Chinese Communist Party
The Chinese Communist Party (pinyin Gongchandang) or CCP is the leftwing single party socialist ruling regime of China. The party is infamous for placing no value on human life and its ruthlessness to maintain and exercise power. According to the authoritative Black Book of Communism, an estimated 65 million Chinese died as a result of the CCP's merciless attempts to create a new “socialist” China. Anyone who gets in the way is done away with by execution, imprisonment or forced famine. No single individual of the CCP has ever faced an international tribunal for crimes against humanity. Conversely, the Chinese Communist Party has been rewarded with admission to the World Trade Organization, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, and was granted Most Favored Nation trade status by the United States. This enhanced standing of the CCP among global power brokers and elite has only strengthened the grip of control the Chinese Communist Party has on the lives of the Chinese people who remain without any democratic rights in the nation of their birth.
China’s current state constitution was written exclusively by Communist Party members and adopted in 1982. The Preamble reads,
Under the leadership of the Communist Party of China and the guidance of Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory and the Important Thought of the ‘Three Represents,’ the Chinese people of all ethnic groups will continue to adhere to the people’s democratic dictatorship and the socialist road, persevere in reform and opening to the outside world, steadily improve socialist institutions, develop the socialist market economy, develop socialist democracy, improve the socialist legal system, work hard and self-reliantly to modernize the country’s industry, agriculture, national defense and science and technology step by step, and promote a coordinated development of material, political and spiritual civilizations to turn China into a socialist country that is prosperous, powerful, democratic, and culturally advanced.
- 1 Organization
- 2 Central Military Commission - People's Liberation Army
- 3 State Council
- 4 Supreme People's Court
- 5 Supreme People's Procuratorate
- 6 Doctrine
- 7 Law
- 8 Infiltration of international organizations
- 9 Human rights, security police, and public health
- 9.1 Forced labor
- 9.2 Forced organ harvesting
- 9.3 Hong Kong
- 9.4 Racism and minority rights
- 9.5 CCP coronavirus global pandemic
- 10 History
- 11 Bibliography
- 12 References
- 13 External links
As China’s economy has expanded since the 1980s, the scale of corruption has grown dramatically. A 2011 report released by China’s central bank estimated that from the mid-1990s to 2008, corrupt officials who fled overseas took with them $120 billion in stolen funds. A 2012 Washington, DC-based think tank estimated that total illicit financial flows out of China in the decade from 2001 through 2010 amounted to $2.74 trillion, over 20 times as much as the official CCP account in a closely parallel timeframe. Problems lie in China's one-party system.
With 85 million dues-paying members, just over 6% of China’s population of 1.35 billion, the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) is the largest political party in the world with some 80+ million members (2013 data). The party exercises extreme control over every aspect of the Chinese people's lives, from what they see on social media to how many children they can have. The Chinese Communist party tries to be all-powerful. The entire structure of the Communist Party, from top to bottom, encourages corruption and abuses. In this type of system, the party takes all the credit when things go well, but it bears none of the responsibility when things go wrong.
Since 2011 the Chinese government's Internal Security budget, which is also known as their Stability Maintenance budget, has been larger than their military budget. The Communist Party considers any threat to stability as a threat to their rule.
Politburo Standing Committee
The 7 member Politburo Standing Committee (PSC) is the most senior leadership body with each member ranked 1 thru 7, not as equals. Each shoulders primary responsibility for a specific portfolio. The Paramount Leader, Xi Jinping as of 2020, is ranked No. 1. Past Paramount Leaders have been in order of succession:
- Mao Zedong (1949-1976)
- Hua Guofeng (1976-1978)
- Deng Xiaoping (1978-1989)
- Jiang Zemin (1989-2003)
- Hu Jintao (2002-2012)
- Xi Jinping (2012-present)
The Paramount Leader usually holds three positions, Party General Secretary, President or Head of State, and Chairman of the Central Military Commission or Commander-in-chief of the People's Liberation Army. The Central Military Commission is not under civilian control of the State Council. In the Chinese Communist party structure, the Central Military Commission is of equal rank as the civilian bureaucracy.
The second-ranked PSC member serves as Premier of the State Council, which manages the state bureaucracy. He is effectively China’s top economic official.
The third-ranked PSC member serves as Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress (NPC), China’s unicameral legislature.
The fourth-ranked PSC member serves as chairman of a political advisory body, the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) National Committee. He is responsible for outreach to non-Communist groups, such as China’s eight minor political parties, all of which pledge loyalty to the Communist Party, and state-sanctioned religious associations.
The fifth-ranked PSC member heads the Party Secretariat, which oversees the Party bureaucracy. He also has responsibility for ideology and propaganda.
The sixth-ranked PSC member heads the Party’s Central Disciplinary Inspection Commission (CDIC), the Party's internal discipline enforcement arm which polices the Party’s ranks.
The seventh-ranked PSC member serves as the top-ranked State Council vice premier and assists the Premier with his duties.
PSC members also head Party “Leading Small Groups” (LSGs) for their policy areas. LSGs are secretive bodies intended to facilitate cross-agency coordination in implementation of Politburo Standing Committee decisions. China has no coordinating body analogous to the U.S. National Security Council. “Leading Small Groups” at the top of the Party and the State seek to bring together representatives from multiple agencies to coordinate and build consensus around policy in specific areas. The phenomenon is known as “stove-piping,” in which individual ministries and other hierarchies share information up and down the chain of command, but not horizontally with each other.
Behind the Politburo Standing Committee is the 25 member Politburo, sometimes referred to as the Party’s Politburo or full Politburo. Some members of the 25 member Party Politburo hold duel responsibilities, such as provincial governors or high ranking military. All 7 Members of the Politburo Standing Committee are also members, as well as two vice chairmen of the Central Military Commission.
Although the seven members of the Politburo Standing Committee are ranked, from one to seven, regular Politburo members are of equal rank under the principles of Democratic Socialism. Because of its relatively unwieldy size and the geographic diversity of its members, the full Politburo is not involved in day-to-day decision-making.
All Party Politburo members, including the 7 member Politburo Standing Committee, are also members of the lower 200+ Central Committee.
While the head of the Discipline Inspection Commission sits on the 7 member Politburo Standing Committee, the heads of the next three most powerful departments in the Party bureaucracy sit on the regular Politburo. Those departments are:
- The Organization Department: responsible for the recruitment of Party members and their training, career development, and assignment to jobs across the party and state, the legislatures, state-owned corporations, universities, and other public institutions. Under the principles of Democratic Socialism, selections are made throughout academia, state enterprises and trade unions by the Organization Department for entry level positions as delegates to the Party Congress.
- The Propaganda (or “Publicity”) Department: responsible for the Party’s messaging and for control of the media and ideology. In coordination with the Organization Department, the Propaganda Department manages the leaders of the Ministry of Culture; the newly constituted General Administration Press and Publication, Radio, Film, and Television; the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences; The People’s Daily; the Xinhua News Agency; and other media organizations.
- The Central Commission of Politics and Law: responsible for ensuring Party control over the internal security apparatus. Its full membership is not publicized. Known members include the President of the Supreme People’s Court, the Procurator-General of the Supreme People’s Procuratorate (China’s chief prosecutor), the Minister of Public Security, the Minister of State Security, and the Minister of Justice.
- See also: Democratic Socialism
The Central Committee of about 200 members and 170 Alternates is elected by the approximately 2,000 delegates of the 5-year Party Congresses and is required to meet at least once a year. Each meeting is known as a plenum (or plenary session) and approves major personnel decisions.
According to the Party’s constitution, the Politburo Standing Committee and full Politburo derive their power from the Central Committee, whose members “elect” the Politburo, Politburo Standing Committee, and Party General Secretary. In practice, it's a top-down organization, with incumbent Politburo and Politburo Standing Committee officials providing a list of nominees for advancement to the Politburo and Politburo Standing Committee which the Central Committee then ratifies.
According to the party's Constitution, the Party General Secretary must also be a member of the Politburo Standing Committee.
The Political and Legal Affairs Committee oversees the public security bureau, the procuratorate, and judicial systems. The Political and Legal Affairs Committee has the power to control personnel and resources in the police, Ministry of State Security, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and the fields of finance, culture, education, science and technology, and health departments throughout the country.
Central Discipline Inspection Commission
The Discipline Inspection Commissions themselves are rife with corruption. When the Central Discipline Inspection Commission conducts investigations, they are frequently politically motivated, even if they uncover real wrongdoing. Officials who keep on the right side of their superiors and colleagues may engage in large-scale corruption, while other officials may be investigated for lesser infractions because they have fallen afoul of powerful officials.
Discipline inspection organizations of the Party consist of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection, local Party commissions for discipline inspection at various levels and the grassroots Party commissions for discipline inspection. According to the People's Revolutionary Army (PRA), the Discipline Inspection Commission is tasked with enforcing discipline and handling cases, foster the capability to assist the Party committees to improve the Party's style of work, organize and coordinate the fight against corruption, and do a better job of fighting against corruption and improving the Party's style of work in the army, so as to make new contributions to the army building in an all-round way.
The Central Commission for Discipline Inspection works under the leadership of the Party Central Committee.
The local Party commissions for discipline inspection at various levels and the grassroots Party commissions for discipline inspection work under the dual leadership of the Party committee at the same level and Party commission for discipline inspection at the next higher level.
The term of each Party commission for discipline inspection is the same as that of the Party committee at the same level.
The plenary session of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection elects its standing committee, secretary and deputy secretaries and reports this to the Party Central Committee for approval.
The plenary sessions of local Party commissions for discipline inspection at various levels elect the standing committee and secretary and deputy secretaries, and the results are passed by the Party committee at the same level and reported to the Party committee at the next higher level for approval.
Whether a discipline inspection commission or discipline inspection members for a grassroots Party committee shall be established or put into position is to be decided by a Party organization at the next higher level in light of specific conditions.
A general Party branch committee and a Party branch committee shall include discipline inspection members.
The Central Commission for Discipline Inspection may, if needed, accredit a discipline inspection group or discipline inspectors to central Party and state organs.
Leaders of the discipline inspection group or discipline inspectors may attend, as non-voting members, related conferences organized by Party leaders of the organ concerned.
Their work must be supported by the Party leaders and organizations of the organ concerned.
The 610 Office is the main organization created to eliminate Falun Gong. It is nominally subordinate to the Political and Legal Affairs Committee. The Political and Legal Affairs Committee purview was expanded after the 610 Office was incorporated into it.
