History of the Chinese Communist Party
The Chinese Communist Party was originally founded as the Far Eastern branch of the Soviet Comintern in 1921, controlled by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) in Moscow. Mao Zedong was present at the founding  and became the dominant party leader in 1935 during the Long March, whose survivors controlled the party into the 1990s. Mao and his CCP were the bitter enemies of the Kuomintang party (KMT) under Chiang Kai-shek, which ruled China until defeated by the CCP in 1949. Chiang and his army retreated to the nearby island of Taiwan, which still operates a separate regime. By 1956 U.S. Ambassador Joseph C. Grew commented,
|The appalling figures on murders committed by the Beijing Communist government are neither propaganda, exaggerations nor guesses. Since the Communists drove Chiang Kai-shek and the Nationalists off the mainland in 1949, official accounts in Red newspapers have listed the executions of millions of Chinese. . .|
. . . The real total of Chinese deaths administered by Beijing probably would total a great deal more than the estimates. Few Chinese marked for death by Beijing had a chance to escape their executioners. The Communists masked their real intentions with a deceptively mild, restrained and orderly entry to power.
American conservatives have always been vehemently hostile toward Mao, and against his CCP until the 1980s, when a modernizing, pro-capitalist faction led by Deng Xiaoping (1904–97) came to power. As of 2012, Xi Jinping became leader of the party.
- 1 Etymology of party
- 2 Mao era
- 2.1 Soviet Comintern affiliate
- 2.2 Jiangxi Soviet Republic
- 2.3 The Long March: 1934-36
- 2.4 Second Sino-Japanese War
- 2.5 Yan'an rectification movement
- 2.6 Siege of Changchun
- 2.7 Maoist revolution
- 2.8 Anti-Landlordism campaign
- 2.9 Anti-rightist campaign
- 2.10 Great Leap Forward
- 2.11 Sino-Soviet split
- 2.12 Cultural Revolution
- 2.13 1969 Sino-Soviet border war
- 2.14 Rapprochement with the U.S.
- 3 Deng and successors
- 4 Xi era
- 4.1 Xi Jinping Thought
- 4.2 Biden family relationship with the CCP
- 4.3 Belt and Road Initiative
- 4.4 CCP global pandemic
- 4.5 Annexation of Hong Kong
- 5 Human rights abuses
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Etymology of party
The Nine Commentaries on the Communist Party of China reports:
|According to the book “Explaining Simple and Analyzing Compound Characters,”  the traditional Chinese character “dang,” meaning “party” or “gang,” consists of two radicals that correspond to “promote or advocate” and “dark or black,” respectively.
Putting the two radicals together, the character means “promoting darkness.”
“Party” or “party member” (which can also be interpreted as “gang” or “gang member”) carries a derogatory meaning.
Confucius said, “A gentleman is proud without being aggressive, sociable but not partisan.”  The footnotes of “Analects” (“Lunyu”) explain, “People who help one another conceal their wrongdoings are said to be forming a gang (party).” 
In Chinese history, political cliques were often called “peng dang” (cabal). It is a synonym for “gang of scoundrels” in traditional Chinese culture, and the meaning implies ganging up for selfish purposes.
Mao liquidated millions of opponents of leftism, saying,
|“What can Emperor Qin Shi Huang brag about? He only killed 460 Confucian scholars, but we killed 46,000 intellectuals. There are people who accuse us of practicing dictatorship like Emperor Qin Shi Huang, and we admit to it all. It fits the reality. It is a pity that they did not give us enough credit, so we need to add to it.”|
Maoist China fought the United States in the bloody Korean War (1950–53), and broke with the Soviet Union over the issue of who best represented the Marxist orthodoxy.
Soviet Comintern affiliate
The All-Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik) (later known as the Communist Party of the Soviet Union), was obsessed with ambition for China. In 1920, the Soviet Union established the Far Eastern Bureau, a branch of the Third Communist International, or the Comintern. It was responsible for the establishment of a Communist party in China and other countries. Sumiltsky was the head of the bureau, and Grigori Voitinsky was a deputy manager. They began to prepare for the establishment of the CCP with Chen Duxiao and others. The proposal they submitted to the Far Eastern Bureau in June 1921 to establish a China branch of the Comintern indicated that the CCP was a branch led by the Comintern. On July 23, 1921, under the help of Nikolsky and Maring from the Far East Bureau, the CCP was officially formed.
Marxism with its declaration to “use violent revolution to destroy the old state apparatus and to establish a dictatorship of the proletariat” was a completely foreign concept in China. Mao Zedong said, "The social scum and hoodlums have always been spurned by the society, but they are actually the bravest, the most thorough and firmest in the revolution in the rural areas." The lumpen proletariat enhanced the violent nature of the CCP and established the early political power of the communist party in rural areas. The word “revolution” in Chinese literally means “taking lives.” In a debate over the term “lumpen proletariat” during the Cultural Revolution, the CCP felt that “lumpen” did not sound good, and so the CCP replaced it with “proletariat” simply.
The CCP raised funds by robbing banks and kidnapping. Those kidnapped were kept alive to be ransomed back to their families for continued monetary support for the army. It was not until either the Red Army was satisfied or the kidnapped families were completely drained of resources that the hostages were sent home. Some had been tortured so badly that they died before they could return.
In 1935, Mao and Zhou Enlai were elected to the Executive Committee of the Comintern in Moscow. They remained on this committee until it was publicly disbanded in 1943. A Moscow message to all stations on 12 September 1943, message number 142, relating to this event is one of the most interesting and historically important messages in the enter corpus of VENONA translations. This message clearly discloses the KGB's connection to the COMINTERN and to the national Communist parties.
Edgar Snow introduced Mao and Zhou Enlai to American readers in 1937 in his book, Red Star Over China, shortly after the Chinese Red Army’s route by Chiang Kai-shek in 1934 and their year long retreat to Yan'an known as the Long March. Snow wrote, "the political ideology, tactical line and theoretical leadership of the Chinese Communists have been under the close guidance, if not positive detailed direction, of the Communist International, which during the last decade has become virtually a bureau of the Russian Communist Party." And he further declared that the CCP had to subordinate itself to the "strategic requirements of Soviet Russia, under the leadership of Stalin."
Jiangxi Soviet Republic
In 1931 the Executive Committee of the Comintern in Moscow directed Mao Zedong to organize a Soviet on the Russian model. Mao Zedong and Zhu De, and later Zhou Enlai, set up a Soviet government in two central provinces of China. In 1933, the CCP sent a message to Josef Stalin which read, "Lead us on, O our pilot, from victory to victory!" The 1934 Constitution of the Chinese Soviet Republic stated that the "Chinese Soviet Government has the ... goal of eventual nationalization of all land." 
The CCP promised the intellectuals a “heaven on earth.” Later it labeled them “rightist” and put them into the infamous ninth category of persecuted people, alongside landlords and spies. It deprived landlords and capitalists of their property, exterminated the landlord and rich peasant classes, destroyed rank and order in the countryside, took authority away from local figures, kidnapped and extorted bribes from the richer people, brainwashed war prisoners, “reformed” industrialists and capitalists, infiltrated the KMT and disintegrated it, split from the Communist International and betrayed it, cleaned out all dissidents through successive political movements after it came to power in 1949, and threatened its own members with coercion.
The CCP started to build its theoretical system of genocide at its early stage as a composite of its theories on class, revolution, struggle, violence, dictatorship, movements, and political parties. In the “Soviet areas” of Jiangxi Province, while the CCP was encircled by the KMT and could barely survive, it still conducted internal cleansing operations in the name of cracking down on the Anti-Bolshevik League, executing its own soldiers at night or stoning them to death to save bullets.
The Long March: 1934-36
The Long March was a 6,000 mile retreat of the Chinese Communist Army back to the northwest to Outer Mongolia and the Soviet Union after it being routed by the Kuomintang in October 1933 to January 1934. In the fifth operation by the KMT, which aimed to encircle and annihilate the CCP, the CCP lost its rural strongholds one after another. With its base areas continually shrinking, the main CCP Army had to flee. They were divided into several armies.
The “Long March” was aimed at breaking out of the encirclement and fleeing to Outer Mongolia and the Soviet Union along an arc that first went west and then north. Once in place, the CCP could escape into the Soviet Union in case of defeat.
The Long March traveled through Shanxi and Suiyuan through a brutal terrain of frigid mountain passes, freezing rivers, and marshes where no Japanese troops were deployed, in search of a sanctuary to continue their revolution. Along the way, the Army of the CCP claimed to be fighting the Japanese. A year later, when the CCP finally arrived at Shanbei (northern Shaanxi province), the main force of the Central Red Army had decreased from 80,000 to 6,000 people.
Only 7000 survived the march.
All the Communist leaders of the country after 1949 were on the Long March. Virtually all the Communist leaders of the next 70 years were marchers or their children. By the 1960s, the children of people on the March started to gain power.
Second Sino-Japanese War
When the war against Japan broke out in 1937, the Kuomintang (KMT) had more than 1.7 million armed soldiers, ships with 110,000 tons of displacement, and about 600 fighter planes of various kinds.
The total size of the CCP Army, including the New Fourth Army, which was newly formed in November 1937, did not exceed 70,000 people. Its power was weakened further by internal fractional politics; it could have been eliminated in a single battle. If the CCP were to face the Japanese in battle, it would not be able to defeat a single division of Japanese troops. Sustaining its own power rather than ensuring the survival of the nation was the central focus and the reason for its emphasis on “national unity.”
After the Japanese occupied the city of Shenyang on Sept. 18, 1931, thereby extending Japanese control over large areas in northeastern China, the CCP fought alongside Japanese invaders to defeat the KMT.
The Japanese set up a covert biological and chemical warfare research and development unit in Harbin. Unit 731 and its affiliated units were involved in research, development and experimental deployment of epidemic-creating biowarfare weapons in assaults against the Chinese populace (both military and civilian) throughout World War II. Plague-infected fleas, bred in the laboratories of Unit 731 and Unit 1644, were spread by low-flying airplanes upon Chinese cities, including coastal Ningbo and Changde, Hunan Province, in 1940 and 1941. This military aerial spraying killed tens of thousands of people with bubonic plague epidemics. An expedition to Nanking involved spreading typhoid and paratyphoid germs into the wells, marshes, and houses of the city, as well as infusing them into snacks to be distributed among the locals. Epidemics broke out shortly after, to the elation of many researchers, where it was concluded that paratyphoid fever was "the most effective" of the pathogens.
At least 12 large-scale field trials of biological weapons were performed, and at least 11 Chinese cities were attacked with biological agents. An attack on Changda in 1941 reportedly led to approximately 10,000 biological casualties and 1,700 deaths among ill-prepared Japanese troops, with most cases due to cholera. Japanese researchers performed tests on prisoners with bubonic plague, cholera, smallpox, botulism, and other diseases. This research led to the development of the defoliation bacilli bomb and the flea bomb used to spread bubonic plague. Some of these bombs were designed with porcelain shells, an idea proposed by Ishii in 1938.
Due to pressure from numerous accounts of the bio-warfare attacks, Chiang Kai-shek sent a delegation of army and foreign medical personnel in November 1941 to document evidence and treat the afflicted. A report on the Japanese use of plague-infested fleas on Changde was made widely available the following year, but was not addressed by the Allied Powers until Franklin D. Roosevelt issued a public warning in 1943 condemning the attacks.
Yan'an rectification movement
In northern Shaanxi Province, while sandwiched between the Japanese and the KMT, the CCP began the Yan’an Rectification Movement of mass cleansing, killing many people. More than 10,000 were killed in the "rectification" process, as the Party made efforts to attack intellectuals and replace the culture of the May Fourth Movement with that of Communist culture. This type of repetitive massacre on such a massive scale did not prevent the CCP from eventually expanding its power to rule all of China. The CCP expanded this pattern of internal rivalry and killing from the small Soviet areas to the whole nation. The Nine Commentaries on the Communist Party describes Yan'an rectification movement as,
"the largest, darkest, and most ferocious power game ever played out in the human world. In the name of “cleansing petty bourgeoisie toxins,” the Party washed away morality, independence of thought, freedom of action, tolerance, and dignity....Humiliation became a fact of life in Yan’an—it was either humiliate other comrades or humiliate oneself. People were pushed to the brink of insanity, having been forced to abandon their dignity, sense of honor or shame, and love for one another to save their own lives and their own jobs. They ceased to express their own opinions and recited Party leaders’ articles instead."
