp is twice the size of Vatican City. As of 2021, Xinjiang had over 300 concentration camps, or 206 million square feet with enough capacity to incarcerate seven times the prison population in the United States.
- Main article: Hong Kong Independence Movement
Hong Kong was guaranteed its democratic sovereignty in a peace arrangement between the United Kingdom in 1997, and Macau was handed over by Portugal in 1999. In 2020, the CCP violated and abolished the international peace agreement guarantying Hong Kong's democratic sovereignty, and brought the formerly free people under control of the oppressive socialist and communist slave system.
The Hong Kong branch of the Chinese Communist Party was founded in 1947 as the Xinhua News Agency Hong Kong Branch. Although the party has ruled Hong Kong since 1997, it remains technically illegal, or "underground." This status, unique among the world's ruling parties, allows the CCP to evade local laws that require political parties to disclose financing and to provide a membership list. In 2000, the name of the branch was changed to "Liaison Office of the Central People's Government." It is headquartered in a tower in the city's Sai Ying Pun district. In 2003, the office was reorganized as a "second government" parallel and equal in status to the "local government" in Admiralty. Since 2012, Sai Ying Pun has been the dominant partner in the Hong Kong government. The Liaison Office is headed by a director, currently Luo Huining. Luo is a member of the national party's central committee. The office has extensive and undisclosed property holdings through Newman Investment, a subsidiary. The office reports to the Hong Kong and Macau Affairs Office, an agency of the Beijing government. This agency is currently headed by Xia Baolong, also a central committee member.
The Sino-British Joint Declaration of 1984 provides that Hong Kong will enjoy a "high degree of autonomy except for foreign and defence affairs" under a "one country, two systems" approach. This approach was to last for fifty years, from 1997 to 2047. China promised that it would hold a direct election for chief executive by 2017. In August 2014, the Chinese parliament announced that Hong Kong voters would choose a chief executive from two or three candidates nominated by a committee. This announcement triggered mass pro-democracy protests in Hong Kong in the form of the Umbrella Movement. The protests failed to the stop the selection of Carrie Lam as chief executive in 2017. In 2017, a spokesman for the Chinese Foreign Ministry announced that the joint declaration was no longer valid.
In 2019 the Hong Kong government proposed a bill to extradite suspects who were wanted on the mainland. Unlike Hong Kong courts, mainland courts do not provide suspects with due process or other legal protections. A series of the enormous protests were held in Hong Kong and the bill was withdrawn on October 23, 2019. Parties that supported the pro-democracy protesters swept the District Council elections that were held in November.
- See also: Ladakh
The India-Tibet border has not been agreed upon and has been in dispute since 1962.
In June 2020 troops from the Peoples Liberation Army (PLA) and India clashed in the Galwan Valley. The battle was fought with rocks, batons, and barbed wire-wrapped clubs. A 1996 agreement banned the use of guns and explosives along the disputed line of control. India reported 20 of their soldiers were killed, whereas the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) did not report any of its deaths. Indian media and the Russian news agency TASS reported that as many as 45 PLA soldiers may have been killed. Over the following 12 months the PLA increased its troop strength along the border from 15,000 to 50,000 by July 2021, and moved advanced surface-to-air missiles including its HQ-9 system, which is similar to Russia’s S-300 and America’s Patriot missile.
- Main article: Tibet
Resistance to the Chinese occupation started to take on organized forms as early as 1952, reached massive proportions in 1959, and has continued, primarily underground, ever since. Tibetans inside Tibet have no basic human rights. Particularly, nuns and monks are being denied the right to practice their religion freely. People are forced to denounce their spiritual leader, His Holiness the Dalai Lama. Even carrying a photo of the Dalai Lama is prohibited.
The Dalai Lama was made Tibetan head of state in 1950, the same year that China invaded and occupied Tibet. CNN reports the Chinese find it "unacceptable when they see the Dalai Lama treated as a VIP, or even akin to a head of state."
After the Dalai Lama met with Barack Obama in February, 2010 he was unceremoniously escorted through a side door that trash is regularly carried out for a photo op with awaiting cameras.
On Secretary of State Hillary Clinton's first official visit to China, the Secretary told Chinese leaders the Obama administration considered human rights concerns secondary to economic survival and asked the CCP leaders for help financing President Obama's massive $787 economic stimulus plan by buying US Treasury securities.
Often portrayed as a religious leader by Western media, the Dalai Lama was made Tibetan head of state in 1950, the same year that Communist China committed an act of aggression against Tibet.