With a structure extending from top to bottom throughout the Party, government, and military, it has the power to command all police and judicial organs. This organization is akin to the Chinese Communist Party’s Central Cultural Revolution Group, and is dedicated to carrying out the systematic eradication of the practice of Falun Gong. It is an ad hoc agency at the highest levels endowed with extraordinary and extralegal power.
The 610 Office derives its name from the date of its founding, June 10th, 1999. After that date, almost every Party branch, from the province to the county to the district level, established its own 610 Office. The source of the 610 Office’s ability to operate extralegally and with impunity is not drawn from the State. Neither the People's Congress nor the State Council has authorized its actions. Rather, approval and support for its deeds comes from the CCP. Each 610 Office takes orders from the 610 Office one level above it, going up to the Central Committee 610 Office. The local 610 Offices also take orders from the leadership team of the CCP Committee at its same organizational level.
It later changed its name to the Central Leading Group on Dealing with Heretical Religions or Office of Maintaining Stability.
Official data of the annual reported expenditures from 13 local 610 Offices in various counties and districts across nine provinces in 2014 and 2015 are available online. The total expenditure for these branches, covering a population of some 14 million, was 8.9 million yuan ($1.37 million). If that per capita investment is applied to China’s total population of 1.37 billion, the estimated annual budget for all 610 Offices nationwide is 879 million yuan ($135 million). This represents only one part of the party-state apparatus involved in the suppression of Falun Gong.
The ultimate form of financial exploitation has been reported: the killing of Falun Gong detainees and the extraction of their organs to be sold at high prices to Chinese patients and foreign “transplant tourists” as part of a multibillion-dollar industry. Judicial systems sold organs to the transplant centres. Forensic hospitals actively conducted organ transplant. Special institutions under Public Security Bureaus carried out organ transplantation and human body experiments on a large scale.
Approximately 2,000 delegates which are held every five years. Congress delegates rubber stamp the Party General Secretary’s report to the Congress, which serves as a statement of the Party’s positions and an outline of the Party’s agenda for the coming five years. The Politburo's Organization Department: selects nominees throughout academia, state enterprises, trade unions, the military and other public institutions based on their commitment to Democratic Socialism ideology . The Party nominates all candidates, usually nominating 20% to 50% more candidates than available positions. Under this system of rigorous ideological screening and single party control where dissenters and skeptics of the status quo are weeded out, the most manipulative sociopaths can seize the opportunity and rise to the top. Provincial-level People’s Congresses and the People’s Liberation Army then elect deputies from among the nominees.
The Congress meets for a 10-day-long annual full session in March and approves whatever nominees, budgets, and programs the Central Committee puts before them.
Central Military Commission - People's Liberation Army
- See also: People's Liberation Army
The People's Liberation Army (PLA), with well over 2 million active personnel and more than 500 million reserves, is not a national army belonging to the state. Rather, it serves as the Party’s armed wing. The PLA’s Central Military Commission (CMC) is of equivalent rank to the State Council, China’s cabinet, meaning it is not under the civilian control of the State Council. The Communist Party’s constitution states that “the Party commands the overall situation and coordinates the efforts of all quarters, and the Party must play the role as the core of leadership among all other organizations at corresponding levels.” The Party constitution explicitly states that the Communist Party “persists in its leadership over the People’s Liberation Army and other armed forces of the people.”
The Party’s Central Military Commission exercises unified command over China’s armed forces, consisting of the active and reserve forces of China’s military, the People’s Liberation Army; a paramilitary force, the People’s Armed Police Force (PAP); and a militia. The PLA also has a domestic stability mandate, on top of its national defense mandate. The PLA Reserve Force and a paramilitary force, the People’s Armed Police Force play a major role in putting down civil unrest.
The General Secretary of the Communist Party serves as chairman. The rest is comprised of uniformed officers. They are two vice chairmen (who serve on the Party’s Politburo), the State Councilor for military affairs (who serves as Minister of Defense), the directors of the PLA’s four general departments, and the commanders of the Navy, the Air Force, and the strategic and conventional missile forces. Senior military officers also sit on Party “Leading Small Groups” on such issues as foreign affairs, national security, and Taiwan affairs.
The responsibilities of the PLA’s four general departments are:
- General Staff Department: operations, cyber and electronic warfare, communications/informatization, intelligence, training, force structure, mobilization, and foreign affairs;
- General Political Department: Communist Party affairs, personnel, military media and cultural troupes, and security;
- General Logistics Department: financial affairs and audits; housing, food, uniforms, and other supplies; military healthcare; military transportation; and capital construction; and
- General Armament Department: weapons and equipment needs, research and development, electronics and information infrastructure, and the manned space program.
The Ministry of National Defense in the State Council is not in the chain of command.
The General Logistics Department was authorized as the core unit to lead every level of the military to eradicate the practice of Falun Gong including the power to manage the secret detention facilities and the process of live organ harvesting.
According to an investigation by the World Organization to Investigate the Persecution of Falun Gong, over 100 different military hospitals have developed or expanded their organ transplant facilities, with over 2,000 medical personnel involved. These include military general hospitals which belong directly to the Central Military Commission, all military branch general hospitals, general hospitals which belong to the seven regional military commands, hospitals affiliated with military medical universities, military hospitals coded with numbers, and armed police general hospitals. The transplant volume performed by Chinese military hospitals is the largest of any military in the world. They also play a role in resolving core technical issues in organ transplantation and supporting civilian hospitals with living organ supplies and technical assistance.
The Party entrusts implementation of its policies and day-to-day administration of the country to the institution of the State, headed by the civilian State Council or Cabinet, which does not include the Central Military Commission. The State Council, also known as the Central People’s Government, includes the State’s ministries and commissions and layers of “people’s governments” below the national level. The top State officials at every level of administration usually concurrently hold senior Party posts, to ensure Party control. While the Foreign Ministry is a mere ministry under the State Council, the Central Military Commission of the People's Liberation is not. In the Chinese Communist Party hierarchy, the Central Military Commission is of equal rank to the civilian bureaucracy of the State Council that manages domestic and foreign affairs.
The State President serves as China’s head of state. Since 1993, every Communist Party General Secretary has served concurrently as State President, but the position is largely ceremonial and involves few duties other than meeting with foreign heads of state. The State President and State Vice President rank below the Central Military Commission. The Minister of Defense is actually the third most senior uniformed member of the Central Military Commission and is outside the operational chain of command of the People's Liberation Army.
To understand the political system of the People's Republic of China, there are two constitutions, a Party constitution and a state constitution. Both constitutions make it clear that the Party exercises leadership of the political system, the economy, and society at large,
Party committees are embedded in the State Council, ministries under the State Council, the legislature, the courts, prosecutors’ offices, state-owned enterprises, and all other public institutions, such as universities and hospitals, as well as in most private companies and many non-governmental organizations.
At the sub-national level, provinces, counties, and townships all have a Party committee and a parallel people’s government, with the Party Secretary of the Party committee serving as the geographic unit’s top leader.
The Ministry of Health (MOH) and later the National Health and Family Planning Commission (NPFPC) led the health care system in the transplantation of organs. Since organ transplantation has been made a high priority in the CCP’s national strategy and heavily emphasized as a future emerging industry, a large number of organ transplant projects have been funded under major national programs. The Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Science and Technology, the Ministry of Education, other departments, and the military have invested heavily in research, development, and personnel training in transplantation technology to meet the needs of this rapidly-growing industry. New capabilities and techniques have emerged and been extensively spreading, allowing live organ transplantation in China to grow into a large, industrialized operation in less than two decades.
National People’s Congress
The National People’s Congress (NPC) is controlled by the Communist Party. All candidates to the NPC are nominated by the Communist Party. The NPC’s role is to ratify the Party’s decisions. It holds a 10-day-long annual full session in March.
Supreme People's Court
The state constitution calls the Supreme People’s Court “the highest judicial organ.”
Supreme People's Procuratorate
The Supreme People’s Procuratorate is China’s top prosecutor’s office.
Communist Party of China and atheism
See also: Militant atheism and Asian atheism and Growth of Christianity in China In 1955, Chinese communist leader Zhou Enlai declared, "We Communists are atheists". In 2014, the Communist Party of China reaffirmed that members of their party must be atheists.
In 2016, the International Business Times reported:
|“||A senior Chinese advisor on religious affairs has said the country should promote atheism throughout society, in remarks that appear to reflect a deepening campaign to reinforce traditional Marxist values in China — and could add to concern about official attitudes among believers in the country’s five officially recognized religions.||”|
The Chinese Communist Party persecutes the country's Christian population, as well as the Falun Gong population, and Tibetan Buddhists. There are several well-documented cases of abuse, torture and false imprisonment.
Three warfares doctrine
Document 9 was leaked in 2013 by a Chinese dissident journalist who was in turn sentenced to a seven-year imprisonment for "leaking state secrets". The name of the document, Communiqué on the Current State of the Ideological Sphere (also translated as the Briefing on the Current Situation in the Ideological Realm) comes from it being the ninth such document issued that year in China. It is thought that Document No. 9 was issued by the General Office of the Central Committee, and would have required the approval of Xi and other top leaders. The New York Times reported that it "bears the unmistakable imprimatur of Xi Jinping". The document specifically addresses the following issues, using these same terms in the document itself, which it regards as problems that threaten Chinese Communist Party rule:
- Promoting Western Constitutional Democracy: An attempt to undermine the current leadership and the "socialism with Chinese characteristics" system of governance. Including the separation of powers, the multi-party system, general elections, and independent judiciaries.
- Promoting “universal values” in an attempt to weaken the theoretical foundations of the Party’s leadership. That “the West’s values are the prevailing norm for all human civilization”, that “only when China accepts Western values will it have a future”.
- Promoting civil society in an attempt to dismantle the ruling party’s social foundation, i.e. that individual rights are paramount and ought to be immune to obstruction by the state.
- Promoting Neoliberalism, attempting to change China’s Basic Economic System, i.e. unrestrained economic liberalization, complete privatization, and total marketization.
- Promoting the West’s idea of journalism, challenging China’s principle that the media and publishing system should be subject to Party discipline.
- Promoting historical nihilism, trying to undermine the history of the CCP and of New China. For example to deny the scientific and guiding value of Mao Zedong thought.