Mao developed the techniques of "thought reform" (literally "washing the brain" in Chinese). Mao's tactics often included isolating and attacking dissenting individuals in "study groups." These techniques of pressure, ostracism, and reintegration were particularly powerful in China, where the culture puts great value on "saving face", protecting one's innermost thinking, and above all, identifying with a group. Individuals put through thought reform later described it as excruciating. The resulting changes in views were not permanent, but the experience overall seriously affected the lives of those who went through it. The CCP has used these same types of techniques on millions of Chinese since 1949.
Siege of Changchun
In 1948, when CCP engaged the Nationalist Party (Kuomintang), a military blockage of Changchun, the biggest city in Manchuria at the time, was undertaken by PLA against the Nationalist army stationed inside the city. The blockage lasted for nearly five months. In the end the PLA took the city at the expense of tens and thousands of civilians starving to death.
- See also: People's Republic of China
In 1945–46, the U.S. attempted to force a negotiated settlement between the KMT and the Communists, but failed. In the face of economic collapse, the Communists won the civil war in 1949 under Mao Zedong established a totalitarian regime, forcing the elected constitutional ROC Government to Taiwan. Taiwan is recognized as an integral part of China in theory, but in practice has been independent since 1949.
Throughout most of the Cold War era, the United States and its allies adopted a Two-China policy, referring to Mainland China as Red China, and the allied Taiwanese government as Free China. The government of Taiwan held the permanent seat assigned to China on the United Nations Security Council from the founding of the United Nations Charter in 1945, until Red China's accession to the post in 1971. Since 1971, Red China, or the Peoples Republic of China, has insisted upon a One-China policy in all its diplomatic relations. The common reference to Mainland China as "China" proper in American academia and media, in accordance with PRC propaganda and its foreign policy stance, is a relatively late development of more recent decades.
To seize real power, the CCP went on a nationwide anti-landlord campaign in rural areas and in cities, murdering landlords and their families, allegedly freeing the oppressed. Landowners were tried in public kangaroo courts in village squares where they were openly shamed and mocked, accused of committing crimes against the people. The land, however, was transferred to state ownership and not to the people, and Stalinist collectivization was imposed based upon the model implemented in the Ukraine in the 1930s (see Holodomor).
These anti-landlord campaigns and murder which the left deems "liberating the people", actually began in the communist occupied territory of Yan'an during World War II, where the communists were hiding out from the Kuomintang and the Japanese even before the party captured the Chinese state in 1949. Landlords were forced into a rectification process, making false confessions and apologies, after which they were murdered.
Prof. R.J. Rummel in China’s Bloody Century: Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1900, posits that some 4.5 million landlords and relatively well-off peasants died in the land reform campaigns. Mao biographer Philip Short estimates that possibly 1 million landlords and their families were killed, but the death toll “may have been two, possibly three times higher.”
According to China File, “landlords” was merely a convenient label pushed by Mao and the communist party:
|"There were no landlords there, just peasants, some of whom were richer than others. The violence that erupted was not spontaneous, but carefully orchestrated. For several weeks, people were whipped up into a frenzy by Party cadres in public rallies, then armed with sticks, hoes, or even guns, and unleashed on those who had a little more education, or a bit more land, or a slightly nicer dwelling.
In this type of mob savagery (think of what happened to Jews in Polish villages under Nazi rule), greed, envy, and personal resentments are useful human instincts for officials to exploit. Since class categories were often so arbitrary, and the instigators of violence usually came from the outside, people were in effect set upon one another, friends upon friends, children upon parents. This was the point of the exercise. Through organized violence, the Party made everyone complicit in the mayhem it stirred up. The aim was to tear apart the fabric of traditional Chinese life, leaving the Party as the only permitted focus of loyalty and authority.
According to historian Frank Dikötter, who chronicled Mao’s brutality: “Many of the victims were beaten to death and some shot, but in many cases, they were first tortured in order to make them reveal their assets—real or imagined.”
In 1956 Mao he initiated the Hundred Flowers Campaign, in which he invited criticism: “Let a hundred flowers bloom and a hundred schools of thought contend," Mao insisted. Having offered various constructive suggestions, critics soon found that what Mao really wanted to do was to expose opponents, to "draw the snakes out of their lairs". Mao launched another round of repression, the Anti‐Rightist Movement. Millions more were killed or imprisoned.
Great Leap Forward
According to the far left online encyclopedia Wikipedia, "The name Forward carries a special meaning in socialist political terminology. It has been frequently used as a name for socialist, communist and other leftwing newspapers and publications." Mao decided to use the Forward slogan in his great experiment to modernize New China under the precepts of Democratic Socialism. Mao chose to model New China's socialist economy after that of the Soviet Union. The Soviet model called for capital-intensive development of heavy industry, with the capital to be generated from the agricultural sector of the economy. The state would purchase grain from the farmers at low prices and sell it, both at home and on the export market, at high prices. In practice, agricultural production did not increase fast enough to generate the amount of capital required to build up China's industry according to plan. Mao Zedong (1893-1976) decided that the answer was to reorganize Chinese agriculture by pushing through a program of cooperativization (or collectivization) that would bring China's small farmers, their small plots of land, and their limited draught animals, tools, and machinery together into larger and, presumably, more efficient cooperatives. The Great Leap Forward was a program to nationalize industry and agriculture.
Mao promoted a policy of disposing of "rightist" opponents and sharing the wealth in state-run cooperatives. Since steel was the matter guns and tanks were made of, Mao declared the party's priority to overtake the United States and Great Britain in steel and agricultural output in 15 years. Two liberal New Deal economists, Frank Coe and Solomon Adler, were recruited as advisers.
The program included the establishment of large agricultural communes containing as many as 75,000 people. Peasants were forced to produce steel in open furnaces at the expense of food production. 60% of the steel produced was substandard and useless. Corruption was rampant, with local party officials reporting inflated steel and agricultural output numbers to please their central party bosses. Famine set in; people resorted to eating tree bark and dirt, and in some areas to cannibalism. Farmers who failed to meet grain quotas, tried to get more food, or attempted to escape were tortured and killed along with their family members via beating, public mutilation, being buried alive, scalding with boiling water, and other methods.
45 million people died in the social experiment. According to the Japanese Wikipedia, "It is the socialist policy with the highest number of casualties in the world." In 2009 Prof. Chen Lin of the Beijing Foreign Studies University said of Solomon Adler,
"Sol Adler, as well as two other friends of China, Jack Service and Frank Coe, confronted the Joseph McCarthy persecution. So Sol left the US to stay in the UK. During this period, he visited China many times and in various ways introduced New China to the outside world. His book The Chinese Economy in 1957 won worldwide acclaim. In 1962, when the Chinese people were facing great difficulties at home and abroad, Sol Adler resolutely decided to come and settle in China. He said, "I have come to settle in China for three reasons: First, I have all along had great trust and confidence in the Chinese people and their leaders; second, I have all along had unshakable faith in the cause of socialism; and third, I hope to stay in China for as long as possible and work for world peace and the friendship between the Chinese people and the peoples of the world. I want to devote my whole life to the cause of socialism.".
Chinese historical revisionism now refers to The Great Leap Forward as The Three Years of Disasters. Mao's successor Deng Xiaoping claimed the death toll to be only 16 million, one-third the actual number of victims. The Great Leap Forward remains the greatest prime example of the failure of socialist economic planning.
In the 1960s, Beijing competed with Moscow for political influence among communist parties and in the developing world generally. The PRC broke its connection with the foreign policy leadership provided by Moscow after the Cuban Missile Crisis. Following the 1968 Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia and clashes in 1969 on the Sino-Soviet border, Chinese competition with the Soviet Union increasingly reflected concern over China's own strategic position.
In late 1978, the Chinese also became concerned over Vietnam's efforts to establish open control over Laos and Cambodia, though it is because of Cambodian's brutality that led to the invasion. In response to the Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia, China fought a brief border war with Vietnam (February–March 1979) with the stated purpose of "teaching Vietnam a lesson."
Chinese anxiety about Soviet strategic advances was heightened following the Soviet Union's December 1979 invasion of Afghanistan. Sharp differences between China and the Soviet Union persisted over Soviet support for Vietnam's continued occupation of Cambodia, the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, and Soviet troops along the Sino-Soviet border and in Mongolia—the so-called "three obstacles" to improved Sino-Soviet relations.
In the 1970s and 1980s, China sought to create a secure regional and global environment for itself and to foster good relations with countries that could aid its economic development. To this end, China looked to the West for assistance with its modernization drive and for help in countering Soviet expansionism, which was characterized as the greatest threat to its national security and to world peace.
China maintained its consistent opposition to "superpower hegemony," focusing almost exclusively on the expansionist actions of the Soviet Union and Soviet proxies such as Vietnam and Cuba, but it also placed growing emphasis on a foreign policy independent of both the U.S. and the Soviet Union. While improving ties with the West, China continued to follow closely economic and other positions of the Third World nonaligned movement, although China was not a formal member.
In the immediate aftermath of the Tiananmen crackdown in June 1989, many countries reduced their diplomatic contacts with China as well as their economic assistance programs. In response, China worked vigorously to expand its relations with foreign countries, and by late 1990, had reestablished normal relations with almost all nations. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in late 1991, China also opened diplomatic relations with the republics of the former Soviet Union.
- See also: Cultural Revolution
The Cultural Revolution was a disastrous attempt to reform the economics, education and politics of Communist China, which led to the deaths of tens of millions of people. The upheaval began in August 1966 by Chinese Chairman Mao Zedong.
In the early 1960s, State President Liu Shaoqi and his protégé, Party General Secretary Deng Xiaoping, took over direction of the party and adopted pragmatic economic policies at odds with Mao's revolutionary vision. Dissatisfied with China's new direction and his own reduced authority, Party Chairman Mao launched a massive political attack on Liu, Deng, and other pragmatists in the spring of 1966. The new movement, the "Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution," was unprecedented in communist history. For the first time, a section of the Chinese communist leadership sought to rally popular opposition against another leadership group. China was set on a course of political and social anarchy that lasted the better part of a decade.
In the early stages of the Cultural Revolution, Mao and his "closest comrade in arms," National Defense Minister Lin Biao, charged Liu, Deng, and other top party leaders with dragging China back toward capitalism. Radical youth organizations, called Red Guards, attacked party and state organizations at all levels, seeking out leaders who would not bend to the radical wind.
Mao's objective was to replace leaders with people who would think like him and be supportive of him as Chairmen, make the Chinese Communist Party function the way he wanted, give the Chinese youth a revolutionary experience, and make changes so that education, health care, and cultural systems would be for the entirety of China and not just for the elite. In order to do this, he began to establish a cult towards himself. His party would be forced to support him as he had little patience for opponents during what he believed to be the pinnacle point of China's future as a communist state. He quickly began a system of purges to cleanse of any unwanted opposition toward him or to the gang of four, especially after he was embarrassed with the part rejecting his great leap forward policies
Mao Zedong wanted the Cultural Revolution to affect everyone in China. Ordinary people perceived to be members of the "Five Black Categories" were targeted as well as their children. The Five Black Categories were Landlords, so-called "Rich farmers", anti-communists or counter-revolutionaries, "Bad-influencers" or "bad elements", and Rightists. The Black Book of Communism reports,
|The Cultural Revolution's effects, past and present, on the world's imagination and memory stem not only from the extreme radicalism of its discourse and actions but also from its visibility; largely an urban phenomenon, it occurred in the age of television, for which it presented superb images of deftly organized political ceremonies filled with a touching fervor.|
In August 1966 all schools were closed. During this time Mao told the Red Guards to question things that traditionally had great value and importance, and question the activities of government officials by slighting them in a way that was visible to all. The party itself was also purged:
|The "investigations" inside the government administration, carried out by policemen dressed as Red Guards, were massive and sometimes murderous: there were 1,200 executions in the purge of the Ministry for Security; 22,000 people were interrogated and many imprisoned during the investigation into Liu Shaoqi; 60 percent of the members of the Central Committee (which hardly ever met) and 75 percent of all provincial Party secretaries were expelled and usually also arrested. In all, for the whole period of the Cultural Revolution, between 3 million and 4 million of the 18 million cadres were imprisoned, as were 400,000 soldiers, despite the banning of Red Guards in the PLA. 197 Among the intellectuals, 142,000 teachers, 53,000 scientists and technicians, 500 teachers of medicine, and 2,600 artists and writers were persecuted, and many of them were killed or committed suicide. In Shanghai, where intellectuals were especially numerous, it was officially estimated in 1978 that 10,000 people had died violent deaths as a result of the Cultural Revolution.|
Gradually, Red Guard and other radical activity subsided, and the Chinese political situation stabilized along complex factional lines. The leadership conflict came to a head in September 1971, when Party Vice Chairman and Defense Minister Lin Biao reportedly tried to stage a coup against Mao; Lin Biao later died in a plane crash in Mongolia.
