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3rd Rzeczpospolita Polska
Flag of Poland.png
Arms of Poland.png
Flag Coat of Arms
Capital Warsaw
Government Parliamentary Republic
Language Polish (official)
President Andrzej Duda
Prime minister Donald Tusk
Current Conservative Leader Mateusz Morawiecki
Area 120,728 sq mi
Population 37,750,000 (2020)
GDP $600,000,000,000 (2020)
GDP per capita $15,894 (2020)
Currency Złoty (PLN)
Internet top-level domain .pl

The Third Polish Republic is a Central European country and the leading pro-life nation in Europe. Previously Poland suffered many hardships before and after World War I and World War II, disappearing from the world map in 1875 and re-appearing in 1918 after 123 years of Austro-Hungarian, Prussian (German), and Russian Empire rule. After having re-emerged as a sovereign nation after World War I, Poland was again partitioned between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union at the start of World War II. Attaining nationhood again at the end of that war, Poland was then suppressed behind the Iron Curtain as a Soviet satellite state controlled by a communist regime imposed by Josef Stalin.

While Hungary remained conservative by standing against the NATO war in Ukraine and not bankrupting itself over it, Poland's RINO-type leadership made both mistakes and was defeated in the national election on October 15, 2023. Predictably, as a result of Poland caving into liberal NATO, the homosexual agenda and transgender agenda began taking over Poland in 2024: "Religious symbols have been banned from Warsaw's city hall by its mayor, marking the first Polish city to do so. Crosses will no longer be allowed to hang on walls according to a new set of documented rules, which was a common sight in state offices in Poland. Mayor Rafal Trzaskowski also included in the new rules that officials must respect same-sex couples and preferred pronouns."[1]

Poland is the second-most conservative nation in the European Union, only behind Hungary. However Poland is far behind Hungary in terms of conservatism and only slightly ahead of its remaining EU counterparts, namely due to its highly Russophobic foreign policy and strong acquiescence to the American Deep State. That being said, Poland controls its border and limits illegal immigration more effectively than most other European countries do. In 2021, Poland announced that it would fine Big Tech for its liberal censorship.

Poland accepted millions of refugees from the Ukraine, and this has resulted in some new labor unrest by the less conservative Ukrainian workers. "Ukrainians are starting to protest against the violation of their labor rights in Poland. This month, a strike took place at the factory of Christmas decorations in the Polish town of Gliwice."[2] In March 2023, Poland cut its subsidies for Ukrainian refugees by half.[3] Poland agreed with globalists to deport some men of expanded military age (roughly 18-50 years old) back to Ukraine in September 2023.[4] Most were sent directly to the front and dead within 3 days.[5][6]

Historically, Poland finally became liberated from the communist rule in late 1980s, specifically July 4, 1989 (the date of the elections won by the Solidarność, or Solidarity movement). Pope John Paul II was from Poland and played a major part in bringing down communism in Poland. Among the nations under Soviet domination, Poland was unique in continuing to keep its strong Catholic roots even in the face of persecution. Despite this, communists remained in power and received no punishment, even decades later.[7] The capital of Poland is Warsaw.


One-third of contemporary lands claimed by Poland were taken from Germany and gifted to the Polish People's Republic by Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin after a period of mass deportation of the Germans resident there at the end of World War II.


Polish folk musician.

Poland today is ethnically almost homogeneous (98% Polish), in contrast with the period before and during World War II, when there were significant ethnic minorities—4.5 million Ukrainians, 3 million Jews, 1 million Belorussians, and 800,000 Germans. The majority of the Jews were murdered during the German occupation in World War II, and many others emigrated in the succeeding years.

Most Germans left Poland at the end of the war, while many Ukrainians and Belorussians lived in territories incorporated into the then-U.S.S.R. Small Ukrainian, Belorussian, Slovakian, and Lithuanian minorities reside along the borders, and a German minority is concentrated near the southwest city of Opole.

  • Population (July 2018): 38.399 millions.
  • Annual growth rate: Unchanging.
  • Ethnic groups: Polish 98%, German, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Lithuanian.
  • Religions: Roman Catholic 90%, Eastern Orthodox, Uniate, Protestant, Judaism.
  • Language: Polish.
  • Education: Literacy—98%.
  • Health (2016): Infant mortality rate—4/1,000. Life expectancy (2017)—males 74 yrs., females 82 yrs.
  • Work force: 17.2 million. Industry and construction—30%; agriculture—13%; services—57%.


St. John Cathedral, Warsaw.
Altar in St. Peter and Paul Cathedral in Gliwice.

More than 94% of the population is Roman Catholic. According to the 2007 Annual Statistical Yearbook of Poland, the formal membership of the listed religious groups includes 33,862,800 Roman Catholics; 506,800 Polish Orthodox Church members; 53,000 Greek Catholics; 126,827 Jehovah's Witnesses; 77,500 Lutherans (Augsburg Confession); 23,670 Old Catholic Mariavits; 21,199 Pentecostals; 9,620 Seventh-day Adventists; 19,035 members of the Polish Catholic Church; 4,881 members of the New Apostolic Church; 4,726 Baptists; 4,445 Methodists; 3,516 Lutherans (Reformed); 2,500 Jews; 2,425 members of the Church of Christ; 2,195 Catholic Mariavits; 1,299 members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons); 915 members of the Church of Krishna Consciousness (Hare Krishnas); and 112 registered members of Muslim associations. These figures do not account for persons who adhere to a particular faith but do not maintain formal membership. Figures for Jews and Muslims in particular are significantly deflated as a result. Jewish and Muslim organizations estimate their actual numbers to be 30,000-40,000 and 25,000, respectively.[8]

The majority of asylum seekers are Muslims from Chechnya. In the refugee centers around the country, they organize their own mosques where they practice their religion.

The caving in of the pseudo-conservative leadership of Poland to liberal NATO in 2022 has resulted in their political defeat in 2023 and a predictably subsequent movement to legalize abortion. Most political forces in the parliament had been mostly pro-life (allowing abortion when the women's life or health is threatened, when pregnancy is a result of rape or incest, when the fetus is irreversibly damaged). The attempts to change constitution so that it would be stated that life would be protected from the moment of conception to natural death failed.

Government and Political Conditions

See also: 2023 Poland election

The current government structure consists of a council of ministers led by a Prime Minister, typically chosen from the majority coalition in the bicameral legislature's lower house (Sejm). The president, elected every five years for no more than two terms, is the head of state and commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The judicial branch plays a minor role in decision-making.