- Questioning Reform and Opening and the socialist nature of socialism with Chinese characteristics. For example, saying “We have deviated from our Socialist orientation” such as occurred after Glasnost or "openness" eased censorship restrictions in the Soviet Union.
Xi Jinping Thought
In October 2017 an amendment including Xi's name was added to the CCP's party constitution, marking the first time a living leader's name was added since Mao Zedong, reflecting Xi's standing within the Communist Party. The amendment was approved by all 2,300 delegates attending the party congress, is called "Xi Jinping Thought for the New Era of Socialism With Chinese Special Characteristics."
The move placed Xi on the same level as Mao and Deng Xiaoping, whose names also appear in the party constitution in articles reflecting their principles. The political principles of Jiang Zemin and Hu Jintao, Xi's predecessors, were added to the party constitution, but their names were not.
The New York Times Chris Buckley notes that Xi's authority "is not directly comparable to the almost godlike influence Mao commanded," but, at the same time, "the Chinese economy, state and military are much more powerful now than they were under Mao, or even under Deng, which gives Mr. Xi far more global influence than his predecessors."
Xi Jinping Thought is an effort to avoid the demise of Communist party power such as happened in the Soviet Union as the result of Perestroika and Glasnost reform movements instituted by Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev.
See also: Atheism and Asian males and Atheistic China and sexism and Atheistic China and gender based workplace discrimination A majority of the atheist population is male (see: Atheism and women). According to the BBC:
At the end of the Chinese Communist Party's 19th Congress, the new Politburo Standing Committee was revealed: seven middle aged men in dark suits, without a woman to be seen. There has never been a female member of the Standing Committee.
Of the 2,280 delegates at that Congress, fewer than a quarter were women.
That's got some people asking whether the party should take gender equality more seriously. The New York Times wrote of women being "shut out" - but does the Chinese Communist Party have a woman problem?
Of the 89.4 million members of the Chinese Communist Party, just under 23 million are women - that's 26%.And women make up 24% of China's National Congress - the sprawling national parliament. You don't have to be a Communist Party member to sit on that.
In the administration of birth control there have been slogans posted, such as
“If one person violates the law, the whole village will be sterilized,” “Rather another tomb than another baby,” or, “If he did not have a vasectomy as he should, his house will be torn down; if she did not have an abortion as she should, her cows and rice fields will be confiscated.”
The CCP's National Intelligence Law, which went into effect in July 2017, compels all persons and companies doing businesses in China to cooperate with the CCP's internal security apparatus and the intelligence goals of the Chinese Communist Party.
National Intelligence Law Article 7
Any organization or citizen shall support, assist and cooperate with the state intelligence work in accordance with the law, and keep the secrets of the national intelligence work known to the public. The State protects individuals and organizations that support, assist and cooperate with national intelligence work.
The new law essentially codifies the principles of the Maoist Cultural Revolution to spy on or terrorize fellow citizens, as well as extends the Communist Party's reach into Chinese telecommunications companies throughout the world and foreign businesses operating in China.
Infiltration of international organizations
China has gained significant influence within the United Nations, and Chinese law dictates that they remain loyal to Beijing in their service. A report from a coalition of human rights groups, led by Amnesty International Canada, says that China is increasingly using “threats, bullying and harassment” to intimidate activists around democracy, civil rights, and those who speak out against human rights abuses of Uyghurs, Tibetans, and Falun Gong practitioners.
Human rights, security police, and public health
Since the Tiannanmen massacre the party is obsessed with stability, deploying a vast internal security apparatus to head off protests or, once they erupt, to prevent them from spreading. The government is constantly talking about 'stability maintenance' which is coded language for ensuring the party's rule. The domestic security apparatus includes an 800,000-strong police force under the Ministry of Public Security and a 1.5 million-strong paramilitary force, the People’s Armed Police, which reports to both the Party’s Central Military Commission and, through the Ministry of Public Security, to the State Council. Other agencies involved in internal security include the Party’s Propaganda Department, which plays an important role in censoring the media to prevent discussion of subjects that might feed movements for change; the Ministry of State Security, which focuses on internal security threats as well as conducting intelligence-gathering abroad; and the Ministry of Justice, which operates China’s gulags and forced labor system. Many of China's gulags operate factories to produce consumer goods for export to the United States and the rest of the world.
China’s network of penal forced labor facilities, established in the early years of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) government to hold both criminals and political dissidents, remains in operation today. U.S. law prohibits the importation of goods produced “wholly or in part in any foreign country by convict labor or/and forced labor or/and indentured labor under penal sanctions.” Artificial flowers, Christmas lights, shoes, garments, umbrellas as well as coal, cotton, electronics, fireworks, footwear, nails, and toys have been identified as produced in Chinese prison factories for export. There have been several instances of letters and notes from prisoners describing their confinement, working conditions and mistreatment discovered in products purchased by consumers outside China; at Christmas in 2019 a six year old girl in London, in a box of newly purchased Christmas cards, found one that had a message in English saying,
"We are foreign prisoners in Shanghai Qingpu prison China Forced to work against our will. Please help us and notify human rights organization."
Profitable prison companies help to fund the operations of both local and national government. Prison labor enterprises producing high-tech goods such as semiconductors and optical instruments are the most profitable, each earning an estimated annual revenue of tens of millions of dollars and paying taxes to the Chinese government. According to the 2012 Trafficking in Persons Report from the United States Department of State,
“[t]he [PRC] government reportedly profits from [the use of] forced labor. Many prisoners and detainees in ‘reeducation through labor’ facilities [are] required to work, often with no remuneration.”
Many prisons function as subcontractors for Chinese firms. The State Department has noted cases in which
“detainees were forced to work up to 18 hours a day without pay for private companies working in partnership with Chinese authorities” and “were beaten for failing to complete work quotas."
The book Laogai: The Machinery of Repression in China, published in 2009, stated that as many as 3 to 5 million people were imprisoned in laogai or gulag camps.
In addition to criminal sentences imposed by a court, administrative detention imposed by police with no legal due process required, the CCP has a system of “Black Jails”, an unofficial system of unlicensed confinement facilities used by local CCP officials primarily to detain petitioners seeking redress of grievances.
In a 2011 story published by The Guardian a former prisoner claimed he was sentenced to three years at a Reeducation Through Labor (RTL) camp for “illegally petitioning” central government officials about corruption in his local area. In addition to performing work digging in open-trench coal mines, carving chopsticks, and assembling automotive seat covers for export, he described a system in which prisoners were forced to spend 12-hour shifts in the evenings playing online video games to build up virtual credits that were then sold online by camp officials. Prison officials made approximately $785–$940 per day from the “gold farming” services performed by prisoners, which made the work more profitable than the prison’s more traditional manufacturing enterprises. Gold farming (also termed “powerleveling”) is a practice associated with many online role-playing games, in which a player pays someone else to play their character for them – thereby building up points that make their characters more powerful or acquiring possessions (e.g., wealth, weapons) that similarly make them stronger. Online vendors may also offer for sale existing characters whose power and wealth have already been built up through extended periods of game play, or virtual goods that can be transferred to other characters. Websites acting as brokers for such trades are easily locatable online. On August 6, 2012, Commission staff located, with a single Google search, the website www.ogdeal.com, which claims the title of “The Leading MMORPG (‘massively multiplayer online roleplaying game’) Services Company.” The site offered credit exchanges for over 40 popular online games (to include Anarchy, Age of Conan, Diablo 3, Final Fantasy, Warhammer, Star Wars: The Old Republic, etc.), with payments “via Paypal, Moneybookers, Libertyreserve and Westernunion within 10mins after the trade.” “Sell Anarchy Online Credits,” www.ogdeal.com.
No compensation was provided to the prisoners themselves. Prisoners who failed to earn the required numbers of virtual credits would be beaten by prison guards: “If I couldn't complete my work quota, they would punish me physically. They would make me stand with my hands raised in the air and after I returned to my dormitory they would beat me with plastic pipes. We kept playing until we could barely see things.”
Along with virtual goods generated by prisoners offered for sale online, prisoners are also used for spamming, “cherry blossoming,”* and “click fraud.” ‘Cherry blossoming’ is a term used to refer to small marketing related digital tasks, such as ‘liking’ a brand’s Facebook page against a small pay. It involves using a large numbers of workers to complete small tasks for a business client. Cherry blossoming can also be used to increase the number of hits on a company or product webpage, thereby raising its Internet profile and seeming popularity with consumers. Click fraud is believed to be a widespread practice in China. Anchor Intelligence digital marketing identified a click fraud ring involving 200,000 different IP addresses and racked up more than $3 million worth of fraudulent clicks across 2,000 advertisers in a two-week period run out of technical universities such as the Shanghai Technology Institute. PC Magazine Online defines click fraud as the practice of “[c]licking ad banners without any intention of purchasing the product. Click fraud is done to make an ad campaign appear more effective. Paying a few cents per hour to workers in a third-world country to sit at a computer all day and do nothing but click banners makes an ad campaign appear very successful. If ads are based on click-throughs (pay-per-click), the Web site publishing the ads and clicking the ads countless times can make a dishonest profit.”
Uyghur forced labor
According to some reports, the CCP has begun to move large numbers of Uyghurs, including many former detainees, into textile, apparel, and other labor-intensive industries in Xinjiang and other PRC provinces. Uyghurs who refuse to accept such employment may be threatened with detention. They continue to be heavily monitored outside of work, and are required to attend political study classes at night. A study by the Australian Strategic Policy Institute identified nearly 120 Chinese and foreign companies, including global brands, that the institute alleges directly or indirectly benefit from Uyghur labor in potentially abusive circumstances.
Uyghurs are working in factories that are in the supply chains of at least 83 well-known global brands in the technology, clothing and automotive sectors, including Apple, BMW, Gap, Huawei, Nike, Samsung, Sony and Volkswagen. In factories far away from home, they typically live in segregated dormitories, undergo organised Mandarin and ideological training outside working hours, are subject to constant surveillance, and are forbidden from participating in religious observances.