Mao's regime imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. The Cultural Revolution of 1966-76 was inspired by Mao and devastated the intellectual class. Tens of thousands of intellectuals and teachers were educators were insulted, tortured, driven to suicide or executed by their students. Mobilized as members of the Red Guards, a new youth organization, the students attacked the educators as "capitalist intellectuals." From 1967 to 1978, the state "send-down" (rustication) policy 17 million urban youth to live and work in rural areas, with a permanent negative impact on their intellectual development and careers.
The upheaval was not limited to the cities. Maoist political ideology and teachings provided the catalyst for village conflicts that brought out traditional grievances and further escalated the conflicts. Some of the catalysts were student activists carrying out Mao's teachings, factional disputes, and the Four Clean-up campaigns that purged village officials and corruption. These conflicts spread to traditional grievances like lineage and hamlet hostilities and disputes over leadership and rights. Often, the conflicts caused by Party politics intersected traditional conflicts to the extent that the root causes of the conflicts were lost. This resulted in further escalation of the conflicts, which became more complex and widespread.
In rural China an estimated 750,000 to 1.5 million people were killed, and about as many permanently injured; 36 million who suffered some form of political persecution. The vast majority of these casualties occurred from 1968 to 1971, after the end of the period of popular rebellion and factional conflict and the establishment of provisional organs of local state power.
Mao's policies were illustrated in posters that used art for political purposes. The posters glorified Mao, criticized his opponents, urged cooperation among all revolutionary groups, and condemned capitalism and foreign imperialists. Major leadership changes and purges occurred at the top, involving Lin Biao, the Gang of Four, and Deng Xiaoping.
According to Prof. R. J. Rummel of the University of Hawaii, 7,731,000 people died in the Cultural Revolution. Others place estimates as high as 20 million. Incidents of cannibalism were also reported. Massacres were mainly led by the local Communist Party branches, governmental agencies, the militia, and military.
It was no coincidence that the Red Guard violence began in 1966, seventeen years after the 1949 revolution; the first act after the 1949 revolution was take control of the public education system and indoctrinate a generation with Cultural Marxism and to target anyone who opposed them as fascists. The Maoist Red Guard were a supposed "Anti-fascist" movement.
1969 Sino-Soviet border war
On March 2, 1969, under what CIA analysts believed were direct orders from Beijing, Chinese border guards and soldiers of the People's Liberation Army (PLA) ambushed a unit of Soviet KGB border troops. Instantly, around 300 more PLA soldiers burst out of foxholes and opened fire on the remaining Soviets. The Soviet Union was ready to retaliate
This brutal clash was the escalation of a ‘pushing war’ in which Soviet and Chinese soldiers had patrolled the same contested stretch of land for years. Mao's gamble was that either the Soviets would not retaliate, or would do so at a small scale, despite the huge buildup of Red Army forces in the region.
CIA files show the Soviet's Strategic Missile Forces went to high alert – their nuclear warheads ready to be unleashed at targets 1,600 kilometres away in less than 15 minutes. Dr Robert Farley, assistant professor at the Patterson School of Diplomacy, revealed just how close the pair came to wiping each other off the map. He wrote:
“China tested its first nuclear device in 1964, theoretically giving Beijing an independent deterrent capability.
“However, their delivery systems left much to be desired, liquid-fuelled missiles of uncertain reliability that required hours to prepare, and that could only remain on the launchpad for a limited amount of time.
“Moreover, Chinese missiles of the era lacked the range to strike vital Soviet targets in European Russia.
“China’s bomber force – consisting of an extremely limited number of Tu-4 and H-6 – would have fared very poorly against the USSR’s sophisticated air defence network.”
“The Soviets, on the other hand, were on the verge of achieving nuclear parity with the United States.
“The USSR had a modern, sophisticated arsenal of tactical and strategic nuclear weapons, easily capable of destroying China’s nuclear deterrent, its core military formations and its major cities.
“Sensitive to international opinion, the Soviet leadership would have resisted launching a full-scale nuclear assault against China, but a limited strike against Chinese nuclear facilities, as well as tactical attacks on deployed Chinese forces might have seemed more reasonable.
“Much would have depended on how the Chinese reacted to defeats on the battlefield.“If the Chinese leadership decided that they needed to “use or lose” their nuclear forces in anticipation of decisive Soviet victory, they could easily have incurred a preemptive Soviet attack.”
Writing for National Interest in 2016, Farlay added:
“The United States reacted to the clashes with caution.
“While the border conflict reassured Washington that the Sino-Soviet split remained in effect, officials disagreed over the likelihood and consequences of broader conflict.
“Through various official and non-official channels, the Soviets probed US attitudes towards China.
“Reputedly, the United States reacted negatively to Soviet overtures in 1969 about a joint attack on Chinese nuclear facilities.“However, even if Washington did not want to see China burn, it would not likely have engaged in any serious, affirmative effort to protect Beijing from Moscow’s wrath.”
Rapprochement with the U.S.
In 1972 the world was stunned when American President Richard Nixon visited Beijing, ending the cold war between the two countries and opening an era of détente and friendship that continues into the 21st century.
After 1978, Mao's successor Deng Xiaoping focused on market-oriented economic development, and by 2000 output had quadrupled, population growth ended (by imposing a one-child policy), and good relations were secured with the West. For much of the population, living standards have improved dramatically and the room for personal choice has expanded, yet political controls and Internet censorship remain tight.
For regime survival, the CCP sought to reshape external perception of China after it opened up to the world in the late 1970s. To that end, the Party moved to control and influence critical channels of messaging delivery—schools, think tanks, media, business, and political elites—to ensure effective delivery of its propaganda. In the coming decades the CCP successfully created a “Red Matrix,” or an informational environment that is largely pro-China and lacking in key knowledge about the CCP.
During the First Cold War the Soviet Union formed the Iron Curtain to “block out” the West. The CCP, however, created a Red Matrix to “plug in” the world to a view of China that the CCP controlled. The result of these influence operations were decades of misinformation and disinformation about China that has been knowingly or unknowingly produced by Western information repositories and providers.
Deng and successors
- See also: China under Deng and successors
Mao's death in September 1976 removed a towering figure from Chinese politics and set off a scramble for succession. Former Minister of Public Security Hua Guofeng was quickly confirmed as Party Chairman and Premier. A month after Mao's death, Hua, backed by the PLA, arrested Jiang Qing and other members of the "Gang of Four." After extensive deliberations, the Chinese Communist Party leadership reinstated Deng Xiaoping to all of his previous posts at the 11th Party Congress in August 1977. Deng then led the effort to place government control in the hands of veteran party officials opposed to the radical excesses of the previous two decades.
The new, pragmatic leadership emphasized economic development and renounced mass political movements. At the pivotal December 1978 Third Plenum (of the 11th Party Congress Central Committee), the leadership adopted economic reform policies aimed at expanding rural income and incentives, encouraging experiments in enterprise autonomy, reducing central planning, and attracting foreign direct investment into China. The plenum also decided to accelerate the pace of legal reform, culminating in the passage of several new legal codes by the National People's Congress in June 1979.
After 1979, the Chinese leadership moved toward more pragmatic positions in almost all fields. The party encouraged artists, writers, and journalists to adopt more critical approaches, although open attacks on party authority were not permitted. In late 1980, Mao's Cultural Revolution was officially proclaimed a catastrophe. Hua Guofeng, a protégé of Mao, was replaced as premier in 1980 by reformist Sichuan party chief Zhao Ziyang and as party General Secretary in 1981 by the even more reformist Communist Youth League chairman Hu Yaobang.
Reform policies brought great improvements in the standard of living, especially for urban workers and for farmers who took advantage of opportunities to diversify crops and establish village industries. Literature and the arts blossomed, and Chinese intellectuals established extensive links with scholars in other countries.
At the same time, however, political dissent as well as social problems such as inflation, urban migration, and prostitution emerged. Although students and intellectuals urged greater reforms, some party elders increasingly questioned the pace and the ultimate goals of the reform program. In December 1986, student demonstrators, taking advantage of the loosening political atmosphere, staged protests against the slow pace of reform, confirming party elders' fear that the current reform program was leading to social instability. Hu Yaobang, a protégé of Deng and a leading advocate of reform, was blamed for the protests and forced to resign as CCP General Secretary in January 1987. Premier Zhao Ziyang was made General Secretary and Li Peng, former Vice Premier and Minister of Electric Power and Water Conservancy, was made Premier.
Trial of the Gang of Four
In 1976, after the death of Zhou Enlai in January, the replacement of Deng in April, and Mao's death in September, a short, dramatic struggle ended with the arrest of the Gang of Four, the end of the Cultural Revolution, and the transition to the post-Mao era. For a brief moment hope existed that the party might reform itself and the specter of communism cast off from China.
In the aftermath of the Lin Biao fiasco, many officials criticized and dismissed during 1966-69 were reinstated. Chief among these was Deng Xiaoping, who reemerged in 1973 and was confirmed in 1975 in the concurrent posts of Politburo Standing Committee member, PLA Chief of Staff, and Vice Premier.
The ideological struggle between more pragmatic, veteran party officials and the radicals re-emerged with a vengeance in late 1975. Mao's wife, Jiang Qing, and three close Cultural Revolution associates (later dubbed the "Gang of Four") launched a media campaign against Deng. In January 1976, Premier Zhou Enlai, the #2 leader, died of cancer. To save Mao's reputation, all the atrocities and corruption were blame on Mao's wife and others who subsequently were convicted and allegedly committed suicide in prison. Mao however, is revered as a god by communists worldwide and by the CCP to this day.
One child policy
For a more detailed treatment, see One-child Policy.
With a population officially just over 1.3 billion and an estimated growth rate of about 0.6%, China is very concerned about its population growth and has attempted with mixed results to implement a strict birth limitation policy. Until 2013 the government permitted one child per family, with allowance for a second child under certain circumstances (such as twins), especially in rural areas, and with guidelines looser for ethnic minorities with small populations. Enforcement varies and relies largely on "social compensation fees" to discourage extra births. Official government policy opposed forced abortion or sterilization, but in some localities, there were instances of forced abortion. The government's goal was to stabilize the population in the first half of the 21st century.
Boys are highly prized, and because screening of fetuses was done to determine gender, selective abortion resulted in 119 boys born for every 100 girls.
Fertility rates dropped below 2.0 by 1990. The magnitude of female infanticide in China became astonishing in the decades between 1990 and 2010, when well over ten million female infants were killed. The result was a skewed sex ratio in the generation born since 1980. By 2020, there were about 50 million more males than females.
Tiananmen Square massacre
- See also: Tiananmen Square massacre
In the months prior to the fall of the Berlin Wall, pro-democracy movements worldwide flourished and socialism fell into disrepute. The CCP faced the challenge of large-scale protests in Beijing's Tiananmen Square and in more than 400 other cities between April 15, 1989, and June 4, 1989.
After Zhao Ziyang became the party General Secretary, the economic and political reforms he had championed came under increasing attack. His proposal in May 1988 to accelerate price reform led to widespread popular complaints about rampant inflation and gave opponents of rapid reform the opening to call for greater centralization of economic controls and stricter prohibitions against Western influence. This precipitated a political debate, which grew more heated through the winter of 1988-89.
The death of Hu Yaobang on April 15, 1989, coupled with growing economic hardship caused by high inflation, provided the backdrop for a large-scale protest movement by students, intellectuals, government employees, journalists, workers, police officers, members of the armed forces, and other members of a disaffected urban population. University students and other citizens camped out in Beijing's Tiananmen Square to mourn Hu's death and to protest against those who would slow reform. Their protests, which grew despite government efforts to contain them, called for an end to official corruption and for defense of freedoms guaranteed by the Chinese constitution. At least one million residents of Beijing were taking part in the protests. Protests also spread to many other cities, including Shanghai, Chengdu, and Guangzhou. By late May, Tiananmen Square was overcrowded and beginning to face health and hygiene problems.
Disagreements about how to respond split the top Party leadership and forced out the Party General Secretary at the time, Zhao Ziyang. The decisions by Wang Zhen, Li Peng, and Paramount Leader Deng Xiaoping led them to conclude that the survival of their regime was at stake. Martial law was declared on May 20, 1989 and at least 30 divisions were mobilized. As many as 250,000 troops were eventually sent to the capital.