The parliament consists of the 460-member Sejm and the 100-member Senat, or upper house. The new constitution and the reformed administrative division (as of 1999) required a revision of the election ordinance (passed in April 2001). The most important changes were the liquidation of a national list (all deputies are elected by voters in electoral districts) and introduction of a new method of calculating seats (the modified St. Lague method replaced the d'Hondt method, thus eliminating the premium for the top parties). The law stipulated that with the exception of guaranteed seats for small ethnic parties, only parties receiving at least 5% of the total vote could enter parliament.

Parties represented in the newly elected (October 2015) Sejm are Law and Justice (PiS), Civic Platform (PO), Kukiz'15 (K'15), Nowoczesna Ryszarda Petru (.N), and Polish Peasant Party (PSL) There is also one representative of the German Minority and some non-allied members of Parliament.

Warsaw by night.

Poland has has repeatedly ruled out joining the EU common currency. In October 2022 the Polish Constitutional Tribunal declared that Articles 1, 2, and 4 clauses 3 and 19 of the Treaty on European Union (TEU) are incompatible with the Polish Constitution and warned the European Union not to interfere with its sovereignty.

Andrew Korybko noted in NATO’s Proposed ‘Military Schengen’ Is A Thinly Disguised German Power Play Over Poland aimed at taking advantage of Donald Tusk’s return to the premiership to subordinate Poland as a German proxy. Conservative-nationalist opposition leader Jaroslaw Kaczynski accused Tusk of being a “German agent” due to his close ties with Germany and warned that he’s plotting to surrender Polish sovereignty to it.[9]

Principal Government Officials

  • President—Andrzej Duda
  • Prime Minister—Donald Tusk
  • First Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Culture and National Heritage—Piotr Gliński
  • Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Science and Higher Education—Jarosław Gowin
  • Deputy Prime Minister—Jacek Sasin

Foreign Relations

Poland became an associate member of the EU and its defensive arm, the Western European Union, in 1994. In a June 2003 national referendum, the Polish people approved EU accession by an overwhelming margin, and Poland gained full membership on May 1, 2004.

Changes since 1989 have redrawn the map of central Europe, and Poland has had to forge relationships with seven new neighbors. Poland has actively pursued good relations, signing friendship treaties replacing links severed by the collapse of the Warsaw Pact. The Poles have forged special relationships with Lithuania and particularly Ukraine in an effort to firmly anchor these states to the West.

Prime Minister Mateusz Morawiecki, speaking at the Warsaw Permanent Working Review Conference for Ukrainian Support on February 5, 2023 said, "Poland is ready to take responsibility for shaping the New World Order."[10]

United States

Former Polish Foreign and Defense Minister and Member of the EU Parliament thanked Joe Biden for his environmental terrorism and Act of War against Germany and Russia.[11]

In August 2019, when the U.S. withdrew from the INF Treaty banning intermediate-range missiles in Europe, the U.S. had already deployed missiles in Romania and Poland saying their purpose was ostensibly ‘to defend against Iran’. However, the tubes installed are deliberately configured to accommodate nuclear warhead equipped, cruise missiles and ballistic missiles; it is not possible to determine which missile is loaded, as the tubes have lids to them. The time for these missiles to reach Moscow would be 9 minutes from Poland, and 10 from Romania.


During the Russia-Ukraine war, the Polish Sejm or Senate passed a resolution 418 to 4 demanding reparations from Poland's NATO ally Germany. The resolution stated that "the Republic of Poland has never received compensation for the numerous human and material losses caused by the German state." The resolution claims that Warsaw has never renounced its claims against Berlin. "The allegation that these claims have been withdrawn or ceased to be relevant over the years has no basis, neither moral nor legal."[12]


In December 2020, after torchlight parades took place all over Ukraine honoring Stepan Bandera, the head of the OUN-B, Ukrainian national hero, who was a collaborator with the Nazis during the Second World War, and whose men massacred Jews and Polish civilians, Poland and Israel issued a joint communiqué to complain about the glorification of Bandera, Andriy Melnyk, the head of the other branch of the OUN, the OUN-M, and all others who actively promoted the ethnic cleansing of Jews and Poles.[13]

On May 3, 2022 President Duda said in a nationally televised speech, "I hope that Ukraine will be a brotherly state to Poland; that it will not have a border between them, that there will in fact be no border; that we will live together on this land, rebuilding ourselves and building our common happiness, our common strength."[14]

President Duda said at the opening of the 2023 United Nations General Assembly session, "Ukraine is like a drowning man, it can drag us into the depths".[15]


Polish military goose stepping, August 15, 2018.

Poland became a full member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in March 1999 as part of the first wave of enlargement outlined at the July 1997 NATO Summit in Madrid. Poland's top national security goal is to further integrate with NATO and other west European defense, economic, and political institutions while modernizing and reorganizing its military. Polish military doctrine reflects the same defense posture as its Alliance partners.

Poland maintains a sizable armed force currently numbering about 140,572 troops divided among an army of 87,877, an air and defense force of 31,147, and a navy of 21,548. Poland relies on military conscription for the majority of its personnel strength. All males (with some exceptions) are subject to a 12-month term of military service. The Polish military continues to restructure and modernize its equipment. The Polish Defense Ministry General Staff and the Land Forces staff have recently reorganized the latter into a NATO-compatible J/G-1 through J/G-6 structure. Although budget constraints remain a drag on modernization, Poland has been able to move forward with U.S. assistance on acquiring 48 F-16 multi-role fighters, C-130 cargo planes, HMMWVs, and other items key to the military's restructuring.

Polish government responds to Biden regime foreign secretary Antony Blinken efforts to induce Poland to provoke World War III.[16]

Poland continues to be a regional leader in support and participation in the NATO Partnership for Peace Program and has actively engaged most of its neighbors and other regional actors to build stable foundations for future European security arrangements. Poland continues its long record of strong support for UN peacekeeping operations by maintaining a unit in Southern Lebanon, a battalion in NATO's Kosovo Force (KFOR), and by providing and actually deploying the KFOR strategic reserve to Kosovo. Polish military forces have served in both Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan and Operation Iraqi Freedom.