Forced organ harvesting
- See also: Forced organ harvesting
In China there were more than 600 hospitals and over 1,700 doctors engaged in organ transplant surgeries in 2007. The statistics published by the Tianjin Oriental Organ Transplant Center and the No. 2 Hospital of the Second Military Medical University (also known as Shanghai Changzheng Hospital), two hospitals that have close ties to the Chinese military, provide a glimpse into the rapid growth of China's organ transplant market. The China Southern Weekend reported, "The Oriental Organ Transplant Center's rapid growth has brought about huge revenue and profits. According to previous media reports, liver transplants alone bring the Center an annual income of 100 million yuan". According to a Phoenix Weekly 2006 report, "In 2004, the fee for a liver transplant at the Oriental Organ Transplant Center was $32,000 (approximately 250,000 yuan). In 2005, it was over $40,000 (approximately 330,000 yuan). Some intermediary agencies charged a brokering fee as high as USD $13,000."
People with financial means are willing to buy organs at a high cost, and the huge profit pushes the hospitals to pursue new sources of organs by all means necessary to increase their profit margins. Given China's political and legal environment, certain groups of people become especially susceptible targets. Namely, Falun Gong practitioners.
In March 2020 the China Tribunal, an independent people’s tribunal, released its full judgment on Chinese forced organ harvesting. The panel was chaired by Sir Geoffrey Nice who previously led the prosecution of former Yugoslavia Prime Minister Slobodan Milosevic for war crimes at the International Criminal Tribunal and included other experts in law, transplant surgery, international politics, Chinese history and business. The experts concluded that the grisly practice has continued unabated. In June 2019 the tribunal delivered its findings in London, concluding beyond a reasonable doubt that state sanctioned forced organ harvesting from prisoners of conscience has taken place for years in China on a significant scale and is still taking place. The main organ supply came from imprisoned practitioners of the persecuted spiritual group Falun Gong.
The Chinese regime has persecuted the group for more than two decades. Hundreds of thousands of adherents have been thrown into prisons, labor camps, and brainwashing centers where many have been tortured in an effort to force them to renounce their faith. The tribunal concluded that the Chinese regime sustained campaign of forced organ harvesting constituted a crime against humanity. Many people have died indescribable hideous deaths for no reason, that more may suffer in similar ways, and that all of us live on a planet where extreme wickedness may be found in the power of those, who for the time being, are running a country that is one of the oldest civilizations known to modern man.
The Hong Kong branch of the Chinese Communist Party was founded in 1947 as the Xinhua News Agency Hong Kong Branch. Although the party has ruled Hong Kong since 1997, it remains technically illegal, or "underground." This status, unique among the world's ruling parties, allows the CCP to evade local laws that require political parties to disclose financing and to provide a membership list. In 2000, the name of the branch was changed to "Liaison Office of the Central People's Government." It is headquartered in a tower in the city's Sai Ying Pun district. In 2003, the office was reorganized as a "second government" parallel and equal in status to the "local government" in Admiralty. Since 2012, Sai Ying Pun has been the dominant partner in the Hong Kong government. The Liaison Office is headed by a director, currently Luo Huining. Luo is a member of the national party's central committee. The office has extensive and undisclosed property holdings through Newman Investment, a subsidiary. The office reports to the Hong Kong and Macau Affairs Office, an agency of the Beijing government. This agency is currently headed by Xia Baolong, also a central committee member.
The Sino-British Joint Declaration of 1984 provides that Hong Kong will enjoy a "high degree of autonomy except for foreign and defence affairs" under a "one country, two systems" approach. This approach was to last for fifty years, from 1997 to 2047. China promised that it would hold a direct election for chief executive by 2017. In August 2014, the Chinese parliament announced that Hong Kong voters would choose a chief executive from two or three candidates nominated by a committee. This announcement triggered mass pro-democracy protests in Hong Kong in the form of the Umbrella Movement. The protests failed to the stop the selection of Carrie Lam as chief executive in 2017. In 2017, a spokesman for the Chinese Foreign Ministry announced that the joint declaration was no longer valid.
In 2019 the Hong Kong government proposed a bill to extradite suspects who were wanted on the mainland. Unlike Hong Kong courts, mainland courts do not provide suspects with due process or other legal protections. A series of the enormous protests were held in Hong Kong and the bill was withdrawn on October 23, 2019. Parties that supported the pro-democracy protesters swept the District Council elections that were held in November.
Racism and minority rights
- See also: China and racism
The Internations organization website declares concerning racism in China:
China’s economic investment in a number of African countries may well have helped to create the prejudice that all Africans are poor and profiting from money that should rather be invested at home, thus fostering racism in China. In Guangzhou, where a large number of Africans have settled over the last few years, racial tensions have been particularly high.
Africans and American blacks
Leroy Adams writes in an article entitled What is it like to be Black in China?:
China is a country plagued by racism. To be Black or African in China is to be labeled unintelligent, dangerous, unattractive, or to see an empty seat next to you on a crowded subway.
Barry Sautman published via the Cambridge University Press about racism in post Mao Zedong China:
Expressions of anti-black sentiment by Chinese students have caught the world's attention periodically since the end of the 1970s. Demonstrations against African students in Nanjing and other cities between late 1988 and early 1989 received wide press coverage. Because the African population in China is small and transient, some observers saw these events as a manifestation of a vestigial xenophobia, not as part of a developing trend of thought within a key segment of Chinese society. Placed next to the brutal ethnic conflicts that plague much of the world, the episodic, non-lethal incidents in China seemed evanescent, with only fleeting implications for China's foreign policy.
The Leftwing communist government's response to the coronavirus was to blame foreigners for importing the virus. Black Africans and African Americans were evicted from their apartments and refused service in local shops and restaurants. Those who could leave the socialist paradise ended up living on the streets, constantly harassed by the police.
One of the biggest ways the outbreak of the CCP coronavirus has damaged China's international reputation is by exposing the country's racist attitude toward Africans. Despite the fact that the virus originated in China itself, local governments and people in different parts of the country have been treating Africans like they were the ones responsible for triggering the COVID-19 pandemic. Such an attitude obviously has angered millions of Africans back home.
On April 13, 2020 the U.S. consulate had to issue an alert warning African-Americans to avoid the Guangzhou region since they could be racially targeted. It advised African-Americans in China to always carry their identity documents with them since it is less likely for officials to target an American citizen.
China's Foreign Ministry spokesman Zhao Lijian accused the U.S. of trying to drive a wedge between Africa and China, saying that the United States was being neither responsible nor moral. A State Department spokesperson pointed out that the mistreatment meted out to Africans in China is a clear signal of how hollow the China-Africa relationship is despite Beijing constantly masquerading as being a benefactor for African people.
Uyghurs and Muslims
According to various estimates, Xinjiang authorities have detained over 1 million Turkic Muslims, mostly ethnic Uyghurs, and Kazakhs, in “reeducation camps” without formal charges, trials or hearings, and with no timetable for release. Many detainees have little or no contact with their families and, in some cases, young children. Some CCP officials describe the Xinjiang camps as “vocational education institutions” in which “trainees” learn the Chinese language, legal knowledge, and job skills, and undergo “de-extremization.” Other CCP authorities state that detainees are “infected with religious extremism and violent terrorist ideology.” According to some reports, many detainees had engaged in activities that authorities may now deem “extremist,” including participating in religious services outside of officially sanctioned places of worship; home-schooling one’s children; spending time abroad or having relatives living abroad; and expressing religious sentiments.
Many detainees reportedly are compelled to express or chant their love of the Communist Party and President Xi Jinping, sing patriotic songs, renounce or reject many of their religious beliefs and customs, including their avoidance of pork, alcohol, and smoking, and undergo ideological indoctrination and self-criticisms. According to former detainees, treatment and conditions in the camps include beatings, food deprivation, and crowded and unsanitary conditions. Some reeducation centers reportedly contain factories where detainees are forced to work, in some cases producing goods for export.
Recent security measures include the following:
- Police Presence and Surveillance: Thousands of “convenience” police stations, furnished with antiriot and high-tech surveillance equipment, have been installed.
- Biometric data collection: Authorities have systematically collected and cataloged DNA samples, blood types, and fingerprints and performed eye scans of Uyghurs for identification purposes as part of its social stability campaign, often under the guise of “health physicals.”
- Internet and Social Media Controls: Uyghurs in some areas of the XUAR are required to install an application on their mobile phones that enables authorities to monitor their online activities.
- Home stays: The government has sent an estimated one million officials and state workers from outside the XUAR, mostly ethnic Han, to live temporarily in the homes of Uyghurs to assess their hosts’ loyalty to the Communist Party.
The Chinese Communist Party stifled public warnings about the Chinese Wuhan coronavirus epidemic for six weeks after the first confirmed inflections in early December 2019. Doctors who posted on social media about the virus were arrested and forced to sign confessions admitting to crimes of "disrupting the social order" and "rumourmongering". The local Communist-controlled Wuhan government was instructed by the central authority not to issue health alerts until after the virus was spread throughout the country and internationally. The Beijing central government in turn blamed local officials for allowing people to exit the city and put the rest of the population in danger.
President Donald Trump offered China any help necessary. The leftist regime, with its trademark monopoly control of power, banned private charities and volunteers from entering Hubei Province or sending materials to hospitals directly.
Chinese scientists eventually admitted the virus may have originated at a government laboratory only 280 meters away from the Huanan seafood market. A Chinese-language newspaper published in Hong Kong, Ming Pao, and the British daily, The Mirror explained that the Wuhan Center for Disease Control, or WHCDC, could have spawned the contagion in Hubei Province. It stated that it's plausible the virus was leaked from the lab and contaminated initial patients in this epidemic. Sen. Tom Cotton, citing The Lancet, tweeted
China claimed—for almost two months—that coronavirus had originated in a Wuhan seafood market. That is not the case. @TheLancet published a study demonstrating that of the original 40 cases, 14 of them had no contact with the seafood market, including Patient Zero.
Sources within China say 90,000 people were infected before the Chinese Communist Party alerted the public to the danger of the epidemic. People reporting on social media about the true extent of the disaster from within the Wuhan containment zone risk arrest by the atheist controlled CCP. The case histories and the pattern of infection were known to Chinese researchers from the beginning, so earlier reports fingering the market may have been intentionally misleading.
Public broadcasting and reporting
On February 5, 2020 State-run media broadcast an interview with lead scientist Wang Chen. Chen claimed:
1. The situation is grave. A new diagnostic class "clinically diagnosed" (those showing clinical symptoms but without RNA test) is added to facilitate access to treatment.
2. 11 new container hospitals will provide patients with light symptoms with limited medical care but better containment. Real hospitals will be used for serious cases (confirmed or suspected).