The 27th Army of Shanxi Province, whose troops were described as 60 percent illiterate and primitives, were responsible for most of the atrocities at Tiananmen Square. The 27th Army “snipers shot many civilians on balconies, street sweepers etc for target practice” and used expanding dum-dum bullets. The 27th Army was chosen because its troops were considered “the most reliable and obedient”.
Late on June 3, 1989 and early on the morning of June 4, PLA units were brought into Beijing using automatic weapons, advancing in tanks, armored personnel carriers (APCs), and trucks from several directions toward Tiananmen Square. They used armed force to clear demonstrators from the streets.
At 4:30 am protesters, joined by some PLA members, were given one hour to leave the Square, however five minutes later the 27th Army's armoured personnel carriers opened fire before running the crowd over at 65 kph [40 miles per hour]. “Students linked arms but were mown down. APCs then ran over the bodies time and time again to make, quote ‘pie’ unquote. Their remains were collected by bulldozer later that morning, incinerated, and then hosed down drains.
The 27th Army was ordered to spare no one. Wounded girl students begged for their lives but were bayoneted. A three-year-old girl was injured, but her mother was shot as she went to her aid, as were six others.
1,000 survivors were told they could escape but were then mown down from specially prepared machine gun positions.
Army ambulances, who attempted to give aid, were shot up, as was a Sino-Japanese hospital ambulance. With the medical crew dead, the wounded driver attempted to ram attackers but was blown to pieces by an anti-tank weapon.
In another incident, the troops shot one of their own officers. “27 Army officer shot dead by own troops, apparently because he faltered. Troops explained they would be shot if they hadn’t shot the officer.”
The true scale of the murders went unreported in Western media for nearly 30 years, as globalists negotiated trade agreements and welcomed the PRC into the World Trade Organization. Western sources, including Wikipedia, toe the Chinese Communist Party line on many events and details, including casualty statistics.
Jiang Zemin 1992-2002
Deng's health deteriorated in the years prior to his death in 1997. During that time, President Jiang Zemin and other members of his generation gradually assumed control of the day-to-day functions of government. This "third-generation" leadership governed collectively with President Jiang at the center.
In March 1998, Jiang was re-elected President during the 9th National People's Congress. Premier Li Peng was constitutionally required to step down from that post. He was elected to the chairmanship of the National People's Congress. Zhu Rongji was selected to replace Li as Premier.
The 610 Office is the main organization created to eliminate Falun Gong. It is nominally subordinate to the Political and Legal Affairs Committee (PLAC). The Political and Legal Affairs Committee purview was expanded after the 610 Office was incorporated into it.
The 610 Office derives its name from the date of its founding, June 10th, 1999. After that date, almost every Party branch, from the province to the county to the district level, established its own 610 Office. The source of the 610 Office’s ability to operate extralegally and with impunity is not drawn from the State. Neither the People's Congress nor the State Council has authorized its actions. Rather, approval and support for its deeds come from the CCP. Each 610 Office takes orders from the 610 Office one level above it, going up to the Central Committee 610 Office. The local 610 Offices also take orders from the leadership team of the CCP Committee at its same organizational level.
It later changed its name to the Central Leading Group on Dealing with Heretical Religions or Office of Maintaining Stability.
Persecution of Falun Gong
In 1989, the Tiananmen Square democracy protests were inspired by an explosion of democracy protests worldwide that resulted in the Fall of the Berlin Wall, the Czech Velvet Revolution, and the collapse of Soviet Communism. The Chinese protests, however, were quashed when the so-called "People's Liberation Army" killed over 10,000 Chinese people. The Chinese Communist Party then established a registry of social organizations, in order to head off political upheaval. Falun Gong, a revival of pre-Maoist Cultural Revolution traditions, registered with the Chinese government in 1992. It soon attracted “tens of millions of adherents." Falun Gong started holding enormous gatherings; by the mid- 1990s, there were more than two thousand Falun Gong practice sites in Beijing alone. Troubled by the possibility that a large part of the population was becoming more loyal to Falun Gong than to the Communist Party, the government began cracking down on groups and banning sales of Falun Gong publications.
By 1999, the CCP estimated that the group had seventy million adherents; that year, more than ten thousand of them staged a silent protest in Tiananmen Square. An arrest warrant was issued for Li Hongzhi, the group founder, who had by then immigrated to Queens, New York. The Chinese National Congress subsequently passed, and began violently enforcing, an "anti-cult law".
The 610 Office was the main organization created to eliminate Falun Gong. It is nominally subordinate to the Political and Legal Affairs Committee (PLAC). The Political and Legal Affairs Committee purview was expanded after the 610 Office was incorporated into it. The 610 Office derives its name from the date of its founding, June 10th, 1999. After that date, almost every Party branch, from the province to the county to the district level, established its own 610 Office. The source of the 610 Office’s ability to operate extralegally and with impunity is not drawn from the State. Neither the People's Congress nor the State Council has authorized its actions. Rather, approval and support for its deeds comes from the CCP. Each 610 Office takes orders from the 610 Office one level above it, going up to the Central Committee 610 Office. The local 610 Offices also take orders from the leadership team of the CCP Committee at its same organizational level. It later changed its name to the Central Leading Group on Dealing with Heretical Religions or Office of Maintaining Stability.
By the end of 2000, a year and a half after the CCP launched the suppression of Falun Gong, the campaign had failed to garner support among many of the CCP's rank and file. Then-CCP leader Jiang Zemin had toured southern provinces earlier in 2000 hoping to shore up more support for the campaign among local leaders. Meanwhile, public support for the campaign more broadly had waned. On January 23, 2001, five individuals allegedly set themselves on fire in Tiananmen Square. The entire scene was caught on camera from multiple angles. Beginning just hours after the event, state-controlled media was flooded with reports that the self-immolators were Falun Gong practitioners. These reports included grisly footage of the victims, portraying Falun Gong teachings as directly responsible for the tragedy.
In the weeks following the event, a wealth of evidence, including a Washington Post article finding that two of the self-immolators had never practiced Falun Gong, exposing the entire incident as staged. Other evidence surfaced by journalists and international observers indicated that CCP officials had advance knowledge of the self-immolation. Yet, while people inside China had no access to this information, the Chinese state-run media continued a campaign to portray the "self-immolators" as Falun Gong "cultists." People across China changed from respecting and sympathizing with Falun Gong to becoming infuriated with and attacking the practice. Hate crimes targeting Falun Gong practitioners increased and the CCP escalated its persecution with increased arrests, torture, killing, and forced organ harvesting.
In September 2014, the World Organization to Investigate the Persecution of Falun Gong (WOIPFG0) investigated Bai Shuzhong, former Minister of Health for the People's Liberation Army (PLA) General Logistics Department. The investigation focused on the Chinese military’s involvement in the live organ harvesting of Falun Gong practitioners. During the investigation, Bai Shuzhong admitted that Jiang Zemin, former Chinese Communist Party Chief, had “instructed” the harvesting of Falun Gong practitioners’ organs for transplantation. Bai said in a telephone investigation, “Back then it was Chairman Jiang … there was an order, a sort of instruction, that said to carry out such things, organ transplantation. … Because back then after Chairman Jiang issued the order, we all did a lot of anti-Falun Gong work …” “….that is to say, it was not just the military who was doing kidney transplants ….”
This investigation result directly points to Jiang Zemin, who ordered the harvesting of organs from Falun Gong practitioners. This is genocide implemented by Jiang Zemin and other high ranking CCP officials. This is genocide carried out by the CCP controlled state apparatus. This genocide takes the form of live organ harvesting of Falun Gong practitioners. Under the secret protection of the CCP, Chinese judicial system, military, arm police forces and local hospitals colluded in these crimes against humanity and crime of genocide.
Hu Jintao 2002-2012
In November 2002, the 16th Communist Party Congress elected Hu Jintao, who in 1992 was designated by Deng Xiaoping as the "core" of the fourth-generation leaders, the new General Secretary. A new Politburo and Politburo Standing Committee were also elected in November.
In March 2003, General Secretary Hu Jintao was elected President at the 10th National People's Congress. Jiang Zemin retained the chairmanship of the Central Military Commission. At the Fourth Party Plenum in September 2004, Jiang Zemin retired from the Central Military Commission, passing the Chairmanship and control of the People's Liberation Army to President Hu Jintao.
Most favored nation status
In the 1990s the issue of Most Favored Nation trade status for China was pushed by the CCP, globalists and agribusiness interests, but strongly opposed by religious and human rights groups. Bill Clinton's policy, which began with a 1993 executive order to make MFN status conditional on Chinese human rights and political reforms, changed as lobbyists pushed a trade relationship with the CCP and forced the issue to be separated from the CCP's human rights abuses.
As the Chinagate scandal progressed, Bill Clinton adjusted his China policy in 1996 and advocated dialogue and engagement; this led to a change in relations. But Washington continued to criticize China on the issues of Hong Kong, human rights, trade, arms sales, Taiwan, and questionable political donations to US election campaigns. Clinton welcomed General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party and Butcher of Tiannanen Square Jiang Zemin's to the White House. The major factors affecting the relationship include: the enduring impact of the 1989 Tiananmen massacre when the Communist Party crushed a peaceful democratic movement with the army; the negative coverage of the CCP's human rights abuses by American media, American psychological insecurity caused by the rise of Communist China, and US domestic politics grappling with a thirst for cheap Chinese manufactured goods while American factories shut down and jobs loss to China.
China's "economic miracle" since it was granted Most Favored Nation status by the U.S. Congress in 2002, and access to the U.S. consumer market, led to unprecedented economic growth and better living conditions for millions of Chinese. It also strengthened the grip of the anti-democratic Chinese Communist Party over people's everyday lives, and the loss of manufacturing jobs for consumer products in the United States.
As China grew in power, it also became increasingly aggressive on the international stage. The CCP increased control over the country and economy, and foreign companies worked to appease the Chinese government. China uses about half of the world's steel and cement/concrete. In the 3 years from 2011 to 2014, China used 6.6 gigatons of cement, which is more than the US did in the entire 20th century. China also worked to isolate Taiwan diplomatically. China became the dominant trading partner of a large majority of the world's countries, overtaking the U.S. Under Xi Jinping, China regressed back to Mao's totalitarianism.
By 2017, the imposition of tariffs by U.S. President Donald J. Trump began to redress the imbalance. China's economy was developed over those early decades of the 21st century as a coastal, manufacturing economy entirely dependent on exports. Young people left their home villages in the countryside to seek work in coastal factories. The prosperity was all built on access to the U.S. consumer market, and Americans' appetite for cheap manufactured goods. Scant attention was paid to developing a domestic service sector economy, while the vast interior remained impoverished, and increasingly so as young people abandoned rural agricultural work for urban factory work.
Tariffs on Chinese imports stemmed the capital outflow from the U.S. to China, sparked creation of manufacturing and service sector jobs in the U.S., and slowed the Chinese military build-up which previously was being funded by American consumers.
- See also: SARS-CoVid-1
Supposedly the 2003 SARS epidemic struck suddenly and there was no time to prepare. In reality, the first cases happened in Guangdong province in late November 2002. Chinese officials didn't inform the World Health Organization about SARS until February 2003. When it started to spread to other regions of China, the CCP covered that up. Eventually, SARS was reported to have killed just under eight hundred people in China, but in reality, there may have been several thousand more.
Dr. Jiang Yanyong in April 2003 wrote a letter exposing the true number of SARS patients in Beijing, which was several times higher than the official number. His letter was publicized by Western media. The party was forced to respond. They fired several Beijing officials and put Dr. Jiang under surveillance. The Communist Party has never admitted there was a SARS cover-up. But afterward, the Chinese Communist Party did create what was supposed to be a fail-safe system to track contagions. It failed.
The system put in place focused on having doctors across China put patient data into a centralized database. This way central authorities could monitor if there are any new outbreaks. It suppose to work in theory. In July 2019, eight thousand Chinese health officials conducted a massive online drill focusing on how to handle an infectious disease outbreak. In the style of the 2002 SARS outbreak, the officials raced to test how quickly and effectively they could track, identify, and contain the virus, including by notifying Beijing. It worked in the simulation. But in Th December 2019 Wuhan SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, it did not work in reality because the Chinese Communist Party's political apparatus makes it impossible for even the best design system to function properly.
Xi Jinping Thought
In October 2017 an amendment including Xi's name was added to the CCP's party constitution, marking the first time a living leader's name was added since Mao Zedong, reflecting Xi's standing within the Communist Party. The amendment was approved by all 2,300 delegates attending the party congress, is called "Xi Jinping Thought for the New Era of Socialism With Chinese Special Characteristics."