Poland assumed command of a multinational division of stabilization forces in Iraq (MDN-CS) on September 3, 2003. Poland and its MND-CS partners have worked effectively since then to stabilize south central Iraq while working to train Iraqi forces to take over MND-CS responsibilities and operate independently.[17]

On March 8, 2022, the government of Poland announced it would transfer all of its Russian-made MIG-29 jets to the Rammstein Air Base in Germany. The jets will be placed “at the disposal of the Government of the United States of America” which in turn is expected to send them to Ukraine.[18] The Pentagon responded to the Polish announcement: "The prospect of fighter jets "at the disposal of the Government of the United States of America" departing from a U.S./NATO base in Germany to fly into airspace that is contested with Russia over Ukraine raises serious concerns for the entire NATO alliance. It is simply not clear to us that there is a substantive rationale for it.'[19] Simply put, Blinken and Biden tried to bribe Poland with new jets to attack Russia and begin World War III so NATO Article 5 could be invoke. Poland refused on at least two earlier occasions in the previous two weeks. When Poland said it would fly the old MIGs to Germany and let Germany or the U.S. begin World War III, or let the US transport the MIGs to Slovakia or Romania and let Romania or Slovakia get nuked in addition to the United States for starting World War III, the whole duplicitous game the Biden regime was playing with the lives of people on the planet was exposed. Biden, the "leader of the free world", wanted to start World War III but didn't want to take the blame for it, and was looking a NATO ally to bribe and become the fall guy.[20]

Poland plans to increase defence spending to 2.5% of GDP by 2026, using a funding scheme that includes bonds, loans and leasing options. The PiS-led cabinet already is among NATO’s top spenders (2.2% of GDP in 2022). In 2022 military spending stood at 57.7 billion zlotys, or 12.5 billion euros, which will consume 12 per cent of the country’s budget. As a result of the NATO war in Ukraine, Poland planned to raise military spending to 5% of GDP, with 300,000 active troops by 2035. It is buying billions in modern equipment from the US and South Korea.

As stated by the Defence Ministry, the military modernization plan until 2035 has a price tag of 524 billion zlotys (115 billion euros), but details have not been made public. The increased spending also does not require parliamentary approval, let alone a referendum, even for the largest procurement items. All that is required is the signature of Defense Minister.

Sawulki Gap

In January 2023 the Polish Ministry of Defense reported 15,900 professional soldiers resigned from the Army and Polish Territorial Defense in 2022. This compares with 6,000 resignations the previous year of 2021.[21]

Sawulki Gap

The Polish town of Suwałki lies approximately 15 miles south-east of the border with Kaliningrad and 25 miles west of its border with Belarus, putting it in the middle of a sixty-mile gap between Russia and Belarus. This chokepoint is NATO’s ‘gateway to the Baltic states’, and without this passage, there is no terrestrial connection between Lithuania (or Latvia and Estonia) and the rest of NATO.

Lvov biological weapons research lab

See also: U.S. funded biological labs abroad

Captured documents show the involvement of Poland in Ukrainian biolaboratories. The participation of the Polish Institute of Veterinary Medicine in research aimed at assessing the epidemiological threats and spread of the rabies virus in Ukraine has been confirmed. Characteristically, the research in question was carried out jointly with the US-based Battelle Institute, a key contractor for the Pentagon.

In addition, Polish funding for the Lvov Medical University, which includes a member of US military biology projects, the Institute of Epidemiology and Hygiene, has been documented. The organization has been running a retraining program for specialists with experience of working with dual-use materials and technologies since 2002.[22]

Russia-Ukraine war

See also: NATO war in Ukraine

Evidence suggests Polish intelligence has fed exaggerated and phony anti-Russian information on Russian activities in Ukraine to NATO to inflame tensions since at least 2014.

On March 8, 2022, the government of Poland announced it would transfer all of its Russian-made MIG-29 jets to the Rammstein Air Base in Germany. The jets will be placed “at the disposal of the Government of the United States of America” which in turn is expected to send them to Ukraine.[23] The Pentagon responded to the Polish announcement: "The prospect of fighter jets "at the disposal of the Government of the United States of America" departing from a U.S./NATO base in Germany to fly into airspace that is contested with Russia over Ukraine raises serious concerns for the entire NATO alliance. It is simply not clear to us that there is a substantive rationale for it.'[24] Simply put, Blinken and Biden tried to bribe Poland with new upgraded replacement jets to attack Russia and begin World War III so that NATO Article 5 could be invoke. Poland refused on at least two earlier occasions in the previous two weeks. When Poland said it would fly the old MIGs to Germany and let Germany or the U.S. begin World War III, or let the US transport the MIGs to Slovakia or Romania and let Romania or Slovakia get nuked in addition to the United States, the whole duplicitous game the Biden regime was playing with the lives of people on the planet was exposed. Biden, the "leader of the free world", wanted to start World War III but didn't want to take the blame for it, and was looking for a NATO ally to bribe and become the fall guy.[25]

On March 24, 2022, Biden flew to Poland. Reports emerged that Poland was "contemplating" an incursion into Western Ukraine.

On April 5, 2022, according to Deputy Prime Minister Jarosław Kaczynski, leader of Poland's ruling Law and Justice (PiS) party, agreements were fully reached allowing Washington to relocate its nuclear arsenals to the country in any required quantity, the German newspaper Welt am Sontag reported.[26]

On April 28, 2022, the Polish Defense Ministry announced that there would be intensive movement of convoys with equipment in the country’s north and east from May 1, 2022, until the end of the month due to “military exercises”.

One of the development options of the Polish leadership’s plan is to create an advanced bridgehead on the territory of Moldova to promptly take control of Transnistria and deploy a “peacekeeping contingent” on the territory of the Odessa region. The Odesa command of the Armed Forces of Ukraine (AFU) is ready to support a Moldovan-Polish-Romanian invasion of Transnistria under the guise of a "humanitarian" operation.

On May 18, 2022, Maurycy Hawranek, an Administrator of WolneMedia.net published this:

Polish armored vehicles being transported to Ukraine, May 2022.
"Independent freedom portal WolneMedia.net from Poland was censored preventively contrary to Article 54 of the Polish Constitution. The pro-Ukrainian government does not allow criticism of the Ukrainian propaganda and the government's policy. After 15 years of activity for freedom of speech, the owner of the portal encountered brutal censorship by the state security police. He has not received a decision on censorship or information on how to appeal. The Polish law does not allow for an appeal. The secret list of censored sites is growing. Sites in the .pl domain are disabled, and portals with international domains are blocked by Polish telecoms in DNS. They can be read from abroad, via VPN, Tor, proxy gateways or by changing the Polish DNS to a foreign one. Ordinary people do not know about this. ... Is the promotion of a Polish-Ukrainian union in the media to mask a secret capitulation? Has Poland become a colony of Ukraine? The Polish parliament displays the flag of Ukraine in the place of the host country and the Polish flag in the place of a guest. Some offices have swapped the flags of Poland for those of Ukraine..,.."[27]