3. Suspected patients will stay in single rooms in container hospitals. Infected patients will stay in open-air beds.
4. They don't know how many are actually infected. The officially reported number is just the new test results.
5. Gilead's medicine has shown the most promise. But it still requires clinical trials.
6. They can't estimate when the turning point will be.
Chinese state-run media falsely blamed the United States for the outbreak. On March 12, 2020 the Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman initiated a conspiracy theory that the US military started the coronavirus in China,. Leftist media in the United States willingly aided Chinese propaganda efforts by falsely calling those who link the virus to Wuhan, where it first manifested, "racist".
Under-reporting true scale of pandemic
The true scale of infections is estimated to be possibly ten-times higher than the official number reported by the Chinese central government.
On January 24, 2020, one day after the world was first alerted to the outbreak, a doctor circumventing leftist censorship in Wuhan reported 90,000 infected cases. The Guardian of London quoted Prof. Neil Ferguson saying “My best guess now is perhaps 100,000 cases right now. Almost certainly many tens of thousands of people are infected.” Other sources likewise have implied that the communist government of China may have under-reported the true dimensions of the problem.
Because coronavirus is a "noval" virus, meaning "new" or "unknown", technicians lack the training to identify infections. People are going to multiple hospitals daily, attempting to be tested or treated. There are a limited number of test kits available, so hospitals have to choose who will be tested. That is one more reason why the true extent of the virus was underreported.
The first week 213 deaths were reported worldwide with over 9,800 confirmed infections. The leftist Chinese regime was suspected of suppressing the real extent of the epidemic. By the end of the second week 813 were reported dead with more than 37,300 confirmed infected. 193,000 were under observation. 400 million people were on lockdown nationwide.
Near the end of the third week 1,666 were reported dead with 69,000 plus infected. There was near universal skepticism - inside and outside China - on the Chinese socialist government's reporting on the epidemic.
2363 deaths were reported with 78,000 infections near the end of the fourth week. CCP officials admitted to changing their methodology of reported infections, lowering the rate of reported numbers. South Korea was reporting a complete doubling every day for the past four days. Iran was experiencing a serious outbreak. Reported numbers in the United States were puzzling.
The sixth week - after the virus spread globally and the first death was reported in the United States, NTD reported that the Communists ordered all data on the coronavirus to be destroyed in a province close to Beijing, in a deceitful attempt to suppress the true extent of the virus' spread in China.
CCP authorities cracked down hard on people trying to break through the veil of government secrecy, as they call it "rumormongering", according to the state-run Xinhua news agency. All persons who spread "fake news" (i.e. the truth about the real extent of the epidemic, its spread and its consequences), and thus disturbs social order, will face up to three years in prison detention or disciplinary action under China's social credit system. Offenders who cause serious consequences will be given three to seven year prison terms.
Despite the threat of prison, many people still went online to blame the government, both high and low ranking officials. Some residents of Wuhan posted videos calling for international help. Viral videos showed dead bodies on the floor in hospitals as patients sat near by. Videos of massively crowded hospitals were posted causing local authorities to build a giant new containment facility in a week. However, video footage of the project came from Chinese state media. It was released it to Western media as a propaganda effort to demonstrate how "great" the authoritarian approach to problem solving is. The structures are not really hospitals at all. The structures are large quarantine camps where people are monitored and receive no treatment at all.
The Chinese people became more creative in skirting leftist censorship laws. Guizhou television broadcast a child reading a poem entitled, "China has a cold because of a virus that wears a crown," a veiled reference to President Xi and the Communist party.
On March 1, 2020 the Communist regime imposed a new internet censorship policy on the heavily policed Weibo. The hashtag #takedownthewall began trending. Some comments were preserved in screenshots:
- "I know it's useless, but I want to speak up anyway."
- "I'd rather die than not be free."
- "I want to know the world."
- "If we don't take it down, the wall will only be higher and higher."
- "Why should we be proud to stick our head in the sand?"
- "I retweeted 6 posts. They are all deleted now because they have the hashtag. I am going to repost them."
- "We don't want to live in a world where we can't speak. We want to have our own voice."
- "They cover our eyes, ears, mouths....but now, do they want to cut off our hands so we can't write? Maybe they will cut off our feet so we can't walk ahead."
Lockdown and mass arrests
Prior to the opening of camps, the Communist party nailed and barricaded whole households inside their residences. Gates of apartment buiildings were welded shut, and food delivered every three days. When the quarantine camps were ready to receive victims, the Chinese government began forcibly removing people and arresting them to fill up camps. 5G technology has been used to facilitate mass round-up
A person can be arrested for not wearing a mask.
Student dorms have been taken over as quarantine detention facilities.
The socialist system, which guarantees access to healthcare as a human right, posted banners reading,
"If you dare go out we will break your legs; we'll knock your teeth off if you dare talk back."
At least two citizen journalists who were reporting on the real situation in Wuhan and posting on the internet disappeared. It is unknown if they fell victim to the virus or were arrested for violating communist censorship laws.
Public and party reaction
One of the eight doctors - Dr. Li Wenliang - forced to a sign a confession on January 3, 2020 admitting to posting “illegal and false” information warning the public of the coronavirus outbreak and epidemic, died on February 7, 2020. A selfie of the doctor lying sick in his hospital bed went viral, stirring widespread outrage in China. “To get an idea of the enormous scale of said outpouring of grief and anger, Dr. Li’s death apparently generated 800 million(!) comments on Weibo by midnight - 2.5 hours after it was first reported and 3 hours before it was confirmed by the hospital."
A woman in Wuhan posted a video saying,
Chinese Communist Party, when are you going to step down? You promised us that Chinese people will enjoy ‘moderate prosperity’ in 2020, but what have we attained [from you] so far? We lost our relatives [because of you]!
Tell me, what does it mean to achieve ‘moderate prosperity’?” What does ‘moderate prosperity’ mean to us when people have lost their lives? What on earth are you doing? What do we need such a government for? I beg you, please go away! Step Down! We need good leaders who can help us live a good life. We don’t need such a corrupt government.
The soaring home prices and high cost of living have caused hardships for Chinese residents. And now so many people are dying. Everyone will get to see the economic bubble burst.
You should bear the consequences of your actions. Do not implicate us ordinary folk. Now we are bearing the brunt of it, and we are being sacrificed for what you have been doing!What on earth are you? Are you humans or devils?
According to Kyle Bass, Chief Investment Officer at Hayman Capital Management,
Secretary Xi is in trouble within China. According to my sources within, the party elite want Xi gone. The Guangdong elite (Uncle Deng’s family) are beginning to rattle the cages of change against the supposed “emperor for life”. #XiJinping #china #ChinaLiedAndPeopleDied
Wolf warrior diplomacy
- See also: Wolf warrior diplomacy
The Chinese Communist regime reacted to the international crisis it created with "Wolf Warrior" style diplomacy, named after the 2015 Chinese action film and its 2017 sequel. Wolf Warrior is named for a fearsome screen hero, Wu Jing, a kind of Chinese Rambo. The CCP stoked anger in Australia, Canada, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden and many others.
The CCP demands that the outside world treat Taiwan as a pariah. It wants it to be known only as “Chinese Taipei” or “Taiwan, Province of China” in public documents. It insists that the island state be denied observer status in the World Health Assembly, the deliberative body for the UN’s health watchdog, the World Health Organisation.
CCP's English language mouthpiece, Global Times justifies the CCP's bellicose reaction to international requests for an independent inquiry into the origins of the CCP virus outbreak:
what's behind China's perceived "Wolf Warrior" style diplomacy is the changing strengths of China and the West. When the West falls short of its ability to uphold its interests, it can only resort to a hysterical hooligan style diplomacy in an attempt to maintain its waning dignity. As Western diplomats fall into disgrace, they are getting a taste of China's "Wolf Warrior" diplomacy.... Some claim that China is abandoning its principle of "hiding its ability and biding its time" which it stuck to over the past 30 years. The "Wolf Warrior" style of diplomacy doesn't contradict this principle, it's just less subtle. The reasoning behind this principle was to dilute ideological conflicts and concentrate on development, and China's national policy has always prioritized economic development. China embraces globalization and multilateral cooperation. The growing influence of China worldwide can be largely attributed to internationalization and the force of markets.
On April 3, 2020 a Chinese coast-guard ship intentionally rammed and sank a Vietnamese fishing vessel. The two countries are in conflict over jurisdiction of the Paracel Islands and fishing rights in the waters around the archipelago. On April 18, China unilaterally announced the establishment of the Nansha and Xisha administrative districts in the Paracels and the Spratly Islands, drawing a protest from the Philippines, which has a presence of its own on at least nine Spratly islands and islets, including Fiery Cross Reef. The Asia Maritime Transparency Initiative, which monitors territorial conflicts, says Fiery Cross has been transformed into a Chinese missile base. In an earlier move, in mid-February 2020, a Chinese naval ship locked its radar on a Philippines naval vessel near the Commodore Reef in the Spratlys, signaling a strike as an act of intimidation. China in recent months has also provoked conflicts with Malaysia, Brunei, and Taiwan. The National Review reports:
China appears to be exploiting the coronavirus pandemic to advance its South China Sea expansion project by “brute force … using its increasingly powerful navy to assert its dominance by harassing the shipping of rival states, even at times, in their own territorial waters.”
But just as China’s failure to stop a local epidemic from becoming a global catastrophe has brought it precisely the bad PR it was hoping to avoid, its South China Sea bullying has resulted in intensified anti-Chinese reactions in Southeast Asia and around the world. Beijing’s efforts to staunch the country’s hemorrhaging international reputation have had the opposite effect....
China’s illegal assertiveness in the South China Sea — its wolf-warrior diplomacy — is damaging the state’s and Chinese people’s reputations. But it is also perhaps the greatest threat to international peace and security in the world today. Understanding the sources of China’s behavior is thus a matter of paramount concern.
...Economic growth had faltered before the onset of the coronavirus, but now the country faces food shortages, unemployment, inflation, a debt crisis, and, given the inflexibility of centralized and often corrupt management, even the specter of financial collapse. The CCP has relied merely on two factors to legitimize its rule in China despite its notorious record of human-rights violations and corruption: economic performance and nationalism. As the economy suffers, nationalism intensifies.The kind of nationalism that has emerged in China is, like that of Nazi Germany, intrinsically aggressive toward nonconforming individuals, groups, and other societies.