The move placed Xi on the same level as Mao and Deng Xiaoping, whose names also appear in the party constitution in articles reflecting their principles. The political principles of Jiang Zemin and Hu Jintao, Xi's predecessors, were added to the party constitution, but their names were not.
The New York Times Chris Buckley notes that Xi's authority "is not directly comparable to the almost godlike influence Mao commanded," but, at the same time, "the Chinese economy, state and military are much more powerful now than they were under Mao, or even under Deng, which gives Mr. Xi far more global influence than his predecessors."
Xi Jinping Thought is an effort to avoid the demise of Communist party power such as happened in the Soviet Union as the result of Perestroika and Glasnost reform movements instituted by Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev.
Jin Canrong, a professor and associate dean of the School of International Studies at Beijing's Renmin University of China, laid out a multi-pronged strategy involving a range of malign actions to subvert the United States while strengthening the communist regime. Jin emphasized that Xi was unlike his predecessors in his ambitions. Previous CCP leaders, such as Deng Xiaoping, Jiang Zemin, and Hu Jintao worked hard to develop the regime's power but didn't dare to use it, he said. “No matter how much power you have, it’s nothing if you don’t dare to use it,” Jin said. “Chairman Xi dares to use it. [Xi’s authorities] have the power, dare to use that power, and all of its attacks make the other party bleed.”
Xi's global strategy to bolster the regime's global power has two pillars, according to Jin. One is the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), the other is the Free Trade Area of the Asia-Pacific (FTAAP).
Xi's ambitions, however, cannot be revealed to the outside world, the professor said. When Xi took power in 2012, he urged the country to realize the “Chinese dream.” This meant becoming a “moderately well-off” country by 2021, and then a “strong, democratic, civilized, harmonious, and modern socialist country” by 2049. Jin explained that Xi's target is actually to replace the United States as the world's only superpower by 2049. “[Chinese] Ministry of Foreign Affairs keeps on saying [at press briefings] that China loves peace. But no reporters at the press briefings believe this,” Jin said.
Biden family relationship with the CCP
Five months into the Obama administration in June 2009 Hunter Biden and Chris Heinz, son of Vice President Joe Biden and stepson of Senate Foreign Relations Committee chair John Kerry formed Rosemount Seneca. The firm partnered with the Thornton Group run by James Bulger, and the Bank of China, to form Bohai Harvest RST (BHR) in China. Devon Archer is a longtime friend of former Secretary of State John Kerry and of stepson Chris Heinz and James Bulger, the nephew of notorious Boston gangster "Whitey" Bulger. Whitey Bulger was the head of the Boston Irish mafia who enjoyed federal protection under FBI director Robert Mueller as an informant. Bulger was convicted of 19 murders that occurred while under Mueller's protection; some have linked the Bulger klan to as many as 52 murders while Mueller was U.S. Attorney in Boston. Whitey Bulger was murdered in prison at the age of 89 a few months before the Mueller Report was released.
The Bank of China is owned by the Chinese government and closely connected with the Chinese military and intelligence services. Biden, Heinz, and Archer transferred and sold "duel use" technology to the Chinese military which was used to create the Chinese drone program and replicate the Chinese version of the F-15 fighter.
Bohai Harvest RST (BHR) invested in an app the Chinese leftwing communist government is using to surveil ethnic minority Muslims in western China. Over one million Muslims living in the region are now incarcerated in Chinese gulags.
Belt and Road Initiative
- Main article: Belt and Road Initiative
The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) is a massive global investment strategy launched by the CCP in 2013 aimed at bolstering its economic and political influence across Asia, Europe, Africa, and South America. The project involves investments in infrastructure and natural resource projects in countries. Chinese officials are quite open that the BRI is aimed at creating a Eurasia wide Chinese led bloc to counter the United States. It has been criticized by the U.S. and other countries as an example of “debt trap” diplomacy, that saddles developing countries with unsustainable debt burdens while allowing the regime to expand governance abroad.
China has been looking to construct a 120 kilometer mega canal cutting through the Isthmus of Kra, the narrowest part of the Malay Peninsula in Thailand. This will open the South China Sea to the Indian Ocean, bypassing the Strait of Malacca. What China is eyeing is a canal project in Thailand called the Kra Canal and the Thai leadership seems to be on board. Through this canal China is trying to reduce dependence on the Strait of Malacca. Currently 80 percent of China's oil imports passed through the South China Sea.
The Strait of Malacca is a key reason why China has not been able to grow too powerful. Democratic and powers such as India, Australia, and other Southeast Asian nations are well-positioned to cut off Chinese supply lines in the event of a major military confrontation by creating a blockade around the Strait of Malacca. China wants to ensure that its commercial and naval vessels find an alternate route that altogether avoids the Malacca choke point while travelling between the Indian and Pacific Oceans. This is an overhang of the maritime portion of Xi Jinping's Belt and Road initiative that seeks to connect Southeast Asia with the Middle East and Europe.
CCP global pandemic
The Chinese Communist Party stifled public warnings about the Chinese Wuhan coronavirus epidemic for six weeks after the first confirmed inflections in early December 2019. Doctors who posted on social media about the virus were arrested and forced to sign confessions admitting to crimes of "disrupting the social order" and "rumourmongering". The local Communist-controlled Wuhan government was instructed by the central authority not to issue health alerts until after the virus was spread throughout the country and internationally. The Beijing central government in turn blamed local officials for allowing people to exit the city and put the rest of the population in danger.
President Donald Trump offered China any help necessary. The leftist regime, with its trademark monopoly control of power, banned private charities and volunteers from entering Hubei Province or sending materials to hospitals directly.
Chinese scientists eventually admitted the virus may have originated at a government laboratory only 280 meters away from the Huanan seafood market. A Chinese-language newspaper published in Hong Kong, Ming Pao, and the British daily, The Mirror explained that the Wuhan Center for Disease Control, or WHCDC, could have spawned the contagion in Hubei Province. It stated that it's plausible the virus was leaked from the lab and contaminated initial patients in this epidemic. Sen. Tom Cotton, citing The Lancet, tweeted
|China claimed—for almost two months—that coronavirus had originated in a Wuhan seafood market. That is not the case. @TheLancet published a study demonstrating that of the original 40 cases, 14 of them had no contact with the seafood market, including Patient Zero.|
Sources within China say 90,000 people were infected before the Chinese Communist Party alerted the public to the danger of the epidemic. People reporting on social media about the true extent of the disaster from within the Wuhan containment zone risk arrest by the atheist controlled CCP. The case histories and the pattern of infection were known to Chinese researchers from the beginning, so earlier reports fingering the market may have been intentionally misleading.
Public broadcasting and reporting
On February 5, 2020, State-run media broadcast an interview with lead scientist Wang Chen. Chen claimed:
1. The situation is grave. A new diagnostic class "clinically diagnosed" (those showing clinical symptoms but without RNA test) is added to facilitate access to treatment.
2. 11 new container hospitals will provide patients with light symptoms with limited medical care but better containment. Real hospitals will be used for serious cases (confirmed or suspected).
3. Suspected patients will stay in single rooms in container hospitals. Infected patients will stay in open-air beds.
4. They don't know how many are actually infected. The officially reported number is just the new test results.
5. Gilead's medicine has shown the most promise. But it still requires clinical trials.
6. They can't estimate when the turning point will be.
Chinese state-run media falsely blamed the United States for the outbreak. On March 12, 2020, the Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman initiated a conspiracy theory that the US military started the coronavirus in China,. Leftist media in the United States willingly aided Chinese propaganda efforts by falsely calling those who link the virus to Wuhan, where it first manifested, "racist".
Under-reporting true scale of pandemic
The true scale of infections is estimated to be possibly ten-times higher than the official number reported by the Chinese central government.
On January 24, 2020, one day after the world was first alerted to the outbreak, a doctor circumventing leftist censorship in Wuhan reported 90,000 infected cases. The Guardian of London quoted Prof. Neil Ferguson saying “My best guess now is perhaps 100,000 cases right now. Almost certainly many tens of thousands of people are infected.” Other sources likewise have implied that the communist government of China may have under-reported the true dimensions of the problem.
Because coronavirus is a "noval" virus, meaning "new" or "unknown", technicians lack the training to identify infections. People are going to multiple hospitals daily, attempting to be tested or treated. There are a limited number of test kits available, so hospitals have to choose who will be tested. That is one more reason why the true extent of the virus was underreported.
The first week 213 deaths were reported worldwide with over 9,800 confirmed infections. The leftist Chinese regime was suspected of suppressing the real extent of the epidemic. By the end of the second week 813 were reported dead with more than 37,300 confirmed infected. 193,000 were under observation. 400 million people were on lockdown nationwide.
Near the end of the third week 1,666 were reported dead with 69,000 plus infected. There was near universal skepticism - inside and outside China - on the Chinese socialist government's reporting on the epidemic.
2363 deaths were reported with 78,000 infections near the end of the fourth week. CCP officials admitted to changing their methodology of reported infections, lowering the rate of reported numbers. South Korea was reporting a complete doubling every day for the past four days. Iran was experiencing a serious outbreak. Reported numbers in the United States were puzzling.
The sixth week - after the virus spread globally and the first death was reported in the United States, NTD reported that the Communists ordered all data on the coronavirus to be destroyed in a province close to Beijing, in a deceitful attempt to suppress the true extent of the virus' spread in China.
CCP authorities cracked down hard on people trying to break through the veil of government secrecy, as they call it "rumormongering", according to the state-run Xinhua news agency. All persons who spread "fake news" (i.e. the truth about the real extent of the epidemic, its spread and its consequences), and thus disturbs social order, will face up to three years in prison detention or disciplinary action under China's social credit system. Offenders who cause serious consequences will be given three to seven-year prison terms.
Despite the threat of prison, many people still went online to blame the government, both high and low ranking officials. Some residents of Wuhan posted videos calling for international help. Viral videos showed dead bodies on the floor in hospitals as patients sat near by. Videos of massively crowded hospitals were posted causing local authorities to build a giant new containment facility in a week. However, video footage of the project came from Chinese state media. It was released it to Western media as a propaganda effort to demonstrate how "great" the authoritarian approach to problem solving is. The structures are not really hospitals at all. The structures are large quarantine camps where people are monitored and receive no treatment at all.
The Chinese people became more creative in skirting leftist censorship laws. Guizhou television broadcast a child reading a poem entitled, "China has a cold because of a virus that wears a crown," a veiled reference to President Xi and the Communist party.
On March 1, 2020, the Communist regime imposed a new internet censorship policy on the heavily policed Weibo. The hashtag #takedownthewall began trending. Some comments were preserved in screenshots:
- "I know it's useless, but I want to speak up anyway."
- "I'd rather die than not be free."
- "I want to know the world."
- "If we don't take it down, the wall will only be higher and higher."
- "Why should we be proud to stick our head in the sand?"
- "I retweeted 6 posts. They are all deleted now because they have the hashtag. I am going to repost them."
- "We don't want to live in a world where we can't speak. We want to have our own voice."
- "They cover our eyes, ears, mouths....but now, do they want to cut off our hands so we can't write? Maybe they will cut off our feet so we can't walk ahead."
Lockdown and mass arrests
Prior to the opening of camps, the Communist party nailed and barricaded whole households inside their residences. Gates of apartment buiildings were welded shut, and food delivered every three days. When the quarantine camps were ready to receive victims, the Chinese government began forcibly removing people and arresting them to fill up camps. 5G technology has been used to facilitate mass round-up
A person can be arrested for not wearing a mask.
Student dorms have been taken over as quarantine detention facilities.
The socialist system, which guarantees access to healthcare as a human right, posted banners reading,
|"If you dare go out we will break your legs; we'll knock your teeth off if you dare talk back."|
At least two citizen journalists who were reporting on the real situation in Wuhan and posting on the internet disappeared. It is unknown if they fell victim to the virus or were arrested for violating communist censorship laws.
Public and party reaction
One of the eight doctors - Dr. Li Wenliang - forced to a sign a confession on January 3, 2020, admitting to posting “illegal and false” information warning the public of the coronavirus outbreak and epidemic, died on February 7, 2020. A selfie of the doctor lying sick in his hospital bed went viral, stirring widespread outrage in China. “To get an idea of the enormous scale of said outpouring of grief and anger, Dr. Li’s death apparently generated 800 million(!) comments on Weibo by midnight - 2.5 hours after it was first reported and 3 hours before it was confirmed by the hospital."