While attending the World Economic Forum (WEF) President Andrzej Duda accused Germany of breaking its word to re-supply Poland with new tanks as compensation for Polish deliveries of Soviet-era tanks to Ukraine. In an interview with Die Welt Duda said Germany has "not fulfilled this promise. And frankly, we are very disappointed about this....We have provided Ukraine with a large number of tanks … because we believe it is our responsibility as a neighbor,” Duda said, referring to reports that Warsaw handed at least 240 Soviet-era tanks to the Ukrainian military. “By doing so, we depleted our own military potential and stockpiles."[28]

Deputy Prime Minister Jaroslaw Kaczynski told Gazeta Polska in an interview on June 15, 2022, "the defeat of the West, primarily America, in Ukraine will be something more serious than Vietnam, not to mention Afghanistan."[29] On June 21, 2022 Kaczynski, the "puppet master" of the Duda regime, quit further weakening the regime.

In June it was reported Poland was to receive 500 HIMARS from the United States.[30]

On October 10, 2022 Reuters reported that the government of Poland advised its citizens to leave Belarus.[31]

On October 14, 2022 it was reported Poland was to purchase close to 300 K239 Chunmoo multiple-rocket launchers from South Korea.[32]

On November 15, 2022 Poland was called out by U.S. socialist premier Joe Biden for issuing a global false flag alert that World War III was about to begin when it posted misinformation about a supposed Russian missile attack on Poland.[33] Polish leadership is known for its Russophobia and efforts to drag the United States into war with Russia ever since Poland was admitted to NATO, and before. Extremists in the Polish government, with their rabid hatred of Russia and everything Russian, and their lust for vengeance against Russia and the Russian people in fact provide NATO with NATO's only reason for NATO's continued existence. Polish anti-Russian propaganda and influence are typically expressed in Western media and U.S. State Department comments with phrases such as, "Russia is a threat to its neighbors".

NATO mercenaries

The Polish new site Niezaleizny Dziennik Polityczny reported on November 23, 2022:

A shameful end. American quarters for Polish mercenaries.

In early November, the regional media announced plans to create burials similar to American war cemeteries in Olsztyn. The reports sparked a wave of indignation, both among the city's residents and Poles across the country. "This is a necropolis for Poles? We are from a different culture,” which is how indignant users in social media reacted to the strange ideas of the city council. ... The municipal cemetery in Dywity is the main necropolis in Olsztyn and covers over 35 ha. Today it is loud about it all over Poland, because soon it will look like a war cemetery in the USA. It has to be like in an American movie. A large lawn with identical tombstones on it. Without trees, benches, angels bending over the dead. The tombstones will be the same, they will only differ in color. Their manufacturers provided for only three: black, gray and red-brown.

The main reason for the creation of the American cemetery in Olsztyn was the drastically increased number of burials in the region, mainly soldiers' graves.

This situation has become a real problem for the local government of Olsztyn, where the 16th Pomeranian Mechanized Division is stationed. Almost daily military funerals combined with volleys of honor began to irritate the residents and provoked numerous questions to the city administration and the command of the 16th Division. To avoid additional publicity of the problem, the authorities decided to create a separate "American" cemetery. ... After the outbreak of the war in Ukraine in February this year, President Andrzej Duda and Minister of National Defense Mariusz Błaszczak officially called on Poles to join the ranks of mercenaries and fight on the side of the Kyiv regime. Among the fighters who went to war were professional soldiers of the 16th Mechanized Division and veterans of the unit living in the region.

During the 10 months of bloody fighting, according to information from publicly available sources, over 1,200 Polish citizens died in Ukraine, including soldiers and veterans of the 16th PDZ. The number of injured and maimed people also amounts to several thousand.[34]

On February 20, 2023, head of the Russian Investigative Committee Alexander Bastrykin reported that the mutilated bodies of Polish mercenaries were found by Russian forces with their heads and hands cut off by the AFU to thwart identification.[35][36]

According to a report by the Myśl Polska news agency in late August 2023, the number of Polish casualties in the ongoing conflict in Ukraine exceeded 10,000. This staggering figure has serious implications for both Poland and its military establishment, especially given that a significant proportion of the dead have been identified as Polish army reservists. This number of deaths would be more than 15% of all Polish ground forces. While some of these victims are referred to as volunteers and mercenaries, the majority are identified as Polish active-duty soldiers and reservists.[37]

Ukraine missile attack on Poland

On November 15, 2022, two Ukrainian S-300 missiles, alleged to have been launched to shoot down a Russian cruise missile, were fired westward and hit a Polish grain storage facility, killing two civilians. The Polish government, Ukrainian government, the Associated Press,[38] most of all Western propaganda media and so-called national security and intelligence experts called for invoking NATO Article 5.[39] Zelensky advisor Mykhailo Podolyak declared that the strikes came from Russia. Ukrainian foreign minister Dmytro Kuleba claimed Russian denials were a conspiracy theory and that “No one should buy Russian propaganda or amplify its messages."[40] Ukrainian dictator Volodymyr Zelensky tweeted that the “Russian attack on collective security in the Euro-Atlantic is a significant escalation” of the conflict.[41]

However an AWAC radar plane and other ISR aircraft (intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance) aircraft regularly flying in the region, and ground radar tracked the missiles' trajectory and determined the Kyiv regime had launched the missiles. That did not prevent an anonymous "senior U.S. intelligence official" from reporting to the Associated Press that Russia had fired the missiles at Poland. The fake news story was disseminated globally, as all fake news stories emanating from Kyiv, and its CIA counterparts in Kyiv, have been disseminated globally to world media for the entirety of 2022 and late 2021.

When called out on the lies, Ukrainian dictator Volodymyr Zelensky doubled down. Both socialist premier Joe Biden and NATO chief warlord Jens Stoltenberg blamed Ukraine for the attack. Zelensky refuted the Western leaders' statements that the missile which killed two innocent civilians in Poland was Ukrainian. "I have no doubt that it was not our missile or our missile strike." Zelensky insisted that he received reports from the corrupt Armed Forces of Ukraine command that told him the missile attacks did not come from Ukraine," he told the people in a live nationwide address on Ukrainian state-controlled media.[42] The Russophobic Financial Times of London quoted a diplomat from a NATO country in Kyiv saying: “This is getting ridiculous. The Ukrainians are destroying [our] confidence in them. Nobody is blaming Ukraine and they are openly lying. This is more destructive than the missile.”[43]

The Polish politician Jaroslaw Pakula said that Poland should reconsider its position vis-à-vis the conflict in Ukraine after a “provocation” from Kyiv that killed Polish citizens. Pakula said the missile that hit Przewodow was clearly Ukrainian and that the government in Warsaw should send a message to Kyiv instead of telling “fairy tales” to its citizens.[44]


Planned partitioning of Ukraine in 2022.