The leftist regime was accused of burning bodies 24 hours a day in secret to hide the true number of deaths. Crematory workers are working 10-12 hours a day and do not go home. More than 60% of victims die at home and 38% in hospitals. The communist bureaucracy tries to issue death certificates, including the cause of death, within thirty minutes. Transporting corpses to crematoriums for disposal is the most time consuming task in the process. Typically, Wuhan funeral homes handled about 220 deaths per day. Funeral workers were brought in to Wuhan from all over China to operate the city's crematoriums 24/7 with capacity of cremations of over 1,500 per day for two and half months.
The Chinese government began using mobile crematory units. In a video circulating on the internet, a Wuhan resident says she witnessed critically ill coronavirus patients sealed up in body bags while alive.
The Voice of America reported an estimate of the 84 cremation furnaces in the city have a capacity of 1560 cremations in a 24 hour period, assuming one cremation takes one hour, results in an estimated 46,800 deaths. A source close to the provincial civil affairs bureau said Wuhan saw 28,000 cremations in the space of a single month, suggesting that online estimates over a two-and-a-half month period weren't excessive.
City officials handed out 3,000 yuan ($420) in hush money to families of the dead in exchange for their silence.
- See also: History of the Chinese Communist Party
Founded in 1921, was the Asian branch of the Comintern, controlled by Joseph Stalin from Moscow. Mao Zedong was present at the founding  and became the dominant party leader in 1935 during the Long March, whose survivors controlled the party into the 1990s. Mao and his CCP were the bitter enemies of the Kuomintang party (KMT) under Chiang Kai-shek, which ruled China until defeated by the CCP in 1949. Chiang and his army retreated to the nearby island of Taiwan, which still operates a separate regime. By 1956 U.S. Ambassador Joseph C. Grew commented,
The appalling figures on murders committed by the Beijing Communist government are neither propaganda, exaggerations nor guesses. Since the Communists drove Chiang Kai-shek and the Nationalists off the mainland in 1949, official accounts in Red newspapers have listed the executions of millions of Chinese. . .
. . . The real total of Chinese deaths administered by Beijing probably would total a great deal more than the estimates. Few Chinese marked for death by Beijing had a chance to escape their executioners. The Communists masked their real intentions with a deceptively mild, restrained and orderly entry to power.
American conservatives have always been vehemently hostile toward Mao, and against his CCP until the 1980s, when a modernizing, pro-capitalist faction led by Deng Xiaoping (1904–97) came to power. The currently leader of the party is Xi Jinping.
Soviet Comintern affiliate
The All-Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik) (later known as the Communist Party of the Soviet Union), was obsessed with ambition for China. In 1920, the Soviet Union established the Far Eastern Bureau, a branch of the Third Communist International, or the Comintern. It was responsible for the establishment of a Communist party in China and other countries. Sumiltsky was the head of the bureau, and Grigori Voitinsky was a deputy manager. They began to prepare for the establishment of the CCP with Chen Duxiao and others. The proposal they submitted to the Far Eastern Bureau in June 1921 to establish a China branch of the Comintern indicated that the CCP was a branch led by the Comintern. On July 23, 1921, under the help of Nikolsky and Maring from the Far East Bureau, the CCP was officially formed.
Marxism with its declaration to “use violent revolution to destroy the old state apparatus and to establish a dictatorship of the proletariat” was a completely foreign concept in China. Mao Zedong said, "The social scum and hoodlums have always been spurned by the society, but they are actually the bravest, the most thorough and firmest in the revolution in the rural areas." The lumpen proletariat enhanced the violent nature of the CCP and established the early political power of the communist party in rural areas. The word “revolution” in Chinese literally means “taking lives.” In a debate over the term “lumpen proletariat” during the Cultural Revolution, the CCP felt that “lumpen” did not sound good, and so the CCP replaced it with “proletariat” simply.
The CCP raised funds by robbing banks and kidnapping. Those kidnapped were kept alive to be ransomed back to their families for continued monetary support for the army. It was not until either the Red Army was satisfied or the kidnapped families were completely drained of resources that the hostages were sent home. Some had been tortured so badly that they died before they could return.
In 1935, Mao and Zhou Enlai were elected to the Executive Committee of the Comintern in Moscow. They remained on this committee until it was publicly disbanded in 1943. A Moscow message to all stations on 12 September 1943, message number 142, relating to this event is one of the most interesting and historically important messages in the enter corpus of VENONA translations. This message clearly discloses the KGB's connection to the COMINTERN and to the national Communist parties.
Edgar Snow introduced Mao and Zhou Enlai to American readers in 1937 in his book, Red Star Over China, shortly after the Chinese Red Army’s route by Chiang Kai-shek in 1934 and their year long retreat to Yan'an known as the Long March. Snow wrote, "the political ideology, tactical line and theoretical leadership of the Chinese Communists have been under the close guidance, if not positive detailed direction, of the Communist International, which during the last decade has become virtually a bureau of the Russian Communist Party." And he further declared that the CCP had to subordinate itself to the "strategic requirements of Soviet Russia, under the leadership of Stalin."
Jiangxi Soviet Republic
In 1931 the Executive Committee of the Comintern in Moscow directed Mao Zedong to organize a Soviet on the Russian model. Mao Zedong and Zhu De, and later Zhou Enlai, set up a Soviet government in two central provinces of China. In 1933, the CCP sent a message to Josef Stalin which read, "Lead us on, O our pilot, from victory to victory!" The 1934 Constitution of the Chinese Soviet Republic stated that the "Chinese Soviet Government has the ... goal of eventual nationalization of all land." 
The CCP promised the intellectuals a “heaven on earth.” Later it labeled them “rightist” and put them into the infamous ninth category of persecuted people, alongside landlords and spies. It deprived landlords and capitalists of their property, exterminated the landlord and rich peasant classes, destroyed rank and order in the countryside, took authority away from local figures, kidnapped and extorted bribes from the richer people, brainwashed war prisoners, “reformed” industrialists and capitalists, infiltrated the KMT and disintegrated it, split from the Communist International and betrayed it, cleaned out all dissidents through successive political movements after it came to power in 1949, and threatened its own members with coercion.
The CCP started to build its theoretical system of genocide at its early stage as a composite of its theories on class, revolution, struggle, violence, dictatorship, movements, and political parties. In the “Soviet areas” of Jiangxi Province, while the CCP was encircled by the KMT and could barely survive, it still conducted internal cleansing operations in the name of cracking down on the Anti-Bolshevik League, executing its own soldiers at night or stoning them to death to save bullets.
Second Sino-Japanese War
When the war against Japan broke out in 1937, the Kuomintang (KMT) had more than 1.7 million armed soldiers, ships with 110,000 tons of displacement, and about 600 fighter planes of various kinds.
The total size of the CCP Army, including the New Fourth Army, which was newly formed in November 1937, did not exceed 70,000 people. Its power was weakened further by internal fractional politics; it could have been eliminated in a single battle. If the CCP were to face the Japanese in battle, it would not be able to defeat a single division of Japanese troops. Sustaining its own power rather than ensuring the survival of the nation was the central focus and the reason for its emphasis on “national unity.”
After the Japanese occupied the city of Shenyang on Sept. 18, 1931, thereby extending Japanese control over large areas in northeastern China, the CCP fought alongside Japanese invaders to defeat the KMT. The CCP exhorted people in the KMT-controlled areas to rebel against the KMT, calling on “workers to strike, peasants to make trouble, students to boycott classes, poor people to quit working, soldiers to revolt” so as to overthrow the Nationalist government.
The KMT Army was essentially alone on the frontlines fighting the Japanese, losing more than 200 marshals in the war. The commanding officers on the CCP side bore nearly no losses. However, the textbooks of the CCP have constantly claimed that the KMT did not resist the Japanese and that it was the CCP that led the great victory in the war against Japan.
Yanan Rectification Movement
In northern Shaanxi Province, while sandwiched between the Japanese and the KMT, the CCP began the Yan’an Rectification Movement of mass cleansing, killing many people. This type of repetitive massacre on such a massive scale did not prevent the CCP from eventually expanding its power to rule all of China. The CCP expanded this pattern of internal rivalry and killing from the small Soviet areas to the whole nation.
In 1945–46, the U.S. attempted to force a negotiated settlement between the KMT and the Communists, but failed. In the face of economic collapse Mao Zedong established a totalitarian regime in 1949, forcing the elected constitutional Republic of China government to Taiwan.
Mao liquidated millions of opponents, acting against the International society in the Korean War (1950–53), and around 1960 broke bitterly with the Soviet Union over the control of the Communist world. Mao's regime imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. Mao bluntly said,
“What can Emperor Qin Shi Huang brag about? He only killed 460 Confucian scholars, but we killed 46,000 intellectuals. There are people who accuse us of practicing dictatorship like Emperor Qin Shi Huang, and we admit to it all. It fits the reality. It is a pity that they did not give us enough credit, so we need to add to it.”
Three years of disasters
In the early 1950s, China chose to model its socialist economy after that of the Soviet Union. The Soviet model called for capital-intensive development of heavy industry, with the capital to be generated from the agricultural sector of the economy. The state would purchase grain from the farmers at low prices and sell it, both at home and on the export market, at high prices. In practice, agricultural production did not increase fast enough to generate the amount of capital required to build up China’s industry according to plan. Mao Zedong (1893-1976) decided that the answer was to reorganize Chinese agriculture by pushing through a program of cooperativization (or collectivization) that would bring China’s small farmers, their small plots of land, and their limited draught animals, tools, and machinery together into larger and, presumably, more efficient cooperatives. The Great Leap Forward was a program to nationalize industry and agriculture.
Mao promoted a policy of disposing of "rightist" opponents and sharing the wealth in state-run cooperatives. Since steel was the matter guns and tanks were made of, Mao declared the party's priority to overtake the United States and Great Britain in steel and agricultural output in 15 years. Two liberal New Deal economists, Frank Coe and Solomon Adler, were recruited as advisers.
The program included the establishment of large agricultural communes containing as many as 75,000 people. Peasants were forced to produce steel in open furnaces at the expense of food production. 60% of the steel produced was substandard and useless. Corruption was rampant, with local party officials reporting inflated steel and agricultural output numbers to please their central party bosses. Famine set in; people resorted to eating tree bark and dirt, and in some areas to cannibalism. Farmers who failed to meet grain quotas, tried to get more food, or attempted to escape were tortured and killed along with their family members via beating, public mutilation, being buried alive, scalding with boiling water, and other methods.