Southern Mongolia (Inner Mongolia)
- Main article: Southern Mongolian Independence Movement
The Southern Mongolian Independence Movement (also known as the Inner Mongolian Independence Movement) is a movement for the independence of Inner Mongolia from China. Some in the movement also advocate for a merger with Mongolia.
Southern Mongolia (formally the Southern Mongolian Human Rights Information Center or SMHRIC) has been a Member of UNPO (Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization) since 2007. UNPO supports the endeavors of the SMHRIC through advocating for its cause and raising awareness of the PRC’s discriminatory policies within the region in the European Union (EU) and United Nations (UN). SMHRIC’s main goal is to establish a democratic structure in Southern Mongolia through gathering and distributing facts and information regarding the ongoing human rights violations within Southern Mongolia. SMHRIC also aims to educate the Mongolian population about human rights and democracy. SMHRIC runs the Southern Mongolian Human Rights Information Center at www.shhric.org with regular updates on the struggles of the Mongolian people living in the PRC.
According to the UNPO website, the history of Southern Mongolia within China is marked with perpetual injustice and indignity. Starting from its annexation by the PRC in 1949 Southern Mongolia has undergone a series of political purges, ethnic cleansing, cultural assimilation, economic marginalization, and environmental destruction. It has not simply a case of the people being denied their basic right to self-determination, but also of a people who have been subject to perpetual systematic persecution, a denial of basic human rights, dignities and cultural heritage. The state apparatus in China has been implementing hostile policies that directly and adversely affect the Mongolian pastoralist way of life, while also causing immeasurable damage to the environment. Within the last few years, the consequences of these policies whose aim is to extract minerals from the region, as well as the violence associated with them have increased.
Mongolian herders have been displaced through policies such as ‘ecological migration’ and ‘ban over livestock grazing’ leaving many landless, jobless and homeless. Moreover, through these policies, China attempts to replace the traditions and cultures of Mongolians with more Sino-centric cultural characteristics. Thousands of Chinese state-run mining companies have come to occupy vast territories of Southern Mongolia, continuing to destroy the local economy by dumping hazardous waste in traditional herder grasslands.
- Main article: Manchuria
Manchuria is a country currently under the occupation of China. The current Emperor, who resides exiled in Japan, is Dokuritsu Aisingyoro. There is a Manchu government in exile that advocates for the restoration of its independence. 
South China Sea
The South China Sea lies to the south of the China mainland and is bounded by the coastlines of the People's Republic of China (PRC), Vietnam, Malaysia, Brunei, the Philippines, and Taiwan. In the south-west it becomes the Gulf of Thailand. To the south the Serat Karimata gives access to the Java Sea; to the east the Balabac and Mindoro straits give access to the Sulu Sea and the Luzon Strait north of the Philippines gives access to the Pacific Ocean. The South China Sea contains a number of small island groups, uninhabited or inhabited only on a temporary basis by fishermen or by military detachments. These include the Paracel Islands and the Spratly Islands.
The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development estimates that roughly 80% of global trade by volume and 70% by value is transported by sea. Of that volume, 60% of maritime trade passes through Asia, with the South China Sea carrying an estimated one-third of global shipping.
- Uyghurs for sale, Vicky Xiuzhong Xu, Danielle Cave, Dr. James Leibold, Kelsey Munro & Nathan Ruser, Australia Strategic Policy Institute, March 1, 2020.
- STERILIZATIONS,IUDS, AND MANDATORY BIRTH CONTROL: THE CCP’S CAMPAIGN TO SUPPRESS UYGHUR BIRTHRATES IN XINJIANG, Adrian Zenz, June 2020 Updated July 21, 2020. The Jamestown Foundation.
- Loh, Christine, "Underground Front: The Chinese Communist Party in Hong Kong" Second Edition.
- http://www.cnn.com/2010/POLITICS/02/18/obama.dalailama/index.html CNN
- Tibet: Proving Truth from Facts
- FlorCruz, Jaime, CNN Beijing Bureau Chief (February 18, 2010). "Analysis: Why the Dalai Lama angers China". Cable News Network website/World/Asia Pacific.
- Hillary Clinton: Chinese human rights secondary to economic survival, Richard Spencer, Daily Telegraph, 20 Feb 2009.
- Clinton wraps Asia trip by asking China to buy US debt, Breitbart.com, Feb 22 2009.
- Analysis: Why the Dalai Lama angers China, Jaime FlorCruz, CNN Beijing Bureau Chief, February 18, 2010.