Russian Foreign Intelligence Service (FIS) stated that the Polish military’s priority “combat tasks” would include the gradual seizure of control over strategic facilities in West Ukraine. Poland discussed with the Biden regime an action to “reunite” with West Ukraine. According to Warsaw's estimates, the entrenchment of the Polish military in West Ukraine would amount to a partitioning of Ukraine. On April 28, 2022 FIS spokesman Sergei Naryshkin said that Washington and Warsaw were planning to deploy a Polish “peacekeeping contingent” in the western part of Ukraine.

“According to information received by the Russian Foreign Intelligence Service, Washington and Warsaw are working on plans to establish tight military and political control over ‘their historical possessions’ in Ukraine,”

According to the FIS, the first stage of the “reunification” should be the introduction of Polish troops into the western regions of Ukraine under the guise of 'peacekeepers' with the participation of ‘willing states’. Warsaw has not yet been able to agree on potential participants in a ‘coalition of like-minded’,” the FIS said.

At the same time, the FIS pointed out, Polish leadership is not interested in “unnecessary spies” in its operation. “The so-called peacekeeping contingent is planned to be deployed in those parts of Ukraine where the threat of direct clash with the Russian Armed Forces is minimal. The priority “combat tasks” of the Polish military will include gradual interception of control over strategic objects located there from the National Guard of Ukraine. Polish special services are already searching for “agreeable” representatives of the Ukrainian elite to form a Warsaw-oriented “democratic” counterweight to the nationalists,” the FIS said in its report.

Commander-in-Chief of the Polish Armed Forces Jaroslaw Mika signed on order to bring the Polish Army into a state of full combat readiness for the invasion of western Ukraine.[45] This document was published online by the Main Intelligence Directorate of the Ukrainian Defense Ministry.[46] According to the Polish government’s estimates, a deployment into western Ukraine is highly likely to split the country. Warsaw will essentially gain control of the territories where Polish "peacekeepers" will enter. Essentially, it is an attempt to repeat the historical “deal” for Poland after the First World War, when the collective West, represented by the Entente, recognized Warsaw’s right first to occupy part of Ukraine to protect its population from the “Bolshevik threat”, and then to incorporate those territories into the Polish state. The events that followed were a clear illustration of the colonial order and forced Polonization as the main methods of building a ‘Greater Poland’,” the FIS concluded.[47]

On May 3, 2022, Polish President Andrzej Duda said in a nationally televised speech,[48]

"I hope that Ukraine will be a brotherly state to Poland; that it will not have a border between them, that there will in fact be no border; that we will live together on this land, rebuilding ourselves and building our common happiness, our common strength."[49]

Other reports indicated that Ukrainian dictator Volodymyr Zelensky and his entire cabinet had been offered UK citizenship, by-passing the ordinary process for acquiring citizenship and in preparation for a government-in-exile of a shrunken landlocked Ukrainian rump state.[50]

Alleged peacekeepers

Hanna Kramer, writing in the Polish Political Journal in March 2023 said,

"Ukrainians are paying thousands of victims for the mistakes and arrogance of the authorities, for unfulfilled promises, for the chaos created by the Americans, who now call it "order". And also for the fact that the government agreed and helped Washington to revive Nazism and kill its own citizens in Donbas. The only thing that remains unchanged is that the White House will stop at nothing to maintain its world dominance. If we do not stop the American Reich now, they will unleash more wars around the world and drown Europeans in the blood of their own citizens!"[51]


Since its reunification with the rest of the West, the Polish economy grew rapidly in the mid-1990s, slowed considerably in 2001 and 2002, returned again to healthy growth rates in 2003, then faltered during the worldwide recession of 2008. Poland's gross domestic product (GDP) grew at an annualized rate of 5.2% in the first quarter of 2006. Faster growth has begun to reduce persistently high unemployment, from nearly 20% in the middle of 2004 to 16.5% in May 2006. Tight monetary policy and dramatic productivity growth have helped to hold down inflation, which was 2.1% in 2005. Likewise, Poland's current account deficit, which grew rapidly in the late 1990s, has since moderated to 1.4% of GDP in 2005. The 2005 budget deficit was 27.5 billion zloty, or 2.8% of GDP in 2005, and the current government pledged to restrain the 2006 and 2007 budgets at 30 billion zloty.

Throughout the 1990s, the United States and other Western countries supported the growth of a free enterprise economy by reducing Poland's foreign debt burden, providing economic aid, and lowering trade barriers. Poland graduated from U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) assistance in 2000 and paid the balance of its U.S.-held Paris Club debt in 2005. Poland officially joined the European Union (EU) on May 1, 2004.

  • GDP (2018): $614.2 billion.
  • GDP Growth (2018): 5.1%.
  • Per Capita GDP (2018): $16,180.
  • Rate of inflation (2018): 1.6%.
  • Rate of unemployment (April 2019): 5.6%.
  • Natural resources: Coal, copper, sulfur, natural gas, silver, lead, salt.
  • Agriculture: Products—grains, hogs, dairy, potatoes, horticulture, sugarbeets, oilseed.
  • Industry: Types—machine building, iron and steel, mining, shipbuilding, automobiles, furniture, textiles and apparel, chemicals, food processing, glass, and beverages.
  • Trade (2018): Exports--$247 billion: furniture, cars, ships, coal, apparel. Imports--$253 billion: crude oil, passenger cars, pharmaceuticals, car parts, computers.

According to the FTSE Russell Index in 2018, Poland became the first post-Soviet country to become a "developed market."[52]
In 2018. Poland has the highest increase in GDP among EU countries and 4th among all countries in the world.

On the other hand, Poland has the biggest inflation in Europe, high public debt, highest wholesale electricity prices in the EU and the level of social spending is the highest in relation to GDP in the world

Inflation has taken a heavy toll on the economy as a result of Russia sanctions, increasing from 15.6 percent in July 2022 to 16.1 percent in August, a new 25-year high. Poland then signed an oil deal with Russia, disregarding EU sanctions, and even imported coal.