45 million people died in the social experiment. According to the Japanese Wikipedia, "It is the socialist policy with the highest number of casualties in the world." In 2009 Prof. Chen Lin of the Beijing Foreign Studies University said of Solomon Adler,
"Sol Adler, as well as two other friends of China, Jack Service and Frank Coe, confronted the Joseph McCarthy persecution. So Sol left the US to stay in the UK. During this period, he visited China many times and in various ways introduced New China to the outside world. His book The Chinese Economy in 1957 won worldwide acclaim. In 1962, when the Chinese people were facing great difficulties at home and abroad, Sol Adler resolutely decided to come and settle in China. He said, "I have come to settle in China for three reasons: First, I have all along had great trust and confidence in the Chinese people and their leaders; second, I have all along had unshakable faith in the cause of socialism; and third, I hope to stay in China for as long as possible and work for world peace and the friendship between the Chinese people and the peoples of the world. I want to devote my whole life to the cause of socialism.".
Chinese historical revisionism now refers to The Great Leap Forward as The Three Years of Disasters. Mao's successor Deng Xiaoping claimed the death toll to be only 16 million, one-third the actual number of victims. The Great Leap Forward remains the greatest prime example of the failure of socialist economic planning
Cultural Marxism Revolution
The Cultural Revolution was a disastrous attempt to reform the economics, education and politics of Communist China, which led to the deaths of tens of millions of people. The upheaval began in August 1966 by Chinese Chairman Mao Zedong.
Mao's objective was to replace leaders with people who would think like him and be supportive of him as Chairmen, make the Chinese Communist Party function the way he wanted, give the Chinese youth a revolutionary experience, and make changes so that education, health care, and cultural systems would be for the entirety of China and not just for the elite. In order to do this, he began to establish a cult towards himself. His party would be forced to support him as he had little patience for opponents during what he believe to be the pinnacle point of China's future as a communist state. He quickly began a system of purges to cleanse of any unwanted opposition toward him or to the gang of four, especially after he was embarrassed with the part rejecting his great leap forward policies
Mao Zedong wanted the Cultural Revolution to affect everyone in China. Ordinary people perceived to be members of the "Five Black Categories" were targeted as well as their children. The Five Black Categories were Landlords, so-called "Rich farmers", anti-communists or counter-revolutionaries , "Bad-influencers" or "bad elements", and Rightists. The Black Book of Communism reports,
The Cultural Revolution's effects, past and present, on the world's imagination and memory stem not only from the extreme radicalism of its discourse and actions but also from its visibility; largely an urban phenomenon, it occurred in the age of television, for which it presented superb images of deftly organized political ceremonies filled with a touching fervor.
In August 1966 all schools were closed. During this time Mao told the Red Guards to question things that traditionally had great value and importance, and question the activities of government officials by slighting them in a way that was visible to all. The party itself was also purged:
The "investigations" inside the government administration, carried out by policemen dressed as Red Guards, were massive and sometimes murderous: there were 1,200 executions in the purge of the Ministry for Security; 22,000 people were interrogated and many imprisoned during the investigation into Liu Shaoqi; 60 percent of the members of the Central Committee (which hardly ever met) and 75 percent of all provincial Party secretaries were expelled and usually also arrested. In all, for the whole period of the Cultural Revolution, between 3 million and 4 million of the 18 million cadres were imprisoned, as were 400,000 soldiers, despite the banning of Red Guards in the PLA. 197 Among the intellectuals, 142,000 teachers, 53,000 scientists and technicians, 500 teachers of medicine, and 2,600 artists and writers were persecuted, and many of them were killed or committed suicide. In Shanghai, where intellectuals were especially numerous, it was officially estimated in 1978 that 10,000 people had died violent deaths as a result of the Cultural Revolution.
According to Prof. R. J. Rummel of the University of Hawaii, 7,731,000 people died in the Cultural Revolution. Others place estimates as high as 20 million. Incidents of cannibalism were also reported. Mssacres were mainly led by the local Communist Party branches, governmental agencies, the militia, and military.
It was no coincidence that the Red Guard violence began in 1966, seventeen years after the 1949 revolution; the first act after the 1949 revolution was take control of the public education system and indoctrinate a generation with Cultural Marxism and to target anyone who opposed them as fascists. The Maoist Red Guard were a supposed "Anti-fascist" movement.
Tiananmen Square democracy protest massacre
Near the end of the Cold War China’s Communist Party faced the challenge of large-scale protests in Beijing’s Tiananmen Square and in more than 100 other cities including Shanghai between April 15, 1989 and June 4, 1989. Disagreements about how to respond split the top Party leadership and forced out the Party General Secretary at the time, Zhao Ziyang. The decision by Deng Xiaoping, then China’s Paramount Leader, to order the People's army to break up pro-democracy protests by force undermined the Party’s legitimacy.
After the fall of the Berlin Wall pro-democracy movements worldwide flourished and socialism fell into disrepute. In an object lesson about the duplicity of socialist slogans, buzzwords, and phrases geared toward the youth and the naive - China's People's Army killed 10,000 of China's own people. In fact, China's People's Army has killed more of China's own people than it has ever been used against any foreign enemy in its entire history.
No sanctions were ever leveled by Western powers and globalists for these naked human rights violations. In fact, China was welcomed into the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001 and granted Most Favored Nation (MFN) trade status by the United States in 2002, having made no reforms to its socialist, authoritarian and totalitarian system.
Supposedly the 2003 SARS epidemic struck suddenly and there was no time to prepare. In reality, the first cases happened in Guangdong province in late November 2002. Chinese officials didn't inform the World Health Organization about SARS until February 2003. When it started to spread to other regions of China, the CCP covered that up. Eventually SARS was reported to have killed just under eight hundred people in China, but in reality there may have been several thousand more.
Dr. Jiang Yanyong in April 2003 wrote a letter exposing the true number of SARS patients in Beijing, which was several times higher than the official number. His letter was publicized by Western media. The party was forced to respond. They fired several Beijing officials and put Dr. Jiang under surveillance. The Communist Party has never admitted there was a SARS cover-up. But afterwards, the Chinese Communist Party did create what was supposed to be a fail-safe system to track contagions. It failed.
The system put in place focused on having doctors across China put patient data into a centralized database. This way central authorities could monitor if there are any new outbreaks. It suppose to work in theory. In July 2019, eight thousand Chinese health officials conducted a massive online drill focusing on how to handle an infectious disease outbreak. In the style of the 2002 SARS outbreak, the officials raced to test how quickly and effectively they could track, identify, and contain the virus, including by notifying Beijing. It worked in the simulation. But in Th December 2019 Wuhan SARS-CoV-2 outbreak it did not work in reality because the Chinese Communist Party's political apparatus makes it impossible for even the best design system to function properly.
- Barnouin, Barbara, and Yu Changgen. Zhou Enlai: A Political Life (2005) excerpt and text search
- Becker, Jasper. Hungry Ghosts: China's Secret Famine (1996), on the "Great Leap Forward" of 1950s
- Chang, Jung and Jon Halliday. Mao: The Unknown Story, (2005), 814 pages, ISBN 0-679-42271-4
- Dietrich, Craig. People's China: A Brief History, 3d ed. (1997), 398pp excerpt and text search
- Dittmer, Lowell. China's Continuous Revolution: The Post-Liberation Epoch, 1949-1981 (1989) online free
- Eberharad, Wolfram. A History of China (2005), 380 pages' full text online free
- Ebrey, Patricia Buckley, and Kwang-ching Liu. The Cambridge Illustrated History of China (1999) 352 pages excerpt and text search
- Esherick, Joseph W.; Pickowicz, Paul G.; and Walder, Andrew G., eds. The Chinese Cultural Revolution as History. (2006). 382 pp. excerpt and text search
- Fairbank, John King and Goldman, Merle. China: A New History. 2nd ed. Harvard U. Press, (2006). 640 pp. excerpt and text search
- Hsü, Immanuel Chung-yueh. The Rise of Modern China, 6th ed. (1999), highly detailed coverage of 1644-1999, in 1136pp. excerpt and text search
- Jian, Guo; Song, Yongyi; and Zhou, Yuan. Historical Dictionary of the Chinese Cultural Revolution. (2006). 433 pp.
- MacFarquhar, Roderick and Fairbank, John K., eds. The Cambridge History of China. Vol. 15: The People's Republic, Part 2: Revolutions within the Chinese Revolution, 1966-1982. Cambridge U. Press, 1992. 1108 pp.
- Meisner, Maurice. Mao's China and After: A History of the People’s Republic, 3rd ed. (Free Press, 1999), dense book with theoretical and political science approach. excerpt and text search
- Perkins, Dorothy. Encyclopedia of China: The Essential Reference to China, Its History and Culture. Facts on File, 1999. 662 pp. excerpt and text search
- Shuyun, Sun. The Long March: The True History of Communist China's Founding Myth (2007)
- Schoppa, R. Keith. The Columbia Guide to Modern Chinese History. (2000). 356 pp. online edition from Questia
- Spence, Jonatham. Mao Zedong (1999) excerpt and text search
- Spence, Jonathan D. The Search for Modern China (1991), 876pp; well written survey from 1644 to 1980s excerpt and text search; complete edition online at Questia
- Wang, Ke-wen, ed. Modern China: An Encyclopedia of History, Culture, and Nationalism. (1998). 442 pp.
- Westad, Odd Arne. Decisive Encounters: The Chinese Civil War, 1946-1950. (2003). 413 pp. the standard history
- China’s Communist Party Reaffirms Marxism, Maoism, Atheism, New American, 2014
- The 2012 Bo Xilai Affair highlighted the degree to which the families of top Party officials were able to parlay access to political power into vast personal wealth. Bo sat on the 25-member Party Politburo and Central Committee, and was Party Secretary of a powerful municipality. Bo styled himself as a champion of the poor and dispossessed, supporting the state-run economy, lead a crackdown on supposed organized crime bosses, and fanned nostalgia for the violent Anti-fascist Cultural Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s. Bo’s rhetoric was critical of the income gap and broken promises to the working class that accompanied China’s rise to become the world’s second-largest economy. Bo was widely reported as a candidate for promotion to the Politburo Standing Committee. Bo’s wife was convicted of murder of a British businessman in August 2012. Bo’s vice mayor was convicted of “bending the law for selfish ends, defection, abuse of power and bribe-taking” in September 2012. Days later, the Party Politburo expelled Bo from the Party’s ranks and announced that it was transferring his case to state judicial authorities. The Party investigation concluded that Bo “bore major responsibility” in the cases of his vice-mayor’s actions and his wife’s involvement in the murder, and alleged that he “took advantage of his office to seek profits for others and received huge bribes personally and through his family.” Social media brought the scandal to light, creating problems for existing leadership.