A woman in Wuhan posted a video saying,
Chinese Communist Party, when are you going to step down? You promised us that Chinese people will enjoy ‘moderate prosperity’ in 2020, but what have we attained [from you] so far? We lost our relatives [because of you]!
Tell me, what does it mean to achieve ‘moderate prosperity’?” What does ‘moderate prosperity’ mean to us when people have lost their lives? What on earth are you doing? What do we need such a government for? I beg you, please go away! Step Down! We need good leaders who can help us live a good life. We don’t need such a corrupt government.
The soaring home prices and high cost of living have caused hardships for Chinese residents. And now so many people are dying. Everyone will get to see the economic bubble burst.
You should bear the consequences of your actions. Do not implicate us ordinary folk. Now we are bearing the brunt of it, and we are being sacrificed for what you have been doing!What on earth are you? Are you humans or devils?
According to Kyle Bass, Chief Investment Officer at Hayman Capital Management,
Secretary Xi is in trouble within China. According to my sources within, the party elite want Xi gone. The Guangdong elite (Uncle Deng’s family) are beginning to rattle the cages of change against the supposed “emperor for life”. #XiJinping #china #ChinaLiedAndPeopleDied
Wolf warrior diplomacy
- See also: Wolf warrior diplomacy
The Chinese Communist regime reacted to the international crisis it created with "Wolf Warrior" style diplomacy, named after the 2015 Chinese action film and its 2017 sequel. Wolf Warrior is named for a fearsome screen hero, Wu Jing, a kind of Chinese Rambo. The CCP stoked anger in Australia, Canada, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden and many others.
The CCP demands that the outside world treat Taiwan as a pariah. It wants it to be known only as “Chinese Taipei” or “Taiwan, Province of China” in public documents. It insists that the island state be denied observer status in the World Health Assembly, the deliberative body for the UN's health watchdog, the World Health Organisation.
CCP's English language mouthpiece, Global Times justifies the CCP's bellicose reaction to international requests for an independent inquiry into the origins of the CCP virus outbreak:
|what's behind China's perceived "Wolf Warrior" style diplomacy is the changing strengths of China and the West. When the West falls short of its ability to uphold its interests, it can only resort to a hysterical hooligan style diplomacy in an attempt to maintain its waning dignity. As Western diplomats fall into disgrace, they are getting a taste of China's "Wolf Warrior" diplomacy....
Some claim that China is abandoning its principle of "hiding its ability and biding its time" which it stuck to over the past 30 years. The "Wolf Warrior" style of diplomacy doesn't contradict this principle, it's just less subtle. The reasoning behind this principle was to dilute ideological conflicts and concentrate on development, and China's national policy has always prioritized economic development. China embraces globalization and multilateral cooperation. The growing influence of China worldwide can be largely attributed to internationalization and the force of markets.
On April 3, 2020, a Chinese coast-guard ship intentionally rammed and sank a Vietnamese fishing vessel. The two countries are in conflict over jurisdiction of the Paracel Islands and fishing rights in the waters around the archipelago. On April 18, China unilaterally announced the establishment of the Nansha and Xisha administrative districts in the Paracels and the Spratly Islands, drawing a protest from the Philippines, which has a presence of its own on at least nine Spratly islands and islets, including Fiery Cross Reef. The Asia Maritime Transparency Initiative, which monitors territorial conflicts, says Fiery Cross has been transformed into a Chinese missile base. In an earlier move, in mid-February 2020, a Chinese naval ship locked its radar on a Philippines naval vessel near the Commodore Reef in the Spratlys, signaling a strike as an act of intimidation. China in recent months has also provoked conflicts with Malaysia, Brunei, and Taiwan. The National Review reports:
|China appears to be exploiting the coronavirus pandemic to advance its South China Sea expansion project by “brute force … using its increasingly powerful navy to assert its dominance by harassing the shipping of rival states, even at times, in their own territorial waters.”
But just as China’s failure to stop a local epidemic from becoming a global catastrophe has brought it precisely the bad PR it was hoping to avoid, its South China Sea bullying has resulted in intensified anti-Chinese reactions in Southeast Asia and around the world. Beijing’s efforts to staunch the country’s hemorrhaging international reputation have had the opposite effect....
China’s illegal assertiveness in the South China Sea — its wolf-warrior diplomacy — is damaging the state’s and Chinese people’s reputations. But it is also perhaps the greatest threat to international peace and security in the world today. Understanding the sources of China’s behavior is thus a matter of paramount concern.
...Economic growth had faltered before the onset of the coronavirus, but now the country faces food shortages, unemployment, inflation, a debt crisis, and, given the inflexibility of centralized and often corrupt management, even the specter of financial collapse. The CCP has relied merely on two factors to legitimize its rule in China despite its notorious record of human-rights violations and corruption: economic performance and nationalism. As the economy suffers, nationalism intensifies.
The leftist regime was accused of burning bodies 24 hours a day in secret to hide the true number of deaths. Crematory workers are working 10–12 hours a day and do not go home. More than 60% of victims die at home and 38% in hospitals. The communist bureaucracy tries to issue death certificates, including the cause of death, within thirty minutes. Transporting corpses to crematoriums for disposal is the most time-consuming task in the process. Typically, Wuhan funeral homes handled about 220 deaths per day. Funeral workers were brought in to Wuhan from all over China to operate the city's crematoriums 24/7 with capacity of cremations of over 1,500 per day for two and half months.
The Chinese government began using mobile crematory units. In a video circulating on the internet, a Wuhan resident says she witnessed critically ill coronavirus patients sealed up in body bags while alive.
The Voice of America reported an estimate of the 84 cremation furnaces in the city have a capacity of 1560 cremations in a 24-hour period, assuming one cremation takes one hour, results in an estimated 46,800 deaths. A source close to the provincial civil affairs bureau said Wuhan saw 28,000 cremations in the space of a single month, suggesting that online estimates over a two-and-a-half month period weren't excessive.
City officials handed out 3,000 yuan ($420) in hush money to families of the dead in exchange for their silence.
Annexation of Hong Kong
The Hong Kong branch of the Chinese Communist Party was founded in 1947 as the Xinhua News Agency Hong Kong Branch. Although the party has ruled Hong Kong since 1997, it remains technically illegal, or "underground." This status, unique among the world's ruling parties, allows the CCP to evade local laws that require political parties to disclose financing and to provide a membership list. In 2000, the name of the branch was changed to "Liaison Office of the Central People's Government." It is headquartered in a tower in the city's Sai Ying Pun district. In 2003, the office was reorganized as a "second government" parallel and equal in status to the "local government" in Admiralty. Since 2012, Sai Ying Pun has been the dominant partner in the Hong Kong government. The Liaison Office is headed by a director, currently Luo Huining. Luo is a member of the national party's central committee. The office has extensive and undisclosed property holdings through Newman Investment, a subsidiary. The office reports to the Hong Kong and Macau Affairs Office, an agency of the Beijing government. This agency is currently headed by Xia Baolong, also a central committee member.
The Sino-British Joint Declaration of 1984 provides that Hong Kong will enjoy a "high degree of autonomy except for foreign and defence affairs" under a "one country, two systems" approach. This approach was to last for fifty years, from 1997 to 2047. China promised that it would hold a direct election for chief executive by 2017. In August 2014, the Chinese parliament announced that Hong Kong voters would choose a chief executive from two or three candidates nominated by a committee. This announcement triggered mass pro-democracy protests in Hong Kong in the form of the Umbrella Movement. The protests failed to the stop the selection of Carrie Lam as chief executive in 2017. In 2017, a spokesman for the Chinese Foreign Ministry announced that the joint declaration was no longer valid.
In 2019 the Hong Kong government proposed a bill to extradite suspects who were wanted on the mainland. Unlike Hong Kong courts, mainland courts do not provide suspects with due process or other legal protections. A series of the enormous protests were held in Hong Kong and the bill was withdrawn on October 23, 2019. Parties that supported the pro-democracy protesters swept the District Council elections that were held in November.
Human rights abuses
Since the Tiannanmen massacre the party is obsessed with stability, deploying a vast internal security apparatus to head off protests or, once they erupt, to prevent them from spreading. The government is constantly talking about 'stability maintenance' which is coded language for ensuring the party's rule. The domestic security apparatus includes an 800,000-strong police force under the Ministry of Public Security and a 1.5 million-strong paramilitary force, the People's Armed Police, which reports to both the Party's Central Military Commission and, through the Ministry of Public Security, to the State Council. Other agencies involved in internal security include the Party's Propaganda Department, which plays an important role in censoring the media to prevent discussion of subjects that might feed movements for change; the Ministry of State Security, which focuses on internal security threats as well as conducting intelligence-gathering abroad; and the Ministry of Justice, which operates China's gulags and forced labor system. Many of China's gulags operate factories to produce consumer goods for export to the United States and the rest of the world.
The laogai or gulag system
China's network of penal forced labor facilities, established in the early years of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) government to hold both criminals and political dissidents, remains in operation today. U.S. law prohibits the importation of goods produced “wholly or in part in any foreign country by convict labor or/and forced labor or/and indentured labor under penal sanctions.” Artificial flowers, Christmas lights, shoes, garments, umbrellas as well as coal, cotton, electronics, fireworks, footwear, nails, and toys have been identified as produced in Chinese prison factories for export. There have been several instances of letters and notes from prisoners describing their confinement, working conditions and mistreatment discovered in products purchased by consumers outside China; at Christmas in 2019 a six-year-old girl in London, in a box of newly purchased Christmas cards, found one that had a message in English saying,
|"We are foreign prisoners in Shanghai Qingpu prison China Forced to work against our will. Please help us and notify human rights organization."|
Profitable prison companies help to fund the operations of both local and national government. Prison labor enterprises producing high-tech goods such as semiconductors and optical instruments are the most profitable, each earning an estimated annual revenue of tens of millions of dollars and paying taxes to the Chinese government. According to the 2012 Trafficking in Persons Report from the United States Department of State,
“[t]he [PRC] government reportedly profits from [the use of] forced labor. Many prisoners and detainees in ‘reeducation through labor’ facilities [are] required to work, often with no remuneration.”
Many prisons function as subcontractors for Chinese firms. The State Department has noted cases in which
“detainees were forced to work up to 18 hours a day without pay for private companies working in partnership with Chinese authorities” and “were beaten for failing to complete work quotas."
The book Laogai: The Machinery of Repression in China, published in 2009, stated that as many as 3 to 5 million people were imprisoned in laogai or gulag camps.
In addition to criminal sentences imposed by a court, administrative detention imposed by police with no legal due process required, the CCP has a system of “Black Jails”, an unofficial system of unlicensed confinement facilities used by local CCP officials primarily to detain petitioners seeking redress of grievances.
Prison slave labor
In a 2011 story published by The Guardian a former prisoner claimed he was sentenced to three years at a Reeducation Through Labor (RTL) camp for “illegally petitioning” central government officials about corruption in his local area. In addition to performing work digging in open-trench coal mines, carving chopsticks, and assembling automotive seat covers for export, he described a system in which prisoners were forced to spend 12-hour shifts in the evenings playing online video games to build up virtual credits that were then sold online by camp officials. Prison officials made approximately $785–$940 per day from the “gold farming” services performed by prisoners, which made the work more profitable than the prison's more traditional manufacturing enterprises. Gold farming (also termed “powerleveling”) is a practice associated with many online role-playing games, in which a player pays someone else to play their character for them – thereby building up points that make their characters more powerful or acquiring possessions (e.g., wealth, weapons) that similarly make them stronger. Online vendors may also offer for sale existing characters whose power and wealth have already been built up through extended periods of game play, or virtual goods that can be transferred to other characters. Websites acting as brokers for such trades are easily locatable online. On August 6, 2012, Commission staff located, with a single Google search, the website www.ogdeal.com, which claims the title of “The Leading MMORPG (‘massively multiplayer online roleplaying game’) Services Company.” The site offered credit exchanges for over 40 popular online games (to include Anarchy, Age of Conan, Diablo 3, Final Fantasy, Warhammer, Star Wars: The Old Republic, etc.), with payments “via Paypal, Moneybookers, Libertyreserve and Westernunion within 10mins after the trade.” “Sell Anarchy Online Credits,” www.ogdeal.com.
No compensation was provided to the prisoners themselves. Prisoners who failed to earn the required numbers of virtual credits would be beaten by prison guards: “If I couldn't complete my work quota, they would punish me physically. They would make me stand with my hands raised in the air and after I returned to my dormitory they would beat me with plastic pipes. We kept playing until we could barely see things.”