Agriculture employs 16.1% of the workforce but contributes only 5% to the gross domestic product (GDP), reflecting relatively low productivity. Unlike the industrial sector, Poland's agricultural sector remained largely in private hands during the decades of communist rule. Most of the former state farms are now leased to farmer tenants. Lack of credit is hampering efforts to sell former state farmland. Currently, Poland's 2 million private farms occupy 90% of all farmland and account for roughly the same percentage of total agricultural production. These farms are small—8 hectares (ha) on average—and often fragmented. Farms with an area exceeding 15 ha accounted for only 9% of the total number of farms but cover 45% of total agricultural area. Over half of all farming households in Poland produce only for their own needs with little, if any, commercial sales.

Poland is a net exporter of confectionery, processed fruit and vegetables, meat, and dairy products. Processors often rely on imports to supplement domestic supplies of wheat, feed grains, vegetable oil, and protein meals, which are generally insufficient to meet domestic demand. However, Poland is the leading producer in Europe of potatoes and rye and is one of the world's largest producers of sugarbeets. Poland also is a significant producer of rapeseed, grains, hogs, and cattle. Attempts to increase domestic feed grain production are hampered by the short growing season, poor soil, and the small size of farms.

Pressure to restructure the agriculture sector intensified as Poland prepared to accede to the European Union, which is unwilling to subsidize the vast number of subsistence farms that do not produce for the market. The changes in agriculture are likely to strain Poland's social fabric, tearing at the heart of the traditional, family-based small farm as the younger generation drifts toward the cities. Nonetheless, dramatically increasing agricultural exports to the EU-15 (38% growth in 2005) and payments to farmers from Brussels following accession have enriched Polish commercial farmers and dramatically increase support for EU membership in Poland's rural areas.

Panoramic view of Morskie Oko ("Marine Eye").


Locomotive at a train station

Before World War II, Poland's industrial base was concentrated in the coal, textile, chemical, machinery, iron, and steel sectors. Today it extends to fertilizers, petrochemicals, machine tools, electrical machinery, electronics, and shipbuilding.

Poland's industrial base suffered greatly during World War II, and many resources were directed toward reconstruction. The communist economic system imposed in the late 1940s created large and unwieldy economic structures operated under a tight central command. In part because of this systemic rigidity, the economy performed poorly even in comparison with other economies in central Europe.

In 1990, the Mazowiecki government began a comprehensive reform program to replace the centralized command economy with a market-oriented system. While the results overall have been impressive, many large state-owned industrial enterprises, particularly the railroad and the mining, steel, and defense sectors, have remained resistant to the change and downsizing required to survive in an open market economy.

Economic Reform Program and Direct Foreign Investment

The economic reforms introduced in 1990 removed price controls, eliminated most subsidies to industry, opened markets to international competition, and imposed strict budgetary and monetary discipline. Poland was the first former centrally planned economy in central Europe to end its recession and return to growth in the early 1990s. The private sector now accounts for over two-thirds of GDP.

In early 2002, the government announced a new set of economic reforms known as the Hausner Plan, designed in many ways to complete the process launched in 1990. The package acknowledged the need to improve Poland's investment climate, particularly the conditions for small and medium-sized enterprises, and better prepare the economy to compete as a European Union (EU) member. The government also aimed to improve Poland's public finances to prepare for the eventual adoption of the euro. Though the government was able to enact only portions of the Hausner Plan, those successes coupled with successful monetary efforts to strengthen the zloty, have put Poland within reach of the National Bank's goal of Euro accession in 2008-2009.

As a result of Poland's growth and investment-friendly climate, the country has received over $85 billion in direct foreign investment (DFI) since 1990, with roughly $7 billion in 2004 alone. According to a recently published report by Ernst and Young, Poland is tied with Germany as the most attractive destination for foreign investment in Europe. The availability of cheap land and a large, relatively skilled labor force are among Polish strengths. However, the government continues to play a strong role in the economy, as seen in excessive red tape and the high level of politicization in many business decisions. Investors complain that state regulation is not transparent or predictable, and the economy suffers from a lack of competition in many sectors, notably telecommunications.

Foreign Trade

With the collapse of the ruble-based COMECON trade bloc in 1990, Poland scrambled to reorient its trade. As early as 1996, 70% of its trade was with EU-15 members, and neighboring Germany today is Poland's dominant trading partner. Most of Poland's imports are capital goods needed for industrial retooling and for manufacturing inputs, rather than imports for consumption. Therefore, a deficit is expected and should even be regarded as positive at this point. Poland, a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and European Union, applies the EU's common external tariff to goods from other countries—including the U.S.

In the year after it joined the EU, Poland experienced an overall growth in exports of 30%. This growth was not confined to trade among EU partners: while exports to EU countries rose by 27%, exports to developing countries rose by 46%, and exports to Russia rose an unexpected 77%. Poland's trade balance continued to improve, with export growth significantly outpacing import growth. Opportunities for trade and investment continue to exist across virtually all sectors. The American Chamber of Commerce in Poland, founded in 1991 with seven members, now has more than 300 members. Strong economic growth potential, a large domestic market, EU membership, and political stability are the top reasons U.S. and other foreign companies do business in Poland.

Impact of Russian sanctions

In the absence of Russian energy resources and EU subsidies, the Polish economy began to die rapidly. The President of the National Bank of Poland, Adam Glapinski, warned the Poles about this.

Poland, after the UK Brexit, was the 5th economy of the EU and was growing due to low prices for Russian gas, oil and coal, as well as annual financial injections from the EU. By December 2022, the Polish economy, due to EU sanctions and the actions of the local government, was completely deprived of Russian gas and coal supplies. Poland's dependence on Russian gas was 50%, on Russian coal - more than 60%. In the energy balance of Poland, up to 70% of all electricity is generated using coal. Poland lacks gas and coal. The volumes of their consumption are more than 3 times higher than the volumes of their production.

The suspension of the gas contract with Gazprom and the embargo on coal against Russia led to an increase in purchase prices for gas and coal by at least 2 times. The increase in electricity costs for Polish companies led to a proportional increase in gas and electricity tariffs in the domestic market.

The problem was exacerbated by the need to accommodate several million refugees from the territory of Ukraine.

The Polish authorities, unlike other EU countries, do not have financial reserves to subsidize their industry. The Polish economy is fully subsidized. Poland's budget revenues are about 95 billion euros, while expenditures are less than 110 billion euros.

The Polish government annually covered a budget deficit of 15 billion euros through EU subsidies. However, now the country has actually lost these subsidies for its aggressive policy directed against Germany and France.