- such as Wang Lijun’s Jinzhou and Chongqing Public Security Bureau On-Site Psychology Research Centres
- Noebel, David, The Battle for Truth, Harvest House, 2001.
- Senior Chinese Religious Advisor Calls For Promotion Of Atheism In Society, International Business Times
- Christians under Attack in China, By Frederick W. Stakelbeck Jr., FrontPage Magazine, January 25, 2007.
- Chinese journalist Gao Yu faces seven years in prison for 'leaking state secrets'. CBS News.
- "Chinese Journalist Sentenced to 7 Years on Charges of Leaking State Secrets", 16 April 2015.
- "Tilting backwards", 24 June 2013.
- Document 9: A ChinaFile Translation (8 November 2013).
- China Takes Aim at Western Ideas. The New York Times.
- Multiple references:
- Kosmin, Barry A., et al. (2008). "American nones: Profile of the no religion population". American Religion Survey website [Trinity College, Hartford, CT]. Retrieved from Internet Archive.
- Britt, Robert Roy (February 28, 2009). "Women more religious than men". Live Science website.
- Khan, Razib (November 18, 2010). "Gene expression; Sex differences in global atheism, part N". Discover magazine website.
- Reality Check: Does China's Communist Party have a woman problem?, BBC
- It is also known as the “laogai” system. It's Russian equivalent is Glavnoe Upravlenie Lagerei or gulag.
- Tariff Act of 1930, 19 U.S. Code 19 § 1307.
- Cited in Prison Labor Exports from China and Implications for U.S. Policy, U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission Staff Research Report, July 9, 2014.
- Laogai: The Machinery of Repression in China, 2009-10-01
- Loh, Christine, "Underground Front: The Chinese Communist Party in Hong Kong" Second Edition.
- Discrimination and Racism in China, Internations.org website
- What is it like to be Black in China?, Inkstone News
- Anti-Black Racism in Post-Mao China by Barry Sautman, Cambridge University Press
- The confession signed on Jan. 3, 2020 says that they had “severely disrupted social order:”"On December 30, 2019, WeChat group "Clinical Wuhan University 04" issued untrue statements about 7 cases of SARS diagnosed in the South China fruit and seafood market. Now raise warnings and admonitions according to law on the illegal issue of untrue statements on the Internet. Your behavior severely disrupts social order. Your behavior has exceeded the scope permitted by law, and it violates the relevant provisions of the Law of the People's Republic of China on Public Security Management Penalties , which is an illegal act! The public security organ hopes that you will actively cooperate with your work, follow the advice of the police, and stop the illegal behavior. can you do it? Answer: Yes We hope that you calm down and reflect carefully, and solemnly warn you: if you are stubborn, do not think about repentance, and continue to carry out illegal activities, you will be punished by the law! do you understand? Answer: understand"
- Cohen, Jon, "Wuhan seafood market may not be source of novel virus spreading globally," Science, Jan. 26, 2020.
- Dear friends, elders,
I ’m still in the epidemic area of Hankou, Wuhan, and I ’d like to report to you the current epidemic situation in Hubei and even the whole country.
There are now more than 90,000 person-times (Note: Infected person-times or incidents?)
What is the chance of this virus being transmitted? After a person is infected, if he is not effectively isolated,
Or if effective treatment is performed, he will infect 14 people around him, so this level is very large.
Now it’s the time of the Chinese New Year family and friends, relatives, children, and children are all going to the house to reunite the family together for a reunion dinner
The situation is special now. I hope you don’t go out.
Every year in the Spring Festival, as long as people are safe, everyone can be together anytime, anywhere
Let me introduce you to the situation of medical supplies in Hubei Province
At present, the entire medical system in Wuhan, which integrates the entire medical system in Hubei Province, has passed through our superiors. The health and health committee (Note: these three words are uncertain)
And various administrative departments
The municipal government and the provincial government are initiating donations to the society through major media. This material is medical material. For example, the goggles I wear
Wear disposable masks, wear disposable gloves, wear this gown, or even isolation pants.
This material is extremely accurate. Our current medical staff must come back to the front line when they come down from the clinic.
I am now equivalent to recording this video with everyone on the FireWire, in order to make everyone accurate.
I stress again that during the Spring Festival holiday, don’t go out and stay in your own house, otherwise I ’m desperately ahead
Not just to keep my dad, my loved ones, healthy
I hope everyone can understand, I also know that some relatives are not in the group, please see the news of me, call each other and inform
It must be done. I hope everyone can raise awareness. This is a political task.
And I ’m reporting very bad news. This new type of coronavirus has undergone the second generation mutation
In other words, in the first generation of mutation, we can treat it symptomatically.
Then when the second-generation mutation occurs, this is terrible, and its chance of infection is not one person to one person, one person has the disease and infects 14 people around him.
Then it is pour burst (note: these five characters are uncertain)
I hope everyone remembers, do n’t go out, do n’t go out, do n’t meet, do n’t have dinner
thank you all
- BuzzFeed reported that video of one such "hospital" was actually an apartment building being constructed on the other side of the country.
- Dick Wilson, The People's Emperor Mao: A Biography of Mao Tse-tung, New York 1979, pg. 60.
- Joseph C. Grew, Invasion Alert! (Baltimore, Maran Publishers, 1956), pp. 42-44. 
- R.J. Rummel, Reevaluating China's Democide to be 73,000,000, November 20, 2005.
- From Mao’s “Report on an Investigation of the Peasant Movement in Hunan” (March 1927).
- Venona 142(a) Moscow to Canberra 12 September 1943. Text reads: "change in circumstances - and in particular the dissolution of the Comintern - necessitates a change in the method used by the workers of our residencies to keep in touch with the leaders of the local Communist organizations on intelligence matters.
2. Our workers, by continuing to meet the leader of the Communists, are exposing themselves to danger and are giving cause [orgs of] local authorities to suspect that the Comintern is still in existence.
3. We propose:
a. That personal contact with leaders of the local Communist organizations should cease and that Communist material should not be accepted for forwarding to the Comintern.
b. That meetings of our workers may take place only with special reliable undercover [ZAKONSPIRIROVANNYJ] contacts of the Communist [D% organizations], who are not suspected by the [orgs of] local authorities, exclusively about specific aspects of our intelligence work (acquiring [1 group unidentified] contacts, leads [NAVODKI], rechecking of those who are being cultivated, etc.). For each meeting it is necessary to obtain our consent.
Representative of the Soviet Union.
Lt. Gen. P.M. Fitin.
Notes: [a] This message is known to have been sent also to NEW YORK, SAN FRANCISCO, and OTTAWA.
- Counterintelligence Reader, Volume 2, Chapter 4. National Counterintelligence Center, United States Government. n.d.
- Red Star Over China by Edgar Snow, New York, 1937.
- Soviet Russia and the Far East by David J. Dallin (New Haven, 1948); Inside Red China by Nym Wales (New York, 1939); Kiangsi Soviet Republic.
- Soviet Russia and the Far East, David J. Dallin, New Haven, 1948; 17th Congress of Communist Party of Soviet Union, Stenog. Report, p. 1323, quoted in While You Slept : Our Tragedy in Asia and Who Made It, John T. Flynn, New York : The Devin - Adair Company, 1951, pg. 21 pdf.
- Ilpyong J. Kim, The Politics of Chinese Communism, Berkeley 1973, p. 25.
- On the Beginnings of the Chinese Communist Party, Nine Commentaries on the Chinese Communist Party, The Epoch Times, December 13, 2004.
- Johnson, Matthew D.. "The Revolutionary, A film by Irv Drasnin, Lucy Ostrander and Don Sellers", Asian Educational Media Service, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, October 21, 2013. “Matthew D. Johnson is Assistant Professor of East Asian History at Grinnell College. His research and teaching cover modern China and East Asia, political communications and propaganda, and United States-China relations. "The Revolutionary offers a window onto a unique individual and a unique perspective on the Mao-led Communist Party, particularly during the latter’s Cultural Revolution phase. The second is that it insinuates that Maoist China was closed to Americans during the Cold War. Writers Edgar Snow and Anna Louise Strong, both of whom visited and, in Strong’s case, lived in China after 1949 also enjoyed access to China’s top leaders and played important roles as bridges between the Communist Party and U.S. As did W. E. B. Du Bois and Robert F. Williams – African-American intellectuals and leaders whose roles in transnational U.S.-China relations has been overlooked by historians on both sides. Members of the CPUSA visited China during the early 1950s and again during the Cultural Revolution, and a handful of journalists also arrived there on the eve of Great Leap Forward. Other U.S. foreign experts employed by the PRC included former Treasury officials Frank Coe and Solomon Adler."”
- Becker, Jasper, Hungry Ghosts: Mao's Secret Famine, Macmillan (1998), ISBN 0-8050-5668-8, ISBN 978-0-8050-5668-6, pp. 290-299
- Epoch Times Staff, Nine Commentaries on the Communist Party, The Epoch Group, Broad Book USA (2005), ISBN 1-932674-16-0, ISBN 978-1-932674-16-3, p. 47
- China Daily, Sol Adler, a soulful friend (China Daily) Updated: 2009-09-05 07:39
- Mao: The Real Story, by Alexander P. Pantsov with Steven I. Levine, pg. 472.
- Video of Obama Communications Director Claiming Mao One of Her Favorite Political Philosophers' Video, YouTube. Retrieved October 29, 2009.
- Black Book of Communism, Pg. 513.
- Black Book of Communism, Pg, 524.
- Rummel, R. J. (2011-12-31). China's Bloody Century: Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1900 (in en). Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-1-4128-1400-3.
- "Chinese Killed At Least 10,000 At Tiananmen Square, Newly Declassified Documents Claim", Daily Caller, 12/24/2017.
- Nine Commentaries on the Communist Party, an historical critique of the CCP from the Editorial Board of The Epoch Times, (2005)
- 'Slaves' rescued from China firm, By Michael Bristow BBC News, Beijing, Jun 8, 2007.