Along with virtual goods generated by prisoners offered for sale online, prisoners are also used for spamming, “cherry blossoming,”* and “click fraud.” ‘Cherry blossoming’ is a term used to refer to small marketing related digital tasks, such as ‘liking’ a brand's Facebook page against a small pay. It involves using a large numbers of workers to complete small tasks for a business client. Cherry blossoming can also be used to increase the number of hits on a company or product webpage, thereby raising its Internet profile and seeming popularity with consumers. Click fraud is believed to be a widespread practice in China. Anchor Intelligence digital marketing identified a click fraud ring involving 200,000 different IP addresses and racked up more than $3 million worth of fraudulent clicks across 2,000 advertisers in a two-week period run out of technical universities such as the Shanghai Technology Institute. PC Magazine Online defines click fraud as the practice of “[c]licking ad banners without any intention of purchasing the product. Click fraud is done to make an ad campaign appear more effective. Paying a few cents per hour to workers in a third-world country to sit at a computer all day and do nothing but click banners makes an ad campaign appear very successful. If ads are based on click-throughs (pay-per-click), the Web site publishing the ads and clicking the ads countless times can make a dishonest profit.”
Uyghur forced labor
According to some reports, the CCP has begun to move large numbers of Uyghurs, including many former detainees, into textile, apparel, and other labor-intensive industries in Xinjiang and other PRC provinces. Uyghurs who refuse to accept such employment may be threatened with detention. They continue to be heavily monitored outside of work, and are required to attend political study classes at night. A study by the Australian Strategic Policy Institute identified nearly 120 Chinese and foreign companies, including global brands, that the institute alleges directly or indirectly benefit from Uyghur labor in potentially abusive circumstances.
Forced organ harvesting
- See also: Forced organ harvesting
In China there were more than 600 hospitals and over 1,700 doctors engaged in organ transplant surgeries in 2007. The statistics published by the Tianjin Oriental Organ Transplant Center and the No. 2 Hospital of the Second Military Medical University (also known as Shanghai Changzheng Hospital), two hospitals that have close ties to the Chinese military, provide a glimpse into the rapid growth of China's organ transplant market. The China Southern Weekend reported, "The Oriental Organ Transplant Center's rapid growth has brought about huge revenue and profits. According to previous media reports, liver transplants alone bring the Center an annual income of 100 million yuan". According to a Phoenix Weekly 2006 report, "In 2004, the fee for a liver transplant at the Oriental Organ Transplant Center was $32,000 (approximately 250,000 yuan). In 2005, it was over $40,000 (approximately 330,000 yuan). Some intermediary agencies charged a brokering fee as high as USD $13,000."
People with financial means are willing to buy organs at a high cost, and the huge profit pushes the hospitals to pursue new sources of organs by all means necessary to increase their profit margins. Given China's political and legal environment, certain groups of people become especially susceptible targets. Namely, Falun Gong practitioners.
In March 2020 the China Tribunal, an independent people's tribunal, released its full judgment on Chinese forced organ harvesting. The panel was chaired by Sir Geoffrey Nice who previously led the prosecution of former Yugoslavia Prime Minister Slobodan Milosevic for war crimes at the International Criminal Tribunal and included other experts in law, transplant surgery, international politics, Chinese history and business. The experts concluded that the grisly practice has continued unabated. In June 2019 the tribunal delivered its findings in London, concluding beyond a reasonable doubt that state sanctioned forced organ harvesting from prisoners of conscience has taken place for years in China on a significant scale and is still taking place. The main organ supply came from imprisoned practitioners of the persecuted spiritual group Falun Gong.
The Chinese regime has persecuted the group for more than two decades. Hundreds of thousands of adherents have been thrown into prisons, labor camps, and brainwashing centers where many have been tortured in an effort to force them to renounce their faith. The tribunal concluded that the Chinese regime sustained campaign of forced organ harvesting constituted a crime against humanity. Many people have died indescribable hideous deaths for no reason, that more may suffer in similar ways, and that all of us live on a planet where extreme wickedness may be found in the power of those, who for the time being, are running a country that is one of the oldest civilizations known to modern man.
Racism and minority rights
- See also: China and racism
The Internations organization website declares concerning racism in China:
|China’s economic investment in a number of African countries may well have helped to create the prejudice that all Africans are poor and profiting from money that should rather be invested at home, thus fostering racism in China. In Guangzhou, where a large number of Africans have settled over the last few years, racial tensions have been particularly high.|
Africans and American blacks
Leroy Adams writes in an article entitled What is it like to be Black in China?:
|China is a country plagued by racism.
To be Black or African in China is to be labeled unintelligent, dangerous, unattractive, or to see an empty seat next to you on a crowded subway.
Barry Sautman published via the Cambridge University Press about racism in post Mao Zedong China:
|Expressions of anti-black sentiment by Chinese students have caught the world's attention periodically since the end of the 1970s. Demonstrations against African students in Nanjing and other cities between late 1988 and early 1989 received wide press coverage. Because the African population in China is small and transient, some observers saw these events as a manifestation of a vestigial xenophobia, not as part of a developing trend of thought within a key segment of Chinese society. Placed next to the brutal ethnic conflicts that plague much of the world, the episodic, non-lethal incidents in China seemed evanescent, with only fleeting implications for China's foreign policy.|
The Leftwing communist government's response to the coronavirus was to blame foreigners for importing the virus. Black Africans and African Americans were evicted from their apartments and refused service in local shops and restaurants. Those who could leave the socialist paradise ended up living on the streets, constantly harassed by the police.
One of the biggest ways the outbreak of the CCP coronavirus has damaged China's international reputation is by exposing the country's racist attitude toward Africans. Despite the fact that the virus originated in China itself, local governments and people in different parts of the country have been treating Africans like they were the ones responsible for triggering the COVID-19 pandemic. Such an attitude obviously has angered millions of Africans back home.
On April 13, 2020, the U.S. consulate had to issue an alert warning African-Americans to avoid the Guangzhou region since they could be racially targeted. It advised African-Americans in China to always carry their identity documents with them since it is less likely for officials to target an American citizen.
China's Foreign Ministry spokesman Zhao Lijian accused the U.S. of trying to drive a wedge between Africa and China, saying that the United States was being neither responsible nor moral. A State Department spokesperson pointed out that the mistreatment meted out to Africans in China is a clear signal of how hollow the China-Africa relationship is despite Beijing constantly masquerading as being a benefactor for African people.
Oppression of minorities
According to various estimates, Xinjiang authorities have detained over 1 million Turkic Muslims, mostly ethnic Uyghurs, and Kazakhs, in “reeducation camps” without formal charges, trials or hearings, and with no timetable for release. Many detainees have little or no contact with their families and, in some cases, young children. Some CCP officials describe the Xinjiang camps as “vocational education institutions” in which “trainees” learn the Chinese language, legal knowledge, and job skills, and undergo “de-extremization.” Other CCP authorities state that detainees are “infected with religious extremism and violent terrorist ideology.” According to some reports, many detainees had engaged in activities that authorities may now deem “extremist,” including participating in religious services outside of officially sanctioned places of worship; home-schooling one's children; spending time abroad or having relatives living abroad; and expressing religious sentiments.
Many detainees reportedly are compelled to express or chant their love of the Communist Party and President Xi Jinping, sing patriotic songs, renounce or reject many of their religious beliefs and customs, including their avoidance of pork, alcohol, and smoking, and undergo ideological indoctrination and self-criticisms. According to former detainees, treatment and conditions in the camps include beatings, food deprivation, and crowded and unsanitary conditions. Some reeducation centers reportedly contain factories where detainees are forced to work, in some cases producing goods for export.
Recent security measures include the following:
- Police Presence and Surveillance: Thousands of “convenience” police stations, furnished with antiriot and high-tech surveillance equipment, have been installed.
- Biometric data collection: Authorities have systematically collected and cataloged DNA samples, blood types, and fingerprints and performed eye scans of Uyghurs for identification purposes as part of its social stability campaign, often under the guise of “health physicals.”
- Internet and Social Media Controls: Uyghurs in some areas of the XUAR are required to install an application on their mobile phones that enables authorities to monitor their online activities.
- Home stays: The government has sent an estimated one million officials and state workers from outside the XUAR, mostly ethnic Han, to live temporarily in the homes of Uyghurs to assess their hosts’ loyalty to the Communist Party.
Natural population growth in Xinjiang has declined dramatically; growth rates fell by 84 percent in the two largest Uyghur prefectures between 2015 and 2018, and declined further in several minority regions in 2019. For 2020, one Uyghur region set an unprecedented near-zero birth rate target: a mere 1.05 per mille, compared to 19.66 per mille in 2018. This was intended to be achieved through “family planning work.”
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (XUAR) government documents bluntly mandate that birth control violations are punishable by extrajudicial internment in “training” camps. This confirms evidence such violations were the most common reason for internment (Journal of Political Risk, February 2020).
XUAR documents from 2019 reveal plans for a campaign of mass female sterilization in rural Uyghur regions, targeting 14 and 34 percent of all married women of childbearing age in two Uyghur counties that year. This project targeted all of southern Xinjiang, and continued in 2020 with increased funding. This campaign likely aims to sterilize rural minority women with three or more children, as well as some with two children—equivalent to at least 20 percent of all childbearing-age women. Budget figures indicate that this project had sufficient funding for performing hundreds of thousands of tubal ligation sterilization procedures in 2019 and 2020, with at least one region receiving additional central government funding. In 2018, a Uyghur prefecture openly set a goal of leading its rural populations to accept widespread sterilization surgery.
By 2019, XAUR planned to subject at least 80 percent of women of childbearing age in the rural southern four minority prefectures to intrusive birth prevention surgeries (IUDs or sterilizations), with actual shares likely being much higher. In 2018, 80 percent of all net added IUD placements in China (calculated as placements minus removals) were performed in Xinjiang, despite the fact that the region only makes up 1.8 percent of the PRC’s population.
Shares of women aged 18 to 49 who were either widowed or in menopause have more than doubled since the onset of the internment campaign in one particular Uyghur region. These are potential proxy indicators for unnatural deaths (possibly of interned husbands), and/or of injections given in internment that can cause temporary or permanent loss of menstrual cycles.
Between 2015 and 2018, about 860,000 ethnic Han residents left Xinjiang, while up to 2 million new residents were added to Xinjiang’s Han majority regions. Also, population growth rates in a Uyghur region where Han constitute the majority were nearly 8 times higher than in the surrounding rural Uyghur regions (in 2018). These figures raise concerns that Beijing is doubling down on a policy of Han settler colonialism.
These findings provide the strongest evidence yet that Beijing’s policies in Xinjiang meet one of the genocide criteria cited in the U.N. Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, namely that of Section D of Article II: “imposing measures intended to prevent births within the [targeted] group” (United Nations, December 9, 1948).
Xinjiang's largest concentration camp is twice the size of Vatican City. As of 2021, Xinjiang had over 300 concentration camps, or 206 million square feet with enough capacity to incarcerate seven times the prison population in the United States.
- Dick Wilson, The People's Emperor Mao: A Biography of Mao Tse-tung, New York 1979, pg. 60.
- Joseph C. Grew, Invasion Alert! (Baltimore, Maran Publishers, 1956), pp. 42-44. 
- R.J. Rummel, Reevaluating China's Democide to be 73,000,000, November 20, 2005.
- From Mao’s “Report on an Investigation of the Peasant Movement in Hunan” (March 1927).
- Venona 142(a) Moscow to Canberra 12 September 1943. Text reads: "change in circumstances - and in particular the dissolution of the Comintern - necessitates a change in the method used by the workers of our residencies to keep in touch with the leaders of the local Communist organizations on intelligence matters.
2. Our workers, by continuing to meet the leader of the Communists, are exposing themselves to danger and are giving cause [orgs of] local authorities to suspect that the Comintern is still in existence.
3. We propose:
a. That personal contact with leaders of the local Communist organizations should cease and that Communist material should not be accepted for forwarding to the Comintern.
b. That meetings of our workers may take place only with special reliable undercover [ZAKONSPIRIROVANNYJ] contacts of the Communist [D% organizations], who are not suspected by the [orgs of] local authorities, exclusively about specific aspects of our intelligence work (acquiring [1 group unidentified] contacts, leads [NAVODKI], rechecking of those who are being cultivated, etc.). For each meeting it is necessary to obtain our consent.
Representative of the Soviet Union.
Lt. Gen. P.M. Fitin.
Notes: [a] This message is known to have been sent also to NEW YORK, SAN FRANCISCO, and OTTAWA.