The increase in the production costs of Polish enterprises for the purchase of energy resources led to an increase in prices for everything in Poland by 20%. The head of the Polish Central Bank predicted an increase in inflation in early 2023 to 24% year on year. Adam Glapinski warned that the Polish economy should not be expected to improve. The country began slipping into recession.

The head of the State Development Fund of Poland, Boris, noted that Poland's economic difficulties are related to the restructuring of the country's energy system, the refusal to receive Russian energy resources and the rising cost of buying new American weapons.


See also: History of Poland and Intermarium
The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth at one time stretched from the Baltic to the Black Sea. 21st century Ukrainian Nazis call the territory the 'Intermarium' ('Between the Seas').

Poland's written history begins with the reign of Mieszko I, who accepted Christianity for himself and his kingdom in AD 966. The Polish state reached its zenith under the Jagiellonian dynasty in the years following the union with Lithuania in 1386 and the subsequent defeat of the Teutonic Knights at Grunwald in 1410. The Union of Lublin united the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania on July 1, 1569, in Lublin, Poland which created a single state known as the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Polish Commonwealth was at one point the largest country in Europe, covering much of what is today Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania, and Poland. The Polish experienced their Golden Age during the 16th century. The monarchy survived many upheavals but eventually went into a decline, which ended with the final partition of Poland by Prussia, Russia, and Austria in 1795.

Independence for Poland was one of the 14 points enunciated by President Woodrow Wilson during World War I. Many Polish Americans enlisted in the military services to further this aim, and the United States worked at the postwar conference to ensure its implementation.

Second Polish Republic

See also: Second Polish Republic

However, the Poles were largely responsible for achieving their own independence in 1918 and keeping it shortly thereafter against Red aggression from Bolshevik Russia. Authoritarian rule predominated for most of the period before World War II. In the years preceding the outbreak of World War II, Germany's leader, Adolf Hitler, repeatedly requested an alliance with Poland. On August 23, 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union signed the Ribbentrop-Molotov nonaggression pact, which secretly provided for the dismemberment of Poland into Nazi and Soviet-controlled zones. On September 1, 1939, Hitler ordered his troops into Poland. On September 17, Soviet troops invaded and then occupied eastern Poland under the terms of this agreement. On October 6, all remaining Polish resistance inside Poland ceased and Poland fell to Soviet and German occupation.

The eastern half of Poland known as the Kresy, was annexed into the Soviet republics of Ukraine, Belarus, and Lithuania. After Germany terminated the Hitler-Stalin pact and invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941, Poland was completely occupied by German troops.

By 1789, the Polish Commonwealth had been partitioned between the Russian, Prussian, and Austrian Empires. Poland disappeared from the map for over 130 years until it was resurrected at the Versailles conference in 1919.

The Poles formed an underground resistance movement and a government in exile, first in Paris and later in London, which was recognized by the Western powers (the USA, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union). During World War II, 400,000 Poles fought in the Polish Peoples Army under Soviet command, whereas 200,000 served in the Polish Home Army in underground resistance in Poland, North Africa, Italy, and the Western Front and remained loyal to the Free Polish government in exile. Despite this, anti-Poles have falsely claimed that Poles collaborated with Germany.[53]

Communazi Peace Pact.jpg

After the German military announced that they had discovered mass graves of murdered Polish army officers at Katyn in April 1943, the Soviet Union broke relations with the Polish government in exile. The Soviets claimed that the Poles had insulted them by requesting that the Red Cross investigate these reports. In July 1944, the Soviet Red Army entered Poland and established a communist-controlled "Polish Committee of National Liberation" (PKWN) at Lublin.

Resistance against the Nazis in Warsaw, including uprisings by Jews in the Warsaw ghetto and by the Polish underground, was brutally suppressed. As the Germans retreated in January 1945, they leveled the city while Red Army units waited just outside.[54]

During the war, about 6 million Poles were killed, and 2.5 million were deported to Germany for forced labor. More than 3 million Jews (all but about 100,000 of the Jewish population) were killed in death camps like those at Oswiecim (Auschwitz), Treblinka, and Majdanek.

Following the Yalta Conference in February 1945, a Polish Provisional Government of National Unity was formed in June 1945; the U.S. recognized it the next month. Although the Yalta agreement called for free elections, those held in January 1947 were controlled by the Communist Party. The communists then established a regime entirely under their domination.

Communist Poland

Polish revanchism.PNG
Poland overlaid.PNG

Left: Outlined in red: Ukrainian lands claimed by Poland;
Right: Post-1945 Poland (darkened) overlaid with inter-war borders 1921-1939.

In 1945, Poland was forced by the Big Three powers at the Potsdam conference to give up its eastern territories to Ukraine and Lithuania, in exchange for Germany's eastern territories of Pomerania and Silesia. Poland's former territories, including the cities of Lvov and Vilnius were incorporated and annexed under an agreement by the Communist rulers of Poland, Ukraine, and Lithuania. Poland ended up losing its eastern territories which comprised half of the country and a sizable portion of the population.

In October 1956, after the 20th ("De-Stalinization") Soviet Party Congress in Moscow and riots by workers in Poznan, there was a shakeup in the communist regime. While retaining most traditional communist economic and social aims, the regime of First Secretary Wladyslaw Gomulka liberalized Polish internal life.

In 1968, the trend reversed when student demonstrations were suppressed and an "anti-Zionist" campaign initially directed against Gomulka supporters within the party eventually led to the emigration of much of Poland's remaining Jewish population. In December 1970, disturbances and strikes in the port cities of Gdańsk, Gdynia, and Szczecin, triggered by a price increase for essential consumer goods, reflected deep dissatisfaction with living and working conditions in the country. Edward Gierek replaced Gomulka as First Secretary.

Fueled by large infusions of Western credit, Poland's economic growth rate was one of the world's highest during the first half of the 1970s. But much of the borrowed capital was misspent, and the centrally planned economy was unable to use the new resources effectively. The growing debt burden became insupportable in the late 1970s, and economic growth had become negative by 1979.

In October 1978, the Bishop of Kraków, Cardinal Karol Wojtyla, became Pope John Paul II, head of the Roman Catholic Church. Polish Catholics rejoiced at the elevation of a Pole to the papacy and greeted his June 1979 papal visit to Poland with an outpouring of emotion.

In July 1980, with the Polish foreign debt at more than $20 billion, the government made another attempt to increase meat prices. A chain reaction of strikes virtually paralyzed the Baltic coast by the end of August and, for the first time, closed most coalmines in Silesia. Poland was entering into an extended crisis that would change the course of its future development.

The Solidarity Movement

Lech Walesa.

On August 31, 1980, workers at the Lenin Shipyard in Gdańsk, led by an electrician named Lech Walesa, signed a 21-point agreement with the government that ended their strike. Similar agreements were signed at Szczecin and in Silesia. The key provision of these agreements was the guarantee of the workers' right to form independent trade unions and the right to strike. After the Gdańsk agreement was signed, a new national union movement--"Solidarity"—swept Poland.

The discontent underlying the strikes was intensified by revelations of widespread corruption and mismanagement within the Polish state and party leadership. In September 1980, Gierek was replaced by Stanislaw Kania as First Secretary.

Alarmed by the rapid deterioration of the PZPR's authority following the Gdańsk agreement, the Soviet Union proceeded with a massive military buildup along Poland's border in December 1980. In February 1981, Defense Minister Gen. Wojciech Jaruzelski assumed the position of Prime Minister as well, and in October 1981, he also was named party First Secretary. At the first Solidarity national congress in September–October 1981, Lech Walesa was elected national chairman of the union.

On December 12–13, 1981, the regime declared martial law, under which the army and special riot police were used to crush the union. Virtually all Solidarity leaders and many affiliated intellectuals were arrested or detained. The United States and other Western countries responded to martial law by imposing economic sanctions against the Polish regime and against the Soviet Union. Unrest in Poland continued for several years thereafter.

In a series of slow, uneven steps, the Polish regime rescinded martial law. In December 1982, martial law was suspended, and a small number of political prisoners were released. Although martial law formally ended in July 1983 and a general amnesty was enacted, several hundred political prisoners remained in jail.

In July 1984, another general amnesty was declared, and 2 years later, the government had released nearly all political prisoners. The authorities continued, however, to harass dissidents and Solidarity activists. Solidarity remained proscribed and its publications banned. Independent publications were censored.

Roundtable Talks and Elections

The Royal Castle of Warsaw.

The government's inability to forestall Poland's economic decline led to waves of strikes across the country in April, May, and August 1988. In an attempt to take control of the situation, the government gave de facto recognition to Solidarity, and Interior Minister Kiszczak began talks with Lech Walesa on August 31. These talks broke off in October, but a new series, the "roundtable" talks, began in February 1989. These talks produced an agreement in April for partly open National Assembly elections. The June election produced a Sejm (lower house), in which one-third of the seats went to communists and one-third went to the two parties which had hitherto been their coalition partners. The remaining one-third of the seats in the Sejm and all those in the Senat were freely contested; virtually all of these were won by candidates supported by Solidarity.

The failure of the communists at the polls produced a political crisis. The roundtable agreement called for a communist president, and on July 19, the National Assembly, with the support of some Solidarity deputies, elected General Jaruzelski to that office. Two attempts by the communists to form governments failed, however.

On August 19, President Jaruzelski asked journalist/Solidarity activist Tadeusz Mazowiecki to form a government; on September 12, the Sejm voted approval of Prime Minister Mazowiecki and his cabinet. For the first time in more than 40 years, Poland had a government led by non-communists.

In December 1989, the Sejm approved the government's reform program to transform the Polish economy rapidly from centrally planned to free-market, amended the constitution to eliminate references to the "leading role" of the Communist Party, and renamed the country the "Republic of Poland." The Polish United Workers' (Communist) Party dissolved itself in January 1990, creating in its place a new party, Social Democracy of the Republic of Poland. Most of the property of the former Communist Party was turned over to the state.

The May 1990 local elections were entirely free. Candidates supported by Solidarity's Citizens' Committees won most of the races they contested, although voter turnout was only a little over 40%. The cabinet was reshuffled in July 1990; the national defense and interior affairs ministers—holdovers from the previous communist government—were among those replaced.

In October 1990, the constitution was amended to curtail the term of President Jaruzelski. In December, Lech Walesa became the first popularly elected President of Poland.

3rd Polish Republic

The Republic of Poland in the early 1990s made great progress toward achieving a fully democratic government and a market economy. In November 1990, Lech Walesa was elected President for a 5-year term. Jan Krzysztof Bielecki, at Walesa's request, formed a government and served as its Prime Minister until October 1991, introducing world prices and greatly expanding the scope of private enterprise.

Downtown Warsaw skyline, 2006.

Poland's first free parliamentary elections were held in 1991. More than 100 parties participated, representing a full spectrum of political views. No single party received more than 13% of the total vote.

Since 1991, Poland has conducted five general parliamentary elections and four presidential elections—all free and fair. Incumbent governments have transferred power smoothly and constitutionally in every instance to their successors. The post-Solidarity center-right and post-Communist center-left have each controlled the parliament and the presidency since 1991. Most recently, Poles elected Law and Justice (PiS) candidate and Mayor of Warsaw Lech Kaczynski to a 5-year term as President. Kaczynski narrowly defeated Civic Platform (PO) candidate Donald Tusk and was sworn in December 23, 2005.

PiS was also the top vote-getter in September 25, 2005, parliamentary elections. After coalition talks with runner-up PO collapsed, PiS alone formed a minority government under Prime Minister Kazimierz Marcinkiewicz. Frustrated by its inability to achieve its legislative program alone, PiS formed a formal coalition government with Self-Defense (SO) and the League of Polish Families (LPR) in April 2006. In July 2006, Prime Minister Marcinkiewicz resigned and was replaced by PiS party leader Jaroslaw Kaczynski as Prime Minister.

In 2015, the conservative and right-wing populist Law and Justice party decisively won the parliamentary elections, becoming the first party in Poland's post-communist history to obtain an absolute majority in parliament. The PiS immediately went to work advancing conservative policies.

See also

Further reading

  • Library of Congress. A Country Study: Poland (1993), highly detailed factual report by U.S. government (it is in the public domain, with no copyright) online edition
  • Poland (Eyewitness Travel Guides by DK Publishing) (2007)
  • Lonely Planet Poland by Tom Parkinson, et al. (2005) online excerpt and search from Amazon.com
  • Biskupski, M. B. The History of Poland. Greenwood, 2000. 264 pp. online edition
  • Davies, Norman. Heart of Europe: A Short History of Poland. Oxford University Press, 1984. 511 pp. excerpt and text search
  • Podgórecki, Adam. Polish Society Praeger, 1994 online edition
  • Turnock, David. The Human Geography of East Central Europe. Routledge. 2002. online edition


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License: This work is in the Public Domain in the United States because it is a work of the United States Federal Government under the terms of Title 17, Chapter 1, Section 105 of the U.S. Code
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