- Counterintelligence Reader, Volume 2, Chapter 4. National Counterintelligence Center, United States Government. n.d.
- Red Star Over China by Edgar Snow, New York, 1937.
- Soviet Russia and the Far East by David J. Dallin (New Haven, 1948); Inside Red China by Nym Wales (New York, 1939); Kiangsi Soviet Republic.
- Soviet Russia and the Far East, David J. Dallin, New Haven, 1948; 17th Congress of Communist Party of Soviet Union, Stenog. Report, p. 1323, quoted in While You Slept : Our Tragedy in Asia and Who Made It, John T. Flynn, New York : The Devin - Adair Company, 1951, pg. 21 pdf.
- Ilpyong J. Kim, The Politics of Chinese Communism, Berkeley 1973, p. 25.
- On the Beginnings of the Chinese Communist Party, Nine Commentaries on the Chinese Communist Party, The Epoch Times, December 13, 2004.
- John M. Glionna, "China's reality check on Long March," Los Angeles Times, Jan. 16, 2008
- Sun Shuyun, The Long March: The True History of Communist China's Founding Myth (2007)
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- Harris, Sheldon. Factories of Death.
- Barenblatt, Daniel. A Plague Upon Humanity: the Secret Genocide of Axis Japan's Germ Warfare Operation, HarperCollins, 2004. ISBN 0-06-018625-9
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- Biological Weapons Program-Japan Federation of American Scientists
- Review of the studies on Germ Warfare Tien-wei Wu A Preliminary Review of Studies of Japanese Biological Warfare and Unit 731 in the United States
- Biohazard: Unit 731 and the American Cover-Up (Page 5).
- Guillemin, Jeanne (2017). Friedrich, Bretislav; Hoffmann, Dieter; Renn, Jürgen et al.. eds. "The 1925 Geneva Protocol: China's CBW Charges Against Japan at the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal" (in en). One Hundred Years of Chemical Warfare: Research, Deployment, Consequences (Springer International Publishing): 273–286. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-51664-6_15. ISBN 9783319516646.
- US Joint Publication research service. (1979). China Report: Political, Sociological and Military Affairs. Foreign Broadcast information Service. No ISBN digitized text March 5, 2007
- Twitchett, Denis and Fairbank, John K. The Cambridge history of China. ISBN 0-521-24336-X
- Borthwick, Mark. (1998). Pacific Century: The Emergence of Modern Pacific Asia. Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-3471-3
- Apter, David Ernest. (1994). Revolutionary Discourse in Mao's Republic. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-76780-2
- See Harry Dexter White#Betrayal of the Kuomintang
- The CCP murderers were he alleged "agrarian reformers" the New York Times and Secretary of State George Marshall spoke of.
- China's Bloody Century: Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1900, By Rudolph J. Rummel
- "There have been at least two radical-left publications named “Vorwaerts” (the German word for “Forward”). One was the daily newspaper of the Social Democratic Party of Germany whose writers included Friedrich Engels and Leon Trotsky. It still publishes as the organ of Germany’s SDP, though that party has changed considerably since World War II. Another was the 1844 biweekly reader of the Communist League. Karl Marx, Engels and Mikhail Bakunin are among the names associated with that publication....Vladimir Lenin founded the publication “Vpered” (the Russian word for “forward”) in 1905." President Barack Obama adopted the motto for his 2012 presidential election campaign.
- Johnson, Matthew D.. "The Revolutionary, A film by Irv Drasnin, Lucy Ostrander and Don Sellers", Asian Educational Media Service, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, October 21, 2013. “Matthew D. Johnson is Assistant Professor of East Asian History at Grinnell College. His research and teaching cover modern China and East Asia, political communications and propaganda, and United States-China relations. "The Revolutionary offers a window onto a unique individual and a unique perspective on the Mao-led Communist Party, particularly during the latter’s Cultural Revolution phase. The second is that it insinuates that Maoist China was closed to Americans during the Cold War. Writers Edgar Snow and Anna Louise Strong, both of whom visited and, in Strong’s case, lived in China after 1949 also enjoyed access to China’s top leaders and played important roles as bridges between the Communist Party and U.S. As did W. E. B. Du Bois and Robert F. Williams – African-American intellectuals and leaders whose roles in transnational U.S.-China relations has been overlooked by historians on both sides. Members of the CPUSA visited China during the early 1950s and again during the Cultural Revolution, and a handful of journalists also arrived there on the eve of Great Leap Forward. Other U.S. foreign experts employed by the PRC included former Treasury officials Frank Coe and Solomon Adler."”
- Becker, Jasper, Hungry Ghosts: Mao's Secret Famine, Macmillan (1998), ISBN 0-8050-5668-8, ISBN 978-0-8050-5668-6, pp. 290-299
- Epoch Times Staff, Nine Commentaries on the Communist Party, The Epoch Group, Broad Book USA (2005), ISBN 1-932674-16-0, ISBN 978-1-932674-16-3, p. 47
- China Daily, Sol Adler, a soulful friend (China Daily) Updated: 2009-09-05 07:39
- Mao: The Real Story, by Alexander P. Pantsov with Steven I. Levine, pg. 472.
- Black Book of Communism, Pg. 513.
- Black Book of Communism, Pg, 524.
- Xueguang Zhou and Liren Hou, "Children of the Cultural Revolution: the State and the Life Course in the People's Republic of China." American Sociological Review 1999 64(1): 12-36. Issn: 0003-1224 in Jstor
- Jonathan Unger, "Cultural Revolution Conflict in the Villages." China Quarterly 1998 (153): 82-106. Issn: 0305-7410 in Jstor ; Andrew G. Walder, and Yang Su, "The Cultural Revolution in the Countryside: Scope, Timing and Human Impact." China Quarterly 2003 (173): 74-99. Issn: 0305-7410
- Patricia Powell, and Joseph Wong, "Propaganda Posters from the Chinese Cultural Revolution." Historian 1997 59(4): 776-793. Issn: 0018-2370 in EBSCO
- Rummel, R. J. (2011-12-31). China's Bloody Century: Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1900 (in en). Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-1-4128-1400-3.
- For primary sources and details see "Record of Historic Richard Nixon-Zhou Enlai Talks in February 1972 Now Declassified"
- Maria Hsia Chang, Falun Gong: The End of Days.
- "Human Fire Ignites Chinese Mystery", 4 February 2001.
- Jiang Zemin Ordered the Harvesting of Organs from Falun Gong Practitioners for Transplantation, WOIPFG, Sept. 30, 2014.
- Scaliger, Charles (February 19, 2019). China’s New Aggression on the World Stage. The New American. Retrieved February 19, 2019.
- Multiple references:
- Byas, Steve (March 7, 2019). Chinese Communists Tighten Grip as 70th Anniversary Nears. The New American. Retrieved March 8, 2019.
- Li, Olivia (March 6, 2019). China Cracks Down on Private Enterprises. The Epoch Times. Retrieved March 8, 2019.
- Blanchard, Ben (March 7, 2019). In sensitive year for China, warnings against 'erroneous thoughts'. Reuters. Retrieved March 9, 2019.
- Timm, Leo; Hao, Nicole (December 24, 2019). Year in Review: For Communist China, the Worst Is yet to Come. The Epoch Times. Retrieved December 24, 2019.
- Adelmann, Bob (December 30, 2019). China Facing Massive Headwinds in 2020. The New American. Retrieved December 30, 2019.
- Lowe, Tiana (August 15, 2019). Woke capitalism cowers to China. Washington Examiner. Retrieved August 26, 2019.
- Kraychik, Robert (October 14, 2019). Rob Spalding: China Silenced Its Critics by Buying Off America’s Elites. Breitbart News. Retrieved October 14, 2019.
- Virgil (October 20, 2019). Virgil: Five Takeaways from Capitalism’s Kowtow to China. Breitbart News. Retrieved October 21, 2019.
- Schmitt, Gary (September 26, 2019). China is quietly winning the diplomatic war with Taiwan. The Hill. Retrieved September 26, 2019.
- Zeeshan Mhaskar. Twitter. November 24, 2019. Retrieved December 1, 2019.
- Akan, Emel (January 6, 2020). China’s Rise Has Had Negative Impact on Global Innovation, Experts Say. The Epoch Times. Retrieved January 6, 2020.
- Adelmann, Bob (December 30, 2019). China’s Xi Jinping Is Now the “People’s Leader”. The New American. Retrieved December 30, 2019.
- The confession signed on Jan. 3, 2020 says that they had “severely disrupted social order:”"On December 30, 2019, WeChat group "Clinical Wuhan University 04" issued untrue statements about 7 cases of SARS diagnosed in the South China fruit and seafood market. Now raise warnings and admonitions according to law on the illegal issue of untrue statements on the Internet. Your behavior severely disrupts social order. Your behavior has exceeded the scope permitted by law, and it violates the relevant provisions of the Law of the People's Republic of China on Public Security Management Penalties , which is an illegal act! The public security organ hopes that you will actively cooperate with your work, follow the advice of the police, and stop the illegal behavior. can you do it? Answer: Yes We hope that you calm down and reflect carefully, and solemnly warn you: if you are stubborn, do not think about repentance, and continue to carry out illegal activities, you will be punished by the law! do you understand? Answer: understand"
- Cohen, Jon, "Wuhan seafood market may not be source of novel virus spreading globally," Science, Jan. 26, 2020.
- Dear friends, elders,
I ’m still in the epidemic area of Hankou, Wuhan, and I ’d like to report to you the current epidemic situation in Hubei and even the whole country.
There are now more than 90,000 person-times (Note: Infected person-times or incidents?)
What is the chance of this virus being transmitted? After a person is infected, if he is not effectively isolated,
Or if effective treatment is performed, he will infect 14 people around him, so this level is very large.
Now it’s the time of the Chinese New Year family and friends, relatives, children, and children are all going to the house to reunite the family together for a reunion dinner
The situation is special now. I hope you don’t go out.
Every year in the Spring Festival, as long as people are safe, everyone can be together anytime, anywhere
Let me introduce you to the situation of medical supplies in Hubei Province
At present, the entire medical system in Wuhan, which integrates the entire medical system in Hubei Province, has passed through our superiors. The health and health committee (Note: these three words are uncertain)
And various administrative departments
The municipal government and the provincial government are initiating donations to the society through major media. This material is medical material. For example, the goggles I wear
Wear disposable masks, wear disposable gloves, wear this gown, or even isolation pants.
This material is extremely accurate. Our current medical staff must come back to the front line when they come down from the clinic.
I am now equivalent to recording this video with everyone on the FireWire, in order to make everyone accurate.
I stress again that during the Spring Festival holiday, don’t go out and stay in your own house, otherwise I ’m desperately ahead
Not just to keep my dad, my loved ones, healthy
I hope everyone can understand, I also know that some relatives are not in the group, please see the news of me, call each other and inform
It must be done. I hope everyone can raise awareness. This is a political task.
And I ’m reporting very bad news. This new type of coronavirus has undergone the second generation mutation
In other words, in the first generation of mutation, we can treat it symptomatically.
Then when the second-generation mutation occurs, this is terrible, and its chance of infection is not one person to one person, one person has the disease and infects 14 people around him.
Then it is pour burst (note: these five characters are uncertain)
I hope everyone remembers, do n’t go out, do n’t go out, do n’t meet, do n’t have dinner
thank you all
- BuzzFeed reported that video of one such "hospital" was actually an apartment building being constructed on the other side of the country.
- Loh, Christine, "Underground Front: The Chinese Communist Party in Hong Kong" Second Edition.
- It is also known as the “laogai” system. It's Russian equivalent is Glavnoe Upravlenie Lagerei or gulag.
- Tariff Act of 1930, 19 U.S. Code 19 § 1307.
- Cited in Prison Labor Exports from China and Implications for U.S. Policy, U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission Staff Research Report, July 9, 2014.
- Laogai: The Machinery of Repression in China, 2009-10-01
- Discrimination and Racism in China, Internations.org website
- What is it like to be Black in China?, Inkstone News
- Anti-Black Racism in Post-Mao China by Barry Sautman, Cambridge University Press
- STERILIZATIONS,IUDS, AND MANDATORY BIRTH CONTROL: THE CCP’S CAMPAIGN TO SUPPRESS UYGHUR BIRTHRATES IN XINJIANG, Adrian Zenz, June 2020 Updated July 21, 2020. The Jamestown Foundation.
- Rectification in Yan’an—Creating the Most Fearsome Methods in Persecution, "The rectification movement in Yan’an was the largest, darkest and most ferocious power game ever played out in the human world"